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8

VCE coverage

Area of study

Units 3 & 4 • Geometry and trigonometry

**In this chapter chapter
**

8A Properties of angles, triangles and polygons 8B Area and perimeter 8C Total surface area 8D Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres 8E Maps and similar ﬁgures 8F Similar triangles 8G Area and volume scale factors

348

Further Mathematics

Geometry

Geometry is an important area of study. Many professions and tasks require and use geometrical concepts and its associated techniques. Besides architects, surveyors and navigators, all of us use it in our daily lives — for example, to describe shapes of objects, directions on a car trip and space or position of a house. Much of this area of study is assumed knowledge gained from previous years of study.

Bed 1

UPPER LEVEL

Bed 2

Bed 4

Bed 3

Stairways

**Properties of angles, triangles and polygons
**

In this module, we will often encounter problems where some of the information we need is not clearly given. To solve the problems, some missing information will need to be deduced using the many common rules, deﬁnitions and laws of geometry. Some of the more important rules are presented in this chapter.

**Interior angles of polygons
**

For a regular polygon (all sides and angles are equal) of 360° n sides, the interior angle is given by 180° − ---------- . n For example, for a square the interior angle is: 360° 180° − ---------- = 180° − 90° 4 = 90° 360° The exterior angle is given by ---------- . n

Exterior angle

Interior angle

WORKED Example 1

Find the interior and exterior angle of the regular polygon shown.

THINK

1

WRITE 360° Interior angle = 180° − ---------5 = 180° − 72° = 108° 360° Exterior angle = ---------5 = 72° A regular pentagon has an interior angle of 108° and an exterior angle of 72°.

This shape is a regular pentagon, a 5-sided ﬁgure. Substitute n = 5 into the interior angle formula. Substitute n = 5 into the exterior angle formula. Write your answer.

2

3

Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

349

**Geometry rules, deﬁnitions and notation rules
**

The following geometry rules and notation will be most valuable in establishing unknown values in the topics covered and revised in this module.

**Deﬁnitions of common terms
**

A ∠ABC Less than 90° B Acute angle C Between 180° and 360° A Right angle

MQ F M t fi 11 05(b)

**180° 90° Straight angle
**

MQ FurMat fig 11.05(c)

Between 90° and 180°

Obtuse angle

MQ F rMat fig 11 05(d)

A Line Ray

B B

AB AB

**A B AB Line segment Reflex angle Parallel lines Perpendicular lines
**

MQ FurMat fig 11.05(h)

**Some common notations and rules
**

a + b + c = 180° No equal sides b a c Scalene triangle Isosceles triangle

MQ FurMat fig 11.06(b)

Two equal sides and angles

All equal sides and 60° angles

45°

MQ FurMat fig 11.06(a)

60° 60° Equilateral triangle a=b

45° Right-angled isoceles triangle C

**a + b = 90° a + b = 180° a b Complementary angles
**

MQ FurMat fig 11.06(e)

**a b Vertically opposite angles
**

MQ FurMat fig 11.06(g)

a

b

Supplementary angles

MQ FurMat fig 11.06(f)

A

B

D CD is a perpendicular bisector of AB a + d = 180° b + c = 180° a c d b Co-interior angles

a=b c=d a c d b Alternate angles

MQ F M fi 11 07( )

a=b c=d c b

a

d Corresponding angles B a+b=d b

b a d

**c a c d A C D ∠BCD is an exterior angle
**

MQ FurMat fig 11 07(e)

a + b + c + d = 360°

MQ FurMat fig 11.07(d)

Right angle at the circumference in a semicircle

c a b THINK 1 WRITE 35° c a b 35° 35° Recognise that the top and bottom of the stair rails are parallel lines. The angles at the centre are all equal. The other two angles in the triangle are equal. a + b + c = 180° 35° + b + 90° = 180° b = 180° − 125° b = 55° . therefore all sides are equal. a = 35° c 3 c = 90° 4 Use the straight angle rule to ﬁnd the unknown angle b. 6 cm 2 60° 3 The 6 triangles are equilateral triangles. Given angle 35°. THINK 1 b c a dc m WRITE 360° a = ---------6 = 60° a + b + c = 180° b=c So: 60 + 2b = 180° b = 60° c = 60° d cm = 6 cm This shape is a regular hexagon.350 Further Mathematics WORKED Example 2 Find the values of the pronumerals in the polygon at right. use the alternate angle law and the given angle. WORKED Example 3 Find the missing pronumerals in the diagram of railings for a set of stairs shown at right. The unknown angle c is a right angle. using the given right angle and corresponding angle law. 2 To ﬁnd the unknown angle a.

2.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 351 remember remember Properties of angles. triangles and polygons 1. Carefully interpret geometric notations. Equal sides 3. Carefully consider geometric rules. triangles and polygons Example 1 1 Find the interior and exterior angles for each of the following regular polygons. for example from the diagram below. a 27° 130° 52° a y x c 63° 2 b c d 15° c a b e b c 8 cm 50° f m 32° . such as isosceles triangles have 2 equal sides and angles.) 8A WORKED Properties of angles. Draw careful diagrams. a Equilateral triangle b Regular quadrilateral c Hexagon d e Heptagon f Nonagon g WORKED Example 2 Find the value of the pronumerals in the following ﬁgures. (Refer to the ﬁgures in the preceding section on deﬁnitions of common terms and common notations and rules.

The largest possible angle for this triangle is: A 80° B 130° C 90° D 65° E 50° 150° a .352 WORKED Further Mathematics Example 3 Find the value of the pronumerals in the following ﬁgures.6 cm d 4. exterior angle of 72° b Interior angle of 150°. a r b 110° x h y z 35° c 8 cm 29° d a b 122° c 3. exterior angle of 30° c Interior angle of 135°.2 cm a b 86° e 40° a d c b 6 multiple choice The value of a is closest to: A 30° B 75° C 90° D 120° E 150° 7 multiple choice An isosceles triangle has a known angle of 50°. a x y 35° 3 b 30° 0° z c t 62° d 70° a d b c e 27° n m f 81° a 140° 4 Name the regular polygon that has the given angle(s). exterior angle of 45° d Interior angle of 120° e Exterior angle of 120° 5 Find the unknown pronumerals. a Interior angle of 108°.

55 m frontage of a house block.24 Perimeter = 300 + 2 × 600 + 471. For squares.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 353 Area and perimeter Much of our world is described by area (the amount of space enclosed by a closed ﬁgure) and perimeter (the distance around a closed ﬁgure). . Write your answer. the size of 645m2 a bedroom and the amount of paint required to cover an Lot 658 object.24 Perimeter of the closed ﬁgure is 1971 mm. the perimter = 4l 2. Some common rules are: 1. the fencing Lot 603 13. For rectangles. In this section we will 761m2 Corner block review the more common with wide shapes. circumference of circumference = 1 -2 × 2π r 2 3 Add together the three components of the perimeter. Some examples are the area aº Corner block with expansive 17 23.24 = 1971.0 5 23.05 $51.7 5 Perimeter is the distance around a closed ﬁgure.56 37.18 Perimeter 14. the perimter = 2(l + w) Square l l l Rectangle l w l a c e of irle nc r 4.55 6 5.000 32. Circumference (C) is the perimeter of a circle. 600 mm THINK 1 WRITE Perimeter = 300 + 2 × 600 + where 1 -2 1 -2 The shape is composed of a semicircle and three sides of a rectangle.07 $47.000 of a block of land. C = 2 × π × radius = 2πr Find the perimeter of the closed ﬁgure given at right (to the nearest mm). 17 m frontage 36. = π × 150 = 471.92 32.8 w l WORKED Example 4 300 mm Circumfer e 3.

4 m Find the area of the garden bed given in the diagram (to the nearest square metre). 1 hectare = 100 m × 100 m = 10 000 m2 b WORKED Example 5 5. Area of a circle: A = π × radius = π × r 2 2 Circle r O 6. km2 and hectares. Area of a rectangle: A = length × width = l × w 3.4 Write your answer.7 m 2.4 1 The shape of garden is a trapezium.354 Further Mathematics Area of common shapes The areas of shapes commonly encountered are: 1.7) × 2. -= 1 (7.5 + 5. THINK WRITE 7. . Use the formula for area of a trapezium.5 m a = 7. m2. cm2. Area of a square: A = length2 = l2 Square l l Rectangle w 2. Area of garden = Area of a trapezium Remember that the lengths of the two parallel -= 1 (a + b) × h 2 sides are a and b and h is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides.4 2 Substitute and evaluate. Area of a parallelogram: A = base × height = b × h l Parallelogram h b Trapezium a h b 4.2 × 2. Area of a trapezium: A= 1 -2 (a + b) × h 5.5 b = 5.84 m2 Area of the garden bed is approximately 16 square metres. = 15. 2 = 3 1 -2 × 13.7 h = 2. Area of a triangle: -A= 1 ×b×h 2 (see the next chapter) Triangle h Area is measured in mm2.

a rectangle. that is. The width of the rectangle and the base of the triangle is twice the radius of the circle. Area of composite ﬁgure = sum of the individual common ﬁgures Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . A1 20 m 16 m 16 m A2 A3 Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3 Substitute and evaluate each of the shapes. .53 m2 Area of the hotel foyer is 661 m2.53 = 660. 25 m 20 m 8m THINK 1 WRITE 25 m 8m The shape is composite and needs to be separated into two or more common shapes: in this case. . A1 = area of triangle = = 1 -2 1 -2 ×b×h × 16 × 20 = 160 m2 A2 = Area of rectangle =l×w = 25 × 16 = 400 m2 A3 = Area of half of a circle = = 1 -2 1 -2 × π × r2 × π × 82 = 100. 16 metres. Such ﬁgures are called composite ﬁgures. Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3 = 160 + 400 + 100. a triangle and half of a circle. .Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 355 Composite areas Often a closed ﬁgure can be identiﬁed as comprising two or more different common ﬁgures.53 m2 2 Add together all three areas for the composite shape. 3 Write your answer. The area of a composite ﬁgure is the sum of the areas of the individual common ﬁgures. WORKED Example 6 Find the area of the hotel foyer from the plans given below (to the nearest square metre).

2. km × 1 ----------1000 km 2 156 000 = ----------------------------1000 × 1000 = 0. 1 1 m2 = --------------. Write your answer. Some examples are: (a) 1 cm2 = 10 mm × 10 mm = 100 mm2 Area ÷102 ÷1002 ÷10002 (b) 1 m2 = 100 cm × 100 cm = 10 000 cm2 mm2 cm2 m2 km2 (c) 1 km2 = 1000 m × 1000 m = 1 000 000 m2 2 (d) 1 hectare = 10 000 m × 102 × 1002 × 10002 Convert 1. Write the answer in correct units.12 m2= 1. THINK 1 WORKED Example 7 WRITE 1.6 hectares 2 . WRITE a 156 000 m2 = 156 000 × 1 ----------1000 Conversion factor for metres to kilometres is divide by 1000. Conversion factor is 10 000 m2 = 1 hectare.kilometre. 1 that is. 1 metre = 100 centimetres. That is. 1 metre = ----------.156 square kilometres (km2) b 156 000 m2 = 156 000 × = 2 3 b 1 1 --------------10 000 hectares 156 000 -----------------10 000 hectares = 15.156 km2 156 000 m2 = 0. To convert to larger units. To convert to smaller units.12 m2 to square centimetres (cm2). for example from cm2 to m2 and vice versa. 1. divide (÷). that is. mm2 to cm2. 2 = 1.hectare 10 000 Write the answer.12 m2 is equal to 11 200 square centimetres (cm2). 3 Convert 156 000 metres2 to a kilometres2 THINK a 1 WORKED Example 8 b hectares. 1000 Conversion factor for metres2 to kilometres2 is divide by 10002 or 1 000 000. for example.12 × 100 cm × 100 cm = 11 200 cm2 1.356 Further Mathematics Conversion of units of area Often the units of area need to be converted.6 hectares 156 000 m = 15. Conversion factor for metres2 to centimetres2 is multiply by 1002 or 10 000. for example m2 to cm2. multiply (×).12 × 1 metre × 1 metre Conversion factor for metres to centimetres is multiply by 100.

8 5m d 13. .5 m f 120 m 210 m 11. Area is measured in mm2.5 mm e 4m 5m 7. the perimeter = 2(l + w) w o nce f a r (c) Circumference (C) is the perimeter of a circle. (a) 1 cm2 = 10 mm × 10 mm = 100 mm2 (b) 1 m2 = 100 cm × 100 cm = 10 000 cm2 (c) 1 km2 = 1000 m × 1000 m = 1 000 000 m2 (d) 1 hectare = 10 000 m2 4.5 m 90 m SkillS C Math cad 27.5 cm 70 m Area and perimeter HEET 8. the perimeter = 4l Square l l l l Rectangle l w l mf ircu ere (b) For rectangles. . Area of shapes commonly encountered are: (a) area of a square: A = l2 (b) Area of a rectangle: A = l × w (c) Area of a parallelogram: A = b × h -(d) Area of a trapezium: A = 1 (a + b) × h 2 (e) Area of a circle: A = π r 2 -(f) Area of a triangle: A = 1 × b × h 2 5. km2 and hectares. (a) For squares.7 cm 7m 4m 17 . 3. Area of composite ﬁgure = sum of the individual common ﬁgures Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . m2. C = 2 × π × radius circle 2. cm2.1 .4 cm 5 1 Find the areas of the following ﬁgures (to the nearest whole units). a b c 12 m 23. Perimeter is the distance around a closed ﬁgure.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 357 remember remember Area and perimeter 1. 8B WORKED Area and perimeter Example cm 15.

What is the area of steel in the blade? 180 cm 44 m . 0.000 06 km (m ) 6 A kite has the dimensions in the ﬁgure at right. b 320 000 cm2 (m2) c a 20 000 mm2 (cm2) 2 2 2 2 e 2 500 000 m (km ) f d 0. HEET 8. in m2). 3 Find the areas of the following ﬁgures (to 1 decimal place).035 m2 (cm2) 357 000 m2 (hectares) 70 cm 34 m 30 mm 20 mm 5 mm 40 mm 1.2 WORKED SkillS Example 7.08 m 8 A cutting blade for a craft knife has the dimensions shown in the diagram. 8 5 Convert the following areas to the units given in brackets.5 m 17 m 2m 20 m 4 WORKED Example 6 25 m 12 m 16 cm 8 cm d 48 mm 24 mm 125 mm 90 mm e 10 12 cm 21 cm f 11 m 22 m m 13 cm 10 cm 7m 20 m 4 Find the perimeters of the closed ﬁgures in question 3. a b c 10 m 14 m 12 m 3.358 WORKED Further Mathematics Example 2 Find the perimeters of the closed ﬁgures in question 1. 2.035 m (mm ) 2 2 2 2 g 2 750 000 000 mm (m ) h 0. Find the area of the kite (to the nearest cm2).2 0m 7 Find the area of the regular hexagon as shown in the diagram at left (to 2 decimal places.

3 .84 E 11.59 a What is the total area of the dartboard? b What is the area of the bullseye (inner circle)? c What is the area of the 2-point middle ring? d Express each area of the three rings as a percentage of the total area (to 2 decimal places).8 m 0.4 m E Cannot be determined 35.5 m B 35.2 m 7 cm 0.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 359 0.2 m 12 cm 12 A 3-ring dartboard has dimensions as shown below left.8 m 0.2 m D 80.5π 11 multiple choice The perimeter of the enclosed ﬁgure shown is 156.52 10 multiple choice The perimeter of the ﬁgure shown in centimetres is: A 34 B 24 + 5π C 24 + 2. SkillS HEET 8.8 m 0.5 m x 9 multiple choice The area in m2 of the stacked objects shown at right is closest to: A 1.92 D 3.5π D 29 + 5π E 29 + 2.2 m C 40.68 C 1.44 B 1. x.8 m 1. The unknown length. (Give all answers to 1 decimal place.6 m 0.8 m 2 cm 3 cm 20. is closest to: A 20.) 40 cm 20 cm 6 cm 1 2 3 2 1 MQ FurMat fig 11.0 m 1.6 metres.

c Find the area of the window that is swept by the wiper (to the nearest cm2). a What is the area of each word? b What are all the different ways of arranging the words in a rectangular pattern? c If the charge is $2 per 10 cm in height and $1. d To how much area does the horse have access (to 1 decimal place)? 14 The rectangular rear window of a car has an area of 1. ﬁnd the minimum cost for the sign and its dimensions. 15 A signwriter charges his clients by the width and height of the sign to be painted. the lead on the horse is also 2 metres long and tied at one of the ends of the railing. a Draw a diagram of this situation. b Draw a diagram of the situation. The base of the wiper is situated at the bottom centre of the rear window. d Find the percentage of the window’s area that is not swept by the wiper. a Find the height of the rear window if its length is 160 centimetres (to the nearest centimetre). a horse is tied to a railing outside a saloon bar. e Find the new area of the rear window that is swept. The manufacturer decides to increase the wiper length by 10 cm. f Find the percentage of the window’s area that is not swept by the wiper.50 per 10 cm in length.28 m2. c Draw a diagram of this situation. b To how much area does the horse now have access (to 1 decimal place)? The lead is now tied to the centre of the railing. The railing is 2 metres long. A wiper blade is 50 cm long and the end just reaches the top of the window as it makes a semicircular sweep. A client advises the signwriter to paint 12 words with 10 cm high characters and a 20 cm length for each word. .360 Further Mathematics 13 On a western movie set.

Express all dimensions in centimetres. Substitute and evaluate.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 361 Total surface area The total surface area (TSA) of a solid object is the sum of the areas of the surfaces. 2 A poster tube is a cylinder. Remember 1 metre = 100 centimetres. 5 cm . In some cases. r = 5 cm Height. 1. 3 Write your answer.13 metres and a radius of 5 cm. In other situations we will need to derive a formula by using the net of an object. we can use established formulas of very common everyday objects.13 m = 113 cm TSA of a tube = 2π r(r + h) = 2 × π × 5(5 + 113) = 2 × π × 5 × 118 = 3707. h = 1.1 3m THINK 1 WRITE Radius.08 The total surface area of a poster tube is approximately 3700 cm2. Remember BODMAS. Give your answer to the nearest 100 cm2. Total surface area formulas of common objects Cube l h w l h Cuboid Cylinder r Cubes: TSA = 6l2 Cone Slant s height Cuboids: TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh) Sphere h r Cylinders: TSA = 2π r(r + h) r r Cones: TSA = π r(r + s) where s is the slant height Spheres: TSA = 4π r 2 WORKED Example 9 Find the total surface area of a poster tube with a length of 1.

495 Total surface area of the ball is approximately 1960 cm2. such as an open cylinder. We can substitute into the total surface area of a cube to determine the dimension of the cube. Square pyramid Slant height Net MQ FurMat fig 11. TSA = 6 × l2 TSA = 1350 mm2 1350 = 6 × l2 l2 = 1350 ----------6 2 3 = 225 l = 225 = 15 mm The dimensions of the die are: 15 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm Total surface area using a net If the object is not a common object or a variation of one.362 Further Mathematics WORKED Example 10 Find the total surface area of a size 7 basketball with a diameter of 25 cm. Use the diameter to ﬁnd the radius of the basketball and substitute into the formula.52 = 1963. Give your answer to the nearest 10 cm2. A net of an object is a plane ﬁgure that represents the surface of a 3-dimensional object. Divide both sides by 6. THINK WRITE 1 WORKED Example 11 A die is a cube.5 cm TSA of sphere = 4π r 2 = 4 × π × 12. Write your answer. Write your answer. A die used in a board game has a total surface area of 1350 mm2. THINK WRITE 1 Use the formula for the total surface area of a sphere. then it is easier to generate the formula from ﬁrst principles by constructing a net of the object. Find the linear dimensions of the die (to the nearest millimetre).68 Net MQ FurMat fig 11.69 Net . 2 Diameter = 25 cm Radius = 12. Take the square root of both sides to ﬁnd l.

6 cm 20 cm 10 cm 8 cm THINK 1 WRITE cm A4 6 cm 20 cm Form a net of the triangular prism. .Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 363 WORKED Example 12 Find the total surface area of the triangular prism shown in the diagram. 4 Write your answer. 20 cm 10 cm 20 cm 10 8 cm A1 10 cm A2 A3 8 cm 6 cm 10 A4 6 cm cm 2 Identify the different-sized common ﬁgures and set up a sum of the surface areas. TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 × A4 A1 = l1 × w1 = 20 × 10 = 200 cm2 A2 = l2 × w2 = 20 × 8 = 160 cm2 A3 = l3 × w3 = 20 × 6 = 120 cm2 A4 = = 1 -2 1 -2 × b2 × h 2 ×8×6 = 24 cm2 3 Sum the areas. TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 × A4 = 200 + 160 + 120 + 2 × 24 = 528 cm2 The total surface area of the triangular prism is 528 cm2. The two triangles are the same. transferring all the dimensions to each of the sides of the surfaces.

59 + 50.27 cm2 TSA = A1 + A2 = 301. cm2. TSA = A1 + A2 A1 = 2 π r × w = 2 × π × 4 × 12 = 301. 2.27 = 351.86 cm2 The total surface area of the open cylindrical can is 351. remember remember Total surface area 1. transferring all the dimensions to each of the surfaces. . The length of the rectangle is the circumference of the circle. The TSAs of some common objects are as follows: (a) Cubes: TSA = 6l2 (b) Cuboids: TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh) (c) Cylinders: TSA = 2π r(r + h) (d) Cones: TSA = π r(r + s) where s is the slant height (e) Spheres: TSA = 4π r2 3. 12 cm 8 cm fi THINK 1 WRITE 2π r A1 12 cm Form a net of the open cylinder. 3 Sum the areas.59 cm2 A2 = π × r 2 = π × 42 = 50.364 Further Mathematics WORKED Example 13 Find the surface area of an open cylindrical can that is 12 cm high and 8 cm in diameter (to 1 decimal place). m2 and km2. form their nets and establish the total surface area formulas. For all other shapes. Total surface area (TSA) is measured in mm2.9 cm2. 4 Write your answer. A2 4 cm 2 Identify the different-sized common ﬁgures and set up a sum of the surface areas.

8 metres d A closed cylinder with a radius of 1. given the total surface area of the objects. Give answers to 1 decimal place. a b 5 cm 6.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 365 8C WORKED Total surface area Math Example 9 1 Find the total surface area for each of the solids a to f from the following information. height of 6 cm and a total surface area of 468 cm2 d Diameter of a playing ball with a total surface area of 157 630 cm2 4 Find the total surface areas for the objects given in the diagrams.5 cm2 c Length of a cuboid with width of 12 mm.06 cm WORKED Example 12 10 cm m 15 c 4 cm m 30 c 7 cm . Give answers to 1 decimal place. a A cube with side lengths of 110 cm b A cuboid with dimensions of 12 m × 5 m × 8 m (l × w × h) c A sphere with a radius of 0.2 cm and a height of 6 cm e A closed cone with a radius of 7 cm and a slant height of 11 cm f An opened cylinder with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 30 mm 2 Find the total surface area of the objects given in the diagrams.5 m b c 14 cm cad Total surface area WORKED Example 10 410 mm Diameter = 43 cm 7 cm 4 cm d 6 cm e 90 cm f 4 cm 28 cm 2 cm WORKED 8 cm Example 11 3 Find the unknown dimensions. a Length = 1. a Length of a cube with a total surface area of 24 m2 b The radius of a sphere with a total surface area of 633. Give answers to 1 decimal place. Give answers to 1 decimal place.

5 m d .5 m 2 cm 1.2 m 4. What surface area of tiles is needed to line the inside of the pool? (Give answer in m2 and cm2 to 1 decimal place. Give answers to 1 decimal place.5 cm 7 cm 6 A concrete swimming pool is a cuboid with the following dimensions: length of 6 metres. a Rubbish bin b 13.5 cm 15 cm 20 cm 250 mm 0.) 3 cm c 2.5 cm 10 cm 250 mm 10.3 metres.366 Further Mathematics c Area = 22 cm2 8 cm d 22 mm 30 mm 80 mm 40 mm mm 105 13 cm e 12 mm 15 m m 25 m m f 5m 4m 4m 6m 7m 30 m 9 mm WORKED Example 13 5 Find the total surface area of each of the objects in the diagrams below. width of 4 metres and depth of 1.9 m 1.

1 .5 m 8 multiple choice The total surface area of a 48 mm-diameter ball used in a game of pool is closest to: A 1810 mm2 B 2300 mm2 C 7240 mm2 D 28 950 mm2 E 115 800 mm2 9 multiple choice The total surface of a golf ball of radius 21 mm is closest to: A 550 mm2 B 55 cm2 C 55 000 mm2 D 0. The baker has come up with two shapes: a rectangular prism with a 12 cm-square base and a cylinder with a round end that has a 14 cm diameter.abh 2 1 -2 E 5.5 m 6.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 367 7 What is the total area of canvas needed for the tent (including the base) shown in the diagram at right? Give the answer to 2 decimal places.055 m2 10 multiple choice The formula for the total surface area for the object shown is: A 1 -.0 m 2.5 m 1.5 cm2 B 2× bh + ab + 2 × ah h a b -C 3( 1 bh + ab) 2 D 1 -2 bh + 3ab E bh + 3ab 11 multiple choice The total surface area of a poster tube that is 115 cm long and 8 cm in diameter is closest to: A 3000 cm2 B 2900 cm2 C 1500 mm2 D 6200 m2 E 23 000 cm2 12 A baker is investigating the best shape for a loaf of bread. 1.5 m 4. a Which shape stays fresher if they have the same overall length of 32 cm? b What is the difference between the total surface areas of the two loaves of bread? Work ET SHE 8. The shape with the smallest surface area stays freshest.

368

Further Mathematics

**Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres
**

The most common volumes considered in the real world are the volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres and objects which are a combination of these. For example, country people who rely on tank water need to know the capacity (volume) of water that the tank is holding. Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object. The units of volume are mm3 (cubic millimetres), cm3 (cubic centimetres or cc), and m3 (cubic metres). 1000 mm3 = 1 cm3 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3 Another measure of volume is the litre which is used primarily for quantities of liquids but also for capacity, like the capacity of a refrigerator, or the size of motor car engines. 1 litre = 1000 cm3 1000 litres = 1 m3

**Conversion of units of volume
**

Often the units of volume need to be converted, for example from cm3 to m3 and vice versa.

Volume ÷103

mm

3

÷1003

cm3 m3

× 103

× 1003

**Convert 1.12 cm3 to mm3. THINK
**

1

WORKED Example 14

WRITE 1.12 cm3 = 1.12 × 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm = 1.12 × 10 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm = 1.12 × 1000 mm3 = 1120 mm3 1.12 cm3 is equal to 1120 mm3. The conversion from centimetres to millimetres is 1 cm = 10 mm. The conversion factor for cm3 to mm3 is to multiply by 103 or 1000; that is, 1cm3 = 1000 mm3. Write the answer in correct units.

2

3

Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

369

**Convert 156 000 cm3 to: THINK a
**

1

WORKED Example 15

a m3 The conversion factor for centimetres to metres is divide by 100; that is, 1 1 cm = -------- m. 100

**b litres. WRITE a 156 000 cm3 = 156 000 × 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm = 156 000 ×
**

1 -------100

m×

1 -------100

m×

1 -------100

m

2

The conversion factor for cm3 to m3 is divide by 1003 or 1 000 000; that is, 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3. Write the answer in correct units. Conversion factor is 1000 cm3 = 1 litre; that is, 1 1 cm3 = ----------- litre. 1000 Write the answer.

156 000 = -------------------------------------- m3 100 × 100 × 100 = 0.156 m3 156 000 cm3 = 0.156 cubic metres (m3) b 156 000 cm3 = 156 000 × =

3

3

b

1

1 ----------1000

litres

156 000 -----------------1000

litres

= 156 litres 156 000 cm = 156 litres

2

Volume of prisms

A prism is a 3-dimensional object that has a uniform cross-section.

Triangular prism

Cylinder

Square prism

A prism is named in accordance with its uniform crosssectional area. Note: Circular prisms are called cylinders.

Uniform cross-section

To ﬁnd the volume of a prism we need to determine the area of the uniform cross-section (or base) and multiply by the height. This is the same for all prisms.

Height

Volume of a prism, Vprism, can be generalised by the formula: Vprism = area of uniform cross-section × height V=A×H

370

Further Mathematics

**Find the volume of the object (to the nearest cm3). THINK
**

1

WORKED Example 16

WRITE Vcylinder = A × H where Acircle = π r 2

15 cm

The object has a circle as a uniform cross-section. It is a cylinder. The area of the base is: area of a circle = π r 2. Volume is cross-sectional area times height.

2

Write your answer.

Vcylinder = π × r 2 × H = π × 152 × 20 = 4500 π = 14 137.1669 cm3 The volume of the cylinder is 14 137 cm3.

Find (to the nearest mm3) the volume of the slice of bread with a uniform cross-sectional area of 250 mm2 and a thickness of 17 mm.

WORKED Example 17

Area 250 mm2 17 mm

THINK

1

WRITE V=A×H where A = 250 mm 2 V = 250 mm2 × 17 mm = 4250 mm3 The volume of the slice of bread is 4250 mm3.

2

The slice of bread has a uniform crosssection. The area of the cross-section is not a common ﬁgure but its area has been given. Write your answer.

Given the volume of an object, we can use the volume formula to ﬁnd an unknown dimension of the object by transposing the formula.

20 cm

Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 371 WORKED Example 18 Find the height of the triangular prism from the information provided in the diagram at right (to 1 decimal place). To ﬁnd the volume of the pyramids above.1 2 = 1.1 h 6.1 m. can be generalised by the formula: Vpyramids = V= 1 -3 1 -3 × area of cross-section at the base × height ×A×H H A The height of a pyramid.6 h = -----1. Vpyramids. This is the same for all pyramids. Volume of prism = 6. ×b×h×H 2 3 Write your answer. transpose and evaluate. 1. b = 2 m V=A×H -where A = 1 × b × h 2 V= 1 -2 The volume of the object is given.6 m3 h 2m THINK 1 WRITE V = 6. we take a similar approach to prisms but the volume of a pyramid is always one-third of a prism with the same initial base and same height. along with the width of the triangular cross-section and the height of the prism. Vertex Triangular pyramid Cone The name of the pyramid is related to its similar cross-sectional area (or base). Volume of a pyramid.1 The height of the triangle in the given prism is 6. Volume of pyramids A pyramid is a 3-dimensional object that has a similar cross-section but the size reduces as it approaches the vertex. is sometimes called the altitude. H. Substitute the values.6 m3. Note: Circular pyramids are commonly called cones.6 = 1 × 2 × h × 1. -6.1 m . H = 1. H.0 metres.

372 Further Mathematics Find the volume of the pyramid at right (to the nearest m3). The formula for the volume of spheres is: -Vsphere = 4 π r 3 3 r where r is the radius of the sphere. It is a square pyramid. WORKED Example 19 Height of pyramid = 40 m THINK 1 WRITE Vpyramid = × A × H where Asquare = l 2 1 -3 -Vpyramid = 1 × l 2 × H 3 -= 1 × 302 × 40 3 30 m 30 m The pyramid has a square base. Volume of spheres and composite objects Volume of a sphere Spheres are unique but common objects that deserve special attention. 2 Write your answer. = 12 000 m3 The volume of the square pyramid is 12 000 m3. . The area of the base is: Area of a square = l 2.

. Volume of composite object = sum of the individual common prisms. . Write your answer.362 litres The volume of the object is 10 litres. less the tip of the large cone. Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + . Such ﬁgures are called composite objects. Vcomposite = volume of cylinder + volume of square prism = Acircle × Hcircle + Asquare × Hsquare = (π r 2 × Hc) + (l2 × Hs) = (π × 62 × 20) + (182 × 25) = 2261.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 373 Volume of composite objects Often the object can be identiﬁed as comprising two or more different common prisms. (or Vcomposite = V1 − V2) WORKED Example 20 Find the volume of the object shown at right (to the nearest litre).946 711 + 8100 = 10 361. 12 cm 20 cm THINK 1 WRITE H = 20 cm r = 6 cm 18 18 cm cm 18 cm The volume of the composite object is the sum of volumes of the cylinder plus the prism. 2 3 Convert to litres using the conversion of 1000 cm2 = 1 litre. pyramids or spheres. The grain silo can be modelled as the sum of a cylinder and a large cone. The volume of a composite object is found by adding the volumes of the individual common ﬁgures or deducting volumes.946 711 cm3 10 362 cm2 = 10. pyramids or spheres. 25 cm . 25 cm The object is a composite of a cylinder and a square prism.

4 WORKED Example 2 Find the volume of the following prisms to the nearest whole unit.35 cm3 to mm3 d 15 litres to cm3 g 0. (a) The volume of a pyramid is Vpyramid = 1 × area of cross-section at the 3 base × height V= 1 -3 ×A×H (b) The height of a pyramid. .4 m 22 mm 34 mm 23 cm . cm3 (or cc). 3 6.1 m e 30 mm f 20 mm 14 mm m 57 m m 4. The volume of a composite object = sum of the individual common prisms. ) 8D Mat Volume of prisms.8 cm 16 b 51. a 0. Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object. .8 6.0023 cm3 to mm3 250 000 mm3 to cm3 d hca WORKED Example 1 Convert the volumes to the units speciﬁed. pyramids or spheres. m3. pyramids and spheres 1. a mm 4000 mm 104. -5.2 cm c 7 cm 75 4 cm 15 cm d 2. . (a) The units of volume are mm3. H.374 Further Mathematics remember remember Volume of prisms.000 57 m3 to cm3 Volume formulas 14. The volume of a prism is Vprism = area of uniform cross-section × height V=A×H -4. pyramids and spheres b 4800 cm3 to m3 e 1. . (or Vcomposite = V1 − V2 . 15 SkillS HEET 8. 2. is sometimes called the altitude. The volume of a sphere is Vsphere = 4 π r 3. (b) 1000 mm3 = 1 cm3 (c) 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3 (d) 1 litre = 1000 cm3 (e) 1000 litres = 1 m3 3. Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + .6 m3 to litres h 140 000 mm3 to litres c f i 56 000 cm3 to litres 0.

5 mm d Area = 15 cm2 Area = 32 cm2 WORKED 8.0 c m c x 120 mm d – Volume of prism = 10 1 litres 8 cm 21.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 375 WORKED Example 17 3 Find the volume of the following prisms (to 2 decimal places).5 cm Example 4 Find the measurement of the unknown dimension (to 1 decimal place). a b 2 0.728 m3 x b Volume of triangular prism = 1316.2 m c Area = 120 mm2 14. 18 a Volume of cube = 1.4 mm3 3x x WORKED Example 19 5 Find the volume of these pyramids (to the nearest whole unit).1 cm3 x 15 .9 m Area = 1000 cm2 Area = 4.5 m 2. a b c VO = 17m V V VO = 10 cm 35 cm 11 cm 8m O 12 cm 11 cm O 12 m d 4 cm O 4 cm VO = 8 cm V e 12 mm f V VO = 15 cm Altitude of square pyramid = 18 mm O 6 cm Base of pyramid 10 cm 6 cm .4 Volume of cylinder = 150 796.

g Find the depth of water in a swimming pool which has a capacity of 56 000 litres. f Find the height of a triangular prism with a base area of 128 mm2 and volume of 1024 mm3. e Find the height of a cylinder that is 20 cm in diameter with a volume of 2. The pool has rectangular dimensions of 8 metres by 5. where 1 cm3 = 1 mL.376 WORKED Further Mathematics Example 6 Find the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).5 cm long. h Find the radius of an ice-cream cone with a height of 12 cm and a volume of 9.1 m 6m 2.1 m high. 3. Find the volume to the nearest millilitre.425 cm3. b Find the volume of a room. a r= 8c m 20 b 4 cm 7 cm 8 cm c 10 cm 3m 5m 20 cm d 3m e f 1m 2m 10 cm 15 cm 10 cm 2.5 litres (to the nearest unit). c Find the radius of a baseball that has a volume of 125 cm3. 4 cm 5 cm 4m .5 m 6m 4m g 19 m 42 m h 100 mm 60 m 42 m 25 mm 7 a Find the volume of a cube with sides 4. 8 The medicine cup below has the shape of a cone with a diameter of 4 cm and a height of 5 cm (not including the cup’s base). d Find the volume of a square pyramid.5 m by 3 m by 2. 12 cm square and 10 cm high.25 metres.

The operator stands in the middle of an oval. (Give all answers to the nearest whole unit. is best expressed as: A B 4 -3 2 -3 4 -.0 cm3 B 510.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 377 9 Tennis balls have a diameter of 6. ﬁnd: i the surface area of the airspace that the plane can occupy ii the volume of airspace that is needed by the operator for controlling the plane.) a What is the maximum area of the oval occupied by the plane in ﬂight? b If the plane can be manoeuvred in a hemispherical zone.1 cm 14 A model aeroplane is controlled by a tethered string of 10 metres length. is: A 1021. Its volume.1 cm E 4084.5 cm3 C 1021. ﬁnd: a the height of the cylindrical can b the volume of the can (to 1 decimal place) c the volume of the four tennis balls (to 1 decimal place) d the volume of the can occupied by air e the fraction of the can’s volume occupied by the balls.5 cm and are packaged in a cylinder that can hold four tennis balls. to 1 decimal place. c Repeat part b with a new control string length of 15 metres. 10 multiple choice The volume 200 000 mm3 is equivalent to: C 20 cm3 A 2 litres B 2 cm3 11 multiple choice The ratio of the volume of a sphere to that of a cylinder of similar dimensions. then the perimeter of the base is closest to: V A 900 m VO = 20 m B 20 m C 30 m D 80 m O E 120 m 13 multiple choice A tin of fruit is 13 cm high and 10 cm in diameter.4 cm3 3 3 D 1020.r 3 D 200 cm3 E 2000 cm3 r C ---h D E 3 -4 3 -2 r 12 multiple choice If the volume of the square pyramid shown is 6000 m3. Assuming the balls just ﬁt inside a cylinder. . as shown in the diagram.

378 Further Mathematics Maps and similar ﬁgures Maps and scales We often need to refer to maps for specifying locations or for establishing distances between two locations. There are two types of map scales. 1. 1:100 means that 1 unit on the map represents 100 units in real life. In the map below one unit on the map represents 50 000 units. . SCALE 1:50 000 METRES 1000 0 1 2 3 KILOMETRES 2. for example. that is. A measure of the amount of reduction is the map scale. A simple conversion scale where. Maps are a reduction of lengths in real life. A ratio scale where. they have the same shape as the original but are much smaller in size. Kilometres 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Kilometres Converting from one type of map scale to another is shown in the following example. In the map below 1 cm on the map represents 1 km. 1 cm = 100 m means 1 cm on the map represents 100 metres in real life. for example.

5 cm represents 575 km. On a map with a scale of 1 cm = 50 km. THINK WRITE a 1 Rewrite the map scale including the a 1:50 000 unit centimetres. Convert map scale ratio to a conversion scale. 100 Remember 100 cm = 1 m 2500 1 cm = ----------. 7 mm on the map represents 700 m in real life. 1 cm = 500 m b Rewrite the map scale including the unit b 2:25 millimetres. 7 mm = 700 m Write your answer.m appropriate unit of length. 11.5 mm c 1:250 000 c 1 Rewrite the map scale including the 1 cm = 250 000 cm unit centimetres.5 km To ﬁnd the distance represented on a map. for 100 example 100 cm = 1 m.5 cm = 575 km Write your answer.km 1000 m = 1 km 1000 1 cm = 2. Proportion the scale by multiplying b 1 cm = 50 km both sides by 11.5 cm on a map with a scale 1 cm = 50 km.5.m appropriate unit of length. 1 mm = 12.5 × 1 cm = 11. Divide by 2 to reduce to a 2 mm = 25 mm unit. THINK a 1 WRITE 2 3 b 1 2 a 1:100 000 1 mm:100 000 mm 1 mm:100 m A map distance of 7 mm corresponds 7 × 1 mm = 7 × 100 m to an actual distance of 7 times 100 m.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 379 WORKED Example 21 Convert the following map ratio scales: a 1:50 000 to a simple conversion scale with units of centimetres b 2:25 model scale to simple scale with units of millimetres c 1:250 000 to simple scale with units of centimetres. Converting map distances to real-life distances WORKED Example 22 Find the distance in real life represented by: a 7 mm on a map with 1:100 000 scale b 11. . 1 cm: 50 000 cm Convert 50 000 cm to a more 2 50 000 1 cm: --------------. 11. 2 Convert 250 000 cm to a more 250 000 1 cm = -----------------.5 × 50 km 11. use the simple conversion scale and proportion to the desired value as shown in the next two examples.

5 km is represented as 2.25 cm to mm.= ----------. For two ﬁgures to be similar. 0. Similar ﬁgures Two objects that have the same shape but different size are said to be similar. 1 cm = 2000 m x cm = 500 m b 1 b Use 1 cm = 2000 m and divide both sides by 4 to go from 2000 m to 500 m.5 mm = 500 m On a 1:200 000 map.5 to go from 2 km to 5 km and do it with both sides. ∠A = ∠A′ ∠B = ∠B′ ∠C = ∠C′ ∠D = ∠D′ A' A' D' B' 125° 60° B 125° C 60° 85° A D' 85° D . Multiply by 2.= common ratio AB BC CD AD 2.25 cm = 500 m 2. THINK WRITE a 1 Convert ratio scale to a simple conversion scale using an appropriate unit of measure.5 2 3 Write your answer. a 1:200 000 1 cm:200 000 cm 1 cm = 2000 m 1 cm = 2 km × 2.5 cm.= ----------. ÷4 ÷4 2 3 -Convert 1 or 0. 500 m is represented by 2.5 1 cm = 2 km x cm = 5 km 2. they must have the following properties: B' C' B 1 6 2 2 A 1 C' C 3 D 2 1. 4 A′B′ B′C′ C′D′ A′D′ ----------. On a 1:200 000 map. 4 Write your answer.380 Further Mathematics Converting real life distances to map distances WORKED Example 23 On a map with a map ratio scale of 1:200 000. The corresponding angles must be equal.= ----------. ﬁnd the distance that would represent a distance of: a 5 km b 500 m.5 cm = 5 km × 2.5 mm. The ratios of the corresponding sides must be equal.

k is between 0 and 1. k = 2. k A measure of the relative size of the two similar ﬁgures is the scale factor. k is greater than 1 and for reductions. photographs are doubled in size (enlarged). 3 9 9 A 1 C A' 3 C' Enlargements and reductions are important in many aspects of photography. Scale factor. Often. while house plans are an example of a reduction to a scale. Continued over page . map making and modelling. For k = 1. the ﬁgures are exactly the same shape and size and are referred to as congruent. the larger shape is the original and the smaller shape is the image. for example 1:25. fraction or map scale ratios. k. 1.= ----------.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 381 Scale factor. is the amount of enlargement or reduction and is expressed as integers. The starting shape is commonly referred to as the original and the transformed shape as the image. THINK a 1 20 Original cm Image cm 10 x WRITE a As it is a reduction.= ----------. WORKED Example 24 45 cm For the similar shapes shown at right: a ﬁnd the scale factor for the reduction of the shape b ﬁnd the unknown length in the small shape. k = ------------------------------------------.= ----------length of original AB BC CA where for enlargements. For example. Scale factor. The scale factor is the common ratio of the corresponding sides and quantiﬁes the amount of enlargement or reduction one ﬁgure undergoes to transform into the other ﬁgure. k = 1 ----12 B' B or 1:10 000. 3 length of image A′B′ B′C′ C′A′ 2. 3.

k = 1 -2 The two shapes have been stated as being similar. orientate the ﬁgures to identify corresponding sides and angles easily. 50 m THINK a Firstly. k = ---------------------------------------length of original A′B′ = ----------AB 10 cm = -------------20 cm -=1 2 b Scale factor. WRITE a 40° s 100m 270° 30° m 70 30 40° m 30 m m 40° 270° .= -------------2 45 cm -x = 1 × 45 cm 2 x = 22. b 1 Use the scale factor to determine the unknown length as all corresponding lengths are in the same ratio. so set up the scale factor ratio. b Given that the scale factor is 2. ﬁnd the lengths of the two unknown sides s and t. k.5 cm -The scale factor of reduction is 1 and the 2 unknown length on the smaller shape is 22.5 cm. Calculate the missing angles and compare each pair of corresponding angles. 40° s 100m 20° WORKED Example 25 30° 70 t 50 m 30° 20° 20° 30° t 20° Image Original Sum of interior angles = 360° All corresponding angles are equal. a Prove that the ﬁgures given below are similar.382 THINK 2 Further Mathematics WRITE length of image Scale factor. 2 Write your answers. length of image k = ---------------------------------------length of original x 1 -.

A simple conversion scale. ∠A = ∠A′ ∠B = ∠B′ ∠C = ∠C′ ∠D = ∠D′ A' 2 2 C' B 1 6 2 A 1 C' B 125° C 3 D C 60° D' B' 125° 60° 85° A' A D' 85° D Scale factor.= ----------. Scale factor.= ----------. k. 1:100 means that 1 unit on the map represents 100 units in real life. 2. Similar ﬁgures B' For two ﬁgures to be similar. 3. 1 cm = 100 m means 1 cm on the map represents 100 metres in real life. fractions or map scale ratios.or 1:10 000. the original is the smaller ﬁgure. 2 remember remember Maps and scales Map scales can be stated as: 1. is the amount of enlargement or reduction and is expressed as 1 integers. A ratio scale.= ----------. Scale factor. k 1. Set up the scale factor ratio for each of the two sides. For k = 1. B' B 3 3 9 9 A1C A' 3 C' . k is greater than 1 and for reductions.= common ratio AB BC CD AD 2. 12 length of image A′B′ B′C′ C′A′ 2.= ----------. the ﬁgures are exactly the same shape and size and are referred to as congruent. The corresponding angles must be equal. For example. The ratios of the corresponding sides must be equal.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 383 THINK b 1 WRITE length of image b Scale factor. k = ---------------------------------------. for example k = 2. A′B′ B′C′ C′D′ A′D′ ----------. k is between 0 and 1. they must have the following properties: 4 1. For example.= ----------.= ----------length of original AB BC CA where for enlargements. k = ----. k = ---------------------------------------length of original s For s 2 = ----------30 m s = 2 × 30 m = 60 m 70 m For t 2 = ----------t 70 m t = ----------2 = 35 m As the scale factor given is for enlargements.

Scale factor 22 e 17 cm on a 1:20 000 map WORKED Example 3 State the distance on a map for each of the following: a 4 km on a 1:100 000 map c 100 km on a 1:200 000 map b 750 m on a 1:25 000 map d 25 m on a 1:500 map f 12 km on a 1:750 000 map.5 km map c 8 mm on a 1 mm = 100 m map b 8.5 cm on a 1 cm = 200 m map d 13 cm on a 1:750 000 map f 25 mm on a 1:200 000 map.384 Further Mathematics 8E WORKED Maps and similar ﬁgures Example 21 1 Convert the following map ratio scales to simple conversion scales with cm as the unit of measure. ﬁnd: i the scale factor a 200 cm y cm 24 ii the value of x and y. 23 e 300 m on a 1:150 000 map WORKED Example 4 For each of these pairs of similar shapes. b x cm 50 50 70 1m 25 metres x cm 4m 20 cm 2c m c m d 8 cm y mm 42 mm 8c y cm 63 mm x cm 4 cm x 7 mm 21 mm y cm . a 1:500 000 d 2:40 000 b 1:1000 e 1:1 750 000 c f 1:125 000 1:500 Mat d hca WORKED Example 2 State the real-life distance represented on a map for each of the following: a 22 cm on a 1 cm = 1.

5 12 40 mm 30 10 16 Photo 6 A photo has the dimensions 10 cm by 12 cm. Find: a the length of a real car if the model is 20 cm long (in metres to 1 decimal place) b the height of a real car if the model is 3 cm high (to the nearest centimetre) c the length of a model if the real car is 3 metres long. c Find the straight-line distances between: i McLeod and Thomas ii McLeod and Clowes iii Sharpe and Thomas. Rom e Parry Danby 9 The map at right uses a line scale. The photo is enlarged by a factor of 2. West Sea 0 a Clowes KILOMETRES 10 20 30 Riv er Sharpe 40 McLeod Gold mine Coal mine Copper mine Silver mine . a Convert the line scale to a simple conversion scale. a b m 1 m – 82 a 45° 60° 30° 24 cm 15° mm 17 17 36 c cm m mm 22 30° 48 cm a 41 cm 60° 15° 38 cm 45° 37 cm c 62 mm d 24 33° 32 a° Height of person = 186 cm 40 7. 7 Most scale model cars are in the ratio 1:12. An appropriate scale to draw a scale diagram on an A4 sheet is 1:20. Thomas N Badger Find the dimensions of the scale drawing of the Blazing room and state whether er Riv the drawing should be DAVIS LAND Temple landscape or portrait on e pl Tem the A4 sheet.5. b State the map scale ratio.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 385 WORKED Example 25 5 Prove that the following pairs are similar ﬁgures and ﬁnd the value of a. Find the new dimensions of the photo. 8 The dimensions of a student’s room are 4300 mm by 3560 mm.

SCALE 1:1 000 000 N 2750 m Kantar r ve Ri Martina Paxton Stuckley Sea Shelly Beach Reneton Foster Plains Baletta BRAMBLETOWN Snake Riv er River Bolivia Sw 3014 m Jewel Ross Charleston Goldern Sea ing 1253 m Newbury Markham a b c d e From Brambletown to Ross in a straight line From Charleston to Markham in a straight line From Shelly Beach to Baletta in a straight line From Charleston to Ross in a straight line From Charleston to Ross via the roads.28 cm E 150 cm 13 multiple choice 4 cm 2 cm A 1:27 scale model of a truck is made from clay.2 is: A a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 2 cm B an enlargement with a scale of 1 cm = 0. 12 multiple choice The perimeter of the real object shown in the scale diagram of 1:25 is: A 464 cm B 514 cm C 357 cm D 14.386 Further Mathematics 10 Find the distance between the following pairs of locations in the map (to the nearest kilometre).) 11 Using the map from question 10. (Hint: Use a length of string to measure the distance.2 cm C an enlargement with a scale of 1 cm = 5 cm D a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 5 cm E a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 20 cm . state which town(s) is/are within 15 kilometres of Brambletown. What is the length of the tray on the original truck. if it is 27 cm length on the model? A 1 cm B 100 cm C 270 cm D 540 cm E 729 cm 14 multiple choice A scale factor of 0.

5 3. x.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of corresponding side of original OA WORKED Example 26 For the similar triangles in the diagram. 4 3 2 6 sf = 6 -3 = 4 -2 =2 As in the previous section. All three corresponding pairs 1 of sides are in the same ratio (linear scale factor) (SSS). OA′ length of side of image Scale factor. 2 3 2 6 4 sf = 1 -2 = 2 -4 = 3 -6 = 0. Two corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio and the included angles are equal (SAS). k = --------.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 387 Similar triangles Similar triangles can be used to ﬁnd the height of trees and buildings or widths of rivers and mountains. ﬁnd a the scale factor b the value of the pronumeral. we use the known values of a pair of corresponding sides to determine the scale factor for the similar triangles. All three corresponding angles are equal (AAA). The third angle is not given but use the rule that all angles in a triangle sum to 180°. 2. One extra rule can be used to identify similar triangles to those mentioned for similar shapes in the previous section. B' 6 30° 100° x Image 50° C' Continued over page . Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions is identiﬁed: 1. THINK a 1 A B 4 100° 30° 6 B' C A ' 6 30° 100° x C' WRITE a A B Original 4 100° 30° 50° C 6 A' Identify that the two triangles are similar because they have equal angles (AAA).

= 1. This conclusion is supported by the parallel lines shown and using corresponding law and common angle.0 3. Original C A 5 7. 0 m Conﬁrm that the two triangles are similar because they have equal angles (AAA). is 9 units. k = 1. x. ﬁnd the value of the pronumeral.5 b 1 Use the scale factor to ﬁnd the unknown length.5 = ----------AC x 1. WORKED Example 27 For the given similar triangles.5 m AE = (7 + x) m .5 = -6 x = 1. as the image. ∠A.5 × 6 x=9 The scale factor is 1. Evaluate the scale factor by selecting a pair of corresponding sides from the two triangles with known lengths. Transpose and evaluate.5 A′C′ 1. length of side of image k = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of corresponding side of original A′B′ = ----------AB = 6 -4 Always select the triangle with the unknown length.5 and the unknown length.0 + 3. AD = 4.5 B D C A x E 7 All measurements in m THINK 1 WRITE B 4. x. x. b Scale factor. 7m m D Image E A 2 (7 + x) m For clear analysis separate the two triangles. 2 Write answer in the correct units and level of accuracy. x. Note that the lengths of the sides AE and AD are the sum of the given values. 4.388 THINK 2 Further Mathematics WRITE Scale factor.5 = 7.

This conclusion is supported by parallel lines.875 = ------AC 7+x 1.875 × 7 = 7 + x 13. It is particularly useful for determining the lengths of inaccessible features such as the height of tall trees or the widths of rivers.0 k = 1.5 = -----4. WRITE Scale factor. 8 4 Use the scale factor to ﬁnd the unknown length.875 Scale factor. There are many practical applications of similar triangles in the real world. 's un ray s Girl (168 cm) THINK 1 WRITE Original 168 cm 140 cm xm 14 metres Conﬁrm that the two triangles are similar because they have equal angles (AAA). Give the answer to 1 decimal place.125 = 7 + x x = 13. length of side of image k = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of corresponding side of original AE 1. length of side of image k = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of corresponding side of original AD = ------AB 7. This problem is overcome by setting up a triangle similar to the feature to be examined.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 389 THINK 3 Select as the image the triangle with the unknown length. Transpose and evaluate. Evaluate the scale factor by selecting a pair of corresponding sides from the two triangles with known lengths. WORKED Example 28 S Shadow (140 cm) Find the height of the tree shown in the diagram at right.125 − 7 x = 6. 5 Write answer in the correct units and level of accuracy. as shown in the next example. assuming the tree and the girl are perpendicular to the ground and using corresponding law and common angle.125 -The value of x is 6 1 metres. Image 14 m Continued over page . ∠A.875 = ----------7 1.

3 2 2 4 6 sf = 1 — 2 = 2 — 4 = 3 — 6 = 0.68 x 10 = --------1.5 (c) Two corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio and the included angles are equal (SAS). Scale factor. 4 5 remember remember Similar triangles length of side of image OA′ 1. (b) All three corresponding pairs of sides are in the 1 same ratio (linear scale factor) (SSS). k = -----------------------------------------------------height of girl (original) 14 x k = -----.4 1.8 m Height of the tree is 16.68 x = 10 × 1.8 metres. preferably in metres. Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions is identiﬁed: (a) All three corresponding angles are equal (AAA). 8 3 6 4 . k = --------. Transpose and evaluate.390 THINK 2 3 Further Mathematics WRITE For clear analysis separate the two triangles. Note: All measurements should be in the same units. Write answer in the correct units. Evaluate the scale factor by selecting a pair of corresponding sides from the two triangles with known lengths. height of tree (image) Scale factor. Select the triangle with the unknown length as the image.68 = 16.= --------1.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of corresponding side of original OA 2.

5 WORKED Example 26b 2 For the given similar triangles.2 m 240 mm 25° m m 80 4 4.6 5 0 64 m 9.6 320 25° 5.5 e 10. a b c 6 a 3 12 8 a 12 2 10 .5 7. a b c mm 4.2 9 d 1 0 7.4 m 38° 75 cm cm 25 56° mm 56° 38° a 71° 7 d 12 a 14 16 8 e 6 4 3.4 8.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 391 8F WORKED Similar triangles Example 26a 1 State the rule (SSS or AAA or SAS) that proves the pair of triangles are similar and determine the scale factor (expressed as an enlargement k > 1). a.2 12 9 x a x 9.5 a 4.5 11 . 0. ﬁnd the value of the pronumeral.5 14 7 2 Cabri Geom 3 4 3.5 mm 62° 15 mm 62° 62° 20 etry 62° 1 m am 5m 12 m am 45 cm Similar triangles 59 cm 14.5 f 10. ﬁnd the value of the pronumeral.5 .8 x x 67° WORKED Example 27 3 For the given similar triangles.6 f 6 a 13 7.8 10 4. a. a b c 22.

6 m ET SHE 8. Assume the ball travels in a straight line.9 m 5m 10 m E 1.3 m 5 Find the length of the bridge. needed to span the river.1 m 0.2 10 multiple choice The height of the player.5 m 4.5 m D 1.2 a am 68 m m 10 m 80° 2 mm 8m 43 WORKED 14 Example 28 4 Find the height of the ﬂagpole shown in the diagram at right (to the nearest centimetre). A young tennis player’s serve is shown in the diagram. y. 2 e 17 m 18 m f 80° 32 4m a 17. Guy wire 0.6 12 Lake A 25 m 2m 1. the length of side b is closest to: A 24 B 22 C 16 D 15 E 9. 9 multiple choice The height of the ball just as it is hit. what is the height of the tree? 7 Find the width of the lake (to the nearest metre) using these surveyor’s notes at right.8 m Work 1.9 m 1m 9m B (Not to scale All measurement are in metres) 2.6 m B 2. x. 6 The shadow of a tree is 4 metres and at the same time the shadow of a 1 metre stick is 25 cm.392 Further Mathematics d 15. as shown is closest to: A 190 cm B 180 cm C 170 cm D 160 cm E 150 cm y x 16 Not to scale 20 . AB . Assuming both the tree and stick are perpendicular to the horizontal ground.7 m C 2.2 m B b Questions 9 and 10 refer to the following information.5 m A 12. 8 multiple choice In the given diagram. using similar triangles as shown (to the nearest decimetre). is closest to: A 3.

= ----------. We have seen that two ﬁgures that are similar have all corresponding lengths in the same ratio or (linear) scale factor. area of image Area scale ratio or factor (asf) = ----------------------------------area of original = square of linear scale factor (lsf) = (lsf)2 = k2 .= 2 = k length of red square 1 cm area of blue square 4 cm 2 -------------------------------------------. k. Area of similar ﬁgures If the lengths of similar ﬁgures are in the ratio a:b or k.= ----------.= 2 = k radius length of red circle 1 cm 1 cm 3 cm Area = πr 2 = 1π cm2 area of blue circle 4 π cm 2 -----------------------------------------.= ------------.= ------------. Different length ratios (or scale factors) of a square length of blue square 2 cm ------------------------------------------------. as long as two ﬁgures are similar then the area ratio or scale factor is the square of the linear scale factor.= 3 = k radius length of red circle 1 cm 3 cm Area = π r 2 = 9π cm2 area of green circle 9 π cm 2 --------------------------------------------.= 4 = 2 2 = k 2 area of red circle 1 π cm 2 2 cm Area = π r 2 = 4π cm2 radius length of green circle 3 cm --------------------------------------------------------------------. k.= ----------.= ----------------. then the areas of the similar shapes are in the ratio a2:b2 or k2.= 4 = 2 2 = k 2 area of red square 1 cm 2 length of green square 3 cm ---------------------------------------------------.= ----------------.= ----------. Following are investigations to support this relationship.= 9 = 3 2 = k 2 area of red circle 1 π cm 2 From above.= 3 = k length of red square 1 cm area of green square 9 cm 2 ----------------------------------------------.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 393 Area and volume scale factors An unknown area or volume of a ﬁgure can be found without the need to use known formulas such as in exercises 8B and 8D.= 9 = 3 2 = k 2 area of red square 1 cm 2 3 cm Area = 9 cm2 1 cm Area = 1 cm2 1 cm 2 cm Area = 4 cm2 2 cm Different length ratios (or scale factors) of a circle 2 cm radius length of blue circle -----------------------------------------------------------------. The same can be shown for the area and volume of two similar ﬁgures. The same applies for the total surface area.

x cm2. 2 Determine the area scale factor. Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown. . WORKED Example 30 For the two similar shapes shown. It is preferred that the -=1 unknown triangle is the image. as both areas are known. It is preferred that the triangle with the unknown is stated as the image. 4.8 cm THINK 1 WRITE 2. 2. Transpose the equation to get unknown by itself. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length. in this Linear scale factor = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------length of large triangle (original) instance the linear scale factor.4 cm from the two corresponding lengths k = --------------4. ﬁnd the unknown length.394 Further Mathematics The steps required to solve for length. area or volume (investigated later) using similarity are: 1. area or volume) of the similar shape. Area = x Area = 100 cm2 4. in this instance the area scale factor. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement. Write your answer. x cm. area or volume) using known measurements. 3. WORKED Example 29 For the 2 similar triangles shown. Establish a scale factor (linear. Area scale factor = k2 = = 1 2 - 2 1 -4 3 Use the area scale factor to ﬁnd the unknown area.4 cm 2 length of small triangle (image) Determine a scale factor.8 cm given. ﬁnd the area. 2. THINK 1 x 2 cm 10 cm 2 250 cm 2 WRITE area of image (large trapezium) Area scale factor = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------area of original (small trapezium) 250 cm 2 k2 = ------------------10 cm 2 = 25 Determine a scale factor. 4 5 area of small triangle (image) Area scale factor = ------------------------------------------------------------------------area of large triangle (original) x cm 2 1 -.= ------------------4 100 cm 2 -x = 1 × 100 4 x = 25 The area of the small triangle is 25 cm2. of the small triangle.

= 2 = k length of small (red) cube 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm = 1 cm 3 volume of large cube 8 cm 2 --------------------------------------------------. is 10 cm. Write your answer. volume of image Volume scale factor (vsf) = ------------------------------------------volume of original = cube of linear scale factor (lsf) = (lsf)3 = k3 cm 3 3 Volume = 1×1×3 = 3 cm3 1 cm 1 cm Volume = 2×2×6 = 24 cm3 2 cm 2 cm 3 cm 6 cm . Determine the linear scale factor. 4 5 Volume of similar ﬁgures If the lengths of similar ﬁgures are in the ratio a:b or k.= ----------.= k length of large prism 6 cm 2 volume of small prism 3 1 1 ----------------------------------------------------.= -. k. x.= -.= ------------. then the volume of the similar shapes are in the ratio a3:b3 or k3. 3 Use the linear scale factor to ﬁnd the unknown length. Volume = 1 × 1 × 1 A cube length of large (blue) cube 2 cm -------------------------------------------------------------.= -- = k 3 2 volume of large prism 8 24 cm 3 From above. cubes and rectangular prisms.= ----------. Transpose the equation to get unknown by itself.= 8 = 2 3 = k 3 volume of small cube 1 cm 2 Volume = 2×2×2 = 8 cm3 2 cm 2 cm 2 cm A rectangular prism length of small prism 3 cm 1 -------------------------------------------------. The following is an investigation of two different objects. as long as two ﬁgures are similar then the volume ratio or scale factor is the cube of the linear scale factor.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 395 THINK 2 WRITE Linear scale factor = k2 k = 25 k=5 length of image (large trapezium) Linear scale factor = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------length of original (small trapezium) x cm 5 = ----------2 cm x=5×2 x = 10 The length.= ---------------.

Write your answer. Given linear scale factor (lsf) = k For example: =2 2. We can use the relationship between linear. Volume of large cone = 540 cm3 6 cm 9 cm THINK 1 WRITE Volume = 540 cm3 Separate the two ﬁgures to clarify the details of the similar ﬁgures. volume of small cone (image) Volume scale factor = -------------------------------------------------------------------------volume of large cone (original) x cm 3 8 ----.396 Further Mathematics WORKED Example 31 For the two similar ﬁgures shown. 6 The volume of the smaller cone is 160 cm3. in this instance the linear scale factor. Determine the volume scale factor. Given volume scale factor (vsf) = k3 linear scale factor = For example: =8 k= 8 =2 . ﬁnd the volume of the smaller cone. 1. area and volume scale factors to ﬁnd any unknown in any pair of similar ﬁgures as long as a scale factor can be established. It is preferred that the unknown triangle is the image.× 540 27 x = 160 5 Transpose the equation to get the unknown by itself.= ------------------27 540 cm 3 8 x = ----. 6 cm 9 cm Volume = x cm3 2 Determine a scale factor. length of small triangle (image) Linear scale factor = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------length of large triangle (original) 6 cm k = ----------9 cm = 2 -3 3 Volume scale factor = k3 k= k= 2 3 - 3 8 ----27 4 Use the volume scale factor to ﬁnd the unknown length. from the two corresponding lengths given. Given =4 volume scale factor = k2 area scale factor = k2 = 22 = 4 = 23 = 8 k 2 area scale factor (asf) = k2 linear scale factor = k= 3 3 volume scale factor = k3 = 23 = 8 area scale factor = k2 = 22 = 4 For example: 4 =2 k 3 3.

k3 = k 3 4 5 Transpose the equation to get unknown by itself. change volume scale factor to linear and then to area scale factor. Determine the area scale factor. For ease of calculation. Use the area scale factor to ﬁnd the total surface area. 2. if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 2. in this instance the volume scale factor. 4. ﬁnd the total surface area of the larger triangular prism. Area scale factors area of image Area scale ratio or factor (asf) = ----------------------------------area of original = square of linear scale factor (lsf) = k2 Volume scale factor volume of image Volume scale ratio or factor (vsf) = ------------------------------------------volume of original = cube of linear scale factor (lsf) = k3 . 3.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 397 For two similar triangular prisms with volumes of 64 m3 and 8 m3. from the two known volumes. THINK 1 WORKED Example 32 WRITE volume of larger prism (image) Volume scale factor = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------volume of smaller prism (original) 64 m 3 k3 = ------------8 m3 k3 = 8 Linear scale factor = 3 2 Determine a scale factor.5 x = 10 The total surface area of the larger triangular prism is 10 m2. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement. Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown. area or volume) using known pairs of measurements.5 m 2 x = 4 × 2. Write your answer. remember remember Area and volume scale factors The steps required to solve for length. area or volume) of the similar shape. It is preferred that the larger unknown triangular prism is stated as the image. area or volume using similarity are: 1. Establish a scale factor (linear. k= 3 8 =2 Area scale factor = k2 = 22 =4 area of larger prism (image) Area scale factor = -------------------------------------------------------------------------area of smaller prism (original) x m2 4 = --------------2.5 m2. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length.

16 400 WORKED Example 29 2 Find the unknown area of the following pairs of similar ﬁgures.027 36 0. i ii 25 cm xm Area = 6. Area and volume scale factors Linear scale factors k 2 3 125 100 64 0. a b 12 cm2 cm 48 15 mm 22.7 m Area = 2 1.1 100 0.5 mm 7m 2m x m2 122.0 m Area = 750 cm2 x 8c Area = 3000 cm2 540 mm2 m .5 m 2 x cm2 x mm2 c d 21 mm 14 mm Surface area = 100 mm2 Surface area = x mm2 WORKED Example 30 3 a Find the unknown length of the following pairs of similar ﬁgures.25 m2 1.398 Further Mathematics 8G Mat Area and volume scale factors Area scale factors k2 16 Volume scale factors k3 8 d hca 1 Complete the following table of values.

ﬁnd the total surface area of the baseball if the basketball has a total surface area of 1963.25 litres (to the nearest quarter of a litre). The smaller photo has a width of 6 cm.5 m2. d For 2 similar kitchen mixing bowls with total surface areas of 1500 cm2 and 3375 cm2. Find the same length in the smaller block.5 hectares and 2 hectares. a b Volume of small pyramid x cm3 7 cm = 40 cm3 2400 cm 3 14 cm 12 cm 2 cm c d 45 cm Volume = 1200 cm3 Volume of large sphere = 8 litres WORKED 30 cm Example 32 5 a For the 2 similar triangular pyramids with volumes of 27 m3 and 3 m3. c Two photographs have areas of 48 cm2 and 80 cm2. ﬁnd the total surface area of the larger triangular prism if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 1. Area = 45 cm2 triangular pyramid Area = 5 cm2 TSA of small pyramid = 200 cm2 Volume of small pyramid = 1000 cm3 TSA of large pyramid = 288 cm2 Volume of large cone = 270 cm3 . b For a baseball with diameter of 10 cm and a basketball with a diameter of 25 cm. c For a 14 inch car tyre and 20 inch truck tyre that are similar. ﬁnd the volume (to the nearest litre) of the truck tyre if the car tyre has a volume of 70 litres.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 399 b Two similar trapezium-shaped strips of land have an area of 0.5 cm2. ﬁnd the capacity of the larger bowl if the smaller bowl has a capacity of 1. WORKED Example 31 4 Find the unknown volume in the following pairs of similar objects. The larger block has a distance of 50 metres between the parallel sides. 6 a Find the volume of the b Find the volume of the larger small cone. Find the width of the larger photo.

a What is the area of the plan? b Express the drawing scale as a linear scale factor. ﬁnd the actual area of the bungalow (in m2 to 2 decimal places). d What is the area scale factor (k2)? 10 cm 5 cm 12 cm 8 cm .400 Further Mathematics c Find total surface area of the small prism Area = 12 cm2 TSA = 78 cm2 d Find the diameter of the small cylinder. 12 cm x cm Area = 6 cm2 TSA = x cm2 Volume = 1280 cm3 Volume = 20 cm3 7 A plan of a holiday bungalow has a scale of 1 cm = 50 cm. c Using similarity.

The ratio of volume of the model to the real truck is: A 1:3 B 3:1 C 1:9 D 1:729 E 1:19 683 19 multiple choice The ratio of the volume of the blue portion to the volume of the red portion is: A 1:3 B 1:8 C 1:9 D 1:26 E 1:27 h 3h 20 multiple choice A 1:100 scale model of a building is a cube with sides of 100 cm. How much paint would be needed for the actual car (in litres to 1 decimal place)? 12 Find the ratios of the volume of 2 cubes whose sides are in the ratio of 3:4. TSA of large cone = 840 cm2 11 A 1:12 scale model of a car is created from plaster and painted.5 m3.2 mm and 4. a If the actual car has a volume of 3. What is the area of its representation on a map drawn to scale of 1 cm = 5 km? 14 Two statutes of a famous person used 500 cm3 and 1. ﬁnd the amount of plaster needed for the model to the nearest litre. 10 Find the total surface area of the small cone as given in the diagram. 17 A cone is half-ﬁlled with ice-cream. What is the ratio of: a the lengths of their edges? b the total surface area? 16 The radius of one sphere is equal to the diameter of another sphere. The smaller statue stood 15 cm tall.5 litres of clay.8 mm? 9 Find the volume ratios from the similar shapes given in question 8. Find the ratio of the small sphere to the large sphere: a for total surface area b for volume. What is the height of the other statue (to the nearest centimetre)? 15 The ratio of the volume of two cubes is 27:8. The volume of the real building is: B 1 000 000 m3 C 100 000 m3 A 10 000 000 m3 3 3 D 10 000 m E 1000 m .Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 401 8 What is the area ratio of: a two similar squares with side lengths of 3 cm and 12 cm? b two similar circles with diameters of 9 m and 12 m? c two similar regular pentagons with sides of 16 cm and 20 cm? d two similar right-angled triangles with bases of 7. 13 An island in the Paciﬁc Ocean has an area of 500 km2. b The model needed 25 millilitres of paint. What is the ratio of ice cream to empty space? 18 multiple choice A 1:27 scale model of a truck is made from clay.

• The TSAs of some common objects are as follows: 1. such as the diagram at right. Area of trapezium: A = 1 (a + b) × h 2 5. Total surface area (TSA) • Total surface area (TSA) is measured in mm2. pyramids and spheres • Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object. • Carefully consider geometric rules. Equal sides Area and perimeter • Perimeter is the distance around a closed ﬁgure. • Carefully interpret geometric notations. . m2. cm3 (or cc) and m3. Area of a triangle: A = 1 × b × h 2 • Area of composite ﬁgure = sum of the individual common ﬁgures Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . Cubes: TSA = 6l2 2. . Area of a rectangle: A = l × w 3. Cylinders: TSA = 2π r(r + h) 4. Volume of prisms. cm2. form their nets and establish the total surface area formulas. 1. Area of a square: A = l 2 2. 1000 mm3 = 1 cm3 2.402 Further Mathematics summary Properties of angles. km2 and hectares. 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3 3. Area of a parallelogram: A = b × h -4. 1 litre = 1000 cm3 4. Area of a circle: A = π r 2 -6. m2 and km2. Cones: TSA = π r(r + s) where s is the slant height 5. • Circumference is the perimeter of a circle. • 1 cm2 = 10 mm × 10 mm = 100 mm2 1 m2 = 100 cm × 100 cm = 10 000 cm2 1 km2 = 1000 m × 1000 m = 1 000 000 m2 1 hectare = 10 000 m2 • Area of shapes commonly encountered are: 1. triangles and polygons • Draw careful diagrams. Cuboids: TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh) 3. C = 2 × π × radius = 2π r • Area is measured in mm2. cm2. Spheres: TSA = 4π r 2 • For all other objects. such as isosceles triangles have 2 equal sides and angles. 1000 litres = 1 m3 . • The units of volume are mm3.

. for example 1 cm = 100 m. • Volume of a sphere is Vsphere = πr3 • Volume of a composite object = sum of the individual common prisms. SCALE 1:50 000 METRES 1000 0 1 2 3 KILOMETRES • A simple conversion scale. for example 1:100.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 403 • Volume of a prism. . or Vcomposite = V1 − V2 . means 1 cm on the map represents 100 metres in real life. Vprism = area of uniform cross-section × height V=A×H • Volume of a pyramid. Vpyramid = V= 1 -3 1 -3 × area of cross-section at the base × height ×A×H 4 -3 • The height of a pyramid. means that 1 unit on the map represents 100 units in real life. . pyramids or spheres. H. Maps and scales • Ratio scale. is sometimes call the altitude. . Kilometres 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Kilometres . Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + .

Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown.= ----------. Area and volume scale factors • The steps required to solve for length.= ----------. area or volume using similarity are: 1. • For k = 1. k is between 0 and 1. area or volume) of the similar shapes.= ----------. Establish a scale factor (linear.= ----------length of original AB AB BC CA where for enlargements. 3. the ﬁgures are exactly the same shape and size and are referred to as congruent. 4. All 3 corresponding angles are equal (AAA). A' 2 2 C' B 1 6 2 A 1 C' B 125° C 3 D C D' A′B′ B′C′ C′D′ A′D′ ----------. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length. B' B 3 3 9 9 A1C A' 3 C' Similar triangles • Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions is identiﬁed: 1.404 Further Mathematics Similar ﬁgures B' • Two objects that have the same shape but different size are said to be similar. All 3 corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio (linear scale factor) (SSS). Two corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio and the included angles are equal (SAS).= ----------. k length of image A′B′ A′B′ B′C′ C′A′ • Scale factor.= ----------. they must have the following properties: (a) The ratios of the corresponding sides must be equal. 4 • For 2 ﬁgures to be similar. 2.= common ratio AB BC CD AD (b) The corresponding angles are equal. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement. area or volume) using known pairs of measurements. Area scale factor area of image • Area scale ratio or factor (asf) = ----------------------------------area of original = square of linear scale factor (lsf) = k2 Volume scale factor volume of image • Volume scale ratio or factor (vsf) = ------------------------------------------volume of original = cube of linear scale factor (lsf) = k3 . ∠A = ∠A′ ∠B = ∠B′ ∠C = ∠C′ ∠D = ∠D′ B' 125° 60° 60° 85° A' A D' 85° D Scale factor.= ----------. 2. k is greater than 1 and for reductions. k = ---------------------------------------. 3.

x is: A 32° B 58° C 68° D 90° E none of the above 8A 32° x° 2 A triangle LABC has the following values given. An appropriate name for the object is: A rectangular prism B rectangular pyramid C triangular prism D triangular pyramid E trapezium prism 6 The volume of a sphere with a diameter of 15 cm is closest to: A 560π cm3 B 900π cm3 C 4500π cm3 3 3 D 4500π cm E 36 000π cm 7 The volume of the composite object. AB = 10 cm. AC = 12 cm where AB and AC are perpendicular.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 405 CHAPTER review Multiple choice 1 For the triangle shown in a semicircle. The area of the triangle is A 120 cm2 B 30 cm2 C 240 cm2 D 121 cm2 E 60 cm2 3 The area of the kitchen bench shown in the plan is closest to: A 1250π + 19 600 cm2 B 1250π + 37 600 cm2 C 1250π + 29 600 cm2 D 2500π + 29 600 cm2 E 30 100 cm2 220 80 All measurements in cm 50 200 8B 8B 4 The total surface area of a closed cylinder with a radius of 40 cm and a height of 20 cm is given by: A 2 × π × 20 × (40) B 2 × π × 40 × (40) C 2 × π × 40 × (100) D 2 × π × 40 × (60) E 2 × π × 20 × (60) 5 The net of an object is shown in the diagram. given that VO = 10 cm is closest to: A 1000 cm3 B 1300 cm3 C 1500 cm3 D 2000 cm3 E 10 000 cm3 8C 8C 8D V 8D O .

= ----------6 x 6 x–6 -.6 c 7.= ----------4 x 6 x 4 . which is closest to: A 67 cm B 45 cm C 34 cm D 30 cm 34 cm 51 cm E 26 cm 6 6-x 8F 12 The diagram at right shows the path of a pool ball into the middle pocket of a 12 by 6 billiard table. To achieve this.= ----------4 x 12 6–x ----. then a similar 34 cm television has a height. the expression for the value of x is: A B C D E 6 6–x -.= ----------4 x 4 6–x -. the value of c is: A 3 B 6 C 9 D 12 E 4 10 The circumference of the larger cone is closest to: A B C D E 113 mm 151 mm 226 mm 302 mm 459 mm h cm 24 mm 189 mm 63 mm 3 2.8 8E 45 cm 12 8F 11 The diagonal distance on the television screen is used to specify the different sizes available. If the height on a 51 cm television is 45 cm.= ----------6 x 6 2+x -.406 8E 8E Further Mathematics 8 A map ratio scale of 1:150 000 expressed as a simple conversion scale is: A 1 cm = 15 m B 1 cm = 150 m C 1 cm = 1500 m D 1 mm = 1. h.5 km E 1 cm = 15 km 9 In the triangle shown.

c Calculate the total surface area of the object. ﬁnd the value of the pronumeral. b Transfer the units appropriately to the net from part a. 4 6m 8C 4m 5m 3m 6m a What is the volume contained by the solid and framed sections (to 1 decimal place)? b What is the volume of the solid part only? 10 m . The ratio of the volume of water to air is: A B C D E 1:27 1:26 27:1 1:9 1:3 8G Short answer 1 For each of the ﬁgures. a b a c b 40° c a b 8A 2 Find the outer perimeter and area of the ﬂower. r = 11 mm 8B r = 22 mm 3 For the triangular prism: a Sketch an appropriate net for the given solid prism. The width (w) of her view of a mountain range 1 kilometre from her window is (to the nearest metre): A B C D E 1002 metres 1000 metres 499 metres 501 metres 500 metres w 1m 2m 1000 m 14 The large cone is ﬁlled to one-third of its height with water as shown.Chapter 8 Geometry: similarity and mensuration 407 8F 13 Jennifer is standing 2 metres directly in front of her bedroom window which is 1 metre wide.

The ladders are 2 metres and 3 metres long. Find the distance represented on the plan. How high is the water level in the cylinder? 6 A plan of a region is to the scale 1:200 000. a Find the diameter of the cylindrical block of clay (to 2 decimal places).5 cm 6 cm 6 cm 5 cm CHAPTER test yourself 8 4 It is decided that another silo.408 8D 8E Further Mathematics 5 The dimensions of a rectangular prism tub are 30 cm by 20 cm by 15 cm.4 km. b The distance between the ﬁre station and the local airport is 2. 6m Analysis A rectangular block of modelling clay has dimensions of 30 cm by 20 cm by 10 cm.14 cm2. a If the distance on the map between 2 towns is 27 mm. Express your answer to the nearest cubic metre. a Find the volume of clay needed to make a scale model grain silo (to 1 decimal place).1 metres up the wall. c What fraction of the volume needs to be removed to turn the cylindrical block into a cone with the same diameter and height? 3 Clay is moulded to the shape at right to represent a 1:100 scale model of a grain silo. If the taller ladder reaches 2. 7 Two ladders are placed against the wall at the same angle. A family on the beach make the measurements as shown in the diagram at right. is to be built. c What is the total surface area of the clay? 2 The entire block of clay is remoulded to a shape of a cylinder with a height of 30 cm. half the size of the silo in question 3. The tub is ﬁlled completely with water and then transferred into a cylinder tank that is 10 cm in radius and 40 cm tall. c What is the ratio of the volume of model to the volume of the actual grain silo? d If the scale model has a total surface area of 143. ﬁnd the total surface area of the actual silo. b Find the actual volume of the grain silo. How far is it to the yacht (to the nearest metre)? 10 m 1 m 8F 8F 8G 9 A plan is drawn to scale of 1:50 000. Find: a the length in centimetres on the plan that represents 1 km b the area in hectares of a region represented by 4 cm2 on the plan c the area on the plan of a region of 25 hectares. 4. ﬁnd the actual distances between the towns. how far up will the second ladder reach (to 1 decimal place)? 8 A yacht is an unknown distance from the shore. 1 a What is the volume of the block of clay? b Express in litres your answer from question 1 a. b Find the new total surface area of the clay when moulded as a cylinder (to nearest cm2). What fraction will this smaller silo be in volume compared to the larger silo? .

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