By: Daud Dominador Velasco for HAYA WATER-Muscat, Oman

 Abstract
This presentation gives a brief introduction to instrumentation and its relevance to the process industry.


As introduction to Instrumentation, let us see the science and technology that affect and interact with measurement & control.

Physics Chemistry & Chemical Engg


Nucleonic & ECE

Mechl & Elect Metallurgical & Engg. Manufacturing Engg IT & Comp Engg

2. 0 Definition
To have better understanding of the word instrumentation let us first study the meaning of its root word “Instrument”, 2.1 What is an Instrument? According to Webster’s Dictionary, is - any mechanical device or contrivance - a tool, implement, or apparatus - a contrivance for producing music - a formal legal document, a deed or contract - an agent, agency - an apparatus for measuring distance - others After knowing the meaning of the word “Instrument” let us find the meaning of “instrumentation” as defined by the Instrument Society of America (ISA).

2.2 What is Instrumentation? 2.2.1 ISA Definition The official definition of Instrumentation is – a collection of instrument or their application for the purpose of observation, measurement or control. 2.2.2 “Filipino” Definition The version is easy to remember and hard to forget. You just have to answer the (4) W’s. What? - Application of instruments Where? - into a process Why? - in order to measure & control Which? - its activity. “Other Definition” Instrumentation is an art and science using instruments in a control process for the purpose of observation, measurement and control. 2.2.3

Controller/ Receiving element

Measuring Device/element

Influence s
Final control device/element

The Process

Process control Algorithm of Controller PV – SP = e PV – Measured Variable SP – Set Point e – error signal Objective is to make the measured value to Set point or error is equal to zero.

Process: Furnace Separator Boiler Measuring element: Sensor Transmitter Transducer

Receiving element: Indicators Recorders Controller Alarm units Final Control element: Control Valves Dampers Drives

Scope of Instrumentation & Control 3.1 Division of Instrumentation (According to ISA) 3.1.1 Computers, Information Technology, Communications, Telecommunications, Data handling, Telemetry. This includes: - Data communications - Scanning and data logging, SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) - Data processing - Data storage and transmission - Information theory - Telemetry – transmitting Data from measuring systems by telemetering; from data acquisition or processing centers, or from supervisory dispatching centers for communication - Telemetering transmission methods; hardwired,


3.1.2 Aerospace/Avionics Instrumentation associated with - ground testing - flight testing - control of aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. 3.1.3 Marine Sciences/biology Instrumentation associated with - oceanography - marine and underwater applications 3.1.4 Metrology The science of test and measurements utilizing - precise measurements - Calibration standards, calibrator - primary standards - secondary standards - working standards For calibrating instruments that measure pressure, temperature, mass, weights, dimensional, etc.

3.1.5 Automation – Mechanical Instrumentation of mechanical movements - Machine automation, mechanization - Bottling - Packaging - Robotics - CNC (Computerized numerical control of machining) 3.1.6 Automation – Process Instrumentation of process variables - Process controls - Measurement of control of - pressure - level - flow - Temperature - others

3.1.7 Analytical Measurement of composition/ percent concentration, and other properties such as; - pH, turbidity, O2, CO, CO2, H2, H2S, SO2, NO, etc - Moisture, relative humidity - Density, viscocity 3.1.8 Bio – Medical Medical and bio medical instruments needed for research and experimental works as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic treatment. Example; X-Ray, ECG, EKG, CAT (Computerize Axial Topography), NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resource), Lung capacity meter (Spiro meter), CT Scan, Ultrasound, etc 3.1.9 Cryogenics The science that deal with the production of very low temperature and their effect on the properties of matter. These are instruments that are specifically for very low temperature.

3.1.10 Nuclear Instrumentation - Instruments that measure the strength or activity of radioisotope, - Instrument that measure process variables such as weight, density, thickness, moisture thru the use of radioisotopes like Cesium 137, Cobalt 60, etc. 3.1.11 Power Instrumentation - Instrument that measure electrical properties such as current, voltage, horsepower, phase angle, power factor, frequency, etc 3.1.12 Others/Unclassified Instruments used in the - Audio, video, TV, cinema and entertainment industry

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