Peter Potter Lost Landscapes Programme Amisfield Preservation Trust

Central Glasshouse Investigation, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington, East Lothian

September 2011 & April 2012

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Data Structure Report
National Grid Reference (NGR): Prepared by: NT 55505 67739 David Connolly, Stuart Dinning, Doug Rocks-MacQueen and Maggie Struckmeier, David Connolly September 2011 and April 2012 June 2012

Illustration by: Date of Fieldwork: Date of Report:

Cover image: view to excavation from northeast gate Below: view of northeast corner pavilion, Amisfield Walled Garden.

Abstract
This report represents the results of the investigation of the ruins of a Glasshouse within the 18th century Walled Garden at Amisfield in East Lothian. This was a joint project as part of the Peter Potter Lost Landscapes project with support from the Amisfield Preservation Trust. It included the involvement of over 180 people ranging through local school classes, and groups from Tynepark Centre, North Berwick Day Centre, Dad’s Work and local volunteers as well as Students from Edinburgh University. The excavation uncovered the central Glasshouse on the north wall (south facing) and revealed the stonework from the 1783 building containing both a tile hypocaust system and later cast iron pipe heating system with raised beds and walkways related to the original use as a Pineapple House (Vinery Pinery) built by the Wemyss Estate. The Walled Garden also has four corner pavilions, of which the north east Pavilion was subjected to building record as part of a training day. Geophysical work carried out by the Edinburgh Archaeological Field The project was made possible by Peter Potter Gallery, Haddinton as part of their Lost Landscapes Programme.

Contents

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1. 1.2. Background ........................................................................................................................ 1 Location ............................................................................................................................. 1

2. Historical Background .......................................................................................................... 3 2.1. 3 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 3

Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 3.2 Geophysical Survey ............................................................................................................ 6 Excavation .......................................................................................................................... 7

4

RESULTS .............................................................................................................................. 8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 8 Geophysical Survey ............................................................................................................ 8 Excavation ........................................................................................................................ 10 Finds Assemblage ............................................................................................................ 14

5

INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................... 18 5.1 5.2 Interpretation and Discussion ......................................................................................... 18 Notes on Pineapple cultivation........................................................................................ 21

6

FURTHER WORK ................................................................................................................ 25 6.1 6.2 Dissemination .................................................................................................................. 25 Fieldwork ......................................................................................................................... 25

7 8

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................. 25 BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 30 Context Register ......................................................................................................................... 31

APPENDIX 1.............................................................................................................................. 31 APPENDIX 2.............................................................................................................................. 34 Finds Register ............................................................................................................................. 34 APPENDIX 3.............................................................................................................................. 36 Photographic Register ................................................................................................................. 36 APPENDIX 4: Discovery and Excavation Scotland Entry ……………………………………..………………………44

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington

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Location Plan

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background

1.1.1. East Lothian has a rich history of architectural heritage and agricultural innovation. These elements come together in the remarkable structures of the 18 th century known as walled gardens, of which Amisfield is one of the apogees of this form. 1.1.2. The Peter Potter Gallery Lost Landscape Project utilised local heritage assets with artistic interpretation and community involvement – this approach meshed with one of the general aims and objectives of the Amisfield Preservation Trust, to engage local groups and promote the remarkable structure and the grounds. 1.1.3. This project, was confined to excavation, survey and record of the structures built against the north wall of the walled garden. And the recording of a single corner pavilion as a training exercise for further works. 1.1.4. The project was undertaken as part of the Haddington based Peter Potter Gallery’s year long programme; Lost Landscapes. Organisation was shared with the gallery staff to provide opportunities for local schools and other groups such as Dad’s Work, North Bwerwick Day Centre, Tynepark Centre and both local volunteers and Edinburgh University students to become involved in an archaeological project. 1.1.5. Support was also provided by members of the Amisfield Preservation Trust, who also carried out guiding tours and historical talks.

1.2.

Location

1.2.1. Amisfield Park, to the east of Haddington, East Lothian (Figure 1), once formed the policies of Amisfield House, a Palladian mansion designed by Isaac Ware for Francis Charteris, 7th Earl of Wemyss in the 1750s. 1.2.2. The walled garden is located at NT 53314 74192 and the excavation was carried out within the confines of the central greenhouse extending south from the north wall of the walled garden. 1.2.3. Elevations were recorded to the rear of the glasshouses and of the principal elevation of the northeast corner pavilion.

1

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington

missing greenhouse

Figure 2: Geophysical results with greenhouse from 1906 postcard shown as a low resistance (white) which does suggest no foundations or walls remain.

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

2. Historical Background
2.1. Overview

2.1.1. Amisfield walled garden lies within the confines of Amisfield Park, an estate of approximately 85 hectares lying on the east side of the Royal Burgh of Haddington. The present north boundary of the estate is defined by the river Tyne although historically the park extended to the north as far as the A1 London to Edinburgh road. 2.1.2. The former Amisfield House, built in the 1750s and the earlier New Mills House stood almost centrally within this area. The walled garden was built in the late 18th century on the east side of the park in 1783, close to the east boundary and Abbey Bridge Road, and replaced a smaller kitchen garden close to the river on the north. 2.1.3. The Walled Garden is A-listed and is one of the largest walled gardens in Scotland, covering 3.24 hectares (8 acres) it is enclosed by 4.9m high stone walls. At each corner is a large circular pavilion, each opening onto the garden with a Roman Doric colonnaded portico.

Plate 1: Early 20th century photograph dating to 1906 showing glasshouses to right and additional structures to left. The northwest pavilion is visible to the rear of the image. 2.1.4. The size of the garden, compared to a relatively modest estate, is exceptional. From the mid-18th century until 1969 the estate was a property of the earl of Wemyss, whose principal seat is now Gosford House.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

2.1.5. In 1783 the Francis Charteris, later the 7th Earl of Wemyss was beginning construction of his new garden and making alterations to his house but while the walled garden was still being constructed, he bought land at Gosford near Aberlady. He had previously inherited his maternal grandfather's surname and wealth including the estate of Amisfield near Haddington. 2.1.6. Shortly after the walled garden at Amisfield was complete, the Earl and his family had moved out to Gosford. From then on Amisfield house lived in partly by other family members and later in 19th century was rented out. 2.1.7. Account books from estate papers held at Gosford show that the Earl consulted widely on how to lay out and plant up the garden. And a number of eminent gardeners were paid for their advice. Mr Wilson, the gardener to the Countess of Glasgow gave most regular advice, and was paid for designs for a range of hot houses along the north wall, which are the ones currently under investigation. 2.1.8. These account books also tell us what was being bought for the hot houses, including mats for ‘melon beds’, ‘celery brushes’, and pine plants (pineapples) at a staggering £30 per plant over £2,000 in today’s money! 2.1.9. During the 20th century estates at Amisfield declined from a loss in the value of tenanted land and forestry, and losses of manpower and requisitioning during two world wars, increased costs of maintaining buildings and landscape. In 1928 the house was demolished and in 1931 a large part of the park was laid out as a golf course.

Plate 2: 1940s photograph of the walled garden under the plough showing the three glasshouses and a central chimney.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

2.1.10. The garden was ploughed up during the Second World War and the ground was used to grow grain and vegetables. The Wemyss family sold the entire estate to Haddington Town Council in 1969 and in the 1980s the Council planted the walled garden as a tree nursery The glasshouses along the north wall had been demolished and only now are they once again being uncovered, revealing the technology and layout of these lost Pineapple Houses.

Plate 3: 2nd edition Ordnance Survey map, 25” to mile (to scale), 1893 showing the location of the Glasshouses and rear buildings on the north wall.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

3
3.1
3.1.1

Methodology
Geophysical Survey
The TR/CIA area ground resistance measuring equipment was used. The equipment operates in the “twin” configuration in which two probes are mounted on a portable frame 0.5m apart. They comprise one current input and one potential measurement probe. Two remote probes, one for current input and one for potential measurement complete the two circuits. They are inserted about 1.0m apart and are positioned so that no reading is taken with the portable frame nearer than 15m to them. All readings are taken at 1.0m intervals in lanes 1.0m wide totalling 400 measurements in each 20x20 grid. The processor unit mounted on the frame generates the 137Hz signal current that flows through the ground and the potential drop is detected by the measurement probes; the computer in the unit converts this voltage reading to a ground resistance value in ohms. The resistance value is indicated on a display and retained in a data store for later processing. The data are downloaded via a RS232 interface to a computer running the program “resistivity” The data is saved as text files and uploaded to the Sussex University developed freeware program “Snuffler” The print out is in extended greyscale with black and white limits based on highest and lowest ohms readings recorded. It is normal practice to print high resistance values as black and low resistance as white within a gradient based on processed resistance values. Data can be further processed by clipping to improve overall contrast and by despiking to reduce abnormally high values. Data is also interpolated between adjacent 1.0m squares to give a smoother gradation based on 0.25m squares. A total of four 20 by 20m survey squares were undertaken at the site (Figure 2), there were no locations where it was not possible to carry out the survey.

3.1.2

3.1.3

3.1.4

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

3.2
3.2.1 3.2.2

Excavation
The field work was directed by David Connolly during September 2011 and April 2012 Local volunteers, schoolchildren from three East Lothian schools, Adult learning students from Midlothian, University of Edinburgh Archaeology students, a group from ‘Dad’s Work’ and the Edinburgh Archaeology Field Society were all present during the excavation and survey. In total over 215 people were involved on a number of tasks including, geophysics, architectural recording and excavation. Training was provided where possible and several site tours were conducted, with feedback provided to the Peter Potter Gallery. All excavation was undertaken by hand and according to standard CHC procedures. A number of trenches were placed in the project area (Figure 3). The trenches were excavated down to basal structures of the glasshouse. A full record was maintained throughout the project, including photographic, drawn and written records. Digital media was used for the geophysical survey, carried out by the Edinburgh Archaeological Field Society. The excavated areas have been left open, with the intension of conservation and potential rebuild, however, all walls and surfaces have been covered with terram semi permeable membrane and secured against erosion or weathering.

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4
4.1
4.1.1

RESULTS
Introduction
The archaeological excavation and surveys were undertaken between 3rd and 12th September 2011 in addition to a single day on the 27 th April 2012, with reasonably dry weather conditions on both occasions. The following should be read in conjunction with the data presented in Appendices 1 to 5. The excavation comprised of a single excavation area, though divided into separate internal excavation areas and artefacts were retrieved from these trenches. In addition, a short additional section (5.2) has been written, regarding the cultivation of pineapples in general during the 18th century, to place the original function of the glasshouse site into its chronological context.

4.1.2

4.1.3

4.2
4.2.1

Geophysical Survey
Results indicated possible low resistance anomalies which could represent the site of some form of garden structure but equally could be due to varying root depth of different tree species or to geology. The linear low resistance roughly forming the NE part of a rectangle is possible evidence of a man-made structure and could be the site of a foundation cut for a narrow walls, although there were no high resistances suggesting remains of brick or stone wall foundations. ( see Figure 2) It is possible that a greenhouse was located over the area noted but the perspective of the photograph suggests that it was located farther to the East, closer to the conservatory lean-to greenhouse, which might just coincide with linear low resistance. OS 6” maps, editions for 1893 and 1906 shows two roofed buildings in the survey area which may be other greenhouses or huts, the east most one possibly coinciding with the geophysical anomaly.

4.2.2

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.3
4.2.1

Excavation
Trenches were opened across the length of the central glasshouse, at both the east and west elevations and three separate internal locations (see Figure 3). Clearance of overgrowth was carried out by volunteers from the Amisfield Preservation trust prior to trenches being established. Initial removal of topsoil [017] and [043] represents a later burial of the site long after the glasshouse itself has been demolished as few items were recovered from this upper context, though two drinks cans of 1980s date were recovered from this level. Beneath this level the signs of a deliberate demolition and dismantling were shown in the mixed rubble and brick layer that underlay the topsoil. To the west this was designated as [018] most clearly seen in the western lower passage area.

4.2.2

4.2.3

Plate 4: Demolition layer in lower passage

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.2.4

A single skin brick wall [016] [042] with corner buttresses were uncovered and this proved to be the bounding wall for planting beds, where pineapples would be grown. Further evidence was related to the lower fills of the interior of the western bed, where the organic matter contained frequent bark fragments that relate to tanning bark material used in the process of pineapple horticulture. ( see section 5.2.9 ). Beneath both the rubble in the lower passage and the interior of the planting beds a stone slab floor was exposed ( [014] and [019] to the west and [041] to the east ) Both sides of the central glasshouse were mirror images of each other divided by the stone central spine [026]. Both sides had external steps [012] and [046] to the upper platforms [015] and [045] which also lead down steps [038] and [047] to the lower passage running along the south side of the glasshouse. There are signs of alteration of the heating system from the original (?) tiled hypocaust – [025] and [036] which ran from the central spine and through the wall [001] – potentially through the now blocked ‘holes’ *008+ and *009+. The tiled flue runs down ether side of the central spine and turns into the lower passage where it would have run along the edge before exiting beneath the external stairs and through [001]. This was recognised beneath the badly damaged section of the eastern side of the glasshouse – [037] where a channel ran directly beneath stairs [046] and through the wall. It is likely that this originally led into intra-mural flues and up to vents on the wallhead which have been previously reported (K. Rycroft pers comm) .

4.2.5

4.2.6

4.2.7

Plate 5: Central spine and both tiled hypocaust and cast iron pipe heating systems running from main garden wall 11

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.2.8

The entire flue system was filled with a sooty deposit, and the central wall flue holes are badly scorched, which may give some clue to why they were abandoned and replaced with a cast iron pipe system. Again, this is a mirror image – with pipes [034] and [035] penetrating the wall, running down the spine wall, turning into the lower passage and again turning to terminate in a loop at the internal stairs. This would suggest an inlow of steam and returning outflow. All pipes have a stopcock valve to regulate temperature and steam flow, much like a modern radiator.

Plate 6: Note the stop valves on the pipes and the scorching on the wall to the left. 4.2.9 The cast iron pipes are set above the floor level by circa 45cm and held on plinths, partly constructed of brick and tiles from the earlier flue system. The scars of the cast iron supports are clearly visible and match these artefacts discovered in the demolition debris. Given that these types of pipes are only possible after 1840s, this give a late date for the conversion, some 60 years plus after the original construction. The other major alteration seems to be in water management. With the original ‘built in’ cisterns [024] and [028] created by inserting vertical slabs into cut channels in the floor slabs and waterproofing / sealing with pitch. These are respected by the tiled flue but with the insertion of the cast iron pipe system with the supporting plinths it is clear that they are no longer in use, given that the plinths [023] and [027] overlie the feature. Measuring 1 m wide x 0.7 m deep x 0.9 m high they would have held up to 140 gallons of water in each tank. However, this must not have been sufficient for purpose and by

4.2.10

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

inserting an L shaped wall into the corner of the planting beds ( walls [021] and [031] ) the capacity increases to 1200 gallons per tank.

Plate 7: One of the earlier tanks (seen as cut check on slab floor with rear slab still in situ) and larger tank behind, lined with cement. 4.2.11 The stratigraphic chronology of the Central glasshouse is simple in terms of phasing, with a known construction date of 1784-86 an internal rebuild in the second half of the 19th century and then gradual decline until final demolition in the mid 20 th century. However, the exposed features are of at least regional importance, allowing a rare glimpse into the construction and technology of a Glasshouse specifically designed for the cultivation of pineapples. Although it is clear that it’s later life may have been just as a glasshouse, the excavation has provided ample evidence for use and layout, allowing the potential for an informed rebuild.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.3
4.3.1

Finds Assemblage
In general the assemblage of finds collected was to be expected from a garden structure constructed of glass. With large quantity of flowerpots recovered from the lower levels of excavation, in addition to glass panes, which ranged from earlier 18 th century spun glass, to 20th century plate glass. 3 distinct forms were recorded, ranging from thin 1.4 mm; 1.8- 2.4mm (spun glass) and 2.8-4mm (later plate glass.)

Plate 8: Spun glass fragments (above) various ceramic flower pots. 14

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.3.2

In addition to the above material, the excavation also recovered fixings for the stonework in the form of iron clamps with lead fill and also a surviving value wheel from the cast-iron pipes of the later heating system.

Plate 9: Iron clamps for holding the lower courses of cut masonry (above) and a steam valve wheel (below)

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.3.3

Personal items were also recovered including three are of particular note. The first is a Livery button, worn by servants and decorated with the armorial crests of the two families. In this case it is Carmichael (A dexter hand and arm in pale armed and holding a broken spear Proper.) and Macdonald (A hand in armour holding a cross crosslet fitchée Gules). Although it has been impossible to locate the name of the family and the date, it is likely from the 18th century when the Wemyss would have invited to view the Walled garden and pineapple house. Plate 10: Livery Button The other item is a clay pipe, several fragments of which were recovered, but one stands out with the decoration of a stags head – which can be dated to the mid 19th century, and would have undoubtedly belonged to one of the gardeners using the glasshouse.

4.3.4

Plate 11: mid 19th century stag head decoration clay pipe.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

4.3.5

The final find of note is a black glass bottle that is dated circa 1850-1870 based on style of manufacture. This bottle was found in the lower demolition deposits and is remarkable in preservation, given that it must have been sitting within the structure for nearly a century before deposition. The handmade bottle was used for beer and will have come from a local Haddington Brewery.

Plate 11: Handmade beer bottle

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5
5.1
5.1.1

INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
Interpretation and Discussion
In the Peter McGowen Associates document of 2006, they highlight a section of records from 1785 “Mason work continued through 1785, 1786 (CB4 1 February 1786) and 1787 (CB4 27 January 1787); James Burn, wright Haddington, was paid for ‘work done at Amisfield House pavilions, temples in the new garden …’ (CB4 27 January 1785). The fine drawings of Pinery, Vinery and Peach Houses held at Gosford House may be the work of one Jacob Owen who on 2 February 1785 was referred to as ‘Jacob Owen, draughtsman to Mr Wilson of Wilsington £5’(CB4 21 October 1784, 26 April 1785). This was followed on 26 April ‘… paid Mr Wilson gardiner to Lady Glasgow for plans of hothouse and vinery £5-50’ *cross ref to above 21 October 1784, and 2 February 1785]; the plans are not dated or signed but inscribed ‘P W.W.’ – possibly meaning ‘Presented by W.W.’? (detailed as Appendix 2.4) If the hothouses were built as per the designs, the three peach houses together with the grape house were in total 51.84m in length, and extended 4.32-4.4m out from the rear wall; the grape house itself was 12.9m long. The pinery (for pineapples) was 26.01m long and 5.52m wide. The garden wall shown to the rear of the hothouses is shown as 5.81m high (and 0.75m thick), with S-shaped flues built to the front of this wall.”1

5.1.2

The Amisfield excavation and recording took place over a 10 day period during Scottish Archaeology Month in September. Each day was dedicated to a series of events and drop in sessions where engagement with the archaeology and historic buildings was encouraged. In addition to the excavation work, volunteers from the Amisfield Preservation Trust and the digging team would conduct tours of the walled garden, placing it both in its national historical context but also as part of the local account of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. A further day was added in April 2012. Work concentrated on the central footings of the glasshouses, located on the south facing north wall. The excavation was supervised by 2 professional archaeologists assisted by University of Edinburgh students. In total, over 80 adults, 100 children and

5.1.3

1

Peter McGowan Associates Landscape Architects and Heritage Management Consultants Amisfield Walled Garden. Historic Survey and Development Plan, June 2006

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

12 students took part in the work, with scores of visitors turning up to view the astounding historic building and its wider landscape as well as the excavations and gardens themselves. 5.1.4. The remarkable preservation of the site foundations and layout allowed an unprecedented view into changing technologies from the 18 th and 19th centuries, as well as provide insights into the use of the glass houses in the 20 th century – taking us inside the now iconic Amisfield image of the ploughman within the garden and the glasshouses behind. The main stone foundations were of a local tuffa material - well cut and set – similar to the well coursed and cut blocks of the north wall itself, which rises over 5m above current ground surface. The three other walls surround the garden are of mixed random rubble in contrast. The interior brick structures were carefully exposed by the volunteers to provide a ground plan for what has now been confirmed as a Pinery Vinery – a rare Pineapple House dating to the 1780s. Previous historical research had pointed to this structure being present, but now the physical evidence has been exposed and recorded. The exterior stone footings had angled ‘notches’ cut into the stone approximately every 1.25m along the length of the building, to allow the external planting of vines that could then be trained within the glasshouse, across the sloping roof and then down onto the back wall. The rear of the glasshouse was raised circa 1 metre above the ground surface as a solid walkway, in front of which were a series of brick planting beds that would have held the pineapple plants. There ws a further slab floored access passage to the front of the glasshouse accessed by steps at either end (east and west). The most interesting part of the construction was the technological steps taken from the original tile hypocaust system which was blocked with wood charcoal to the more efficient cast iron pipe system. Additional material evidence allowed us to understand the heating system from the wood bark (waste from the tanning process at the nearby leatherworks in Haddington) used to provide a warm base for the pineapple plant, to the boiler systems to the rear (and external) of the walled garden. A variety of glass panes were recovered that showed a progression of use/replacement from the 18th century spun glass through to modern plate glass.

5.1.5.

5.1.6.

5.1.7.

5.1.8.

5.1.9.

5.1.10.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5.1.11.

The recording of the north wall and the northeast corner pavilion will allow the entire site to be recorded in detail, providing further information regarding the construction, use and renovations that have marked the 230 years of development. The project inspired and informed and led to follow-up visits to schools with the intention of returning to the glasshouse in 2012 as well as continuing the recording of the walls and buildings. Further research will be carried out from the Wemyss records at Gosford House and a detailed examination of historic horticultural practices will inform further the continuing story of Amisfield Walled Garden.

5.1.12.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5.2
5.2.1.

Notes on Pineapple cultivation
The first crop of pineapples in Britain was achieved by a Dutch grower called Henry Telende in Richmond, England between 1714 and 1716. to the estate owner, Matthew Decker commissioned a painting in 1720 to celebrate this feat and the pineapple takes pride of place as the sole object of admiration. This then expands into a pineapple mania in a rush to develop the ability to grow pineapples. Notable Georgian gentlemen like the poets William Cowper, Alexander Pope and the architect Lord Burlington are all engaged in this horticultural arms race. During this period, several inventions were developed or refined such as the use of angled glazing, furnace-heated greenhouses called hothouses or stoves and Amisfield shows signs of the later 18th century creativity and design. Orangeries, which were used in the first attempts to grow the fruit did not provide enough heat and light for the tropical pineapple. Heating in glasshouses during the mid 17th century was provided by furnaces placed within the structure, but fumes often damaged or killed the plants. The next innovation were hot-air flues were then devised, which dissipated heat slowly through winding flues built within the width of walls and in our case, along tiled hypocaust flues ( features [025] and [036] ) heated from furnaces to the rear of the building that required constant stoking with coal. This was dangerous however as many of the structures burned down when the accumulation of soot within the flues caught fire – this was noticeable when the caps of the surviving tiled flues were raised and the interior was noted to be filled full of black sooty material.

5.2.2.

5.2.3.

5.2.4.

5.2.5.

5.2.6.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5.2.7.

The later flue system, with cast iron pipes can only date to post 1845, when the first pipes were cast vertically and by the turn of the century, all pipe was manufactured in this way. This would provide an even heat and be easily controlled by the valve stops, of which one wheel was recovered. Henry Telende’s method of pineapple cultivation was published in Richard Bradley’s A General Treatise of Husbandry and Gardening in 1721. Where he outlined the process by which he would first bring on what he called ‘succession plants’, in large cold frames called tan pits. The fruiting plants would subsequently be moved into the stove or hothouse to benefit from the additional heat provided by the hot-air flues.

5.2.8.

Plate 12: Illustration of hothouse and pinery-vinery from Loudon’s An Encyclopedia of Gardening 5.2.9. The tan pits were lined with pebbles at the bottom followed by a layer of manure and then topped with a layer of tanners’ bark into which the pots were set Tanners’ bark (oak bark soaked in water and used in leather tanning) fermented slowly, steadily producing a constant temperature of 25ºC-30ºC for two to three months and a further two if stirred. Manure alone was inferior, in that it heated violently at first but cooled more quickly. Fortunately the nearby Haddington tanneries would have supplied an inexhaustible quantity of this material. Stable bottom heat is essential for pineapple cultivation and tanners’ bark provided the first reliable source. It became one of the most fundamental resources for hothouse gardeners and remained in use until the end of the 19th century.

5.2.10.

5.2.11.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5.2.12.

James Justice, the principal clerk at the Court of Sessions at Edinburgh in the first half of the 18th century, was also a talented if eccentric amateur gardener. On his estate at Crichton in Midlothian he developed an incredibly efficient glasshouse in which he combined both the tanning bark pits for ‘succession’ and fruiting plants under one roof.

Plate 13: James Justice’s design published in The Scots Gardiners’ Director in 1754. 5.2.13. In a letter to Philip Miller and other members of the Royal Society in 1728, he proudly announces: ‘I have eight of the Ananas in fine fruit’. The letter makes Justice the first documented gardener to have grown pineapples successfully in Scotland, which may be one of the reasons why he was appointed fellow of The Royal Society in 1730. James Scott and his brother Henry, were notable gardeners from Chiswick in England who specialised in pineapples. It is on record that their skills were particular valued by James Justice, and they supplied him with a pineapple stove and pineapple plants shipped from Chiswick for his experiments in cultivation.

5.2.14.

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Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

5.2.15. In addition to the cultivation of this wonderful plant you could also show off your wealth by then displaying the fruit in the centre of a well-laid dessert table arranged on a specially made stand by one of the great ceramic manufacturers of the time- Spode. 5.2.16. The pineapple stand shown with the pineapple in situ is made from bone china and is in Flower Embossed shape. It was made in about 1813 and is marked Spode in red. The 'embossed flower' decoration is actually part of the mould from which the object is made and is left as the pure white of the bone china looking striking against the fashionable apple green colour of the period. This was one part of a whole dessert services that could comprise hundreds of pieces so other items were probably made in this design and a whole spread would have looked magnificent whether in use or on show. 5.2.17. The pineapple would still have had a woody stem attached to it when picked and this slotted through the central hole of the stand so it did not topple over. Slices from another pineapple or other fruits were laid around the edge to serve to guests. There are stories of when the catering was provided by an outside firm for a grand occasion (rather than in-house) such was the expense of the pineapple at this time that the whole fruit was rescued and carried off to be used as the uneaten centrepiece for another occasion at another location.

Plate 14 : The pineapple stand shown in Flower Embossed shape. It was made in about 1813 and is marked Spode

24

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

6
6.1
6.1.1

FURTHER WORK
Dissemination
The results of this work will be synthesised and submitted to East Lothian Council, the Peter Potter Gallery and the Amisfield Preservation Trust. In addition, précis will be submitted to DES and a press release will be written to further highlight this hidden gem.

6.2
6.2.1

Fieldwork
Further excavation work will continue on the two flanking glasshouses and architectural recording will be carried out on the four corner pavilions. The walled garden itself should not be seen in isolation however, and further documentary research on both the gardening and building works within the garden and the wider landscape will be carried out. Further community engagement will definitely allow many more people to feel they have taken an active part in the archaeology of the site and hopefully be encouraged to take part in more of the activities within the Amisfield Walled Garden.

7
7.1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank the Peter Potter Gallery and Amisfield Preservation Trust for the assistance and support, the Edinburgh Archaeological Field Society with their geophysical expertise; the advice of the East Lothian Council's archaeological team; Coralie Mills, with her Dendrochronology Workshop and the nearly 200 volunteers of all ages who helped make this possible including children and staff from Yester, Direlton and St Marys Primary Schools, groups from Dad’s Work, Tynepark Centre and North Berwick Day Centre. In addition, special thanks go to Doug Rocks-Macqueen, Stuart Dinning and Alex Westra for their support, additional research and further dissemination of this project. This would not have been possible without them.

7.2.

25

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Some of the 200 + Group Visits and volunteers

Yester Primary School

St Marys Primary School 26

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Direlton Primary School

Tynepark Centre

27

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

North Berwick Day Centre

Dad’s Work

28

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Drop in and Dig volunteers

David Connolly, Maggie Struckmeier, Stuart Dinning, Alex Westra and Doug Rocks-Macqueen (sitting)

29

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

8

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES
Amisfield Preservation Trust (2011), Amisfield Park; Discovering a Hidden Landscape Bott V. (2011), The Scott Brothers of Chiswick. Available http://nurserygardeners.com/?p=343 (Accessed: 2nd June 2012) Forbes W Robertson EARLY SCOTTISH GARDENERS 1650-1750, p152; Justice J, The Scots Gardiners’ Director, 1754 Lausen-Higgens J. (2010), A Taste for the Exotic: Pineapple cultivation in Britain. Available at: http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/pineapples/pineapples.htm (Accessed: 2nd June 2012) Loudon J.C., An Encyclopedia of Gardening, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green, London, 1827 Minay P, ‘James Justice (16981763): 18th-century Scots Horticulturalist and Botanist – I’, Garden History, Vol 1, No 2, 1973 Spode History (2011 ) Spode and Pineapples. Available at: http://spodehistory.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/Pineapple (Accessed: 2nd June 2012)

30

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

APPENDIX 1
Context Register Context
001

Feature Type Description
Structural Main wall, ashlar built from local stone., well jointed with cream mortar with fake joint cut horizontal on each block. Stands 4.9-5m high Doorway between central block and western glasshouse, through north wall, leads from ancillery buildings behind Doorway between central block and eastern glasshouse, through north wall, leads from ancillary buildings behind Coping stone slabs of sandstone on main North wall. Putlog holes for western glasshouse rafter beams. Putlog holes for central glasshouse rafter beams. Putlog holes for eastern glasshouse rafter beams. Blocking of furnace hole into central glasshouse signs of intense scorching around. Blocking of furnace hole into central glasshouse signs of intense scorching around. Southern lower plinth course of central glasshouse two courses high, formed from large well cut blocks of local stone. - check on interior for glasshouse frame. Several angled cuts are spaced along external elevation for training vine into the glasshouse. Western lower plinth course of central glasshouse two courses high, formed from large well cut blocks of local stone. - check on interior for glasshouse frame. Set of three steps up to northwest corner of central glasshouse checks in upper stone show position of door Tile/brick plinth (constructed from earlier fragments of hypocaust ) for cast iron pipe Stone slab floor of finegrained sandstone in lower passage Stone slab floor of finegrained sandstone on upper platform passage Brick wall surround for plant bed (original)

Location
North elevation

002

Opening

North elevation

003

Opening

North elevation

004 005 006 007 008 009 010

Structural Structural Structural Structural Blocking Blocking Structural

North elevation North elevation North elevation North elevation North elevation North elevation West half of Central Glasshouse

011

Structural

South of Central Glasshouse

012

Structural

013

Structural

014

Structural

015

Structural

016

Structural

017

Deposit

Upper topsoil layer

West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse

31

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Context
018

Feature Type Description
Deposit Lower organic rich layer ( contains tanning bark )

Location
West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse Centre divide of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse

019

Structural

Stone slab floor of finegrained sanstone at base of plant bed Rubble and cement filling later tank to west

020

Deposit

021

Structural

secondary brick wall to create western tank

022

Structural

Brick wall surround for plant bed (original)

023

Structural

Tile/brick plinth (constructed from earlier fragments of hypocaust ) for cast iron pipe Base of original stone slab cistern, with traces of pitch waterproofing Tiled hypocaust set on slab floor running from central spine done to south and runs west before it is removed. Central stone spine of ashlar cut local stone, running north-south. Divides east and west sections. Tile/brick plinth (constructed from earlier fragments of hypocaust ) for cast iron pipe Base of original stone slab cistern, with traces of pitch waterproofing Spaced brick buttresses along back of planting beds

024

Structural

025

Structural

026

Structural

027

Structural

028

Structural

029

Structural

030

Structural

Brick wall surround for plant bed (original) west

031

Structural

secondary brick wall to create western tank

032

Deposit

Rubble and cement filling later tank to east

033

Structural

Angled section from flue entrance through rear wall to west up to platform Two 4" cast iron pipes overlying hypocaust tiles and resting on plinths and cast iron brackets

034

Structural

32

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

Context
035

Feature Type Description
Structural Two 4" cast iron pipes overlying hypocaust tiles and resting on plinths and cast iron brackets Tiled hypocaust set on slab floor running from central spine done to south and runs east before it is removed. Hole under steps [046]

Location
East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse East half of Central Glasshouse West half of Central Glasshouse

036

Structural

037

Structural

038

Structural

Steps from upper platform down to lower passage

039

Structural

040

Structural

Western lower plinth course of central glasshouse two courses high, formed from large well cut blocks of local stone. - check on interior for glasshouse frame. Tile/brick plinth (constructed from earlier fragments of hypocaust ) for cast iron pipe Stone slab floor of finegrained sandstone in lower passage Brick wall surround for plant bed (original) east

041

Structural

042

Structural

043

Deposit

Upper topsoil layer

044

Deposit

Lower demolition debris, mortar and brick

045

Structural

046

Structural

Stone slab floor of finegrained sandstone on upper platform passage - slabs are removed with mortar foundation exposed Surviving set of three steps up to northwest corner of central glasshouse Steps from upper platform down to lower passage

047

Structural

048

Structural

Angled section from flue entrance through rear wall to east up to platform Tile/brick plinth (constructed from earlier fragments of hypocaust ) for cast iron pipe single bracket fitting shows pipe 180 degree return.

049

Structural

33

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

APPENDIX 2
Finds Register BAG
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Context
017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 028 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 017/018 018 017/018 017/018 044 044

Type
Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Stone Stone Stone Slag Wood Wood Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Shell Glass Glass Glass Glass Stone Ceramic Ceramic Metal Metal Bone Ceramic Ceramic

Description
Selection of terracotta flower pots 5.5kg. Four sample pieces retained 8 x shards of undecorated creamware - 2 x bases 1 x rim 2 x Shards stoneware 11 x blue & white 10 x other decorated 6 x Redware shards Pantile 410g - 1 retained Roofing slate 1090g - 1 x pierced retained Pitch painted stonework from earlier water cistern Anthracite 1220g - 1 piece retained 108g Tanning bark 10g Fragment of window frame 3 x Fe clamps. One with lead Pulley wheel and spike with lead setting for wall mount Iron socketed artefact. Handle missing, possibly small hoe Sheet of lead 2 x soft drinks cans Cast iron pipe fragments 3.5kg - 1 piece retained Oyster shells 80g Bottle Glass various 19th & 20th century 530g 18th century greenhouse spun glass 230g - 5 retained Early 19th century greenhouse spun glass 760g - 6 retained Early 20th century greenhouse plate glass 1085g - 3 retained Sharpening stone 19th century clay pipe bowl with moulded stag head decoration 19th century 2 x pipe bowls, 5 x pipe stems Embossed livery button. Various fittings including 2 sections of door hinge, chain, bolts and hooped end rod Various including butchered cow and sheep Selection of terracotta flower pots 1300g. 3 sample pieces retained 4 x shards undecorated creamware. Includes 1 x teapot knob

Date
Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 April 2012 April 2012

34

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

BAG
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Context
044 044 044 044 044 044 044 044

Type
Ceramic Ceramic Slag Glass Glass Glass Metal Metal

Description
2 x Blue & white shards 1 x shard stoneware 1 piece 2 x shards 18th century greenhouse glass 1 base and 1 rim/neck 18th/early 19th century bottle glass 1 complete black glass beer bottle 19th century 3 x fittings including 1 trunk handle, 1 downpipe clamp, 1 Fe unknown 1 x Brass steam pipe valve wheel

Date
April 2012 April 2012 April 2012 April 2012 April 2012 April 2012 April 2012 April 2012

35

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

APPENDIX 3
Photographic Register No.
01 02 03 04 O5 06 07 08

File Name
A11_1_01 A11_1_02 A11_1_03 A11_1_04 A11_1_05 A11_1_06 A11_1_07 A11_1_08

Direction to

Description
Central glass house with north wall [001] to rear. Pre excavation Central glass house with north wall [001] to rear. Pre excavation Central glass house west end with north wall [001] to rear. Pre excavation Central glass house East end with north wall [001] to rear. Pre excavation View from central glasshouse along central axis to the south wall Working shot Removal of topsoil backfill [017] showing corner of brick planting bed [016] View from central glasshouse over the south wall with the castellated eye-catcher doocot in the southern field. Brick rubble and demolition debris in lower passageway to west of planting bed wall [016] and plinth [013] appearing to right.. Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images

Date September 2011

West West North-west North-west South-east West Vertical

Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011

North-East 09 A11_1_09 North-west 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 A11_1_10 A11_1_11 A11_1_12 A11_1_13 A11_1_14 A11_1_15 A11_1_16 A11_1_017

Sept 2011

Sept 2011

North-west North-west North-west North-west North-west North-west North-west North-west

Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011

36

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

No.
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

File Name
A11_1_18 A11_1_19 A11_1_20 A11_1_21 A11_1_22 A11_1_23 A11_1_24 A11_1_25

Direction to
North-west North-west North-west North-west North-west North North North-East

Description
Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images Section of north wall [001] from west to east. Part of composite 13 images North-east corner pavilion North-east corner pavilion Section of western planting bed showing topsoil backfill [017] and lower organic and bark rich [018]. Detail of section of western planting bed showing topsoil backfill [017] and lower organic and bark rich [018]. View of excavated planting bed with slab base [019] and brick buttresses [029] Upper platform [015] to rear. View of excavated planting bed with slab base [019] and brick buttresses [029] Upper platform [015] to rear planting bed wall [016] and lower passage with slab floor [014] and front wall [010] Later water cistern formed by brick walls [031] and planting bed [030] filled with rubble [032] View over earlier [028] water cistern and later cistern [031] Plinth [027] and hypocaust [036] on the left. Side elevation of the stairs [047] with brick wall of the western planting bed [016]. End of excavation of the western section of the central glasshouse, with buttressed corner of the planting bed [016]. Stairs [047] and later pipework plints [013] and [049] Lower passage slabs [014] exposed. The external stairs [012] also visible to top left.

Date
Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011 Sept 2011

26

A11_1_26 North-East

Sept 2011

27

A11_1_27 North-west

Sept 2011

28

A11_1_28 North-west

Sept 2011

29

A11_1_29 South-west

Sept 2011

30

A11_1_30 North-west

Sept 2011

31 32

A11_1_31 A11_1_32

South-west

Sept 2011

North- west

Sept 2011

37

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

No.
33

File Name
A11_1_33

Direction to

Description
End of excavation of the western section of the central glasshouse, with buttressed corner of the planting bed [016]. Stairs [047] and later pipework plinths [013] and [049] Lower passage slabs [014] exposed. The external stairs [012] also visible to top left. ( note also vine root groove in front wall [010] End of excavation of the western section of the central glasshouse Stairs [047] and later pipework plinth [049] Lower passage slabs [014] exposed. The external stairs [012] also visible to top left. Plinth [023] with two pipe supports in situ located over earlier tiled heating system [025] extending up to boiler behind north wall. Note plinth overlies earlier water cistern [024] Plinth [023] with two pipe supports in situ located over earlier tiled heating system [025] extending up to boiler behind north wall. Note plinth overlies earlier water cistern [024] Plinth [023] with two pipe supports in situ located over earlier tiled heating system [025] extending up to boiler behind north wall. Note plinth overlies earlier water cistern [024] Plinth [023] with two pipe supports in situ located over earlier tiled heating system [025] extending up to boiler behind north wall. Note plinth overlies earlier water cistern [024] – Note central stone wall ‘spine’ *026+ with lock into front wall *010+. Detail of pipework [034] and [035] entering the central glasshouse via cut hole in Wall [001] Detail of pipework [034] and [035] entering the central glasshouse via cut hole in Wall [001] with curving flue ramp [048] to west.

Date

North- west

Sept 2011

34

A11_1_34 North- west

Sept 2011

35

A11_1_35 North- west

Sept 2011

36

A11_1_36 North- west

Sept 2011

.37

A11_1_37 North- west

Sept 2011

38

A11_1_38

North- west

Sept 2011

39

A11_1_39 North- west

Sept 2011

40

A11_1_40 North- east

Sept 2011

38

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

No.
41

File Name
A11_1_41

Direction to

Description
Detail of pipework [034] and [035] entering the central glasshouse via cut hole in Wall [001] with curving flue ramp [048] to west. Note valves on pipe, that connect to small find /39\ - Brass steam pipe valve wheel View over Later water cistern formed by wall [021] and planting bed wall [022], filled with demolition rubble [020] intact tiled hypocaust system [025] runs down the west side of the central spine wall [026]. Pipes [034] visible set over earlier heating system. Earlier water cistern [028] with overlying pipe plinth [027] and slab wall incorporated into planting bed wall [030] View of lower passage slabs [014] with planting bed [016] to the left and fron stone wall [010] to right. Note the rebate for the wooden glasshouse super structure. Rubble filling lower passage of the western section of the central glasshouse, with buttressed corner of the planting bed [016]. Stairs [047] and later pipework plinths [013] and [049]. After removal of topsoil fill [017] End of excavation of the western section of the central glasshouse, with buttressed corner of the planting bed [016]. Stairs [047] and later pipework plinths [013] and [049] Lower passage slabs [014] exposed. The external stairs [012] also visible to top left. ( note also vine root groove in front wall [010] End of excavation of the western section of the central glasshouse, with buttressed corner of the planting bed [016]. Stairs [047] and later pipework plinths [013] and [049] Lower passage slabs [014] exposed. The external stairs [012] also visible to top left.

Date

North

Sept 2011

42

A11_1_42

South-east

Sept 2011

43

A11_1_43 South-west

Sept 2011

44

A11_1_44 Vertical

Sept 2011

45

A11_1_45

North- west

Sept 2011

46

A11_1_46

North- west

Sept 2011

47

A11_1_47

North- west

Sept 2011

April 2012
39

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

No.
51

File Name
A12_1_01

Direction to
North- west

Description
Completed excavation of east section of central glasshouse, with stairs [038] planting bed brick wall [042] and plinth [040] sitting over slabs [041]. East wall [039] is badly damaged, but the internal rebate for the glasshouse superstructure is clearly visible. The Damaged stairs [046] are at top right and the upper platform [045] is top left – though with upper slabs missing. Excavation of east section of central glasshouse, with stairs [038] planting bed brick wall [042] and plinth [040]appearing . East wall [039] is badly damaged, but the internal rebate for the glasshouse superstructure is clearly visible. The Damaged stairs [046] are at top right and the upper platform [045] is top left – though with upper slabs missing.

Date

April 2012

52

A12_1_02

North- west

April 2012

40

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington

Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington

Central Glasshouse, Amisfield Walled Garden, Haddington East Lothian

APPENDIX 4: Discovery and Excavation in Scotland Report
LOCAL AUTHORITY: PROJECT TITLE/SITE NAME: PROJECT CODE: PARISH: NAME OF CONTRIBUTOR: NAME OF ORGANISATION: TYPE(S) OF PROJECT: NMRS NO(S): SITE/MONUMENT TYPE(S): SIGNIFICANT FINDS: NGR (2 letters, 8 or 10 figures) START DATE (this season) END DATE (this season) PREVIOUS WORK (incl. DES ref.) MAIN (NARRATIVE) DESCRIPTION: (May include information from other fields)

East Lothian Amisfield Walled Garden AWG11 HADDINGTON David Connolly Connolly Heritage Consultancy Evaluation Trench Building Record NT57SW 68 18th- 19th century Vinery/Pinery Glass House A single Livery Button of probable late 18th century date.

NT 53314 74192
September 2011 September 2011 N/A
An archaeological investigation as part of the Peter Potter Lost Landscapes project and the Amisfield Preservation Trust with involvement of over 180 people ranging from local school classes, and groups from Tynepark Centre, North Berwick Day Centre, Dad’s Work and local volunteers as well as Students from Edinburgh University. The excavation uncovered the central Glasshouse on the north wall (south facing) and revealed the stonework from the 1783 building was intact and contained both a tile hypocaust system and later cast iron pipe heating system with raised beds and walkways related to the original use as a Pineapple House (Vinery Pinery) built by the Wemyss Estate. The Walled Garden (the largest true Walled Garden in Scotland) also has four corner pavilions, of which the north east Pavilion was subjected to building record as part of a training day. The garden has an area of 8 acres (3.24 hectares) completely enclosed by 16 foot (5m) high walls of dressed Garvald Freestone on the north wall and rough masonry on the other three elevations. Further work is required to complete the investigation of this and the two flanking glasshouses. Geophysical work carried out by the Edinburgh Archaeological Field Society revealed the foundations of another later glasshouse to the south of the excavation area.

PROPOSED FUTURE WORK: CAPTION(S) FOR ILLUSTRS: SPONSOR OR FUNDING BODY:

Further excavation and building recording of all pavilions and walls -Peter Potter Gallery, Connolly Heritage Consultancy, Amisfield Preservation Trust Old SChoolhouse, Luggate Burn, East Lothian, EH41 4QA info@bajr.org RCAHMS , Connolly Heritage Consultancy

ADDRESS OF CONTRIBUTOR: EMAIL ADDRESS: ARCHIVE LOCATION

44

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