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# 4.

**BASIC OUTLINES OF PROPELLER DESIGN
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Propellers are designed to absorb minimum power and to give maximum efficiency, minimum cavitation and minimum hull vibration characteristics. The above objectives can be achieved in the following stages: 1. Basic design 2. Wake adaptation 3. Design analysis

**a) Propeller Design Basis
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The term propeller design basis refers to: i. ii. iii. Power Rotational speed Ship speed.

that are chosen to act as the basis for the design of the principal propeller geometric features. Resistance and Power Estimation A ship owner usually requires that the ship will achieve an average speed in service condition (fouled hull in full displacement and rough weather), VSERVICE, at a certain engine power. Initial acceptance will be the basis of demonstration of a higher speed on trial condition (clean ship usually in light displacement), VTRIAL, at some power, i.e. VTRIAL = VSERVICE + δV where δV is the speed increase due to the fouled hull, rough weather and other effects, and is usually taken as 1 knot. PESERVICE = (1 + x) PETRIAL where (1+x) is the sea margin that the ship resistance is increased usually by 10 to 20% in average service conditions.

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Known power (PD). On these diagrams optimum η0 and δ are read off at the intersection of known Bp value on the optimum efficiency line. Known power (PD). diameter (D) and advanced velocity (VA) Nopt(required) If the resistance values of the ship are available. can be used in five design options as: Known variables 1. can be eliminated from the diagrams by plotting KQ/J5 versus J instead of KQ vs J. Dopt is then calculated. Known thrust (T).5 = B p 5 2πρV A VA = Q ND 5 QN 3 ( ) = ρN 2 D 5 V A ρV A5 ND 1 and these diagrams are called Bp-δ =δ = J VA diagrams. KQ J 3 = PD Q ND 3 QN = ( ) = 2 5 2 3 ρN D V A ρD V A 2πρD 2V A3 From these diagrams Nopt is calculated on the optimum efficiency line. Dopt. rotation rate (N) and advanced velocity (VA) Required Dopt In this case the unknown variable optimum diameter. KT T ND 2 T = ( ) = 2 2 4 ρN D V A ρV A2 D 2 J 2 . KQ/J5 can be written as: KQ J5 since PD = 2πQN KQ J5 = 1 PD N 2 NPD / 2 ≈ 2. thrust T can be calculated using the thrust deduction factor t: T= RT/(1-t) T and D are known optimum rate of rotation Nopt can be eliminated using KT/J2. such as Wageningen-B. 3. This parameter Bp is plotted against 2.b) The Use of Standard Series Data in Design Propeller design diagrams of Standard Series. diameter (D) and advanced velocity (VA) Nopt (required) If the delivered power PD and the diameter D are known a diagram of KQ/J3 can be obtained.

65 for bulk carriers and tankers a<0. BAR is initially determined First it is necessary to determine a mean design Taylor wake fraction (wT) from experience. initial installation coast. respectively. Number of blades is determined by the need to avoid harmful resonant frequencies of the ship structure and the machinery.4.74 for container ships where DB and T are the behind hull diameter and draught of the ship. 3 . maintenance requirements. published data or model test results. Advance propeller speed VA can be determined as VA=(1-wT)VS Diameters of behind hull and open water are calculated as Dmax is assumed to be usually % of the draught Dmax = DB = aT a<0. rotation rate (N) and advanced velocity (VA) Dopt(required) T and N are known and optimum diameter Dopt can be eliminated similarly using KT/J4. Determination of Optimum RPM and Propeller Size (Diameter) (General Case) To determine the propeller diameter D and rate of rotation N for a propeller when absorbing certain delivered power PD in association with the ship speed VS. running costs. KT T ND 4 TN 2 = ( ) = J 4 ρN 2 D 4 V A ρV A4 5. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Propeller type is chosen depending on the ship type. Known thrust (T).

When the diameter is determined the diameter should be as large as the stern of hull can accommodate. N. The typical figures of the clearances of propeller-hull. From the Power-Speed diagram (PE vs. to obtain the maximum propeller efficiency. VS) PETRIAL is read off at the VSTRIAL ix) 12000 10000 8000 PE (kW) Trial Condition 6000 Service Condition 4000 2000 0 12 13 14 15 16 VS (Knots) 17 18 19 20 x) Propulsive efficiency ηD is obtained by iteration for the optimum RPM.7) and the delivered power PD is calculated as: PD (TRIAL ) = xi) PE (TRIAL ) η D ( assumed ) Bp and δ values are calculated for a range of N (e. ηD(assumed)=0. D0 = DB for single screw propellers 1 − 0. Initially ηD is assumed (i. N=80 to 120) 4 .05 viii) This diameter D0 should absorb the delivered power for trial condition at the optimum RPM which would correspond to the maximum propeller efficiency.g.e. propeller-rudder and propeller-baseline should be: X Y Z vii) 5% to 10% of D 15% to 25% of D up to 5% of D Open water diameter D0 is then calculated by increasing the DB by 5% and 3% for single and twin screws respectively.

622 0.614 0.608 0. go back to step (x) and assume ηD(assumed)=ηD(calculated) if ε value ≤ εthreshold.618 0.604 80 90 100 N (RPM) 110 120 130 xiv) ηD is calculated η D ( calculated ) = η H η Rη 0 = xv) 1− t η Rη 0 1− w The difference between the ηD(calculated) and ηD(assumed) is calculated as: ε = η D ( calculated ) − η D ( assumed ) iterate if required if ε value > εthreshold.624 0.xii) From the Bp-δ diagram open water propeller efficiency.85 5 .612 0.62 0. η0 diagram is plotted and η0max and N values are read off from the diagram 0. ηD(calculated) is converged and ηD is the latest calculated ηD(calculated) xvi) Based upon the latest value of ηD break power in trial condition PB(TRIAL) is calculated as: PB (TRIAL ) = xvii) PE (TRIAL ) η Dη S = ηS PD Installed Maximum Continuous Power is taken as = PB (TRIAL ) 0.616 xiii) η0 0.606 0.61 0. η0 is read off at the corresponding Bp-δ (D0) N (RPM) vs.

2808 are calculated 2.5 VA VA PB/DB is read off at the calculated (Bp. 3. This is due to fact that the ship will have the maximum speed in trial condition If the calculated BAR is less than the selected BAR. Engine Selection xxi) We have optimum RPM (latest). Prediction of Performance in Service Prediction of the ship speed and propeller rate of rotation in service condition with the engine developing 85% of MCR 5. a new BAR greater than the calculated BAR is chosen.158 1 NPD / 2 ND B and δ B = 3. All the calculations are performed for the new BAR. 4.xviii) PD = PBηS xix) xx) B p = 1. the design stage is completed. δB) from the Bp-δ diagram and the mean face pitch is calculated. Determination of Blade Surface Area and BAR (Cavitation Control) Cavitation control is carried out for trial condition. brake power in trial condition PBTRIAL and installed maximum continuous power. 6 . For engine selection refer to engine layout diagrams provided by the manufacturers. If the calculated BAR is greater than the selected BAR.