TECDOC-01 SEPTEMBER 2008

TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON
INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR
CONNECTIONS


Instrumentation Technical Document Series By: Nirbhay Gupta
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PREFACE
Instrumentation design and construction is a very interesting proposition. One is supposed to
know the electronics and electrical aspects as well as the mechanical aspects too.
Instrumentation tubing is one such field where an instrumentation engineer has to don the
robes of a mechanical engineer. In NPCIL, for a long time, it was felt that there is no single
document that can cater to the needs of budding as well as practicing engineers when they
want to search some information on instrumentation tubing and connections.
Instrumentation tubing covers both Impulse tubes (sensing lines) as well as pneumatic tubes.
Connections include tapping poi nts, root valves and tube fittings. Usually one has to refer to
myriad technical documents, codes and standards to search for a specific aspect of tubing
design or construction. This technical note is an attempt to put all the information at one
place. The efforts have been put to expose the reader to all the aspects of tubing and make
him aware of all the developments in the world. A comprehensive list of all the reference
documents is given at the end and they have been liberally used while preparation of this note
was underway. Effort has been made to represent all the relevant information here however,
enterprising readers will benefit even more if they peruse the reference documents directly.
Attempt has been made to demonstrate analytically that if the design and installation
practices are followed as per this note then the sensing line will meet the intent of class -I
tubing. Readers may note that the word tube/tubing used here should be inferred as
instrumentation tubing only limited to maximum 1” size.
It may be noted that various tubing practices have not been discussed in this note. The
detailed installation practices for various process measurements will be discussed in respective
process measurement/field installation technical notes. However, salient issues common to all
installations have been discussed in detail.
Author is grateful to a large number of engineers with whom they had an opportunity to work
with during their long career in NPCIL and on the way a lot of design aspects were concluded.
Nirbhay Gupta
23
rd
September, 2008
Mumbai

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Section TITLE Page
No.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PIPE AND A TUBE 1
1.2 MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF TUBING OVER PIPING SYSTEMS 2
1.3 TYPES OF TUBES 3
1.4 GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTATION TUBES 3
1.5 DIFFERENT SIZES OF TUBES 5
1.6 CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE SIZE OF A TUBE 5
1.7 SELECTION AND DESIGN CRITERIA 6
2.0 DESIGN OF TUBING AND TUBING SYSTEMS 13
2.1 CLASS-I INSTRUMENTATION TUBING DESIGN 13
2.2 REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIAL FOR INSTRUMENT TUBING/PIPING AS PER NB-2000 13
2.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF INSTRUMENT PIPING/TUBING AS PER SUBSECTION NC (NC
3600)
13
2.4 PRESSURE DESIGN (INTERNAL PRESSURE) OF INSTRUMENT TUBING/ PIPING 14
2.5 ANALYSIS CRITERION OF TUBING/PIPING SYSTEM 15
2.6 ANALYSIS OF SS TUBES USED IN NPCIL 18
2.6.1 WALL THICKNESS AND PRESSURE RATING OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF INSTRUMENT TUBING 18
2.6.2 STRESS ANALYSIS OF TUBING SYSTEMS 19
2.6.2.1 ANALYSIS FOR SUSTAINED MECHANICAL LOADS 19
2.6.2.2 ANALYSIS FOR OCCASIONAL LOADS (LEVEL A&B SERVICE LIMITS) 19
2.6.2.3 ANALYSIS FOR STRESS DUE TO THERMAL EXPANSION AND OTHER SUSTAINED LOADS 20
2.7 CONSIDERATION FOR VARIOUS FORCES 23
2.8 TUBE BENDING CONSIDERATIONS 23
2.9 SPECIAL DESIGN ASPECTS TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF CLASS-I TUBING AND
TUBING SYSTEMS
23
2.10 CONCLUSION 24
3.0 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SS TUBES 25
4.0 PNEUMATIC TUBING 27
4.1 ADVANTAGES OF USING COPPER TUBES 27
4.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF COPPER TUBES 28
4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SELECTION OF A TYPE OF COPPER TUBE 29
4.4 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF COPPER TUBE 34
4.5 APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR COPPER TUBES 35
5.0 ASTM TUBING SPECIFICATIONS OUTSIDE DIAMETER/WALL THICKNESS 36
6.0 EMBEDDED PENETRATIONS 38
7.0 METHODS OF CONNECTION OF INSTRUMENTATION TUBES 39
7.1 WELDED JOINTS 39
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7.2 FLARED, FLARELESS AND COMPRESSION JOINTS 39
7.3 THREADED JOINTS 40
8.0 GUIDELINES FOR TAKE OFF CONNECTIONS FOR SENSING LINES 41
8.1 LOCATION OF PRESSURE TAPS 41
8.2 CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRESSURE TAP DESIGN 42
8.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRESSURE TAP DESIGN 43
9.0 GUIDELINES FOR ROOT VALVES 44
10.0 INSTALLATION OF INSTRUMENTATION TUBING 45
10.1 BEST PRACTICES FOR IMPULSE TUBE INSTALLATION 45
10.2 SOME PRACTICAL GUIDELINES FOR TUBE LAYING AND BENDING 48
10.3 TUBE BENDING CHECK LIST 50
10.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF A WELL-MADE TUBING CIRCUIT 54
10.5 COMMON CAUSES OF IMPERFECT BENDS 55
10.6 ROUTING OF BENDS 57
10.7 GUIDELINES FOR COPPER TUBE INSTALLATION 60
10.8 GUIDELINES FOR COPPER TUBE BENDING 60
10.9 COPPER TUBE JOINTS 61
11.0 IMPULSE TUBE/SENSING LINE SUPPORT 62
12.0 IMPULSE TUBE INSTALLATION THROUGH EPS 64
13.0 TUBE FITTINGS 65
13.1 REQUIREMENTS OF A TUBE FITTING 65
13.2 CONSTRUCTION OF A TUBE FITTING 67
13.3 TYPES OF TUBE FITTINGS 68
13.4 FLARED FITTING 68
13.5 FLARELESS BITE TYPE TUBE FITTING 69
13.6 FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE FITTING 69
13.7 SINGLE FERRULE FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE FITTING 70
13.8 TWIN FERRULE FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE FITTING 71
13.8.1 FERRULE AND ITS PURPOSE 72
13.8.2 SWAGING 73
13.8.3 OPERATION OF A TWIN FERRULE TUBE FITTING 74
13.8.4 EFFECT OF TUBE THICKNESS ON SWAGING 78
13.8.5 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR TUBE FITTING INSTALLATION 80
13.9 REPEATED ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF TUBE FITTING 82
13.10 SPECIFICATION FOR SS TUBE FITTINGS 83
13.11 SPECIFICATION FOR BRASS TUBE FITTINGS 85
14.0 THREADS USED FOR TUBE FITTINGS 87
14.1 EVOLUTION OF THREADS 87
14.2 TYPE OF THREADS 87
14.3 SIZES 88
14.4 TAPER/PARALLEL THREADED JOINTS 89
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14.5 DRY SEAL NPTF THREADS 93
15.0 WELDING METHODS 96
15.1 300 SERIES STAINLESS STEELS 96
15.2 C1018 FITTINGS 96
15.3 TIG WELDING 97
15.4 ORBITAL TUBE WELDING 98
15.4.1 ORBITAL WELDING EQUIPMENT 99
15.4.2 REASONS FOR USING ORBITAL WELDING EQUIPMENT 99
15.4.3 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR ORBITAL WELDING 100
15.4.4 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ORBITAL TUBE WELDING 101
15.4.5 THE PHYSICS OF THE GTAW PROCESS 102
15.4.6 MATERIAL WELDABILITY 102
15.4.7 WELD JOINT FIT-UP 103
15.4.8 SHIELD GAS (ES) 104
15.4.9 TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE 105
15.4.10 WELDING BASICS AND SET-UP 106
15.4.11 WELDING PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT 109
16.0 References and Suggested Readi ng 116


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TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  1 
 
1.0   Introduction 
Impulse sensing lines aie the lines containing piocess fluiu which iun between the
sensing instiuments anu piocess tapping points, anu aie usually maue of
tubing¡piping, valves anu tube fittings.
1.1 Difference between a pipe and a tube 
The funuamental uiffeience between pipe anu tube is the uimensional stanuaiu to
which each is manufactuieu.
A tube is a hollow piouuct of iounu oi any othei cioss section having a continuous
peiipheiy. Rounu tube size may be specifieu with iespect to any two, but not all
thiee, of the following: 0utsiue uiametei, insiue uiametei, wall thickness: type K, L
anu N coppei tube (See  section­6  for  details) may also be specifieu by nominal size anu
type only. Bimensions anu peimissible vaiiations (toleiances) aie specifieu in the
appiopiiate ASTN oi ASNE stanuaiu specifications.
ueneially tubing is specifieu by giving 0.B. anu wall thickness wheieas pipes aie
specifieu by giving nominal uiametei & wall thickness (NB anu Scheuule).
A pipe is a tube with a iounu cioss section confoiming to the uimensional
iequiiements foi nominal pipe size as tabulateu in ANSI BS6.1u, Table 2 anu 4, anu
ANSI BS6.19, Table 1. Foi special pipe having a uiametei not listeu in these tables,
anu also foi iounu tube, the nominal uiametei coiiesponus with the outsiue
uiametei.
Pipe versus Tubes 
Stanuaiu fluiu line systems, whethei foi simple householu use oi foi
the moie exacting iequiiements of inuustiy, weie foi many yeais
constiucteu fiom thieaueu pipe of assoiteu mateiials anu weie
assembleu with vaiious stanuaiu pipe fitting shapes, unions anu
nipples. Such systems unuei high piessuies weie plagueu with
leakage pioblems besiues being cumbeisome, inefficient anu costly to
assemble anu maintain. Theiefoie, the use of pipe in these systems
has laigely been ieplaceu by tubing because of the many auvantages it
offeis.
Figure 1­1 Tubing provides simplified, free flow system 

 
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Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  2 
 
Old  Method  ­ Each connection is thieaueu ‐ iequiies numeious fittings – system not
flexible oi easy to install anu seivice connections not smooth insiue ‐ pockets obstiuct flow.
 
Modern  Method  ‐ Benuable tubing neeus fewei fittings ‐ no thieauing iequiieu ‐ system
light anu compact ‐ easy to install anu seivice ‐ no inteinal pockets oi obstiuctions to fiee
flow. 

1.2 Major Advantages of Tubing over Piping Systems 
1. Bending  Quality  ‐ Tubing has stiong but ielatively thinnei walls: is easy to benu.
Tube fabiication is simple.

2. Greater Strength ‐ Tubing is stiongei as no thieaus aie iequiieu foi connection. No
weakeneu sections fiom ieuuction of wall thickness by thieauing.



Figure 1­2: With no threading necessary, tubing does not require extra wall thickness

S. Less  Turbulence ‐ Smooth benus iesult in stieamlineu flow passage anu less
piessuie uiop.

4. Economy  of  Space  and  Weight ‐ With its bettei benuing qualities anu a smallei
outsiue uiametei, tubing saves space anu peimits woiking in close quaiteis. Tube
fittings aie smallei anu also weigh less.

S. Flexibility ‐ Tubing is less iigiu, has less tenuency to tiansmit vibiation fiom one
connection to anothei.

6. Fewer  Fittings ‐ Tubing benus substitute foi elbows. Fewei fittings mean fewei
joints, fewei leak paths.

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Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  3 
 
7. Tighter  Joints ‐ 0uality tube fittings, coiiectly assembleu, give bettei assuiance of
leak‐fiee systems.

8. Better  Appearance ‐ Tubing peimits smoothei contouis with fewei fittings foi a
piofessional look to tubing systems.

9. Cleaner  Fabrication ‐ No sealing compounus on tube connections. Again no
thieauing: minimum chance of scale, metal chips, foieign paiticles in system.

1u. Easier Assembly and Disassembly ‐ Eveiy tube connection seives as a union. Tube
connections can be ieassembleu iepeateuly with easy wiench action.

11. Less  Maintenance ‐ Auvantages of tubing anu tube fittings auu up to uepenuable,
tiouble‐fiee installations.
1.3 Types of tubes 
Tubes can be categoiizeu in uiffeient ways.
1. Categoiization baseu on tube uimensional specifications: Tubes can be classifieu as
a. Netiic tubes, wheie uimensions aie specifieu in mm units e.g. 1umm, 2u mm
etc.
b. Fiactional tubes, wheie uimensions aie specifieu in inch units e.g. V”, ¾”, 1”
etc.
2. Categoiization baseu on mateiial of tubes e.g. caibon steel tubes, PvC Tubes, Coppei
tubes, SS tubes, Inconel tubes, etc.
S. Categoiization baseu on methou of tube uiawing i.e. welueu anu uiawn, seamless
etc.
1.4 Guidelines for selection of instrumentation tubes 
Proper Tubing Selection
1. Always Match Materials –
S.S. Tubing shoulu be useu only with S.S. Fittings. The only exception to this iule is
coppei tubing with biass fittings. Nixing mateiials can cause galvanic coiiosion.
Galvanic Corrosion (Electrochemical) 
All metals have a specific ielative electiical potential. When uissimilai metals come
in contact in the piesence of moistuie (electiolyte), a low intensity electiic cuiient
flows fiom the metal having the highei potential to the metal having the lowei
potential. The iesult of this galvanic action is the coiiosion of the metal with the
highei potential (moie anouic). (See ualvanic Seiies Chait)
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  4 
 

Figure­1­3: Galvanic Series chart 
 
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  5 
 
2. Select proper tubing hardness –
Remembei instiumentation tube Fittings aie uesigneu to woik within specific
haiuness ianges. RB 9u maximum foi S.S., RB 8u iecommenueu. Foi piopei swaging
the haiuness of the tube shoulu be less than the haiuness of the fitting.

3. Select proper tubing wall thickness –  
Piopei wall thickness is necessaiy to accommouate accepteu safety factois ielative
to uesiieu woiking piessuies.

4. Tubing surface finish –  
Always select tubing fiee of visible uiaw maiks oi suiface sciatches. If possible, cut
off any unuesiiable sections. These “ueep” sciatches can cause leaks when
attempting to seal low‐uensity gases such as aigon, nitiogen, oi helium. Piopei
suiface finish ensuies leak‐pioof compiession joint with fitting.

1.5 Different sizes of tubes 
Following tube sizes have been useu in NPCIL NPPs
SS Tubes (metiic): 6 mm, 1umm, 12mm, 2umm anu 2Smm.
SS tube (Fiactional): ¾”, S¡8”, V”, ¾” anu 1”.
Coppei tubes (metiic): 6mm, 1umm, 12mm, 2umm anu 2Smm.
Coppei tubes (Fiactional): ¾”, S¡8”, V”, ¾” anu 1”.
1.6 Criteria for selecting the size of a tube 
The selection ciiteiia foi sizing the tube aie as follows:
• The 0.B. of the tubes¡impulse tubes shoulu be the same anu not smallei than
6 mm even with clean liquius anu non coiiosive piping, owing to the chance
of blockage aftei long seivice.
• If conuensation is likely to occui oi if gas bubbles aie likely to be libeiateu,
the 0.B. shoulu not be smallei than 1u mm.
• When long iuns cannot be avoiueu, the inteinal uiametei of impulse
tubing¡piping may be selecteu as pei the following table‐1‐1:
 
   
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  6 
 
TABLE – 1­1 
Piessuie signal
tiansmission
uistance
(metei)
Insiue Bia. in mm of impulse tubing¡piping foi uiffeient piocess
fluius
Watei¡steam
Biy aii¡gas
Wet aii oi gas 0il of low to
meu. viscosity
veiy uiity
liquiu oi gas
u ‐ 16 7 to 9 1S 1S 2S
16 ‐ 4S 1u 1S 19 2S
4S ‐ 9u 1S 1S 2S S8
As veiy long iuns of impulse tubing¡piping aie not expecteu in oui systems
anu also piocess fluiu is expecteu to be clean, 1u mm 0B tubing having I.B.
of 7.6 mm has been founu to be auequate, foi piessuie¡ ΔP measuiement
except foi some cases foi level measuiement in tanks¡vessels using ΔP
piinciple.
• Baseu on holu up, installation anu mateiial cost, iauiation stieaming
consiueiations, highei size (>1u mm 0B) tubing is not iecommenueu foi
piessuie¡∆P measuiement in piimaiy¡nucleai system in geneial.
1.7 Selection and Design criteria 
Following iequiiements shoulu be met foi impulse tubing foi sensing the
piessuie¡uiffeiential piessuie signal foi all types of piocess systems incluuing foi
safety anu safety ielateu systems.
The most impoitant consiueiation in the selection of suitable tubing foi any
application is the compatibility of the tubing mateiial with the meuia to be
containeu. Table 1‐2 lists common mateiials anu theii associateu geneial
application. Table 1‐2 also lists the maximum anu minimum opeiating
tempeiatuie foi the vaiious tubing mateiials. Piopeily uesigneu tubing¡piping
baseu on seivice conuitions, shoulu only be useu foi sensing lines.
The piactice of mixing mateiials shoulu be stiongly uiscouiageu. The only
exception is biass fittings with coppei tubing. Bissimilai mateiials in contact may
be susceptible to galvanic coiiosion. Fuithei, uiffeient mateiials have uiffeient
levels of haiuness, anu can auveisely affect the fittings ability to seal on the tubing.
The use of a paiticulai type of tube foi a specific usage uepenus on the application
anu the piocess conuition. The following table biiefly uesciibes the application
guiuelines foi a specific tube mateiial.
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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Table­1­2 

1. For operating temperatures above  800  °F (425  °C),  consideration  should  be  given  to media.  300  Series 
Stainless  Steels  are  susceptible  to  carbide  precipitation  which  may  lead  to  intergranular  corrosion  at 
elevated temperatures. 
2. All temperature ratings based on temperatures as per ASME/ANSI B31­3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum 
Refinery Piping Code, 1999 Edition. 
Gas Service 
Special caie must be taken when selecting tubing foi gas seivice. In oiuei to achieve a gas‐
tight seal, feiiules in instiument fittings must seal any suiface impeifections. This is
accomplisheu by the feiiules penetiating the suiface of the tubing. Penetiation can only be
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
Nirbhay Gupta                                                                                                                                  8 
 
achieveu if the tubing pioviues iauial iesistance anu if the tubing mateiial is softei than the
feiiules.
Thick walleu tubing helps to pioviue iesistance. Tables‐1‐S to 1‐1u below inuicate the
minimum acceptable wall thickness foi vaiious mateiials in gas seivice. The iatings in
white inuicate combinations of uiametei anu wall thickness which aie suitable foi gas
seivice. Acceptable tubing haiuness foi geneial application is listeu in Table 1‐12.
These values aie the maximum alloweu by the ASTN. Foi gas seivice, bettei iesults can be
obtaineu by using tubing well below this maximum haiuness. Foi example, a uesiiable
haiuness of 8u RB is suitable foi stainless steel. The maximum alloweu by ASTN is 9u RB.
System Pressure 
The system opeiating piessuie is anothei impoitant factoi in ueteimining the type, anu
moie impoitantly, the size of tubing to be useu. In geneial, high piessuie installations
iequiie stiong mateiials such as steel oi stainless steel. Beavy walleu softei tubing such as
coppei may be useu if chemical compatibility exists with the meuia. Bowevei, the highei
stiength of steel oi stainless steel peimits the use of thinnei tubes without ieuucing the
ultimate iating of the system. In any event, tube fitting assemblies shoulu nevei be
piessuiizeu beyonu the iecommenueu woiking piessuie.
The following tables (1‐S to 1‐1u) list by mateiial the maximum suggesteu woiking
piessuie (in psi) of vaiious tubing sizes. Acceptable tubing uiameteis anu wall thicknesses
aie those foi which a iating is listeu. Combinations which uo not have a piessuie iating aie
not iecommenueu foi use with instiument fittings.
Table­1­3: Fractional 316 or 304 STAINLESS STEEL (Seamless) 
 
   
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Table­1­4: Fractional 316 or 304 STAINLESS STEEL (Welded & Drawn) 
 
 
Table­1­5: Seamless Stainless Steel metric tubing 


TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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10 
 
 

Table­1­7: Carbon Steel Metric tubing 


Table­1­6: Fractional Carbon Steel (Seamless) 
Tube 
OD 
in.
Tube Wall Thickness, in.
0.028  0.035 0.049 0.065 0.083
0.09
5
0.10
9
0.120  0.134  0.148  0.165  0.180  0.220 
Working Pressure, psig
Note: Foi gas seivice, select a tube wall thickness outsiue of the shaueu aiea.
1¡8 8uuu 1u 2uu
S¡16 S1uu 6 6uu 96uu
1¡4 S7uu 4 8uu 7uuu 96uu
S¡16 S 7uu SSuu 7Suu
S¡8 S 1uu 4Suu 62uu
1¡2 2 Suu S2uu 4Suu S9uu
S¡8 1 8uu 26uu SSuu 46uu SSuu
S¡4

21uu 29uu S7uu 4Suu
S1u
u

7¡8

18uu 24uu S2uu S7uu
4Su
u

1

1Suu 21uu 27uu S2uu
S7u
u 41uu

1
1¡4

16uu 21uu 2Suu
29u
u S2uu S6uu 4uuu 46uu Suuu
1
1¡2

18uu 2uuu
24u
u 26uu 29uu SSuu S7uu 41uu S1uu
2

1Suu
17u
u
19uu 21uu 24uu 27uu Suuu S7uu
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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11 
 
   
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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12 
 
Table­1­8: ALUMINIUM (SEAMLESS)     Table­1­9: COPPER (SEAMLESS) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table­1­10: MONEL 400 (SEAMLESS) 
 
Note: 
• All  working  pressures  have  been  calculated  using  the  maximum  allowable  stress  levels  in 
accordance  with  ASME/ANSI  B31.3,  Chemical  Plant  and  Petroleum  Refinery  Piping  or 
ASME/ANSI B31.1 Power Piping. 
• All calculations are based on maximum outside diameter and minimum wall thickness. 
• All working pressures are at ambient (72°F) temperature. 
• Ratings in gray are not suitable for gas services. 


TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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13 
 
Systems Temperature 
0peiating tempeiatuie is anothei factoi in ueteimining the piopei tubing mateiial. Coppei
anu aluminum tubing aie suitable foi low tempeiatuie meuia. Stainless steel anu caibon
steel tubing aie suitable foi highei tempeiatuie meuia. Special alloys such as Alloy 6uu aie
iecommenueu foi extiemely high tempeiatuie (see Table 1‐2). Table 1‐11 lists ue‐iating
factois which shoulu be applieu to the woiking piessuies listeu in Table 1‐S to 1‐1u foi
elevateu tempeiatuie (see Table 1‐2). Simply locate the coiiect factoi in Table 1‐11 anu
multiply this by the appiopiiate value in Tables 1‐S to 1‐1u foi the elevateu tempeiatuie
woiking piessuie.

Table-1-11
Temperature Derating Factors
Temperature

Monel
°F (°C) Copper Aluminum 316
SS
304
SS
Steel 400
100 (38) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
200 (93) .80 1.00 1.00 1.00 .96 .88
300 (149) .78 .81 1.00 1.00 .90 .82
400 (204) .50 .40 .97 .94 .86 .79
500 (260)

.90 .88 .82 .79
600 (316)

.85 .82 .77 .79
700 (371)

.82 .80 .73 .79
800 (427)

.80 .76 .59 .76
900 (486)

.78 .73

1000 (538)

.77 .69

1100 (593)

.62 .49

1200 (649)

.37 .30


EXAMPLE: 1/2 inch x .049 wall seamless stainless steel tubing has a working pressure of 3700 
psi @ room temperature. If the system were to operate @ 800°F (425°C), a factor of 80% (or 
.80)  would apply  (see  Table  1­11 above)  and  the  “at  temperature”  system  pressure  would  be 
3700 psi x .80 = 2960 psi 
 
   
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Table‐1‐12
Material Type ASTM Tubing Spec. Condition Max. 
Recommended 
Hardness
Stainless
Steel
Su4, S16,
S16L
ASTN‐A‐269, A‐249, A‐
21S, A6S2
Fully Annealeu 9u RB
Coppei K oi L ASTN‐B7S B68, B88*
(K oi L)
Soft Annealeu Tempei u 6u Nax. Rockwell
1ST
Caibon
Steel
1u1u SAE‐IS24b, IS2Sb Fully Annealeu 72 RB
ASTN‐A‐179
Aluminum Alloy 6u61 ASTN B‐21u T6 Tempei S6 RB
Nonel™ 4uu ASTN B‐16S Fully Annealeu 7S RB
Alloy C‐
276
C‐276 ASTN‐B‐622, B‐626 Fully Annealeu 9u RB
Alloy 6uu 6uu ASTN B‐167 Fully Annealeu 9u RB
Caipentei
2u™
2uCB‐S ASTN B‐468 Fully Annealeu 9u RB
Titanium Commeicially
Puie uiaue 2
ASTN B‐SS8 Fully Annealeu 99 RB 2uu Biinell
Typical

 
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2.u BESIuN 0F T0BINu ANB T0BINu SYSTENS
2.1 CLASS­I INSTRUMENTATION TUBING DESIGN 
In ASNE Section III‐Bivision‐I sub‐section NB (Class I components), the uesign
ciiteiion¡uesign iequiiements foi instiument tubing has not been coveieu sepaiately.
Thus uesign guiuelines given foi small size of piping is being followeu foi Class I instiument
tubing also. Also as the outsiue uiametei of instiument tubing is being limiteu to 1” (2S
mm): so any uesign concession peimitteu foi lowei size piping (<1”) will also be applicable
to instiument tubing.

As pei NB S6Su (Piping uesign anu analysis ciiteiia) the piping of 1” NB oi less, which have
been classifieu as class I in uesign specification, may be uesigneu anu analyzeu as pei
subsection NC.

Thus foi instiument tubing, the mateiial & testing iequiiements shall be as pei subsection
NB wheieas the uesign anu analysis will be as pei subsection NC.

2.2 REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIAL FOR INSTRUMENT TUBING/PIPING 
AS PER NB­2000 

a. Piessuie ietaining mateiial shoulu confiim to the iequiiements of one of the
specifications foi mateiial given in NB‐2121.
b. Impact testing foi austenitic stainless steel is not iequiieu. Also impact testing is not
iequiieu foi a pipe¡tube with a nominal pipe size less than 6”, iiiespective of wall
thickness.
c. Seamless pipes, tubes anu fittings neeu not be examineu by the iule of NB‐2S1u
(examination of piessuie ietaining mateiial).
u. Wiought seamless anu welueu (without fillei metal) pipes anu tubes shall be
examineu anu may be iepaiieu in accoiuance with the iequiiements of class‐I
seamless anu welueu (without fillei metal) piping anu tubing of SA‐6SS (specification
foi special iequiiements foi pipe anu tubing foi nucleai anu othei applications).

2.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF INSTRUMENT PIPING/TUBING AS PER 
SUBSECTION NC (NC 3600) 
i. NAXIN0N ALL0WABLE STRESS
Foi uesign¡calculating minimum wall thickness of instiument tubing¡piping, the
maximum allowable stiess foi the mateiial at uesign tempeiatuie shall be useu as
given in ANSI¡ASNE BS6.19.
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ii. PRESS0RE ANB TENPERAT0RE RATINuS
The piessuie iatings at the coiiesponuing tempeiatuie given in ANSI¡ASNE BS6.19
shall not be exceeueu anu piping¡tubing piouuct shall not be useu at tempeiatuie in
excess of those given in ANSI¡ASNE BS6.19 foi all the mateiials of which the tubing
is maue.
iii. ALL0WANCES
Incieaseu wall thickness of tubing shall be taken foi pioviuing allowances foi
coiiosion oi eiosion, mechanical stiength & benuing etc.
iv. BYNANIC EFFECTS
Impact foices causeu by eithei exteinal oi inteinal loaus shall be consiueieu in the
piping¡tubing uesign. Also the effect of eaithquake anu non‐seismic vibiation shall
be consiueieu in the tubing uesign.
2.4 PRESSURE DESIGN (INTERNAL PRESSURE) OF INSTRUMENT 
TUBING/ PIPNG 
(Ref. NC­3640)
 
a) Minimum Wall Thickness of straight tube/pipe: 
The minimum wall thickness of stiaight tube¡pipe shall not be less than that ueteimineu
by eq. (I) as follows:

tm=P*
Bo
2(S+PY)
+A …….. (1)

tm

= minimum iequiieu wall thickness, mm
P = Inteinal uesign piessuie, kPag
B
0
= 0utsiue uiametei of tube¡pipe, mm
S = Naximum allowable stiess in the mateiial uue to inteinal piessuie anu joint
efficiency at uesign tempeiatuie, kPa
A = Auuitional thickness, to pioviue foi mateiial iemoveu in thieauing, coiiosion
anu eiosion allowances anu allowance foi stiuctuial stiength neeueu uuiing
eiection.
Y = a coefficient having a value of u.4. Foi pipe¡tube with a
Ðo
tm
iatio less than 6, the
value of ‘Y’ foi feiiitic anu austenitic steels uesigneu foi tempeiatuie of 48u
o
C
anu below shoulu be taken as pei eq. (2) below
¥ =
d
d+Ðo
………. (2)
Wheie

u = Insiue uiametei of tube¡pipe.

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b) Wheievei benuing of tubing¡piping is likely to be involveu in installations, the minimum
wall thickness aftei benuing shall not be less than the minimum wall thickness calculateu
as pei eq. (1) foi stiaight tube¡pipe. To meet this iequiiement, actual wall thickness of
tubing¡piping is to be incieaseu as pei following Table –2‐1 (This is baseu on NC Suuu):

TABLE – 2­1 
Bend Radius  Minimum thickness recommended Prior to 
bending 
6 tube¡pipe uiametei oi gieatei
S tube¡pipe uiametei
4 tube¡pipe uiametei
S tube¡pipe uiametei
1.u6 tm
1.u8 tm
1.16 tm
1

1.2S tm
1
As per ANSI/ASME B31.1 this value is 1.14. However NC3000 is more conservative.
tm = minimum wall thickness iequiieu as pei eq. (1) above.
c) Also, unless otheiwise justifieu by the uesign calculation the ovality of tubing¡piping aftei
benuing shoulu not exceeu 8% as ueteimineu by following eq. (S).

0:olity (%) = 1uu -
Ðmux-Ðmìn
Ðo
……….. (S)
Wheie
Bo = Nominal outsiue uiametei of tube¡pipe
B
max
= the maximum outsiue uiametei aftei benuing oi foiming
B
min
= the minimum outsiue uiametei aftei benuing oi foiming
2.5 ANALYSIS CRITERION OF TUBING/PIPING SYSTEM 

Analysis iequiiements foi tubing¡piping systems as pei NC‐S6Su aie given below.

“The  design  of  complete  piping  system  shall  be  analyzed  between  anchors  for  the  effects  of 
thermal expansion, weight and other sustained and occasional loads.” 
The uetail iequiiements¡analysis ciiteiia aie given in following sub‐sections.
a. CONSIDERATION  OF  DESIGN  CONDITIONS  (STRESS  DUE  TO  SUSTAINED 
LOADS)
(Refer NC 3652)
 
The effects of piessuie, weight anu othei sustaineu mechanical loaus must meet the
iequiiements of following eq. (4).
Ssl = I
B1PÐo
2tn
] +
B2Mu
z
< 1.S Sb …………………… (4)
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S
sl
= Stiess uue to sustaineu loaus, kPa
P = Inteinal uesign piessuie, mm
Do = 0utsiue uiametei of tube¡pipe, mm
B
1
, B
2

= Piimaiy stiess inuices foi the pipe¡tube (As pei Figuie below)
NC 3673.2 (b)­1

M
A
= Resultant moment loauing on cioss section uue to weight anu othei sustaineu
loaus, kN‐m.
NC 3653.3

Z   = Sectional mouulus of pipe¡tube, mm
S

Sh = Basic mateiial allowable stiess at uesign tempeiatuie consistent with loauing
unuei consiueiation.
tn     = Nominal wall thickness, mm

b. CONSIDERATION OF LEVEL A AND B  SERVICE LIMITS  
(REF. NC­3653)
 
i. STRESS B0E T0 S0STAINEB PL0S 0CCASI0NAL L0ABS
The effect of piessuie, weight, othei sustaineu loaus anu occasional loaus incluuing
eaithquake, foi which level B seivice limits aie uesignateu, must meat the iequiiements of
following eq. (S).
Sol = B1 - Pmox -
Ðo
2tn
+ B2 - I
Mu+Mb
z
] < 1.8 Sb ………. (S)
But not greater than 1.5  Sy 
Wheie
M
b
= iesultant moment loauing on cioss section uue to non ieveising uynamic loaus e.g.
occasional loaus such as thiust fiom ielief anu safety valves loaus fiom piessuie
anu flow tiansients anu eaithquake.
Sy  = mateiial yielu stiength at tempeiatuie consistent with the loauing unuei
consiueiation, kPa.
Sol  = stiess uue to occasional loaus, kPa.
Pmax = Peak piessuie, kPa

ii. S0STAINEB PL0S TBERNAL EXPANSI0N STRESSES
The effects of piessuie, weight, othei sustaineu loaus anu theimal expansion foi which level
A anu B seivice limits aie uesignateu, shall meet the iequiiements of following eq. (6).
Stc = P
Ðo
4tn
+ u.7Si I
Mu
z
] + i I
Mc
z
] < (Sb +So) ………(6)
0.75 i shall not be less than 1.0 
Wheie

S
te
= Sustaineu plus theimal expansion stiesses.
M
C
= iange of iesultant moments uue to theimal expansion
S
A
= Allowable stiess iange foi expansion stiesses.
i  = Stiess intensification factoi
(iefei NC‐S67S.2)
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= iatio of benuing moment piouucing fatigue in a given numbei of cycles in a
stiaight pipe¡tube with giith butt welu to that piouucing failuie in the
same numbei of cycles in the fitting oi joint unuei consiueiation.
Other terms are same as of eq. (4) 
 
Allowable stress range for expansion stresses (S
A
) can be calculated using following equation 
S
A
= f (1.2S S
C
+ u.2S S
h
) ……. (7)
S
C
= Basic mateiial allowable stiess at minimum (colu) tempeiatuie.
S
h
= Basic mateiial allowable stiess at maximum (hot) tempeiatuie.
f  = stiess iange ieuuction factoi foi cyclic conuitions foi total numbei N of full
tempeiatuie cycles ovei total numbei of yeais uuiing which system is
expecteu to be in seivice fiom table‐2‐1A below
NC S611.2 (e)‐1

TABLE: 2­1A 
Numbei of equivalent full
tempeiatuie cycles (N)
Stiess iange
ieuuction factoi (f)
7uuu anu less 1.u
7uuu to 14uuu u.9
14uuu to 22uuu u.8
22uuu to 4Suuu u.7
4Suuu to 1uuuuu u.6
1uuuuu anu ovei u.S

Stiess intensification factoi ‘i’ can be calculateu using following equation (8)
i = c2 -
k2
2
…… (8)
Wheie
C2 anu K2 aie stiess inuices foi class‐1 piping piouucts oi joints fiom NB S681 (a)‐1. For 
straight pipe/tube the value of C2 and k2 are 1.

Foi cuiveu pipe¡tube oi welueu elbows ‘I’ can be computeu as pei equation (9) below
(refer 
NB 3681)

i =
0.9
h
2
3


…… (9)
wheie
b =
tn-R
¡
2

…… (1u)
t
n
= nominal wall thickness of tube¡pipe
R = benu iauius
r = mean iauius of tube¡pipe

iii. C0NSIBERATI0N 0F LEvEL C SERvICE LINITS

TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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In section II in calculating the iesultant moment N
B
, moment uue to SEE conuitions is
pioposeu to be useu which is moie conseivative, thus sepaiate analysis foi level C seivice
limits is not iequiieu.

iv. TESTINu RE00IRENENTS AS PER S0BSECTI0N – NB
Requiiements of mateiial testing as pei subsection NB is biiefly mentioneu above. In
auuition to examination¡testing iequiiements as pei SA‐6SS, tubing shoulu be
hyuiostatically testeu at not less than 1.2S times the uesign piessuie with minimum holuing
time of 1u min.
2.6 ANALYSIS 0F SS T0BES 0SEB IN NPCIL
2.6.1 WALL THICKNESS AND PRESSURE RATING OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF INSTRUMENT TUBING 
The maximum uesign piessuie anu tempeiatuie aie taken as 19S kg¡cm
2
anu S1u
o
C
iespectively. Though the above piessuie anu tempeiatuie may not exist simultaneously in
any system, still to be on conseivative siue, all the sizes of tubing will be uesigneu foi
above iatings.
0sing eq. (1) in the analysis ciiteiia above, the minimum wall thickness of stiaight tubing
can be calculateu.
Thus following equation can be useu
tm=P*
Bo
2(S+PY)
+A
We can make following assumptions
• Theie will be no thieauing on the tubes
• Coiiosion, eiosion is negligible (hence allowance foi coiiosion anu eiosion may
be neglecteu)
• Benu iauius is not less than SB
o
. The actual wall thickness is to be incieaseu as
pei Table‐2‐1 above.

Following uata may be useu
P = uesign piessuie (= 19S kg¡cm
2
)
S = maximum allowable stiess of S.S. Su4L mateiial at S1u
o
C temp. (= 986 kg¡cm
2
)
Y = u.4
By putting the above vaiiables, the minimum wall thickness foi uiffeient sizes (B
o
) of
stiaight tubing is tabulateu in following Table‐2‐2.
TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ON INSTRUMENTATION TUBING AND THEIR CONNECTIONS 2008 
 
 
 
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TABLE – 2­2 
Tube 0.B.
(B
o
) mm
Requiieu minimum wall
thickness of stiaight
instiument tubing (tm) in
mm (for  design  pressure  of  195 
kg/cm
2
  and  design  temp.  of  
310
o
C)
Ninimum iecommenueu
wall thickness (mm)
piioi to benuing (1.2S
tm )
Specifieu wall
thickness as pei (PB‐
N‐17) in mm
6 u.SS u.69 1.2
1u u.92 1.1S 1.2
12 1.1 1.S8 1.S
16 1.47 1.8S 1.8
(See note below)
2u 1.8S 2.29 2.S
2S 2.29 2.86 S.u
Note: It can be seen from Tables – 2­2 & 2­3 that specified wall thickness of all sizes of tubing as per PB­M­
17  is  more  than  required  wall  thickness  as  per  ASME  Section  III  except  for  16  mm  size.    As 
maximum pressure and temperature may not be simultaneous so 1.8 mm wall thickness instead for 
1.83 mm of 16 mm size will be adequate from pressure rating considerations. 
“For example, the maximum pressure & temperature in PHT system will be 125 kg/cm

and 310
o

respectively.    For  this  application,  the  required  minimum  wall  thickness  for  16mm  OD  tube, 
including  the  bending  allowance,  should  be  1.3  mm,  which  is  less  than  specified  wall  thickness  of 
1.8  mm.    Similarly,  in  some  applications  like  F/M  supply  circuit,  the  maximum  pressure  and 
temperature  may  be  195  kg/cm

and  40
o
C  respectively.    For  this  service  also,  the  minimum 
required  wall  thickness  including  the  bending  allowance  for  16mm  OD  tube  should  be  1.62mm 
which is less than specified wall thickness of 1.8 mm”. 
2.6.2 STRESS ANALYSIS OF TUBING SYSTEMS (TUBING CONFORMING TO PB­M­17) 
2.6.2.1 ANALYSIS FOR SUSTAINED MECHANICAL LOADS 
When the tubing is installeu in the fielu, the effects of piessuie, weights anu othei
sustaineu mechanical loaus must meet the iequiiements of eq. (4) i.e.

Stiess uue to Sustaineu loau = Ssl = I
B1PDo
2tn
] +
B2Ma
Z
< 1.S S
h


The above equation may be veiifieu foi uiffeient sizes of tubing having wall thickness as
given in Table‐2‐2 anu othei constants to be calculateu¡taken as below:

B1 = u.S (as pei NB – S68u)

B2 =
1.3
h
2¡3
anu
b = tn -
R
r2


Wheie
t
n
= nominal wall thickness of tube
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R = Benu iauius
i = (B
o
– t)¡2 = mean iauius of tubing

Z =
n
S2
-
Ðo
4
– J
4
Ðo


Thus foi uiffeient sizes of tubing systems Ssl value is tabulateu in Table‐2‐4

2.6.2.2 ANALYSIS FOR OCCASIONAL LOADS (LEVEL A&B SERVICE LIMITS) 
As pei iequiiement of ASNE – Section III installeu tubing system shoulu satisfy the
equation (S) of Section 4.2.1 as given below:
Sol = B1 - Pmox -
Ðo
2tn
+ B2 - I
Mu+Mb
z
] < 1.8 Sb
Baseu on the seismic analysis caiiieu out foi uiffeient tubing layouts, the iecommenueu
conseivative value of Mb is 2uu kg mm foi all sizes of tubing systems foi SSE level of
eaithquake. Thus foi uiffeient sizes of tubing systems Sol value is tabulateu in Table‐2‐4.
This can be seen that Sol is less than 1.8 Sh foi all the sizes of tubing thus satisfying the
above equation.
2.6.2.3 ANALYSIS FOR STRESS DUE TO THERMAL EXPANSION AND OTHER SUSTAINED 
LOADS 
As pei iequiiement of ASNE Section III installeu tubing system shoulu satisfy the
following equation
Stc = P
Ðo
4tn
+ u.7Si |
Ho
Z
1 + i |
Hc
Z
1 < (Sb + So)
The maximum value of stiess (iMc/Z) uue to theimal loauing (tempeiatuie vaiiation
fiom 2S
o
C to S1u
o
C) foi uiffeient tubing systems comes out to be 16uu kg¡cm
2
pioviueu
that tubing system is suppoiteu as pei iecommenueu piactices. Baseu on the above uata
anu othei paiameteis¡constants, S
te 
has been calculateu & tabulateu in TABLE‐2‐S foi
uiffeient sizes of tubing.
This may be seen fiom the table that S
te
value foi uiffeient sizes of tubing is less than the
value of S
h
 + S
A
(viz. 261S kg¡cm
2
).
 

TABLE 2­3 
Tube Size Nominal Wall Calculateu i value to be S
TE
S
h
+ S
A
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(0B) mm Thickness (tn) (mm)
i
(See note2)


useu foi analysis (kg¡cm
2
)

6 1.2 u.42 1.SS 2164.94
1u 1.2 u.67 1.SS 2169.92
12 1.S u.6S 1.SS 22uS.82 261S
16 1.8 u.71 1.SS 2112.S
2u 2.S u.6S 1.SS 2u4S.24
2S S u.67 1.SS 2u4S.4
Note:
1. The values of M
A
, Z, P, S
h
 used for calculation of S
TE
 are same as given in Table2­4. 
2. The value of i used is based on requirement such that 0.75 i should not be less than 1.0 
3. S
A
 = f (1.25 S
c
 + 0.25 S
h
) where f = 1 & S
c
 = 1106 (kg/cm
2


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24 
 
TABLE­2­4 
T
u
b
e

s
i
z
e

0
B

(
B
o
)

m
m

W
a
l
l

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

(
t
)

(
m
m
)

C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
u

B
2

(
B
2
=
1
.
3
h
2 3

)

B
2

v
a
l
u
e

t
o

b
e

u
s
e
u

f
o
i

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

(
a
s

B
2

c
a
n
n
o
t

b
e

l
e
s
s

t
h
a
n

1
)

Z

(
m
m
S
)

Z

=



n
S
2
-

Ð
o
4


J
4
Ð
o

W
L

(
w
t
.

o
f

1
m

o
f

t
u
b
e

f
i
l
l
e
u

w
i
t
h

B
2
0
)

k
g
¡
m

W
F
 
(
w
t
.

o
f

f
i
t
t
i
n
g
)

(
k
g
)

M
a
(
k
g
¡
m
m
)


{
H
A
=
w
L
4
+
w
L
2
8
}

S
s
l

(
k
g
¡
c
m
2
)

S
s
l
=


|
B
1
P
B
o
2
t
n
1
+

B
2
N
a
Z

1
.
5
S
h
 
(
k
g
¡
c
m
2
)

W
h
e
t
h
e
i


S
s
l

<

1
.
S

S
h

 
 
 
M
b
 

(
K
g

m
m
)

S
o
l
=
B
1
-
P
m
o
x
-
Ð
o
2
t
n
+

B
2
-
|
H
o
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2.7 Consideration for various forces
The design of tubing/piping systems for sensing lines should take account of all
the forces and moments resulting from thermal expansion and contraction and
from the effects of expansion joints if any.
2.8 Tube Bending Considerations
Bend radius in instrument tubing/piping should be subject to following
limitations;
i) Minimum wall thickness at any point in the completed bends should not be
less than required minimum wall thickness for the design pressure.
ii) The ovality of instrument tubing/piping after bending should not exceed
8% as calculated below:

Ovality (%) = 100 (D max – D min)/Do
Where –
Do = Nominal O.D. of tube/pipe
Dmin = The min. outside diameter of tube/pipe after bending
Dmax = The max. outside diameter after bending
The above requirements are met if bend radius is more than 3Do.
2.9 Special design aspects to meet the requirements of class-I tubing
and tubing systems
In addition to the general requirements of impulse connections as mentioned
above, the following requirements should also be met for impulse connections for
pressure/differential pressure measurement in safety and safety related systems.

For safety and safety-related systems the safety classification of instrument
sensing lines including the first accessible isolating valves should at least remain
the same as that of process systems, and from the valves up to instruments they
should meet at least the requirements of ANSI-B-31.1.
SS tubes should meet the design intent of ASME Section III sub-section NB/NC.
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For seismic classification the instrument sensing lines should be of SSE Category
for safety and safety-related instrumentation systems.

A single instrument sensing line should not be used to perform both a safety-
related function and a non safety-related function unless the following can be
shown:
a. The failure of the common sensing line would not simultaneously
1. cause an action in a non-safety-related system that results in a plant
condition requiring protective action and
2. also prevent proper action of a protection system channel designed
to protect against the condition.
Tubing system should be such that the failure of non safety impulse line/tubing
should not affect the reading of safety system.

2.10 CONCLUSION
1) MATERIAL SELECTION
a. Based on the requirements of corrosion resistance, tensile strength,
hardness and weldability, austenitic stainless steel grade SS-304L material
as per ASTM A-213/SA655 has been selected and specified for instrument
tubing. Also the instrument SS tubing should be seamless, cold finished and
full annealed. From welding consideration the tubing should have delta
ferrite of 5 to 10%.
b. Based on the requirements of different applications the tubing in different
sizes have been specified i.e. OD of 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm and
25mm.

2) NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION
All finished tubing should be inspected by ultrasonic or eddy current methods
or any combination of these methods in accordance with the requirements of
NB-2550.

3) Based on the analysis of tubing systems carried out above for our installations the
stress values for different loading (service limits) are well within the required
limits.

4) Thus, if SS 304L instrument tubing are supplied as per specification above and
installation of tubing systems is done as per recommended practices(see
section-10) then instrument impulse tubing systems will be meeting the intent
of ASME Section III-Sub-Section NB-Class I components.
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3.0 Technical Requirements of SS tubes
Following design requirements should be specified while ordering SS tubes.
1. TYPE : SEAMLESS, AS PER ASTM-A213
2. MATERIAL : SS 304L
3. SIZE & THICKNESS : As per the Table below
Out side
dia. [mm]
Wall thickness [min]
and tolerance [mm]
Tolerances on O.D.
[mm]
Length of tube
Pieces
6
10
12
16
20
25
1.2 + 15%; -0%
1.2 + 15%; -0%
1.5 + 10%; -0%
1.8 + 10%, -0%
2.5 + 10%, -0%
3.0 + 10%; -0%
-00 + 0.10
-00 + 0.10
-00 +0. 10
-00 +0. 12
-00+ 0. 12
-00 + 0.12
6 meters

4. FLUID : Water/Steam/Lube oil
5. MAX. PRESSURE: 200 kg/cm
2
(g)
6. MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE : 320ºC
7. OVALITY VARIATION: < 8.0% OF O.D.
8. HARDNESS : > ROCKWELL B-65 & < ROCKWELL B-80
9. SURFACE FINISH: BETTER THAN 8.2 microns FOR O.D. & I.D.
10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES :
a. TENSILE STRENGTH : ≥ 4920 kg/cm
2
(g)
b. YIELD POINT : ≥1760 kg/cm
2
(g)
c. ELONGATION % IN 50MM GAUGE LENGTH : ≥ 35 %
11. TYPE TESTS
a. HARDNESS TEST : On one test piece of each size and each batch as per
relevant ASTM standard
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b. EXPANSION TEST : On one sample piece of each size and each batch as per
relevant ASTM standard
c. TENSILE TEST : On one sample piece of each size and each batch as per
relevant ASTM standard
d. FLATTENING AND DOUBLING OVER TEST : On one sample piece of
each size and each batch as per relevant ASTM standard
e. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS : One sample of each batch as per relevant ASTM
standard
12. ROUTINE TESTS
a. DIMENSIONAL TEST : Required to be done on 10 % of the lot
b. HYDROSTATIC TEST : At pressure of 300 kg/cm
2
(g) for 10 min. required to
be done on each sizes of each batch
13. LENGTH OF EACH TUBE: 6 meters
Relevant standards for SS tubes
Following standards should be followed while specifying or testing SS tubes.
Sr.
No.
Code/Standard Description
1. ASTM-A-213 Seamless Ferritic & Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler , Super
heater & Heat Exchanger Tubes
2. ASTM-A-450 General requirement for carbon, Ferritic & Austenitic Alloy
steel Tubes.
3. ASTM A 262 Standard Practices for Detecting susceptibility to inter-
granular attack in stainless steel .
4. ASTM A 370 Standard test method and definitions for mechanical testing
of steel products.
5. ASME SEC. III
NB 2550
Examination & Repair Of seam less and welded (without
filler metal) tubular products and fittings
6. PB-M-17 Specifications for Seamless Austenitic SS tubes
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4.0 Pneumatic Tubing
Copper tubes are primarily used for pneumatic connections. Earlier pneumatic
instruments were more popular and used (controllers, transmitters, indicators etc.). Thus
pneumatic tubing was used widely. However now-a-days most of the instruments that
are used are electronic instruments, thus the use of pneumatic tubing is limited. Still, at
present this is used to connect the pneumatic actuator and its accessories viz. positioners,
I/P converters, solenoid valves etc. which are quite important from plant operation point
of view. Pneumatic instruments are still prevalent in hazardous areas. Even though the
pneumatic instruments are passé, they still provide a very reliable alternative to
electronic instruments.
4.1 Advantages of using copper tubes
Strong, corrosion resistant, copper tube is the leading choice for pneumatic piping. There
are seven primary reasons for this:

1. Copper is economical. Easy handling, forming and joining permits savings
in installation time, material and overall costs. Long-term performance and
reliability mean fewer callbacks, and that makes copper the ideal cost-
effective tubing material.
2. Copper is lightweight. Copper tube does not require the heavy thickness of
ferrous or threaded pipe of the same internal diameter. This means copper
costs less to transport, handles more easily and, when installed, takes less
space.
3. Copper is formable. Because copper tube can be bent and formed, it is
frequently possible to eliminate elbows and joints. Smooth bends permit the
tube to follow contours and corners of almost any angle. With soft temper
tube, particularly when used for renovation or modernization projects,
much less wall and ceiling space is needed.
4. Copper is easy to join. Copper tube can be joined with capillary fittings.
These fittings save material and make smooth, neat, strong and leak-proof
joints. No extra thickness or weight is necessary to compensate for material
removed by threading.
5. Copper is safe. Copper tube will not burn or support combustion and de-
compose to toxic gases. Therefore, it will not carry fire through floors, walls
and ceilings. Volatile organic compounds are not required for installation.
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6. Copper is dependable. Copper tube is manufactured to well-defined
composition standards and marked with permanent identification so you
know exactly what it is and who made it.
7. Copper resists corrosion. Excellent resistance to corrosion and scaling
assures long, trouble-free service, which means satisfied customers.
4.2 Different types of copper tubes

Table 4-1 below identifies the six standard types of copper tube and their most
common applications
2
. The table also shows the ASTM Standard appropriate to the
use of each type along with a listing of its commercially available lengths, sizes and
tempers.

Types K, L, M, DWV and Medical Gas tube are designated by ASTM standard sizes,
with the actual outside diameter always 1/8-inch larger than the standard size
designation. Each type represents a series of sizes with different wall thicknesses.
Type K tube has thicker walls than Type L tube, and Type L walls are thicker than
Type M, for any given diameter. All inside diameters depend on tube size and wall
thickness.
Copper tube for air-conditioning and refrigeration field service (ACR) is designated
by actual outside diameter.
“Temper” describes the strength and hardness of the tube. In the piping trades,
drawn temper tube is often referred to as “hard” tube and annealed as “soft” tube.
Tube in the hard temper condition is usually joined by soldering or brazing, using
capillary fittings or
by welding. Tube in the soft temper can be joined by the same techniques and is also
commonly joined by the use of flare-type and compression fittings.
It is also possible to expand the end of one tube so that it can be joined to another by
soldering or brazing without a capillary fitting—a procedure that can be efficient
and economical in many installations.
Tube in both the hard and soft tempers can also be joined by a variety of
“mechanical” joints that can be assembled without the use of the heat source
required for soldering and brazing.
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Tabl e-4- 1

1. There are many other copper and copper alloy tubes and pipes available for specialized applications.
2. Individual manufacturers may have commercially available lengths in addition to those shown in this table.
3. Tube made to other ASTM standards is also intended for plumbing applications, although ASTM B 88 is by far the
most widely used. ASTM Standard Classification B 698 lists six plumbing tube standards including B 88.
4. Available as special order only.
4.3 Recommendations for selection of a type of copper tube
It is up to the designer to select the type of copper tube for use in a particular
application. Strength, formability and other mechanical factors often determine the
choice. Plumbing and mechanical codes govern what types may be used. When a
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choice can be made, it is helpful to know which type of copper tube has and can
serve successfully and economically in the following applications:
a. Underground Water Service: Use Type M hard for straight lengths joined
with fittings, and Type L soft where coils are more convenient.

b. Water Distribution Systems: Use Type M for above and below ground.

c. Chilled Water Main: Use Type M for all sizes.

d. Drainage and Vent System: Use Type DWV for above- and below-ground
waste, soil and vent lines, roof and building drains and sewers.

e. Heating: For radiant panel and hydronic heating and for snow melting
systems, use Type L soft temper where coils are formed in place or
prefabricated, Type M where straight lengths are used. For water heating and
low-pressure steam, use Type M for all sizes. For condensate return lines,
Type L is successfully used.

f. Solar Heating: See ‘Heating’ section above. For information on solar
installation and on solar collectors, write CDA.

g. Fuel Oil, L.P. and Natural Gas Services: Use Type L or Type ACR tube with
flared joints in accessible locations and brazed joints made using AWS A5.8
BAg series brazing filler metals in concealed locations.

h. Nonflammable Medical Gas Systems: Use Medical Gas tube Types K or L,
suitably cleaned for oxygen service per NFPA Standard No. 99, Health Care
Facilities.

i. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems: Copper is the preferred
material for use with most refrigerants. Use Types L, ACR or as specified.

j. Ground Source Heat Pump Systems: Use Types L or ACR where the ground
coils are formed in place or prefabricated, or as specified.

k. Fire Sprinkler Systems: Use Type M hard. Where bending is required, Types
K or L is recommended. Types K, L and M are all accepted by NFPA.

l. Low Temperature Applications –
Use copper tube of Type determined by rated internal working pressures at
room temperature as shown in Tables below. Copper tube retains excellent
ductility at low temperatures to –452°F and yield strength and tensile
strength increase as temperature is reduced to this point. This plus its
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excellent thermal conductivity makes an unusual combination of properties
for heat exchangers, piping, and other components in cryogenic plants and
other low temperature applications.

m. Compressed Air—Use copper tube of Types K, L or M determined by the
rated internal working pressures as shown in tables 4-2 to 4-9 below. Brazed
joints are recommended.


Table-4-2: Rated Internal Working Pressures for Copper Tube: TYPE DWV*




Table-4-3: Rated Internal Working Pressures for Copper Tube: TYPE K*



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Table-4-4: Rated Internal Working Pressures for Copper Tube: TYPE L*




Table-4-5: Rated Internal Working Pressures for Copper Tube: TYPE M*



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Table-4-6: Rated Internal Working Pressures for Copper Tube: TYPE ACR*

NOTE: * Based on ‘S’, the maximum allowable stress in tension (psi) for the indicated temperatures (°F).
** When brazing or welding is used to join drawn tube, the corresponding annealed rating must be used.
***Types M and DWV are not normally available in the annealed temper. Shaded values are provided for
guidance when drawn temper tube is brazed or welded.

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4.4 Technical Requirements of Copper tube
Following parameters are to be specified while preparing the specifications for
copper tubes for pneumatic piping.
1. Type : Annealed Copper, Seamless copper tubes as per ASTM-B-68M.
2. Length: 15 m< L < 80 meters
3. Size (mm):
Out Side
Dia. in mm
Tolerance On OD In mm Wall Thickness[In mm]
And Tolerance
6 +0.1
-0
1.2 + 0.16
-0
10 +0.1
-0
1.2 + 0.16
-0
12 +0.1
-0
1.2 + 0.16
-0
20 +0.12
-0
1.5 + 0.20
-0
25 +012
-0
1.5 + 0.20
-0
Note: Though from pressure rating consideration the thickness requirement may
be less but while deciding the thickness due consideration is to be given to the
strength.

4. Fluid: Air /oil / water
5. Max. Pressure: 8.5 kg/cm2(g)
6. Max. Temperature: up to 100
o
C
7. Hardness: Rockwell F50
8. Ovality Variation : < 0.7% Of O.D.
9. Surface Finish : Better than 8.2 Microns For O.D & I.D
10. Mechanical Properties:
a. Tensile Strength: 2200 kg/Cm2 (g)
b. Yield Point: 650 kg/cm
2
(g)
c. Elongation (%) in 50 mm Gauge Length: 40%

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11. Tests
11.1 Type Tests
a. Hardness Test: On one test piece of each size and each batch as per
ASTM-E-18
b. Expansion Test: On one sample piece of each size and each batch as per
ASTM-B-153
c. Tensile Test: On one sample piece Of Each Size And Each Batch As Per
ASTM-E-8M
d. Flattening And Doubling Over Test: On One sample piece Of Each
Size and Each Batch As Per BS-2871 & ASTM-E-255
e. Chemical Analysis: one sample of each batch as per ASTM-E-53 & ASTM-
B-55M

11.2 Routine Tests
a. Dimensional Test: Required to be done on 10% of the lot
b. Hydrostatic Test: At pressure of 50 kg/cm
2
(g); for 10 min. Required to
be done on each size each batch
c. Pneumatic Test: At a pressure 8.5 kg/cm
2
(g); for 10 min. Required to
be done on each size each batch.
4.5 Applicable international standards for copper tubes
Besides NPCIL specifications following international codes and standards may be
referred while specifying copper tubes.
ASTM-B-68M: Standard specification for seamless copper tube, bright Annealed
[metric]
ASTM-E-8M: Standard test Method for tension testing of metallic materials
[metric]
ASTM-E-18: Standard test method for Rockwell hardness and Rockwell
superficial hardness of metallic materials
ASTM-E-53: Method for chemical analysis of copper
ASTM-B-153: Standard test method for expansion [pin test] of copper and copper
alloy pipe and tubing
ASTM-E-243: Standard practice for electro-magnetic [eddy current] examination of
copper and copper alloy tubes.
ASTM-B-251M: Standard specification for general requirement for wrought
seamless copper and alloy tubes [metric]
ASTM-E-255: Practice for sampling copper and copper alloy for determination of
chemical composition.
BS-2871: Copper and copper alloys tubes

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5.0 ASTM Tubing Specifications outside
diameter/wall thickness
It is important to understand that both of the above can affect the ferrule(s) ability to seal
on the tubing. It is recommended to order tubing manufactured to the plus (+) side of the
outside diameter tolerance. Wall thickness variations can affect pressure ratings and flow
characteristics.

The following tables should explain the allowable variations.
ASTM Dimensional Specifications for Tubing
Table-A: Permissible Variations in Outside Diameter
Table-B: Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness
Table-C: Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness for ASTM B68 and ASTM B75 cold
drawn copper tubes
Table-A Permissible Variations in Outside Diameter


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Table-B: Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness

Table-C: Permissible Variations in Wall Thickness for ASTM B68 and ASTM
B75 cold drawn copper tubes


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6.0 EMBEDDED PENETRATIONS
Whenever the tubes have to pass through some floor slab or a wall an embedded
penetration is used. This serves two purposes viz.
a. Supporting the tube
b. Making a leak tight passage. This prevents streaming of radioactivity from an
active area to a non-active area
Guidelines for EP Design
Following general guidelines should be followed:

(a) There should be enough space between two penetrations so that tube fittings
(bore-through connector) can be installed easily using spanner or a suitable
tool.

(b) Lead shielding balls are filled in the floor penetration EPs.

(c) In floor penetration EPs bore through connector is installed only on the top
opening of the EP. Bottom opening is left as it is. This allows thermal
expansion of the tube through the EP and no additional stress is caused on
the EP.

(d) In the top plate of a floor EP a hole is made and a suitable plug is installed in
it. This hole is used to fill the Steel/lead shielding balls in the EP.

(e) In the bottom plate of a floor EP a hole is made and a suitable plug is installed
in it. This hole is used to take off the Steel/lead shielding balls from the EP.


Note: For further details on the EP installation refer section 12. 0 of this
technical note.
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7.0 METHODS OF CONNECTION OF INSTRUMENTATION
TUBES
Different types of connections/joints can be used in instrument sensing lines as discussed
below:
7.1 WELDED JOINTS
a) Butt-welded joints should be made wherever possible.
b) Socket-welded joints are permitted but limited to tube/pipe size of 50 mm
and less. Socket welded joints should conform to requirements of ANSI-B-
16.11. While performing socket-welding, approximately 1.6 mm should be
provided between the end of pipe/tube and bottom of socket, before
welding.
c) Socket welds should not be used where the existence of crevices could
accelerate corrosion.
7.2 FLARED, FLARELESS & COMPRESSION JOINTS
Flareless and compression type tube fittings may be used in instrument sensing
lines for the tube sizes not exceeding 25mm (1”) O.D. provided following
conditions are met.
a) Fittings and their joints should be of compatible material with the tubing or
pipe material with which they are used and should conform to the range of
wall thickness and method of assembly recommended by the
manufacturers.
b) Tube fittings should be used at pressure-temperature ratings, not exceeding
the recommendations of the manufacturer.
c) Wherever compression type flareless tube fittings are used, they should be
made of design in which the gripping members or sleeve shall grip or bite
into the outer surface of the tube hold the tube against pressure (to prevent
blow out) but, without seriously deforming the inside diameter. The
gripping member or sleeve should form a pressure seal against a fitting
body.
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d) Tube fittings should be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommended procedures.
e) The fitting parts of the original flareless tube fittings should be designed and
manufactured by same company. Replacement parts from different
manufacturers should be qualified to meet and seal properly at the design
service conditions, or the complete fittings should be replaced when needed.
f) The fittings selected should not degrade the inherent strength of the tubing
specified.
g) Service conditions such as vibration and thermal cycling should also be
considered in the application.
h) Metal tubing material should be softer than fitting material. For example,
stainless steel tubing should not be used with brass fittings.
i) When tubing and fittings are made of the same material, tubing must be
fully annealed and ferrule of fittings should have more hardness than tubing
material.
7.3 THREADED JOINTS
Threaded joints in which the threads provide the only seal may be avoided as far
as possible. Threaded joints should not be used between the process taps and
accessible isolating valves. However, threaded joints between accessible isolating
valve and instrument may be used within the limitations specified below:
a) Thread size should not exceed ¾” (N.B.)
b) Pipe threads should be taper pipe threads in accordance with applicable
standard. Suitable sealant should be used on pipe threads depending upon
the type of threads.
c) Threaded joints should not be used when severe erosion, crevice corrosion,
shock or vibrations are expected to occur.
d) In case of steam or hot water if service temperature is more than 100
o
C,
threaded connections should be used only if process pressure is less than
100 kg/cm
2
.
e) Threaded connections should not be used at temperature above 495
o
C.
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8.0 GUIDELINES FOR TAKE OFF CONNECTIONS
FOR SENSING LINES
Following guidelines pertaining to the take off connections (pressure taps) should be
followed.
8.1. LOCATION OF PRESSURE TAPS
a. In general the location of pressure taps in a pipe line having flowing fluid,
should be at a point where the flow is uniform.
b. Location of pressure taps should be at least 5 diameters downstream from
a symmetrical pipe fitting (as a reducer) and at least 10 diameters from any
unsymmetrical fitting (as a tee, elbow or valve). It should also be at least 2
diameters upstream from any fitting or irregularity.

c. LOCATION OF PRESSURE TAPS IN HORIZONTAL PIPES/VESEL:

I. GAS AS PROCESS FLUID: The location of pressure taps in the vertical
meridian upwards is preferred mainly for wet gas. For following
draining to occur, taps location angle should be less than 45
0
off the
vertical meridian plane.

II. LIQUID AS PROCESS FLUID: The pressure taps should be located in a
meridian plane with which the horizontal meridian is forming an angle
not greater than 45
O
above or below according to the position of the
measuring/sensing device.
If the liquid is clean, it is advisable to avoid the risk of gas in impulse
line by using tap location below the pipe horizontal meridian plane. If
on the other hand the liquid has significant solid content, then a
position above the horizontal centre line is recommended. In neither
case should the taps be more than 45
0
from the horizontal.
In cases where there is considerable volume of gas in liquid line and
needs special considerations a horizontal tap position should be used in
conjunction with gas vent connection and gas collecting chambers in the
impulse lines.
d. LOCATION OF PRESSURE TAPS IN VERTICAL PIPES/VESSELS
In case of vertical pipes/vessel, there are generally no problems as far as
the radial position of pressure taps is concerned.

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8.2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRESSURE TAP DESIGN
A. CONSIDERATIONS:
Following aspects should be kept in mind while designing the pressure taps for
take off connections.
I. MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Take of connections at the source together with attaching bosses or adapters
should be made of material at least equivalent to material of process
pipes/vessels to which they are attached. They should be designed to
withstand full line pressure, temperature and stresses.

II. DYNAMIC RESPONSE CONSIDERATIONS:
From measurement/accuracy considerations specially when the
pipes/vessels contain compressible flowing fluids, the higher size of pressure
taps are preferred for minimizing the possibility of plugging and for
minimizing the error due to friction, inertia and lag in the connections while
measuring dynamic pressures. When dynamics effects are not important
smaller tapping size and impulse tubing may be used.
III. TURBULENCE ERRORS:
It may be noted that for measurement of static pressure in above case if
higher size of opening is used as static pressure tap, the laminar flow past the
tap is affected so that the velocity of tap opening is not effectively zero. Thus
the pressure at tap involves some velocity pressure and is not true static
pressure. Also large tap will produce eddies in the stream and as these
eddies form and break away downstream, the pressure at tap fluctuates even
when the undisturbed pressure is constant.
The turbulence error is also a function of edge condition of pressure tap hole.
With the burrs up stream, flow is diverted away from the hole and the
pressure sensed at the hole is less than the true static pressure. Conversely,
if the burr is on downstream edge of the hole, the pressure at the hole will
have a positive velocity effect and the pressure at the hole will be greater
than the true static pressure.
IV. VELOCITY ERRORS:
In general the measurement errors are proportional to velocity pressure.
Thus when stream velocity is high, it is necessary to take great care in tap
construction with minimum possible tap diameter and special attention to
the sharpness and squareness of the edges of the hole. When the stream
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velocity is low, the size and workmanship of the tap hole are not so
important.
During fast transients, measurement errors may be more as the nozzle drop
(take off connection losses) is proportional to the square of the velocity.
However during steady state this loss can be neglected. Thus, in the system
where fast transients are expected this requirement is more crucial.
Thus based on above considerations the size of pressure tap holes should be
decided depending upon the process fluid condition, reliability of measurement,
accuracy, response time and requirement of physical strength.
8.3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRESSURE TAP DESIGN
Briefly the design and sizing recommendations for pressure taps for different
applications are given below.
a. In venturi tubes/orifice plates as the low pressure tap holes are to be located
in high velocity region, it is recommended to use small size of pressure tap
holes uniformly for HP & LP connections as recommended in ASME/PTC-9.5
(Flow measurement).
b. In all other applications where turbulence error does not come in picture, it is
recommended to use 20 mm NB pressure tap holes from the consideration of
reliable measurement/minimizing possibility of plugging/choking fast
response and mechanical/physical strength.
c. Workmanship of pressure taps holes plays an important role in
accurate/reliable measurement of pressure signals. Proper care should be
taken while machining the pressure tap holes. There should be no burrs, wire
edges or other irregularities on the inside of pipe/vessel at pressure tap
connections or along the edge of the hole through the pipe/vessel wall.
d. In no case shall any fittings project beyond the inner surface of the pipe/vessel
wall.
e. Also there should be no change in the pressure tap hole diameter for at least a
distance of 2.5 d as measured from the inner surface of the pipe/vessels ( d =
inside dia. of pressure tap hole).
f. Redundant taps should be located a distance apart such that the failure of one
tap does not adversely affect the reading through the other taps.

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9.0 GUIDELINES FOR ROOT VALVES

Isolating root valves are provided at take off connections to isolate the entire
measurement system from the main pipe line/vessel when necessary. Following
recommendations should be followed.
a. Root valves should not affect the pressure signal during normal operation.
b. Root valves should be capable of withstanding the maximum working
pressure and temperature of the piping/vessel system to which the take off
adapters or nipples are attached.
c. Isolating/root valves should be located immediately following the tapping
point.
d. It is preferred to use gate valves for root valves in order to:
i) Avoid trapping gas bubbles in the valve structure, in case of liquid flow
ii) Avoid trapping liquid in the valve structure, in case of gas flow.
e. Root valve bore/should not be less than the inside diameter of impulse
tubing/piping.
f. It is recommended that the root valves be ¾ inch unless special requirements
necessitate a different size.
g. The root valves may or may not perform the function of the accessible
isolation valve, dependent on its location.
h. Root valves should be of the same material as that of the pipe they are
connected to.

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10.0 INSTALLATION OF INSTRUMENTATION
TUBING
10.1 Best practices for impulse tubing installation
Separation between redundant instrument sensing lines should be provided
by free air space or barriers or both such that no single failure can cause the
failure of more than one redundant sensing line.
The minimum separation between redundant sensing lines should be at least
450 mm. As an alternate a suitable steel or concrete barrier can be used.
Instrument sensing lines should be run along the walls, columns or ceilings
wherever practicable, avoiding open or exposed area to decrease the
likelihood of persons supporting themselves on the lines or of damage to the
sensing lines by pipe whip, jet forces or falling objects.
Routing of instrument sensing lines should ensure that the lines are not
subjected to vibrations, abnormal heat or stress.
Where redundant instrument sensing lines penetrate a wall or floor the
required separation (Minimum 450 mm) should be maintained. Care should
be taken to ensure that the tubing/piping does not rest on or against any
abrasive surface.
They should be kept as short as possible. This is good for two reasons;

a. The speed of response is reduced for long runs
b. Resonance frequency is increased for longer tube runs. This is
detrimental from vibratory and seismic considerations.

The distance of transmission for instrumentation tubing should be limited to
16 meters only. Beyond this limit electrical or pneumatic transmission should
be used.
They should not cause any obstructions that would prohibit personnel or
traffic access.
They should not interfere with the accessibility for maintenance of other
items of equipment/instrument.
They should avoid hot environments or potential fire risk area.
Sensing lines should be located with sufficient clearance to permit sagging.
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The two impulse lines especially in case of ΔP /flow measurements should be
kept close together to avoid a false pressure difference arising from a
difference in temperature.
There should be provision for thermal expansion and contraction preferably
by tube/pipe bends, elbows, offsets or changes in direction of sensing lines.
The number of joints should be kept to a minimum.
Sensing lines should be adequately supported along its entire length.
Supports, brackets, clips, or hangers shall not be fastened to the instrument
sensing lines for the purpose of supporting cable trays or any other
equipment.
Sensing lines should continuously slope downwards towards the sensing
instruments in case of liquid and upwards in case of gases. The slope should
not be less than 1:12. The slope should be increased if the liquid in impulse
lines is more viscous than water.
Bends rather than fittings should be used to change the direction of a run of
piping or tubing. A bending tool should be used when bending the tubing in
cold condition. Fittings are permitted where the use of bends is not practical.
Sharp bends should be avoided.
While installing the sensing lines the bend radius of tubing should not be
less than 3 Do.
Tubes at different temperatures should not be run together for level
measurement. This may affect the density of fluid in reference or
measurement legs.
The instrument sensing tubing or piping runs pertaining to a nuclear safety-
related instrument channel should be identified and coded so as to identify its
channel.
Each instrument-sensing line and associated valves in this channel should
have an identification tag showing the channel and unique line or valve
identification number.
If multiple sensing lines are installed in a single tray, the tray should be
identified with the appropriate sensing line numbers, colors, etc.
Each instrument sensing line, as a minimum, should be tagged at its process
line root-valve connection, at the instrument, and at any point in between
where the sensing line passes through a wall or a floor (on both sides of such
penetration). Each valve also should be tagged.
Where tubing penetrates a radiation, fire, water, or air seal, care should be
taken to ensure that the seal is not degraded by the sensing line's seismic or
thermal movements. In addition, the mechanical properties of the seal shall be
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reviewed to ensure that the seal does not anchor the sensing line when a
guide is required.
All sensing lines including trays, supports, instrumentation, valves, and other
in-line devices should be installed to avoid contact interferences caused by
relative motion between the sensing line and other adjacent equipment or
devices. Sources of relative motion that should be considered are thermal
expansion, seismic motions, vibrations, and design-basis accidents or events.
The Code classification of the sensing line will determine the requirements for
relative motion that shall be considered.
Routing of the nuclear safety-related sensing lines shall ensure that the
function of these lines is not affected by thermal motions due to “hot blow
down” of the sensing lines. One of the following methods should be used to
ensure that the sensing-line function is not affected:
1. Demonstrate by documented analysis or calculations that the majority
of the sensing line routing is at ambient temperature, and “hot blow
down” is not a design loading.
Or
2. Design the sensing line routing using the process design temperature
as the temperature value used in the design analysis.
Routing of the nuclear safety-related sensing lines shall ensure that the
function of these lines is not affected by the movement of the main process
(piping, ductwork, equipment, etc.) to which the sensing line is connected.
One of the following methods should be used to ensure that the sensing line
function is not affected:

1. Demonstrate by documented analysis or calculations that the process
movements are negligible.
Or
2. Demonstrate by documented analysis or calculations that sufficient
flexibility has been provided to accommodate the process movements.

Flexible hose may be used in sensing lines to accommodate the process
thermal, seismic, and vibrational movements if its ratings equal or exceed the
design requirements, including service life. Installation considerations should
include maintaining slope and no low points.
Instrument sensing lines and accessories inside the Containment Building
shall withstand the pressure profile during containment leak-rate testing.

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Tubing Handling
Imperfection on the tube OD can be potential source of problems in a tubing
system. Handling of the tube shall be done very carefully to avoid scratches
and protect the finish of the tubes.
 Dragging the tube across any surface that could scratch the surface can
cause seal corrosion and sealing problems. On offshore facilities
scratches on tube may lead to corrosion of SS tubing from salt water
pitting.
 It is a good practice to visually inspect tubing to ensure it is free from
scratches and other damage.
 When cutting the tubing hacksaw must not be used, the correct tool is a
tube cutter with a sharp blade.
 Correct deburring tool shall be used for deburring both inside and
outside edge of tube ends.
 It is good practice to clean the tubing with dry instrument air. If the
surface requires higher degree of cleanliness then a cleaning agent
should be used.
10.2 Some Practical Guidelines for Tube Laying and Bending
1. Measure Exactly - Bend Accurately
These are the two most important rules which must be observed when fabricating
a tube line. (See Figure-10-1 below)


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EXACT MEASUREMENT is required to insure that you obtain the desired distance
between bends. If you do not measure exactly, the tube line will not fit. (See
Figure-10-2 below)

ACCURATE BENDING is necessary to achieve the exact angles required for the
tube line. If you do not bend accurately, the tube line will not fit. (See Figure 10-3
below)


2. Tube Centerline Basis for Measurement:
The centerline of the tube is the basis for all tube line measurement (See Figure-
10-4 below). Always measure from the centerline except from the first bend which
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is measured from the end of the tube. On most benders, the edge of the radius
block is at the centerline of the tube.


3. Control Accuracy
Remember only you can control the accuracy of your work. Use good, careful
workmanship at all times.

10.3 Tube Bending Check list
Follow this list to insure good results on each bend.
a. Measure and mark exactly. Insert tube in bender.
b. Always try to bend in the same direction! If you backbend, be sure to
compensate for gain or pickup. Remember, gain always occurs to the right
side of the tube radius block.
c. Clamp tubing securely in bender.
d. Check to make certain length mark is tangent to desired angle on radius
block or in line with the desired degree on the link member.
e. Bend accurately to the desired angle plus spring back allowance.
f. Open bender, remove tube.
g. Double check bend angle with triangle.
h. Check measurement length with tape or ruler.
i. The bending radius selected must be at least three times the outside
diameter of the tube.
Keep Track of Changes of Plane
Benders bend in only one direction. Changes in plane are
accomplished by rotating the tubing in the bender. To
insure that the tubing is correctly placed for the desired
change in plane, a reference mark on the tube is very
helpful.
Bend Direction Mark
One method for keeping track of changes in plane is to
use a longitudinal or lengthwise bend direction mark.
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(See Figure 10-5 above)Put the mark on the side opposite the direction in which you wish
to bend. When you put the tube in the bender, center the mark face up in the groove of
the radius block. (See Figure 10-
6)This will insure that you bend
in the correct direction. It also
gives you a reference mark in
case you must leave your work
unfinished.
Marking the Tube
Whenever you make a mark on
tubing, use a sharp pencil. Use a
ferrule as a guide to make
measurement marks all the way
around the tube so that the mark
is always visible. (See Figure 10-7) Don’t use grease
pencils or crayons as these make too wide a line which
can easily affect accuracy.
Measure and Mark
Never use a sharp tool to scratch marks onto tubing.
Scratches create points where corrosion or stress
concentration can ruin or dangerously weaken the tube.
Rules for Positioning Tubing in Bender
A line which is tangent to the desired angle mark on the radius block and which passes
through the measurement mark at the centerline of the tube, is used to control the
distance between bend centerlines. (See Figure below)

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Tube Positioning Rules

90° angles - tangent flush with length mark (refer to dotted line xy
tangent to radius block @ 90° fig. 10-8 (above).

Angles less than 90° - tangent intersects length mark at centerline.

Angles more than 90° - position for a 90° bend and continue on to
desired angle, i.e. 135°, 145°. (i.e. Length mark @ 90° on link member)

Horseshoe or u-bends – measure first leg, position for 90°, bend
around to 180°.

Compensate for springback:
a. Test a piece of the material before you start fabricating a line to see how much it
springs back on a 90° bend.
b. Overbend by the amount of
springback. For example, if the material
springs back 3° on a 90° bend, bend to 93°
to secure a finished 90° bend, or to 46-
1/2° to obtain finished 45° bend. This
works especially well with large heavy-
wall tubing.
c. Remember, it is always better to
underbend slightly. You can always bend a
little more if needed, but it’s almost
impossible to remove or straighten a bend,
especially with large, heavy-wall tubing.
REMEMBER - A TUBE BENDER BENDS -
IT CAN NOT UNBEND.
Tube Stretch or Pickup
When bent, tubing seems to stretch or pick up
length. This is because it takes a curved
shortcut across the inside of the angle. A good
“rule of thumb” for most standard tubing
materials and radius blocks is that the tubing
will stretch approximately one tube diameter
for each 90° bend.
Always try to bend in the same direction -
away from the original starting end. If you
reverse the direction of bending (bending
towards instead of away from the original starting end) you will “trap” the stretch. Thus,
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if you unknowingly make a reverse bend of 90°, you will trap the gain, in table 10-1
(approximately one tube O.D.) and increase your length between bends by that amount. If
bend direction for either 45° or 90° bend must be reversed, subtract the “gain” amount
listed in table 10-1.
While our rule of thumb is approximately correct, the amount of stretch is related to the
diameter of the radius block used. This chart (Figure 10-11) gives the accurate increase in
length that occurs with the most commonly used sizes of radius blocks. As long as you
measure and bend with the tube inserted from the left, and measure centerline, “pickup”
will not affect your actual center-to- center measurement.


NOTE:
1. Some radius blocks
may differ. Consult indi vi dual
radi us block manufacturers for
details on other radi us
diameters.
2. For metric tubes the
size and radius can be
computed in the similar way.



Pre-Measuring
You may pre-measure a series
of bends. Measure the first
bend from the end of the tube,
the correct length. Compensate
for each bend after the first by
subtracting the amount of gain
from your chart for each 90° of
bend to allow for stretch
(Figure 4-11). Always custom
measure for the last bend.

“Rule of Thumb” Method
Compensate each
measurement after the first by
subtracting the gain listed in
table 10-1. Best Way to
Measure For maximum
Table-10-1

Radius of

Tube size
(in
inches)
Size Bender Gain Gain
(in inches) 90° 45°
1/8 2 3/8 .16 .02
3/16 3 7/16 .19 .02
1/4 4 9/16 .24 .02
5/16 5 11/16 .30 .03
3/8 6 15/16 .40 .04
1/2 8 1-1/2 .64 .06
5/8 10 1-7/8 .80 .08
3/4 12 2-1/4 .97 .10
7/8 14 2-5/8 1.13 .11
1 16 3 1.29 .13
1-1/4 20 3-3/4 1.61 .16
1-1/2 24 4-1/2 1.93 .19
2 32 8 3.43 .34
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accuracy, measure and bend exactly for
each individual bend in the tubing line.
We recommend the practice of Measure
and Bend then again Measure and Bend,
etc.
10.4 Characteristics of a Well-Made Tubing Circuit
In a well made tubing circuit or line, bends are accurate, measurement exact. The run is
plumb, square and level. Tube ends rest firmly in the fittings and entry into the fittings is
straight. Straight tube entry is very important to insure that fittings are not under stress
and can be assembled without leaks. (See Figure 4-13below)
Remember too, that length magnifies bend angles errors. If the leg following the bend is
fairly long, an error of 1° may result in the tube line missing the desired point completely.





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Recommended Free Tubing
Lengths
It is important to consider the
length of tubing from the end in the
fitting body to the beginning of the
bend. Table: 10-2 lists the
recommended lengths “L” and “D”
for various sizes of tubes.







Table: 10-2
T
U
B
E

O
.
D
.

i
n
c
h
e
s

1
/
1
6

1
/
8

3
/
1
6

1
/
4

5
/
1
6

3
/
8

1
/
2

5
/
8

3
/
4

7
/
8

1

1
-
1
/
4

1
-
1
/
2

2


L


F
r
e
e

L
e
n
g
t
h

o
f

S
t
r
a
i
g
h
t

T
u
b
i
n
g

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)

.
5
0

.
7
0

.
7
5

.
8
0

.
8
8

.
9
4

1
.
1
9

1
.
2
5

1
.
2
5

1
.
3
1

1
.
5
0

1
.
9
4

2
.
4
1

3
.
2
5


D


T
u
b
e

I
n
s
e
r
t
i
o
n

D
e
p
t
h

(
i
n
c
h
e
s
)

.
3
8

.
5
2

.
5
6

.
6
1

.
6
6

.
6
9

.
9
4

.
9
8

.
9
8

1
.
0
5

1
.
2
2

1
.
6
1

1
.
9
6

2
.
6
5

10.5 Common Causes of Imperfect Bends
Figure A shows an ideal bend. Bends with little or no flattening are produced when
correct equipment and methods are employed; when proper consideration is given to co-
relationship of the radius of the bend, material wall thickness and hardness of the tube.
Figure B shows a flattened bend, caused by trying to bend too short a radius, or bending
smaller diameter tube in larger radius block. Figure C shows a kinked and flattened bend,
caused by the tube slipping in the bender, or by using non-annealed tubing. Tubes must
be firmly clamped by clamp block to prevent slippage during bending process. Figure D
shows a wrinkled bend, sometimes produced when thin wall tube is bent. Breakage will
sometimes occur when mandrel is too far forward in tube, or when too short a radius is
attempts with hard tube.
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Offset Bends
To form a tube offset, it is obviously necessary to make two bends. With the tube benders,
it is easy to make double 45° bends. To make an offset bend simply follow the “Offset
Bend Allowance” steps below to determine the proper distance between the two 45°
bends. Here’s the procedure.

STEP 1 First, determine the total
amount of offset required
(dimension “F” in the diagram).
STEP 2 Next, determine the angle of
offset - 30° or 45°. The latter (45°) is
recommended because benders are
calibrated for 45° bending.
STEP 3 Figure the length of the tube required to meet your offset requirements (“L”
dimension) in the diagram. For 30° bends multiply desired offset “F”x 2= 30° offset
dimension “L”. For 45° bends multiply desired offset “F”x 1414=45° offset dimension “L”.
STEP 4 Determine where you want the offset bend of the tube to start; and make a
reference mark (A). Now measure off the “L” dimension (determined in Step 3), starting
from the reference mark and make a second mark (B). You are now ready to make the
bends.
STEP 5 Align mark (A) with reference mark 45° on bender shoe handle (measurement
end to the left) and proceed with first bend. Then align (B) with 45° mark and make
second bend in proper direction (measurement end to the left). Follow previous detailed
instructions for making 45° bends in one plane.
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10.6 Routing of Bends
Routing of lines is probably the most difficult yet most significant of these system design
considerations. Proper routing involves getting a connecting line from one point to
another through the most logical path. The most logical path should:

Avoid excessive strain on joints - A strained joint will eventually leak.


Figure-10-17



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Figure-10-18

Allow for expansion and contraction - Use a “U” bend in long lines to allow for expansion
and contraction.


Allow for motion under load - Even some apparently rigid systems do move under load.


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Get around obstructions without using excessive amount of 90° bends.

Pressure drop due to one 90° bend is greater than that due to two 45° bends.


Keep tube lines away from components that require regular
maintenance.


Have a neat appearance and allow for easy trouble shooting,
maintenance and repair.

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10.7 Guidelines for Copper Tube Installation
Following additional guidelines for the installation of copper tubes should be followed.
Generally long runs of copper tubes are not used because of slow response.
Therefore, extension of tube length is not required. However, if it is needed union
is used (instead of brazing and welding).
Separation is being maintained between the pneumatic tubing used for redundant
valves/instruments.
Because of response time considerations 6 mm tubes are for short distances
whereas 10 mm tubes are used for air supply connections.
Pneumatic tubing for redundant instruments should be taken from different
supply headers.
Considering the strength and hardness of copper tubing, brass tube fitting
becomes the preferred choice. The tube fitting that is used is Brass compression
type single ferrule tube fitting.
The installation procedure of brass tube fitting is more or less similar to that of SS
tube fitting. However galling problem of straight threads is not there to that extent
as that of SS tube fittings.
Moisture free instrument air is recommended from the consideration of corrosion
of tubing.
Tubing should not be laid at a place where human or machine movements are
expected. As these tubes are soft they may get damaged.
10.8 Guidelines for Copper tube bending
Because of its exceptional formability,
copper can be formed as desired at the
job site. Copper tube, properly bent, will
not collapse on the outside of the bend
and will not buckle on the inside of the
bend. Tests demonstrate that the
bursting strength of a bent copper tube
can actually be greater than it was
before bending. Because copper is
readily formed, expansion loops and
other bends necessary in an assembly
are quickly and simply made if the
proper method and equipment are used.
Simple hand tools employing mandrels,
dies, forms and fillers, or power-
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operated bending machines
can be used. Both annealed tube and hard drawn tube can be bent with the appropriate
hand benders. The proper size of bender for each size tube must be used. For a guide to
typical bend radii, see Table10-3. The procedure for bending copper tube with a lever-
type hand bender is illustrated in Figure below

10.9 Copper tube Joints
Soldered joints, with capillary fittings, are used in plumbing for water lines and for
sanitary drainage. Brazed joints, with capillary fittings, are used where greater joint
strength is required or where service temperatures are as high as 350°F. Brazing is
preferred, and often required, for joints in refrigeration piping.

Mechanical joints are used frequently for underground tubing, for joints where the
use of heat is impractical and for joints that may have to be disconnected from time
to time.

Copper tube may also be joined by butt-welding without the use of fittings. Care
must be taken to use proper welding procedures.
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11.0 Impulse tube/Sensing line support
Following principals should be followed while designing the instrument sensing line
supports.
Hanger, support and clamps design should include provision for seismic, pipe
whip and thermal expansion of process taps and instrument sensing lines to which
the hangers, supports or clamps may be subjected during normal operation,
seismic or other credible events.
Material for hanger, clamps, pads and spacers in contact with sensing lines should
be compatible to avoid corrosion.
From the consideration of seismic qualification the following supporting criterion
should be followed:
b) Supports should be placed at a distance of about 150 mm from each end of
tube fittings as well as bends in the tubing layout.
c) Instrument isolating valves or other instrumentation valves coming in the
sensing lines should be supported with suitable clamps.
d) In the intermediate tubing runs supports should be located in such a way
that the maximum unsupported span is not more than 1m.
From the consideration of thermal loading, tube fittings and bends coming in the
sensing lines should not be supported. This criterion will be applicable for sensing
lines/tubing where temperature cycling is expected.
Tube Clamping
Once you’ve taken the time to make good bends and installed them, it’s not enough to just
let them lay suspended in mid-air. When tubing is left unsupported, shock and vibration
will cause the tubing to shake, and in turn, cause the fitting to loosen and leak or even
allow tube to fall through fatigue.
Tube support and clamping is a necessary
requirement in the fluid power industry.
Tubing can be clamped individually, in sets,
and can also be stacked. The most
important part of any clamping system is
having enough
clamps to attain the final result. That being,
a well supported, vibration and noise free
system.
Also, most manufacturers specify SAE and
JIC approved components on their
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equipment. The best way to meet these specs concerning clamps is to utilize a clamp that
employs both an upper and lower unit made of metal and a rubber split bushing which
surrounds the tube or pipe and fits on the inside of the clamping units.
Parker Hannifin offers a tube clamp support system by the name of “ParKlamp”. ParKlamp can clamp and
support tube from 1/4” to 2” and pi pe or hose from 1/4” to 1-1/2”. It comes standard in steel and uses a rubber
grommet around the tube for vibration dampening.

Alongside Table-11-1 is
showing maximum
permissible spacing
between clamps. It is
recommended to clamp
as close to each bend of
the tube as possible; and
one must clamp each
side. This eliminates
thrust in all directions.
The tube should be
clamped at 1 m distance preferably. (See class-1 Tubing design)


Table-11-1

FOOT SPACING
EQUIVALENT SPACING IN
TUBE TUBE BETWEEN METERS
O.D.” (mm) SUPPORTS (Approx.)
1/4” - 1/2” 6 - 13 mm 3 ft. .9 m
3/8” - 7/8” 14 - 22 mm 4 ft. 1.2 m
1” 23 - 30 mm 5 ft. 1.5 m
1-1/4” & up 31 & up mm 7 ft. 2.1
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12.0 Impulse tube installation through EPs
In case where tubing/piping are
penetrating shielding wall, care should
be taken to avoid personnel exposure
to radiation streaming from radioactive
sources to surrounding areas through
instrument sensing lines penetrations
in the shielding wall. To take care of
the above, sensing lines penetrating the
shield wall should be passed through
embedded parts and surrounded by a
pipe sleeve in the shielding wall. The
open space between the pipe
Figure-12-1
sleeve and the sensing lines should be filled with the suitable radiation absorbing
material. Sensing lines (tubing/piping) should pass the E.P. through seal plate and
suitable sealing arrangement should be
provided on the seal plate using suitable
fittings/bore through tube fittings etc.








Figure-12-2

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13.0 TUBE FITTINGS
Tube fittings are used to join or connect a tube end to another member, whether that
other member be another tube end such as through T-fittings and elbow fittings, for
example, or a device that needs to be in fluid communication with the tube end, such as
for example, a valve.
Any tube fitting must accomplish two important functions within the pressure,
temperature and vibration criteria that the tube fitting is designed to meet. First, the tube
fitting must grip the tube end so as to prevent loss of seal or tube blow out. Secondly, the
tube fitting must maintain a primary seal against leakage.
The requirement that a tube fitting accomplish these two functions has been the driving
factor in tube fitting design for decades. A multitude of factors influence the design of a
tube fitting to meet a desired grip and seal performance criteria, but basic to any tube
fitting design will be:
1.0 The characteristics of the tubing that the fitting must work with, including
the material, outside diameter and wall thickness; and
2.0 The tube grip and seal performance level required of the tube fitting for its
intended applications.
13.1 Requirements of a tube fitti ng
Tube fittings that are intended for use with stainless steel tubing, for example, are
particularly challenging to design in order to achieve the desired tube grip and
seal functions. This arises from the nature of stainless steel which, in terms of
typical commercially available tubing material, is a very hard material, usually on
the order of up to 200 Vickers. Stainless steel tubing is also used for high pressure
applications in which the tubing wall thickness is substantial (referred to in this
paper as "heavy walled" tubing). Heavy wall tubing is difficult to grip because it is
not only hard but it is also not particularly ductile. Low ductility makes it more
difficult to deform the tubing plastically so as to achieve a desired tube grip.
A tube fitting has to meet the following requirements:

Offer reliable installation over a range of field conditions, since improper
make-up and tightening remain the leading causes for leakage.
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Cope with the wide variation in tubing characteristics, including differences
in wall thickness, hardness, ovality, and burst pressures.
Deliver a predictable, consistent “feel” to installers, who sometimes judge
installation quality by effort (torque) rather than the recommended
installation practice. Fittings that require high installation torque or that
vary widely in the “feel” and effort required to achieve complete pull-up
may cause installers to improperly tighten components and severely
degrade tube fitting performance.
Fittings should be of a compatible material with the tubing or pipe material
on which they are used to avoid electrolysis and to provide acceptable weld
joints.
Tube fittings should be used at pressure-temperature ratings not exceeding
the recommendation of the tube fitting manufacturer and to meet the
environmental and process system requirements.
Tube fittings should be installed in accordance with manufacturer's
recommendations.
In the absence of any existing standards, the designer should determine
that the type of fitting selected is qualified for design conditions (including
vibration, pressure, and thermal shock and applicable environmental
conditions) or should demonstrate this by testing the fitting's ability to
perform its intended function. The fittings selected should not degrade the
inherent strength of the tubing specified.
Screwed joints in which pipe threads provide the only seal may be used, as
long as they are in compliance with the appropriate code and system
temperature and pressure requirements.
Thread sealant should be suitable for the required service conditions
considering the process media, radiation environment, and compatibility
with the materials of construction.
It should withstand the temperature and pressure cycling as per
appropriate standard (PB-E-146).
Pull Out Capability: Tube fitting should provide sufficiently robust grip on
the tube such that when a tensile load (e.g. during hydro test or during
operating conditions) is applied on it the tube does not pull out of the grip.
Generally the acceptable pull out tension load is more than four times the
hydrostatic test pressure load.
It is recommended that compression type tube fitting should not be used
for welded tubes. As in such type of tubes the hardness differs at the point
of welding. This difference makes the gripping action of the ferrule
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unreliable. (This may be noted that NAPS onwards welded tubes have
replaced by Seamless annealed tubing in all NPCIL plants/projects)

13.2 Construction of a tube fitting
Tube fittings for stainless steel tubing typically include an assembly of

a tube gripping device, often in the form of a ferrule or ferrules, or a
gripping ring-like structure, and
a pull-up mechanism for causing the tube gripping device to be installed on
a tube end so as to grip the tube end and provide a seal against leakage.

The term "pull-up" simply refers to the operation of tightening the tube fitting
assembly so as to complete the assembly of the fitting onto the tube end with the
desired tube grip and seal.
Usually a stainless steel tube fitting is first assembled in a "finger tight" condition
and then a wrench or other suitable tool is used to tighten or "pull up" the fitting
to its final initial and complete assembled condition. In some cases, especially for
larger tube sizes, a swaging tool is used to pre-install a ferrule onto the tubing. The
pull up mechanism most commonly used is a threaded connection of a female
threaded nut component and a male threaded body component, with the tube
gripping device being acted upon by these two components as they are threaded
and tightened together. The body includes a tube end receiving bore with an
angled camming surface at the outer portion of that bore. The most commonly
used camming surfaces are frusto-conical such that the term "camming angle"
refers to the cone angle of the camming surface relative to the tube end
longitudinal axis or outer surface. The tube end is axially inserted into the body
bore and extends past the frusto-conical camming surface. The gripping device is
slipped onto the tube end and the nut is partially threaded onto the body to the
finger tight position such that the tube gripping device captured axially between
the camming surface and the nut. The nut typically includes an inward shoulder
that drives the tube gripping device into engagement with the angled camming
surface on the body as the nut and body components are threadably tightened
together. The angled camming surface imparts a radial compression to the tube
gripping device, forcing the tube gripping device into a gripping engagement with
the tube end.
The tube gripping device typically is to form a seal against the outer surface of the
tubing and also against the angled camming surface.
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13.3 Types of tube fittings
Generally following types of fittings are available:
(a) Flareless Compression Type (Single Ferrule)
(b) Flareless Compression Type (Double Ferrule)
(c) Bite Type
(d) Flared Fitting

A flareless tube fitting generally refers to a type of tube fitting in which the tube
end remains substantially tubular, in contrast to a flared tube fitting in which the
tube end is outwardly flared over a fitting component. Flared tube ends are
commonly encountered in use with plastic tubing and plastic tube fittings.
The present note is not directed to plastic tubing or tube fittings because such
fittings have significantly different challenges and material properties that affect
the ability of the fitting to both grip the tube and provide an adequate seal.
Operating pressures and temperatures are also typically substantially lower in the
plastics tubing systems. In other words, with respect to tube grip and seal,
whatever works in a plastic tube fitting provides little or no guidance for a non-
plastic tube fitting.
Among the above, the recommended fitting is flareless compression type twin
ferrule tube fitting. Because of its ease of installation and higher reliability this
type of fitting is most commonly used.
13.4 Flared Fitting
This is made up of a nut, sleeve and body with a flare or coned end. In some
instances, the sleeve is used as a self-flaring option, usually on thinner wall or
softer tubing materials. Compared to the original compression fitting, the flare
fitting can handle higher pressures and wider system parameters. It is also
available in a larger variety of materials and has a larger seal area, which provides
remake capabilities in maintenance applications. However, special flaring tools are
required to prepare the tubing for installation. Additionally, flaring of the tubing
can cause stress risers at the base of the flare or cause axial cracks on thin or
brittle tubing. Uneven tube cuts will create an uneven sealing surface.

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13.5 Flareless Bite type tube fitting
A Flareless bite type fitting consists of a body, a
special case hardened ferrule (a one-piece precision
machined ferrule) and a nut, put together in a
standard way. On assembly, the ferrule "bites" into
the outer surface of the tube with sufficient strength
to hold the tube against pressure, without
significant distortion of the inside tube diameter.
Hence, the name "bite type fitting". As used herein,
the term "bite" refers to the plastic deformation of
the ferrule into the outer surface of the tube end so
as to plastically deform and indent the tubing with
an almost cutting- like action to create a generally radial shoulder or wall at the
front end of the ferrule. This "bite" thus serves as a strong structural feature to
prevent tube blow out at high pressure, particularly for larger diameter tubing
such as 1/2"and higher.
As compared to ordinary compression joints, the ferrule holds the pipe in its place
to give a proper seal when the nut is screwed on to the body. When it is fully
tightened, the case hardened ferrule is pushed slightly in the middle where it acts
as a spring. This maintains a continuous friction between the body and nut and
which help prevent the nut from loosening under stress and repeated vibration.
Bite-type fittings are typically single ferrule in design. This requires the nose of the
ferrule to perform two functions: to bite into the tube to hold it, and to provide a
sealing element for the coupling body, an action that can easily compromise one or
both functions. A two-ferrule separation of functions (the first to seal, the second
to hold the tube) would solve this problem, as the separation would permit each of
the elements to be designed specifically for the task.
13.6 FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE FITTI NG
Over the years there have been numerous tube fitting designs that do not rely on
a "bite" type action, but rather merely radially compress the tube gripping device
against the tubing outer surface, some with the effect of indenting into the tubing
without creating a bite.
The most common commercially available stainless steel tube fittings especially
for high pressure applications have historically been of two radically distinct
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designs of the tube gripping device--single ferrule tube fittings and two ferrule
tube fittings.
13.7 SINGLE FERRULE FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE
FITTING
A single ferrule tube fitting, as the name implies, uses a single ferrule to
accomplish both the tube grip and seal functions.
For single ferrule tube fittings, the tube gripping action is usually associated with
the single ferrule being designed to bow in a radially outward direction from the
tube wall in the central region or mid-portion of the single ferrule body between
the front and back ends thereof.

The front end of the ferrule is driven against the angled camming surface of the
body by the nut pushing against the back end of the ferrule. The bowing action
helps direct the front end of the single ferrule into the tube end. The bowing action
is also used to cause the back end of the ferrule to likewise engage and grip the
tube end. This is accomplished usually by providing an angled drive surface on the
nut shoulder that engages the back end of the single ferrule so as to radially
compress the back end of the ferrule into a gripping action on the tube end. In
some single ferrule designs, the back end of the ferrule apparently is intended to
bite into the tube end.

This back end tube grip is sometimes used with the single ferrule in order to
attempt to improve the tube fitting's performance under vibration because the
back end grip attempts to isolate down-tube vibration from affecting the front end
tube bite.

The use of a back end tube grip actually works against the effort to grip the tube
end at the front end of the single ferrule. Ideally, the single ferrule should be
completely in three dimensional compression between the nut and the camming
surface of the body. Providing a back end grip actually places a counter acting
tension to the single ferrule that works against the front end compression being
used to provide the tube grip. Additionally, the outward bowing action tends to
work against the effort to grip the tube at the front end of the single ferrule
because, in order to enable the outward bowing action, the single ferrule requires
a lessened mass that is adjacent the tube gripping "bite". The outward bowing
action radially displaces ferrule mass from central of the ferrule body to away
from the tube end. Consequently, an outwardly bowed single ferrule fitting could
be more susceptible to ferrule collapse, loss of seal and possibly tube blow out at
higher pressures.

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In order to achieve an adequate tube grip on stainless steel tubing, single ferrule
stainless steel tube fittings have historically used a rather shallow camming angle
of between 10
o
and 20
o
. This range of angles is referred to herein as "shallow" only
as a term of convenience in that the angle is rather small. The shallow camming
angle has been used in single ferrule fittings to obtain a mechanical advantage
because the shallow angle provides an axially elongated camming surface against
which to slide and radially compress the single ferrule front end to bite into the
tube end outer surface. Hard stainless steel tubing material necessitated this
elongated sliding camming action in order to be able to get the single ferrule to
create an adequate bite for tube grip. Over the years, the single ferrule has been
‘through hardened’ or ‘case hardened’ so as to be significantly harder than the
stainless steel tubing, however, the shallow camming angle is still used today in
such single ferrule fittings to obtain a mechanical advantage from the ferrule
sliding along the camming surface to produce the "bite" so as to assure an
adequate tube grip. An example of a commercially available single ferrule tube
fitting that uses a case hardened ferrule and a shallow camming angle of about
twenty degrees is the CPI fitting line available from Parker-Hannifin Corporation.
Another example is the EO fitting line available from Ermeto GmbH that uses a
through hardened single ferrule and a twelve degree camming angle.

In some single ferrule designs, a non-conical camming surface has been tried
whereby an attempt is made to simply press the ferrule against the outer surface
of the tube end, thereby not creating a bite. The result in such cases however is a
low grip or low-pressure-only fitting that are not well suited to stainless steel
fittings.
13.8 TWIN FERRULE FLARELESS COMPRESSION TYPE TUBE
FITTING
It is becoming increasingly recognized that the two primary functions of a tube
fitting viz. tube gripping and sealing are at odds with each other when designing a
tube fitting that can meet a desired tube grip and seal performance criteria. This is
because the design criteria needed to assure that the tube fitting achieves an
adequate tube grip usually works against the ability of the single ferrule to also
provide an effective seal. Consequently, although single ferrule fittings can achieve
adequate tube grip in some cases, this tube grip performance comes at the
expense of having a less effective seal. The shallow camming angle and elongated
camming surface and axial movement needed to achieve an adequate tube grip
with a single ferrule fitting, however, compromises the ability of the single ferrule
to achieve the seal function, especially in extreme environments and for sealing
gas. This is because the front end of the single ferrule attempts to make the seal
against the axially elongated camming surface. The radially outward bowing
action causes a larger portion of the outer surface of the front end of the single
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ferrule to come into contact with the camming surface against which it is being
driven. The result necessarily is a larger seal surface area between the outer
surface of the single ferrule and the camming surface. This enlarged seal area
causes an unwanted distribution of the sealing force between the single ferrule
and the camming surface, and also creates a larger area for surface imperfections
to allow leaks to occur. This is particularly a metal to metal seal issue (as
contrasted to non-metal to non-metal seals: for example, in a plastic fitting it is
usually desirable to provide an enlarged seal contact area because the more highly
ductile plastic material can better form a seal between the two surfaces.)

One result of this situation is that some single ferrule tube fittings have been
designed with additional components and techniques to achieve an adequate seal.
Less than optimum seal performance is particularly noted in single ferrule fittings
that attempt to seal against gas, and especially high pressure gas. Single ferrule
tube fittings thus are usually more suited to lower pressure liquid applications
such as hydraulics, however, even in such lower pressure applications single
ferrule seal performance remains less than desired.

The double ferrule fitting has the ability to lock onto the tube with a 'double bite'
feature. Each ring bites in to the tube giving two separate sealing areas. This style
of fitting does so without transmitting torque or twisting the tube ensuring that
the tube does not become 'stressed'. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the
tube are maintained. A further sealing point occurs at the bottom of the tube
abutment. The abutment has an angle which the tube is forced into when the rings
bite and drive the tube forward.
13. 8.1 Ferrule and its purpose
The ferrule, perhaps the most-critical component in
compression fittings, appears rather simple. Yet it is
highly engineered and, to function properly,
requires considerable design, metallurgy, and
production expertise. Not all products on the
market meet these stringent requirements.
For instance, the ferrule must precisely deform
elastically and plastically during fitting assembly to
properly grip and seal the tubing. Its front edge
must be harder than the tubing to grip and seal through surface scratches and
defects, but if the entire ferrule is too hard, it may not deform properly.
Therefore, only the gripping edge of the ferrule is hardened while the rest has
different, tightly controlled mechanical properties. Also, the hardening process
must not compromise stainless steel's corrosion resistance. And finally,
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production processes must consistently turn out defect-free ferrules that hold
tight tolerances and maintain metallurgical specifications.
Ferrules provide a reliable, leak-proof connection in instrumentation and process
tubing systems. These tube fittings consist of four precision-machined
components: body, front ferrules, back ferrules, and nut. Ferrules make up for the
variation in the tubing material, hardness and thickness of the tube wall in order
to provide leak-proof connections in a large number of applications. They also
reduce the number of potential leak paths in the connection, boosting safety,
reliability and integrity. They also simplify assembly and maintenance.
Ferrules can generally handle pressures up to 15,000 PSI / 1,034bar. They
eliminate the time-consuming 'coning and threading' that usually needs to be
performed when applying traditional high-pressure flared fittings, allowing
fittings to be installed in seconds by simply tightening a nut.
Back and front ferrules are designed to provide leak resistant, secure and tight
connections for operations at high pressures. These fittings provide a tight
pressure seal and have a long thread area for improved resistance to pressure
and load on ferrules. Long support area of back ferrules improves resistance to
vibration and line loads.

13. 8.2 Swaging

Swaging is a metal-forming technique in which the dimensions of an item
are altered using a die or dies, into which the item is forced. Swaging is a
forging process, usuall y performed cold, however it can be done hot. The
most common use of swaging is to attach fittings to pipes or cables ( also
called wire ropes); the parts loosel y fit together, and a mechanical or
hydraulic tool compress es and deforms the fitting, creating a permanent
joint. Pipe flaring machines are another example.
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Swaging is a process that is used to reduce or increase the diameter of tubes. A
swaged piece is created by placing the tube inside a die that applies compressive
force by hammering radially.
Swaging can be further expanded by placing a mandrel inside the tube and
applying radial compressive forces on the outer diameter. Thus, through the
swage process, the inner tube diameter can be a different shape, for example a
hexagon, and the outer is still circular. Flared piece of pipes are sometimes
known as "swage nipples," "pipe swages," "swedge nipples," or "reducing
nipples".
13.8. 3 Operation of a twin ferrule tube fitting
Function of Front ferrule
In the two ferrule fitting, the tube grip and seal functions also are separately
achieved by the use of two ferrules. The forward or front ferrule provides an
excellent seal even against gas, and the back or rear ferrule provides an excellent
tube grip.
The front ferrule achieves an excellent seal by camming against a shallow
camming surface angle such as twenty degrees. This is because the front ferrule
does not need to slide excessively on the camming surface in order to achieve a
tube grip function. Likewise, the front ferrule is not case hardened because the
primary purpose of the front ferrule is to seal and is not to bite into the tube end.
Thus the relatively "softer" front ferrule achieves an excellent seal, particularly
against gas, even though the body conical camming surface presents a camming
angle of about twenty degrees.
Function of a Back Ferrule
The back ferrule achieves the tube grip function in the two ferrule tube fitting.
The back ferrule is case hardened to be substantially harder than the tube end.
Tube fittings depend on a balance of factors to ensure proper installation and
performance. In a two-ferrule tube fitting design, the back ferrule moves the front
ferrule forward to spring load the fitting assembly, burnish and seal with the
fitting body, and create the primary tubing seal. The front end of the back ferrule
cams against a frusto-conical camming surface formed in the back end of the front
ferrule. The ostensible angle of this camming surface is forty-five degrees, but due
to the sliding movement of the front ferrule, the effective camming angle is
actually a shallow angle of about fifteen to twenty degrees. Although the effective
camming angle for the back ferrule is shallow, the back ferrule is not required to
provide a primary seal (although it can form secondary or backup seals). The
back ferrule also does not exhibit the undesired bowing action but rather grips
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the tube end as a function of a radially inward hinging action. As used herein, the
term "hinging" refers to a controlled deformation of the ferrule such that a central
region or mid-portion of the ferrule body undergoes an inwardly radial
compression, as distinctly contrasted to a bowing or radially outward
displacement. Thus, the effective shallow camming angle not only does not
compromise the fitting seal capability, it actually substantially enhances the
overall performance of the tube fitting especially for stainless steel tubing.

By using separate ferrules for each to achieve primaril y only one of the
key tube fitting functions, the two ferrule tube fitting achieves
tremendous tube grip and seal functions.
The back ferrule also swages the tube to provide the grip needed to keep the
fitting and tubing firmly in place. To swage and grip the tube properly, the back
ferrule’s leading edge must be sufficiently harder than the tube. Two methods of
producing this differential hardness may be employed—

1. Complete surface hardening of the back ferrule:
The use of complete surface hardening on a conventional back ferrule can
have several drawbacks.
First, it typically increases installation torque because a surface-hardened,
conventional back ferrule is unable to flex or “hinge” downward to improve
swaging action on the tube. Instead, it must be wedged into position using
installer torque, and as a result, more torque typically is required.
Second, because it is not engineered to hinge and absorb installer torque on
remakes, a conventional surface-hardened back ferrule can tend to overdrive
the front ferrule when remade. This condition can potentially damage the
tubing and fitting body and compromise the front ferrule action required for
consistent gas-tight remakes.

2. Selectively hardened back ferrule: Use of a selectively hardened back
ferrule, Swagelok reduced installation torque while providing the swaging
and gripping action needed to perform in combination with a wide variation
of commercial grade tubing. In manufacturing back ferrules selectively
hardening the nose of the back ferrule is done, yet the center section and rear
flange are left softer. During make-up, this softer center section acts as a
hinge point when force is applied to the flange. This hinging mechanism
helps limit the amount of torque required by the installer, yet delivers the
right amount of swaging action through the nose of the back ferrule.

The improved engineered hinging action of the back ferrule (Figure 4, next
page) provides several benefits:

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It advances and seals the front ferrule predictably and accurately.
It flexes to maintain installation torque at a predictable and
manageable level, even on hard materials.
It smoothly and efficiently delivers more swaging energy earlier in the
pull-up process. As a result, it reduces the potential for improper
installation and leakage in cases where the fitting is less than properly
tightened.
Its proprietary metallurgy and hinging action can absorb excess
torque inputs to help prevent overdriving of the front ferrule, thus
ensuring more predictable gas-tight sealing during remakes.

An important aspect of the choice of material s is that the ferrule preferably
should be cas e or through hardened to a ratio of at least about 3.3 and
preferably 4 or more times harder than the hardest tubing material that the
fitting will be used with. Therefore, the ferrule need not be made of the
same material as the tubing itself. For example, the ferrule may be s elected
from the stainless steel material s or other suitable materi als that can be
case hardened, such as magnesium, titanium and aluminum, to name some
additional examples.


Fi gure 13-4: 316 SS Advanced Swage lok Tube Fi t ti ng Pri or to Make -up
The elements of the fitting are depicted in cross-section prior to make-up: the fitting nut (top), the
advanced geometry back ferrule (lef t), the front ferrule (center), and the fitting body (right). The
tube wall section is shown below the ferrules and body.

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Fi gure 13-5: 316 SS Advanced Swage lok Tube Fi t ti ng Af ter Make -up
During make-up, the f ront ferrule (center) is driven into the body of the fitting (right) and the
tube (bottom) to create primary seals (tube and body), while the back ferrule (lef t) hinges
inward to create a strong grip on the tube. The back ferrule geometry allows for an improved
engineering hinging action that translates axial (forward) motion into radial swaging action on
the tube, yet operates with a low input force (torque) requirement. The improved radial
colleting action of the back ferrule (the area to the lef t of the swage point) isolates and protects
the swaged area of the tube, preventing the exposed vibration stress riser that is typical of bite-
type fittings.
A distinct advantage of the contoured back ferrule is that pull up forces
between the nut drive surface and the contoured face of the Back ferrule are
more uniformly distributed across the surface of the back ferrule, thus
reducing and substantially eliminating force concentrations. This further
reduction of force concentrations on the drive nut reduces pull up torque and
reduces galling, thus facilitating re-make of the fitting.

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13.8. 4 Effect of Tube thickness on Swagi ng
The strength of the fitting is such that the tube contained will burst before the
fitting shows any sign of a leak or movement. This is subject to certain constraints
on the wall thickness of the tube. Tube thickness is decided by following factors
a. Pressure rating
b. Corrosion/Threading allowance
c. Swaging considerations

For swaging over thickness may lead to unreliable joint and in very thin tube it
may lead to distortion of tube leading to leakage. Thus considering all the above
factors, optimal thickness should be selected when use of compression type of
tube fittings is envisaged.

A heavy wall tube resists ferrule action more than a thin wall tube, allowing the
ferrules to coin out minor surface imperfections. If the wall is too heavy the rings
will not bite.

A thin wall tube offers less resistance to ferrule action during installation,
reducing the chance of coining out surface defects, such as scratches. When the
tube wall is too thin, the tube will collapse rather than allow the rings to bite fully.

Within the applicable suggested allowable working pressure table, select a tube
wall thickness whose working pressure is outside of the shaded areas. Reference
to the manufacturers' product information should be made in all instances. The
tube should generally have a hardness of no more than 80 on the Rockwell 'B'
scale.

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Advanced Swagelok Fitting
The advanced Swagelok two- f errul e tube f itti ng of f ers predict abl e, l eak f ree perf ormance up to t he burs t
pres s ure of ANSI 316 and 304 s tai nles s s teel tubing. A s ummary of its benef its include:

Wi der Target for Proper Ins tal l ati on: The engi neered hi ngi ng actio n of t he back f errul e delivers energy
to not only s eal t he f ront f errul e, but als o to deliver greater s waging actio n thro ugho ut the pull - up
proces s . As a res ult, this f itting reduces the pot ent ial f or improper ins tall atio n and s ys tem leakage, even in
cas es where the f itti ng was les s than properly tightened.
Enhanced Gas Seal : The back f errul e hinge delivers s teady f orce to s eal t he f ront f err ule c ons is tently on a
wide range of tubing. Becaus e the advanced back f err ule c an hinge and abs orb more energy than a
convent ional hardened back f errul e, this des ign r educes the pot enti al f or overdriving t he f ront f errul e,
thereby ens uring reliable operati on and gas s eal f or repeat ed remakes .
Vi brati on Fati gue Resi s tance: T he engi neered back f errul e hinging act ion delivers a mor e co ns is tent
radial col let ing ac tion to give improved s upport to the tube behind t he poi nt of grip. This coll eting protects
the s waged ar ea of the tube more ef f ectively f rom s ys tem vibration and f atigue.
Greate r Margi n of Performance on Comme rci al Tubi ng: Textbook calc ulations , s uc h as Lame’ s f ormula
f or determini ng minimum ruptur e pres s ure of a tube, us e the minimum al lowabl e ult imate t ens il e s treng th,
minimum allowabl e wall t hick nes s , and maximum al lowabl e out er diameter f or tube burs t c alculatio ns —as
they s hould. However , thes e c alculatio ns of f er a cons ervative es timate of the tube’ s pres s ure - cont aining
ability. In r eali ty, s tainles s s teel tubing manuf actur ers do not always run t heir proc es s es f or the minimum
requir ed mat erial s trength val ues ci ted by ASTM and other s tandar ds f or determini ng t he ruptur e pres s ure
of a tube. The res ul t is s tronger, harder t ubi ng with burs t pres s ures of ten s ignif icantl y higher than what
occurs under leas t c as e conditio ns . The advanced Swagelok t ube f itti ng is robus t enough to grip and exc eed
the burs t pres s ure of thes e s tronger, available t ubi ng mat erials . I n additio n, t he unif orm s urf ace - har dened
des ign of the back f er rule of f ers high corros ion res is tanc e.
Compati bi l i ty wi th Ori gi nal Desi gn Swagel ok Tube Fi tti ngs: The advanced Swagelok f itti ng pulls up
us ing the s ame one- and- one- quart er- turn proc edure as the origi nal des ign Swagelok tube f itti ng. In
addit ion, t he advanc ed Swagelok f itting us es the s ame ins tall atio n ins pectio n gauges as bef ore. However,
what every ins tall er wil l no tic e is a more cons is tent f eel, f rom a more c ons is tent range of torque on every
pull- up to an even more cons is tent , leak f ree co nnectio n.
Appl i cabi li ty to New Al l oys: The advanced Swagelok f itting demons trat es it is practic al to devel op an
eas y- to ins tall, high- perf ormanc e tube f itti ng t hat c an be built us i ng advanced all oys , s uch as s uper dupl ex
s teel, des pit e their i ncreas ed s trengt h and advanc ed mechanic al properti es .

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13. 8.5 Safety precautions for tube fitting installation
Following safety precautions should be taken while installing the tube fitting
1

 Do not bleed the system by loosening the fitting nut or fitting plug.
 Do not make up and tighten fittings when the system is pressurized.
 Make sure that the tubing rests firmly on the shoulder of the tube fitting body
before tightening the nut.
 Use the gap inspection gauge to ensure sufficient pull-up upon initial
installation.
 Never allow problems to go unreported.
 Always use proper thread sealants on tapered pipe threads. In NPCIL a Nickel
compound based sealant is used (Never Siege compound) to avoid galling
 Do not mix materials or fitting components from various manufacturers—
tubing, ferrules, nuts, and fitting bodies.
 Never turn the fitting body. Instead, hold the fitting body and turn the nut.
 Avoid unnecessary disassembly of unused fittings.
 LUBRICATION
Stainless-steel parts that rub together under high pressure have a strong
tendency to cold weld and seize. And to form high-integrity, leak-free tubing
connections, ferrules must only slide forward during assembly and not rotate
with the nut. To prevent seizing and ensure only linear ferrule movement,
surface conditions and lubrication at the nut/ferrule and nut/body interfaces
should be precisely controlled..
All mating surfaces must be smooth and free of defects, which exacerbate
seizing. A bonded molybdenum-disulfide coating is the recommended
lubricant for many compression fittings.
Solid molybdenum disulfide readily adheres to surfaces, is noted for its
lubrication and anti-seizing properties, and the solid does not squeeze out like
liquid or soft, waxy lubricants under extreme pressure. The result is low
assembly torque and consistent performance, even with repeated remakes.

 Additional tubing considerations:
Always use an insert with extremely soft or pliable plastic tubing.
Wall thickness should always be checked against the fitting
manufacturer’s suggested minimum and maximum wall thickness
limitations.
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Surface finish is very important to proper sealing. Tubing with any
kind of depression, scratch, raised portion, or other surface defect will
be difficult to seal, particularly in gas service.
Tubing that is oval and will not easily fit through fitting nuts, ferrules,
and bodies should never be forced into the fitting.
When installing fittings near tube bends, there must be a sufficient
straight length of tubing to allow the tube to be Bottomed in the fitting
(see figure-13-7). The following table indicates the minimum straight
length required.


Figure 13-7: Tube fitting at a bend

Special precautions for Gas Service
Gases (air, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, etc.) have very small molecules that can
escape through even the most minute leak path. Some surface defects on the tubing
can provide such a leak path. As tube outside diameter (OD) increases, so does the
likelihood of a scratch or other surface defect interfering with proper sealing.
The most successful connection for gas service will occur if all installation
instructions are carefully followed and the heavier wall thicknesses of tubing on
the tables-1-3 to 1-10 are selected.


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13. 9 Repeated assembly and Disassembly of tube fitting

Figure-13-8: Tube fitting in assembled condition


Repeated assembly and disassembly of the tube fitting causes the reduction in the
distance between the two ferrules. As the distance between the two ferrules reduces over
a period of time the back ferrule’s spring action diminishes and a time comes when both
the ferrules touch each other and the leak tightness provided by this assembly is no
longer assured. Therefore it is necessary to keep this gap under check and whenever this
gap is found to be very little the new tube fitting and swaging should be used. The
figure:13-8 shows this type of action.


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13.10 SPECIFICATIONS FOR SS TUBE FITTI NGS
1 Type : Flareless compression, twin ferrule
2 Material / type : SS-316 as per ASTMA-A-314 - forged
3 Fluid : water / steam/lube oil
4 Max. Pressure : 200 kg/cm
2
(g)
5 Maximum
Temperature
: 320 °C
6 Overall
Dimensions
: As per ANSI-B-1.20.1
7 Hardness : > Rockwell B-90

8.0 Tests
8.1 Type Test


8.1.1 Chemical
Composition test
: Incoming material as per ASTM-A-314
8.1.2 Ferrule Hardness
Test
: On each size of ferrule as per ASTM-A-3145
8.1.3 Test on Raw
Material
: Raw material for body, nut and ferrules should be tested
for physical properties (i.e. tensile strength, %
elongation, hardness)
8.1.4 Seismic Test : Required. Vibration should be in the frequency range
from 1-33 Hz, Peak acceleration at frequencies 1, 1.26,
1.59, 2 and 2.5 Hz should preferably be between 1g and
3.5g or capability of shake table. For and beyond 3.75 Hz
Peak acceleration should be 3.5 g. Test duration should
be 30 seconds at each frequency. Frequency should be
increased in step of 1/3 octave in the specified
frequency range 1-33 Hz. Before and after the test the
fitting assembly should be tested and should qualify all
the other tests.

8.2 Routine Tests


8.2.1 Overall Dimension
Thread
: Required to be done on 1% items of each type
8.2.2 Check for End
Connections
:
8.2.3 Hydrostatic test : At pressure of 300 kg/cm2 (g); duration = 10 min.
Required to be done on 10% items of each type
8.2.4 Pneumatic leak : At a pressure of 4 kg/cm2 (g); duration = 10 min.
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test (required to be done on 10% items of each type.)
8.2.5 Reassembly Test : Required to be done 25 times on 1% items (min. 2 nos.),
from each lot.

9.0 Applicable codes & standards:

ASME Boiler and
Pressure vessel
code
As per section III, Division I, Sub section NB for Class I
components.

ANSI-B-1.1 Unified inch screw threads (UN AND UNR thread form)
equivalent for tube end
ANSI-B.1.20.1 Pipe threads, general purpose
ANSI-B-1.20.2
ASTM-A-213 Standard specification for seamless ferritic & austenitic
alloy steel boiler super heater and Heat exchanger tubes
ASTM-A-262 Standard practice for detecting susceptibility to inter
granular attack in austenitic stainless Steels.
ASTM-A-276 Standard specification for stainless steels bars &shapes.
ASTM-A-314 Standard specification for stainless steels billets and
bars for forging.
ASTM-A-473 Standard specification for stainless steels forgings
SAE – J -514 Hydraulic tube fittings
ANSI-B-31.1


ASTM-A-269


ISOR-206



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13.11 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRASS TUBE FITTINGS
1 Type : Flareless compression, twin ferrule
2 Material / type : Brass as Per ASTM-B-124 / Forged
3 Fluid : Air
4 Max. Pressure : 40 kg/cm
2
(g) @ ambient temperature
5 Maximum
Temperature
: 320 °C
6 Overall
Dimensions
: As per ANSI-B-1.20.1
7 Hardness : > Rockwell B-90

8.0 Tests
8.1 Type Test


8.1.1 Chemical
Composition test
: Incoming Material as per ASTM-E-54/478
8.1.2 Ferrule Hardness
Test
: On each size of Ferrule as per ASTM-B-124
8.1.3 Test on Raw
Material
: Raw material for body, nut and ferrules should be tested
for physical properties (i.e. tensile strength, %
elongation, hardness)
8.1.4 Seismic Test : Required. Vibration should be in the frequency range
from 1-33 Hz, Peak acceleration at frequencies 1, 1.26,
1.59, 2 and 2.5 Hz should preferably be between 1g and
3.5g or capability of shake table. For and beyond 3.75 Hz
Peak acceleration should be 3.5 g. Test duration should
be 30 seconds at each frequency. Frequency should be
increased in step of 1/3 octave in the specified
frequency range 1-33 Hz. Before and after the test the
fitting assembly should be tested and should qualify all
the other tests.

8.2 Routine Tests


8.2.1 Overall Dimension
Thread
: Required to be done on 1% items of each type
8.2.2 Check for End
Connections
: Required to be done on 1% items of each type
8.2.3 Hydrostatic test : At a pressure of 60 kg/cm
2
(g); duration = 10 min.,
required to be done on 10% items of each type
8.2.4 Pneumatic leak : At a pressure of 4 kg/cm
2
(g); duration = 10 min.
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test (required to be done on 10% items of each type.)
8.2.5 Reassembly Test : Required to be done on 1% items (min. 2 nos., from each
lot, six times after sixth, pneumatic test)

9.0 Applicable codes & standards:

ASTM-B-124 Copper and copper alloy forging rod bar and shapes
ANSI-B-1.1 Unified inch screw threads (UN AND UNR thread form)
equivalent for tube end
ANSI-B.1.20.1 Pipe threads, general purpose
ANSI-B-1.20.2
SAE J 514 Hydraulic Tube fittings
ASTM-B-16 Free cutting brass rod, bar and shapes for use in screw
machine.

IS 4218 Indian standard for Metric Straight Pipe Threads

Notes:
1. Pipe threads should be NPT threads as per ANSI-B-1.20.1
2. Needs the above seismic test is requi red on 1% of each type of fitting. This test
should be performed on limited samples taken from the lot.


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14.0 THREADS USED FOR TUBE FITTINGS

Different types of screw threads have evolved for fastening, and hydraulic systems. Of
special concern are plastic-to-metal, taper/parallel threaded joints in hydraulic circuits. A
discussion and recommendations are provided to create an awareness of diff erent types of
threads and how they are used.
14.1. Evolution of threads
In the nineteenth century, many different types of screw threads were required for
hydraulic and pneumatic circuits as well as fastening components. As a result,
manufacturers started to devise their own fastening systems. This resulted in
compatibility problems. The English mechanical engineer and inventor, Sir Joseph
Whitworth devised a uniform threading system in 1841 to address the incompatibility
problem. The Whitworth thread form is based on a 55 degree thread angle with
rounded roots and crests.
In America, William Sellers set the standard for nuts, bolts, and screws which became
the National Pipe Tapered (NPT) Thread in 1864. His 60 degree thread angle, in
common use by early American clockmakers, enabled the American Industrial
Revolution. These thread forms later became the American National Standard.
The Whitworth thread form was selected as a connecting thread for pipes, which was
made self sealing by cutting at least one of the threads on a taper. This became known
as the British Standard Pipe thread (BSP Taper or BSP Parallel thread). The
Whitworth thread is now used internationally as a standard thread for jointing low
carbon steel pipes.
The best known and most widely used connection where the pipe thread provides both
the mechanical joint and the hydraulic seal is the American National Pipe Tapered
Thread, or NPT Thread. NPT has a tapered male and female thread which seals with
Teflon tape or jointing compound.
14.2. Type of Threads
Pipe threads used in hydraulic circuits can be divided into two types:
I. Jointing threads – are pipe threads for joints made pressure tight by sealing on the
threads and are taper external and parallel or taper internal threads. The sealing
effect is improved by using a jointing compound.
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II. Fastening threads – are pipe threads where pressure tight joints are not made on the
threads. Both threads are parallel and sealing is affected by compression of a soft
material onto the external thread, or a flat gasket.
14.3. Sizes
Pipe thread sizes are based on an inside diameter (ID) or flow size. For example, “1/2–
14 NPT” identifies a pipe thread with a nominal inside diameter of 1/2 inch and 14
threads to the inch, made according to the NPT standard. If “LH” is added, the pipe has
a left hand thread. The most common global pipe thread forms are:
NPT American Standard Pipe Taper Thread
NPSC American Standard Straight Coupling Pipe Thread
NPTR American Standard Taper Railing Pipe Thread
NPSM American Standard Straight Mechanical Pipe Thread
NPSL American Standard Straight Locknut Pipe Thread
NPTF American Standard Pipe Thread Tapered (Dryseal)
BSPP British Standard Pipe Thread Parallel
BSPT British Standard Pipe Thread Tapered

Plastic injection molded thread forms are manufactured to ANSI B2.1 and SAE J476
standards. The word “tapered” in several of the above names points to the big
difference between many pipe threads and those on bolts and screws. Many pipe
threads must make not only a mechanical joint but also a leak proof hydraulic seal.
This is accomplished by the tapered thread form of the male matching the thread form
of the female tapered thread and the use of pipe sealant to fill any voids between the
two threads which could cause a spiral leak. The bottoms of the threads aren't on a
cylinder, but a cone; they taper. The taper is 1⁄16 inch in an inch, which is the same as
3/4 inch in a foot.
Because of the taper, a pipe thread can only screw into a fitting a certain distance
before it jams. The standard specifies this distance as the length of hand tight
engagement, the distance the pipe thread can be screwed in by hand. It also specifies
another distance – the effective thread, this is the length of the thread which makes the
seal on a conventional machined pipe thread. For workers, instead of these distances, it
is more convenient to know how many turns to make by hand and how many with a
wrench. A simple rule of thumb for installing tapered pipe threads, both metal and
plastic, is finger tight plus one to two turns with a wrench. Torque installation values
can be determined as per application, but due to the variations involved in pipe joints
such as dissimilar materials of male and female threads, type of sealants used, and
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internal variations in product wall thickness, a standard torque specification cannot be
generically applied.
This table shows the distances and number of turns called for in the standard. A
tolerance of plus or minus one turn is allowed, and in pract ice threads are often
routinely cut shorter than the standard specifies. All dimensions are in inches.
Table-XVI-American Standard Taper Pipe External Thread
Nominal
size
Actual
OD
Threads
per inch
Length of engagement
(tightened by hand)
Length of
effective thread
1/8 0.407 27 0.124 ≈ 3.3 turns 0.260
1⁄4 0.546 18 0.172 ≈ 3.1 turns 0.401
3/8 0.681 18 0.184 ≈ 3.3 turns 0.408
1/2 0.850 14 0.248 ≈ 3.4 turns 0.534
3/4 1.060 14 0.267 ≈ 3.7 turns 0.546
1 1.327 11.5 0.313 ≈ 3.6 turns 0.682
14.4. Taper/Parallel Threaded Joints
Despite the standards created to maintain uniform fittings, tapered pipe threads are
inexact and during the course of use and repair the threads can become damaged and
susceptible to leakage. The area where the crest and the root of the thread meet can
form a spiral leak path no amount
of tightening will eliminate.
A pressure tight joint is achieved
by the compression in the threads
resulting from tightening. This
compression and sealing occurs in
the first few turns of the internal
thread. As wrenching takes place,
material from both the male and
female threads deform into each
other. This ensures full thread
contact which minimizes spiral
leakages. Variations between
injection molded plastic and
machined metal thread forms can
occur due to different
manufacturing processes.
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Pipe threads were originally designed as machined thread forms. With the use of
thermoplastics and plastic injection molding in the manufacture of plastic pipe thread
forms, mold shrinkage and plastic sink make it difficult to insure leak free joints. For
this reason, the use of a Teflon based sealant is recommended on all plastic pipe
threads. The most common form of sealant is Teflon tape wrapped 2 to 3 turns around
the male thread before assembly. Liquid Teflon based sealants are also used
successfully to ensure a pressure tight seal. It is always important to use care when
applying sealants to avoid introducing the sealant material into the system flow path.
The following sections show examples of how different threads are used and issues
that can arise in attempting to create a leak free connection.
When a BSP tapered male thread is tightened into a straight female thread (BSPP) the
seal can only be made at the base of the female port with 1 or 2 threads. See figure-14-
1. Sealing is compromised by the lack of thread form control in BSP specifications.
Variation in crests and roots may cause a mismatch in the thread and create a spiral
leak. Thread sealant is required to seal this combination.
Using both tapered male and female
BSPT threads would offer a better
chance of sealing since you are now
matching the taper of the male and
female thread. See figure-14-2. This
offers more threads a chance of sealing
against spiral leakage. Crest and root
control is still missing, but with thread
sealant, a pressure tight joint would be
easier to accomplish.
A number of variations of the NPT
thread have been introduced to
overcome the problem of spiral leakage
and are known as Dryseal threads (See
SAE standard J476). The best known is
the NPTF (F for Fuel). With this
thread design, there are controls on the crests and roots of both the male
and the female threads to ensure the crest crushes or displaces material into the
root of the mating thread. The interference fit between the crest
of one thread and the root of the other along with the thread flanks matching, seals
against spiral leakage. Figure 14-3 shows an NPTF male tightened into an NPTF female
hand tight. You can see the crest of both the male and female thread flanks meet.
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Figure 14-4 shows the NPTF male and
female threads tightened approximately 1
turn past hand tight, and you can see the
flanks meet and the crests are displaced
into the roots.
Although these threads are considered
Dryseal, a Teflon tape or liquid is still
recommended to aid in the assembly
process.
The Teflon works as a lubricant to avoid
galling of the material when tightening
the two threads together and also fills
any voids that may cause leakage.
However, in Nuclear power plants Teflon is
not used since its properties deteriorate
very fast under radiation conditions.
A variation of the Dryseal thread is the NPSF (National Pipe Straight Fuel). It is used for
internal threads and a NPTF external thread can be screwed into it to provide a
satisfactory mechanical connection and a hydraulic seal. The combination of a parallel and
tapered is not regarded as ideal but is widely used. High quality plastic quick disconnect
couplings typically use NPT threads.
Another tapered thread is the British Standard Pipe
taper, or BSP, covered by British Standard 21. BSP
thread is commonly used for low pressure plumbing,
but is not recommended for medium and high
pressure hydraulic systems. This form uses the
Whitworth thread with an angle of 55°and a 1 in 16
taper. It is not interchangeable with the American NPT
thread, though at the 1/2" and 3/4" size, they both
have 14 threads per inch.
Problems arise when threading a NPT male thread
form into a BSP female straight thread form. The
1/16”, 1/8”, 1/4”, and 3/8” sizes have a dissimilar
pitch, which causes a misalignment of the threads. The flank angles of the threads are also
different between NPT and BSP. NPT has a 60° thread where the BSP has a 55° thread.
Figure 14-5 shows a male NPT tightened into a BSPP. Because of the smaller size of the
BSPP and the pitch difference, the NPT tightens with only a few turns.
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Figure 14-6 shows an NPT tightened into a BSPT. The NPT thread to engage further, but
pitch difference eventually causes a binding of the threads. Pitch and thread angle
differences will allow spiral leakage.
The 1/2” and 3/4” sizes in the NPT and BSP are all 14 threads per inch, and the NPT will
engage the BSP fairly well.

Although these threads are the same pitch and engage well there are still issues with the
tread form. The thread angles and the crest and root tolerances being different will allow
spiral leakage as shown in figure 14-6. These threads might be used effectively together if
an appropriate thread sealant is incorporated.
Many issues arise when plastic quick disconnect couplings, with their corresponding
injection plumbed into metal piped hydraulic systems. Leaks and plastic thread form
failures may occur if care is not taken. When investigating a metal to plastic pipe joint
failure, two factors viz. chemical attack and over tightening, need to be considered.
Chemical attack can occur when improper thread sealants are used. Thread sealing is an
attempt to block the spiral leak path which occurs when the crests and roots of the thread
forms do not match. Anaerobic thread sealants should be avoided when sealing plastic
thread forms. These sealants contain chemicals which may attack plastics. Use of a Teflon-
based pipe thread sealant is a better choice for plastic threads.

Over tightening of any plastic pipe thread will have adverse affects on the function of the
joint. The major difference between plastics and metals is the behavior of polymers.
Injection-molded plastic parts continue to deform if they are held under a constant load e.g.
creep. Creep is the continued extension or deformation of a plastic part under continuous
load. Typically the plastic material in an injection-molded plastic pipe thread form will
creep from being over tightened into a female tapered port. The deformation of the part’s
internal features can lead to part failure.

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14.5. Dry Seal NPTF Threads
Dryseal pipe threads are based on the USA (American) pipe thread; however, they
differ from the USA (American) pipe thread in that they are designed to seal
pressure tight joints without the necessity of using sealing compounds. To
accomplish this some modification of thread form and greater accuracy in
manufacture is required.
The roots of both external and internal threads are truncated slightly more than the
crest, i.e. roots have wider flats than the crests, so that metal to metal contact occurs
as the crests and the roots coincident with or prior to flank contact, see figure-14-7.
Thus as the threads are assembled wrenching, the roots of the threads crush the
sharper +crests of the mating threads .This sealing action at both the major and
minor diameters tends to prevent spiral leakage and pressure tight without the
necessity of using sealing compounds, provided that the mating threads are in
accordance with standard specification and tolerance and are damaged by galling in
the assembly. The control of crest and root truncation is simplified by
the use of properly designed threading tools. Also it is desirable that both for the
length. However, where not functionally objectionable, the use of a compatible
lubricant or sealant may be used to minimize the possibility of galling. This is
desirable in assembling dryseal pipe threads in refrigeration and other systems to
affect a pressure tight seal.
In order to obtain a pressure tight seal using dryseal pipe threads without a sealer, it
is necessary to hold crest and truncation of both internal and external threads
within the limits specified. Unless this is done by use of threading tools with the
crest and root truncation controlled so assure reproduction on the product of
threads, it is necessary to use a system of measuring or a system of gauging and
measuring to determine conformance.
There are two classes of Dryseal pipe threads viz. Class-I and Class-II Dryseal pipe
threads. The classes differ only in inspection requirements. For class-I threads,
inspection of roots and crest is not required while for class-Ii threads these
inspections are required.
External Dryseal threads are tapered only while internal Dryseal threads may be
either straight or tapered. Also, the thread lengths may be either standard or short
depending on the requirement of the application. Short threads are obtained by
shortening the length of the standard thread by one pitch.

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The minimum material condition as shown at the left is established by having the mating
crests and roots of equal truncation so as to assure metal to metal contact at these points
coincident with flank contact. The condition is established at the sharpest root and the
flattest crest and gives no clearance. Tolerances at the crests and the roots are established
in the direction of interference only, therefore the maximum material condition shown at
the right is established by having the extreme combination of sharpest crests and flattest
roots, which provide the maximum interference.
When threaded joints are made wrench tight, it is intended that the flanks and crests and
roots shall be in contact.

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Figure14-8-: Basic dimensions of NPTF threads
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15.0 Welding Methods
15.1 300 Series Stainless Steels
May be welded by the TIG, MIG, or stick arc-weld process. TIG welding is
recommended as being best for welding Weld fitting systems because it allows
better operator control of heat penetration and filler material deposition. Stick arc
welding is not recommended in many cases because of the likelihood of excessive
burn-through and improper root penetration. In all cases where stick welding is
used, it is recommended that backing gas be used. MIG welding gives the same
characteristics as stick electrode welding with faster deposition of the filler
material.
As this process runs “hotter” than the stick process, the use of a backing gas is
mandatory. It should be noted that in welding the relatively small fitting sizes, filler
deposition rate economies are not a factor and therefore the MIG method is not
commonly applied.
15.2 C1018 Steel Fittings
May be welded by the TIG, MIG, stick and oxyacetylene methods. As scale formation
remains a problem, the use of a backing gas is still recommended.
Carbide Precipitation
When un-stabilized stainless steels are heated to 800° - 1500° F during welding, the
chromium in the steel combines with the carbon to form chrome carbides which
tend to form along the grain boundaries of the metal (carbide precipitation). This
lowers the dissolved chromium content in these areas and thus lowers their
corrosion resistance, making them vulnerable to intergranular corrosion. Carbide
precipitation is reduced by holding the carbon content of the material to a very low
value. This limits the amount of carbon available to combine with the chromium.
The “L” series (extra low carbon) stainless steels are often used for this purpose, but
their use reduces system design stress by approximately 15%. Weld fittings are
made from a select 316 series with carbon content in the low range of 0.04 to 0.07
percent. This results in a welded fitting with good corrosion resistance and a high
strength factor. All weld fittings in stainless steel are supplied in the solution-
treated condition, capable of passing ASTM-A-262 Tests for Detecting Susceptibility
to Intergranular Corrosion.
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15.3 TIG WELDING
The "TIG" in TIG welding stands for Tungsten Inert Gas. But before it was called TIG"
it was given the name "Heliarc" because helium was the gas that was used when the
process was invented. But then someone discovered that argon worked better and
so it was called TIG because inert gas could refer to either helium or argon. But wait,
then someone else discovered that small additions of hydrogen worked well for
some metals. The word "Inert" no longer held true so it was decided that a new
name was required. So nowadays, the technical term for what used to be called ‘TIG’
and ‘Heliarc’ is Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or "GTAW". People still call it TIG and
even Heliarc. In fact more people call it TIG welding than Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
TIG welding is akin to gas welding as far as welding technique in that the torch is
held in one hand and the filler rod is manipulated with the other hand. It is
considered more difficult than other arc welding processes because it requires the
use of both hands. Often times a foot pedal amperage control is also used which
adds another layer of difficulty.
A TIG torch can be either water cooled or air cooled and is designed to provide
shielding gas as well as welding current through a tungsten electrode. A ceramic
nozzle directs the shielding gas to the weld puddle and internal copper parts like the
collet and collet body hold the electrode in place. The tungsten electrode is
sharpened for applications where the arc needs to be pinpointed and for very low
amperage. The heat the melts the metal and makes the weld puddle comes from the
arc that is created between the tungsten electrode and the work piece. The arc is
shielded by argon, helium, or a mixture of the two. Sometimes for certain alloys,
hydrogen is added in small percentages to improve the way the puddle flows. The
arc is very smooth and quiet and clean when DC current is used. When the TIG
welding machine is set on Alternating current, it is slightly more noisy but still clean
and smooth.
What Metals can be welded using the TIG process?
Almost any metal can be welded with TIG. Carbon and low alloys steels like 1010
carbon steel and 4130 chromoly steel, Stainless steels like 304, 321, and 17-7ph,
Nickel alloys like inconel 718 and Hastelloy X, Aluminum alloys like 6061, 5052,
Magnesium alloys like az31b, Titanium alloys like commercially pure, and 6al4v,
Cobalt alloys like Stellite 6b and l605, copper alloys like Nibral bronze and pure
copper, All can be welding using the TIG welding process.
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15.4 ORBITAL TUBE WELDING
Orbital welding was first used in the 1960's when the aerospace industry
recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines. A
mechanism was developed in which the arc from a tungsten electrode was rotated
around the tubing weld joint. The arc welding current was regulated with a control
system thus automating the entire process. The result was a more precision and
reliable method than the manual welding method it replaced.
Orbital welding became practical for many
industries in the early 1980's when combination
power supply/control systems were developed that
operated from 240 VAC and were physically small
enough to be carried from place to place on a
construction site for multiple in-place welds.
Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer
control where welding parameters for a variety of
applications can be stored in memory and called up
when needed for a specific application. The skills of
a certified welder are thus built into the welding
system, producing enormous numbers of identical welds and leaving significantly
less room for error or defects.

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15.4.1 Orbital Welding Equipment
In the orbital welding process, tubes/pipes are clamped in place and an orbital
weldhead rotates an electrode and electric arc around the weld joint to make the
required weld. An orbital welding system consists of a power supply and an orbital
weldhead.
Power Supply: The power supply/control system supplies and controls the welding
parameters according to the specific weld program created or recalled from
memory. The power supply provides the control parameters, the arc welding
current, the power to drive the motor in the weld head and switches the shield
gas(es) on/off as necessary.
Weld Head: Orbital weld heads are normally of the enclosed type and provide an
inert atmosphere chamber that surrounds the weld joint. Standard enclosed orbital
weld heads are practical in welding tube sizes from 1/16 inch (1.6mm) to 6 inches
(152mm) with wall thickness' of up to .154 inches (3.9mm) Larger diameters and
wall thickness' can be accommodated with open style weld heads.
15.4.2 Reasons for Using Orbital Welding Equipment
There are many reasons for using orbital welding equipment. The ability to make
high quality, consistent welds repeatedly at a speed close to the maximum weld
speed offer many benefits to the user:
Productivity. An orbital welding system will drastically outperform manual
welders, many times paying for the cost of the orbital equipment in a single
job.
Quality. The quality of a weld created by an orbital welding system with the
correct weld program will be superior to that of manual welding. In
applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding, orbital
welding is the only means to reach the weld quality requirements.
Consistency. Once a weld program has been established an orbital welding
system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times, eliminating
the normal variability, inconsistencies, errors and defects of manual welding.
Skill level. Certified welders are increasingly hard to find. With orbital
welding equipment you don't need a certified welding operator. All it takes is
a skilled mechanic with some weld training.
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Orbital welding may be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be
welded cannot be rotated or where rotation of the part is not practical.
Orbital welding may be used in applications where access space restrictions
limit the physical size of the welding device. Weld heads may be used in rows
of boiler tubing where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a
welding torch or view the weld joint.
Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual
welding. Examples are applications where inspection of the internal weld is
not practical for each weld created. By making a sample weld coupon that
passes certification, the logic holds that if the sample weld is acceptable, that
successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input
parameters should also be sound.
15.4.3 Industrial Applications for Orbital Welding
Aerospace: As noted earlier, the aerospace industry was the first industry to
recognize the requirement for orbital welding. The high pressure systems of a single
plane can have over 1,500 welded joints, all automatically created with orbital
equipment.
Boiler Tube: Boiler tube installation and repairs offer a perfect application for
orbital welding. Compact orbital weld heads can be clamped in place between rows
of heat exchanger tubing where a manual welder would experience severe difficulty
making repeatable welds.
Food, Dairy and Beverage Industries: The food, dairy and beverage industries
require consistent full penetration welds on all weld joints. Most of these
tubing/piping systems have schedules for cleaning and sterilization in place. For
maximum piping system efficiency the tubing must be as smooth as possible. Any
pit, crevice, crack or incomplete weld joint can form a place for the fluid inside the
tubing to be trapped and form a bacteria harbor.
Nuclear Piping/Tubing: The nuclear industry with its severe operating
environment and associated specifications for high quality welds has long been an
advocate of orbital welding.
Offshore Applications: Sub-sea hydraulic lines use materials whose properties can
be altered during the thermal changes that are normal with a weld cycle. Hydraulic
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joints welded with orbital equipment offer superior corrosion resistance and
mechanical properties.
Pharmaceutical Industry: Pharmaceutical process lines and piping systems deliver
high quality water to their processes. This requires high quality welds to ensure a
source of water from the tubes that is uncontaminated by bacteria, rust or other
contaminant. Orbital welding ensures full penetration welds with no overheating
occurring that could undermine the corrosion resistance of the final weld zone.
Semiconductor Industry: The semiconductor industry requires piping/tubing
systems with extremely smooth internal surface finish in order to prevent
contaminant buildup on the tubing walls or weld joints. Once large enough, a build
up of particulate, moisture or contaminant could release and ruin the batch process.
Tube/Pipe Fittings, Valves and Regulators: Hydraulic lines, and liquid and gas
delivery systems all require tubing with connector fittings. Orbital systems provide
a means to ensure high productivity of welding and improved weld quality.
Sometimes the tubing may be welded in place to a valve or regulator body. Here the
orbital weldhead provides the ability to produce high quality welds in applications
with restricted access to the weld joint.
15.4.4 General Guidelines for Orbital Tube Welding
For orbital welding in many precision or high purity applications, the base material
to be welded, the tube diameter(s), weld joint and part fit -up requirements, shield
gas type and purity, arc length, and tungsten electrode material, tip geometry and
surface condition may already be written into a specification covering the specific
application.
Each orbital welding equipment supplier differs slightly in recommended welding
practices and procedures. Where possible, follow the recommendations of your
orbital equipment supplier for equipment set-up and use, especially in areas that
pertain to warranty issues.
This section is intended as a guideline for those applications where no specification
exists and the engineer responsible for the welding must create the welding set-up,
and derive the welding parameters in order to arrive at the optimum welding
solution.


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15.4.5 The Physics of the GTAW Process
The orbital welding process uses the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW) as
the source of the electric arc that melts the base material and forms the weld. In the
GTAW process (also referred to as the Tungsten Inert Gas process - TIG) an electric
arc is established between a Tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. To start
the arc, an RF or high voltage signal (usually 3.5 to 7 KV) is used to break down
(ionize) the insulation properties of the shield gas and make it electrically
conductive in order to pass through a tiny amount of current. A capacitor dumps
current into this electrical path, which reduces the arc voltage to a level where the
power supply can then supply current for the arc. The power supply responds to the
demand and provides weld current to keep the arc established. The metal to be
welded is melted by the intense heat of the arc and fuses together. No additional
filler material is used in this process of welding.
15.4.6 Material Weldability
The material selected varies according to the application and environment the
tubing must survive. The mechanical, thermal, stability, and corrosion resistance
requirements of the application will dictate the material chosen. For complex
applications a significant amount of testing will be necessary to ensure the long
term suitability of the chosen material from a functionality and cost viewpoint.
In general, the most commonly used 300 series stainless steels have a high degree of
weldability with the exception of 303/303SE which contain additives for ease of
machining. 400 series stainless steels are often weldable but may require post weld
heat treatment.
Accommodation must be made for the potential differences of different material
heats. The chemical composition of each heat batch number will have minor
differences in the concentration of alloying and trace elements. These trace
elements can vary the conductivity and melting characteristics slightly for each heat.
When a change in heat number is made a test coupon should be made for the new
heat. Minor changes in amperage may be required to return the weld to its original
profile.



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It is important that certain elements of the material be held to close tolerances.
Minor deviations in elements such as sulfur can vary the fluid flow in the weld pool
thus completely changing the weld profile and also causing arc wander.

15.4.7 Weld Joint Fit-Up
Weld joint fit-up is dependent on the weld specification requirements on tube
straightness, weld concavity, reinforcement and drop through. If no specification
exists the laws of physics will require that the molten material flow and compensate
for tube mismatch and any gap in the weld joint.
Tubing is produced according to tolerances that are rigid or loose according to the
application for which the tube was purchased. It is important that the wall
thickness is repeatabl e at the weld joint from part to part. Differences in
tube diameter or out -of-roundness will cause weld joint mismatch and arc
gap variations from one welding set up to another.
Tube and pipe end prep facing equipment is recommended in order to help ensure
end squareness and end flatness. Both the ID and OD should be burr free with no
chamfer.
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When two tubes are butted together for welding, two of the main considerations are
mismatch and gaps. In general, the following rules apply:
Any gap should be less than 5% of the wall thickness. It is possible to weld
with gaps of up to 10% (or greater) of wall thickness, but the resultant
quality of weld will suffer greatly and repeatability will also become a
significant challenge.
Wall thickness variations at the weld zone should not be more than ± 5% of
nominal wall thickness. Again, the laws of physics will allow welding with
mismatch of up to 25% of wall thickness if this is the only challenge but
again, the resultant quality of weld will suffer greatly and repeatability will
also become a significant issue.
Alignment mismatch (high-low) should be avoided by using engineering
stands and clamps to align the two tubes to be welded. This system also
removes the mechanical requirement of aligning the tubes from the orbital
weldhead.
15.4.8 Shield Gas (es)
An inert gas is required on the tube OD and ID during welding to prevent the
molten material from combining with the oxygen in the ambient atmosphere. The
objective of the welder should be to create a weld which has zero tint at the weld
zone ID.
Argon is the most commonly used shield gas (for the OD of the tube)and the purge
gas (for the ID of the tube). Helium is often used for welding on copper material.
Mixed gases such as 98% Argon/2% Hydrogen, 95% Argon/5% Hydrogen, 90%
Argon/10% Hydrogen or 75% Helium/25% Argon my be used when the wall
thickness to be welded is heavy (.1" or above). Using mixtures of 95% Argon/5%
Hydrogen is incompatible with carbon steels and some exotic alloys, often causing
hydrogen embrittlement in the resultant weld. As a general rule use 100% argon
gas, for simplicity and reduction of shield gas cost.
Gas purity is dictated by the application. For high purity situations where the
concern for micro-contamination is paramount, such as semiconductor and
pharmaceutical applications, the shield and purge gases must minimize the heat
tint that could otherwise be undesirable. In these applications, ultra high purity gas
or gas with a local purifier are employed. For non-critical applications, commercial
grade argon gas may be used.
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15.4.9 Tungsten Electrode
The tungsten welding electrode, the source of the welding arc, is one of the most
important elements of the welding system that is most commonly ignored by
welding systems users. While no one would refute the importance of the ignition
device on an automobile airbag, the rip cord for a parachute, or quality tires f or
automobiles, the importance of tungsten electrode for quality welding is often
overlooked. Users continue to manually grind and wonder why they produce
inconsistent results. Whether in manual or automatic welding, this is the area
where manufacturing organizations can improve the consistency of their welding
output with minor effort.
The objective for the choice of tungsten parameters is to balance the benefits of a
clean arc start and reduced arc wander with good weld penetration and a
satisfactory electrode life.
Electrode Materials: For quite some time, tungsten manufacturers have added an
oxide to pure tungsten to improve the arc starting characteristics and the longevity
of pure tungsten electrodes. In the orbital welding industry, the most commonly
used electrode materials are 2% thoriated tungsten and 2% ceriated tungsten.
Safety: The safety issues of tungsten electrode material are now being looked at
more closely. Many users of the TIG welding process do not realize that the welding
electrode they use contains Thorium, a radioactive element added to the tungsten.
While the radioactivity is of a low level, it brings an issue of danger especially with
the radioactive dust generated when grinding the electrodes to a point for welding.
Alternative, non-radioactive tungsten materials are now available, such as 2%
ceriated electrodes, which often offer superior arc welding. While these materials
are commercially available they have been largely ignored until recently.
Recommended Electrode Materials: Cerium, as a base material, has a lower work
function than thorium, thus it offers superior emission characteristics. Thus, not
only do ceriated electrodes offer an advance in electrode safety, they also improve
the arc starting ability of the orbital equipment. However, as mentioned earlier, it is
always best to follow the advice of your orbital equipment manufacturer. 2%
ceriated and 2% thoriated electrodes are the most commonly recommended
materials for orbital welding equipment.
Electrode Tip Geometry: Given the ever increasing weld quality requirements of the
final weld, more and more companies are looking for ways to ensure that their
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weld quality is up to par. Consistency and repeatability are key to welding
applications. The shape and quality of the tungsten electrode tip is finally being
recognized as a vital process variable. Once a weld procedure has been established,
it is important that consistent electrode material, tip geometry and surface
condition be used.

15.4.10 Welding Basics and Set-Up


Figure-15-5: Weld Electrode tip di ameter
To produce high consistent welds the Tungsten electrode must provide the
following:
1. High quality electrode material
2. The electrode tip dimensions shown must be held to close tolerances
3. The surface finish (ground or polished) of the electrode grind must be
consistent.
Welders should follow an equipment supplier's suggested procedures and
dimensions first, because they have usually performed a significant amount of
qualifying and troubleshooting work to optimize electrode preparation for their
equipment. However, where these specifications do not exist or the welder or
engineer would like to change those settings to possibly improve and optimize their
welding, the following guidelines apply:
A. Electrode Taper - This is usually called out in degrees of included angle (usually
anywhere between 14º and 60º). Below is a summary chart that illustrates how
different tapers offer different arc shapes and features:


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Sharper Electrodes Blunter Electrodes
Easy arc starting Usually harder to start the arc
Handle less amperage Handle more amperage
Wider arc shape Narrower arc shape
Good arc stability Potential for more arc wander
Less weld penetration Better weld penetration
Shorter electrode life Longer electrode life

In addition, to demonstrate graphically how the taper selection will affect the size of
the weld bead and the amount of penetration, below is a drawing that shows typical
representations of the arc shape and resultant weld profile for different tapers.

Figure-15-6: Arc Shapes and resultant weld profiles
B. Electrode Tip Diameter - Grinding an electrode to a point is sometimes desirable
for certain applications, especially where arc starting is difficult or short duration
welds on small parts are performed. However in most cases it is best for a welder to
leave a flat spot or tip diameter at the end of electrode. This reduces erosion at the
thin part of a point and reduces the concern that the tip may fall into the weld.
Larger and smaller tip diameters offer the following trade-offs:



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Smaller Tip Larger Tip
Easier arc starting Usually harder to start the arc
Potential for more arc wander Good arc stability
Less weld penetration More weld penetration
Shorter electrode life More electrode life

Tungsten Electrode Grinders and Pre-Ground Electrodes: Using electrodes pre-ground
to requirements or a dedicated commercial electrode grinder to provide electrode
tip quality and consistency offers the following benefits to the user in their welding
process:
1. Improved arc starting, increased arc stability and more consistent weld
penetration.
2. Longer electrode life before electrode wear or contamination.
3. Reduction of tungsten shedding. This minimizes the possibility of Tungsten
inclusions in the weld.
4. A dedicated electrode grinder helps ensure that the welding electrodes will
not become contaminated by residue or material left on a standard shop
grinder wheel.
5. Tungsten electrode grinding equipment requires less skill to ensure that the
tungsten electrode is ground correctly and with more consistency.
Pre-Ground Electrodes: Rather than risk electrode radioactivity issues and also
constantly endure the variability of each operator grinding the electrodes with a
slightly different touch, many manufacturing organizations have chosen to
purchase electrodes pre-ground. In addition, since a small difference in the
dimensions of an orbital electrode can produce a big difference in the weld
results, pre-ground electrodes are the preferred electrode choice to maintain the
consistency of your welding. This low cost option ensures that the electrode
material quality, tip geometry and ground electrode surface input to the welding
process is constant.
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Fi gure- 15- 7: Usi ng pre-ground el ec tro des
ensure t hat the el ect rode materi al qual i ty, ti p
geomet ry and gro und el ect rode surf ace i nput
to the wel di ng p rocess i s constant

Consult electrode charts or a pre-ground electrode
supplier to obtain the electrode diameter and tip
geometry that is most suitable for your welding
application.



15.4.11 Welding Parameter Development
Many welding equipment suppliers offer a series of pre-calculated weld programs
for a variety of tube diameters, wall thicknesses and materials. Welders should
always follow an equipment supplier's suggested procedures first, because they
have usually performed a significant amount of qualifying and troubleshooting
work to optimize electrode preparation for their equipment.
However, it is impossible for the equipment suppliers to have welding procedures
for every welding application and there will always exist a trade off in maximum
weld speed possible versus weld quality and repeatability. Where weld parameter
specifications do not exist or the welder or engineer would like to change those
settings to possibly improve or optimize their welding, the guidelines noted below
give information on how to modify the welding parameters for a desired result.
Note: The "rules of thumb" noted below are general guidelines only and will not
apply to every welding application and mix of parameters chosen. Although the
welding parameters are often chosen and changed according to the specific needs
of the application, there are some industry standards that have been developed as
starting points. Experimentation and experience will determine the final weld
parameters.
Arc Length
The arc gap setting is dependent on weld current, arc stability and tube
concentricity/ovality. The objective of the welding engineer is to keep the
electrode at a constant distance from the tube surface with sufficient gap to avoid
stubbing out.
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As a "rule of thumb" use a base arc gap of 0.010" and add to this half the
penetration required (usually the tube wall thickness) expressed in thousandths
of an inch. Thus if the tube wall is .030" then a good starting arc gap would be
0.010" + 0.015" = .025". For a wall thickness/penetration requirement of .154" the
arc gap would be 0.010" + .070" = 0.080"
Weld Speed
The weld speed is dependent on flow rate of material to be welded, and wall
thickness. The objective is to weld as fast as possible while still yielding a quality
output.
As a starting point the tungsten surface speed should be 4 - 10 inches per minute
with the faster welding speeds used for thinner wall materials and the slower
welding speeds used for heavy wall thickness. As a good starting point, use 5
inches per minute.
Welding Current
The welding current is dependent on the material to be welded, wall thickness,
weld speed, and the shield gas chosen. The objective is to achieve full penetration,
defect free welds.
As a starting point use 1 ampere current per 0.001" wall thickness if the material
is stainless steel. Thus for a 0.030" wall tubing the average weld current will be 30
amps in the first level.
Weld Current Levels
Orbital welding normally uses multiple levels of weld current to compensate for
heat building up in the tube during the welding process. If the weld current used
to initially penetrate the tubing was held at the same level for the complete weld,
the weld penetration would increase as the weld progressed around the tube,
producing too much penetration.
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Figure15-8: A Typical Weld Program current Profile ( Thi s weld profi le shows
a single level of weld ti me). Orbital welding normally uses a minimum of 4
levels of weld time with each level decreasing in weld amperage as the tube
heats up during the welding process
Normally orbital welding uses a minimum of 4 levels of weld time with each level
decreasing in weld amperage
Starting parameters: Set weld level 4 to be at 80% of weld level 1 amperages. Set
weld level 2 and weld level 3 to gradually decrease the current from level 1 to
level 4.
Figures 15-9 and 15-10 depict a typical weld program current profile for a 10 mm
O.D. SS tube. It may be noted that in the weld program chosen by the welder, the
time for each level is same (Impulse rate) and the average current decreases with
each level.
Arc Pulsing
Arc pulsing involves using the welding power supply to rapidly alternate the weld
current from a high (peak current) to a low (background current) value. This
creates a seam of overlapping spot welds. This technique reduces the overall heat
input to the base material and can also allow for increases in weld speed. This
welding technique brings many benefits to the welding procedure, often
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improving weld quality and repeatability. In some cases materials and weld joints
with poor fit-up that are difficult to successfully weld with a non-pulsed arc can
easily be welded with a pulsed arc technique. The result is improved weld quality
and increased output.

Figure 15-9: Weld program data sheet of a typical weld in RAPP-6


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In orbital welding, arc pulsing also offers another advantage due to the fact that
the gravity pulls the weld puddle in different directions as the weld is created
around the tube. When pulsing at peak current the base material(s) melt and flow
together, at the lower background current the puddle can solidify before becoming
liquid at the next peak current pulse. This diminishes the effect of gravity on the
molten weld, minimizes the weld sagging at the 12 and 6 o clock positions, and
reduces the molten weld puddle running/slumping downhill at the 3 and 9 o'clock
positions and effectively alters the electrode to weld puddle distance. The arc
pulsing technique thus becomes more advantageous as the wall thickness
increases resulting in a larger weld puddle.
Arc Pulsing Parameters: Arc pulsing involves four welding parameters: peak
current, background current, pulse width (duty cycle), and pulse frequency. Here
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again, opinions vary from one welding organization to another and indeed from
welder to welder. Many welders arrive at the same welding result having
somewhat different welding parameters.
It is important to understand how to choose convenient weld development
starting parameters and the effect on the weld by changing each parameter.
The primary objective is to use the benefits of weld pulsation to improve weld
quality and output.
Peak/Background Current Ratios: The peak to background current ratios basically
provides a means for the welding current to pulse from one level to another.
Industry usage generally varies from 2:1 ratios to 5:1 ratios. A good starting point
is to use 3:1 ratios, make the required weld and test other parameters to see if any
benefit can be gained.
Pulse Frequency: The pulse frequency is dependent on spot overlap required. Good
starting parameters are to attempt for a 75% spot overlap. Pulse rate for thin wall
tube is often equal to the weld speed in ipm (5 ipm = 5 pps) {pps: pulse per
second}
Pulse Width: The pulse width (the percentage of time spent on the peak current) is
dependent on heat sensitivity of material and available current from power
supply. Higher heat sensitivity requires lower pulse width % on peak current.
Standard pulse widths are often 20% to 50%. A good starting parameters would
be to set a pulse width of 35%.
Welding Parameter Development Example for 1" Tube/.030" Tube Wall
Thickness:
1. Arc Length/Gap = .010" + (0.5 x penetration required)
Starting Parameters: .010" + (0.5 x .030") = .025"
2. Weld Speed = 5 ipm surface speed
RPM = ipm/(3.1415 x dia.)
Starting Parameters: 5/(3.1415 x 1") = 1.59 RPM
3. Welding Current Levels
Level 1 = 1 amp per .001" of wall thickness for level 1 current
Level 4 = 80% of Level 1 current
Levels 2 and 3 gradually decrease the current from Level 1 to Level 4
Starting Parameters:
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Level 1 Peak Current = .030" wall thickness = 30 amps
Level 4 Peak Current = 30 amps x 80% = 24 amps
Level 2 Peak Current = 28 amps
Level 3 Peak Current = 26 amps
Background Current will be 1/3rd of peak current. Pulse width/duty cycle is 35%
4. Tungsten Electrode Diameter & Tip Geometry - Use your equipment
manufacturer's specifications or consult your pre-ground electrode supplier
The above data gives starting parameters. On completion of the first test weld, the
parameters will be modified to obtain the final result desired.



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16.0 REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING
1. An installer’s pocket guide for Swagelok tube fittings: Swagelok instruction manual.
2. ANSI/ASME B31.1-1980: Power piping
3. ISO-2186-1973 (2001): Fluid flow in closed conduits- connections for pressure signal
transmissions between primary and secondary elements.
4. SA 655: Specification for special requirements for pipe and tubing for nuclear and other
special applications.
5. TAPP-3&4/60610/93/B/4670 dated 9
th
June, 1993: Design note on Class-I Instrument
tubing.
6. TAPP-3&4/60610/93/B/4671 dated 9
th
June, 1993: recommendation note on impulse
connections and their installations
7. Eric Lundin, “Is your bend good enough”, The Fabricator.
8. ISA-S 67.02.02(1996): Nuclear safety related instrument sensing line piping and tubing.
9. ASME PTC code 19.5: Flow measurement.
10. ASME PTC code 19.2: Pressure measurement.
11. PB-E-344: Specifications for SS tubes
12. PB-E-146: Specifications for SS compression type twin ferrule (flareless)tube fittings.
13. PB-M-23: Specifications for Seamless Copper tubing for 500 MWe
14. PB-E-44: Specifications for Brass compression type (flareless)tube fittings
15. ANSI/ASME B1.20.1-1983, Pipe Threads, General purpose (inch)
16. IS-1239 (part-II)-1982, Specification for mild steel tubes, Tubular and other Wrought
steel fittings
17. ASME Section-III- Rules for construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components; Division-I-
Subsection NB: Class 1 Components
18. BS-4368-Part-I-1972; Carbon and Stainless Steel Compression Couplings for Tubes
19. “Fundamentals of orbital tube welding”, Pro-Fusion technologies, Inc.
20. ANSI/ASME B1.20.4-1976, Dryseal Pipe Threads
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21. “Tools and Manufacturing Engineer’s Handbook: A Reference Book for Engineers,
Managers and Technicians”, Tom Drozda, Charles Wick.
22. “Perry’s chemical Engineers’ Handbook”, Robert H. Perry, D.W. Green.
23. Brochure of Tubes and Tube fittings, Parker Hannifin, USA.
24. “TIG Welding Basics-for TIG Welders, by a TIG Welder”, Jody Collier.
25. Swagelok SWS Orbital tube welding machine training notes.
26. Swagelok Manual on Orbital tube welding machine SWS D-100.

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