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13.

Design of Footing
13.1 Determination of Footing Dimension Required area of footing Areq = where PD + PL qe

PD , PL = dead and live load on footing qe = effective bearing capacity of soil qe = qa H 20 qa H 20 kN m


3

kN m
3

= allowable bearing capacity of soil with FS = 2.0 .. 3.0 = depth of foundation = average unit weight of concrete and soil

Checking for stress of soil under footing 1. Case of eccentric load about one axes

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qmax qu Pu 1 + 4 Pu 3 B ( L 2 e) where B,L e= qu 6 e L if e L 6 otherwise

qmax =

B L

= width and long of footing Mu Pu : eccentricity of force

= design bearing capacity of soil 1.2 PD + 1.6 PL PD + PL

qu = qa

2. Case of eccentric load about two axes (biaxial load) qmax qu Pu B L + Pu ex Cx Ix + Pu ey Cy Iy

qmax =

H where Cx = Cy = 2 ex ey Ix Iy = eccentricity of force about x axes = eccentricity of force about y axes = inertia moment about x axes = inertia moment about y axes

13.2 Determination of Depth of Footing Safety provision For punching: For beam shear: V u V c Vu1 Vc1 Vu2 Vc2 Strength reduction factor for shear = 0.75

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Punching shear Vu = qu A A0 A = B L

) ( )( )

A0 = bc + d hc + d

Punching shear strength

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4 f'c b0 d 4 2 + f'c b0 d Vc = min d s b + 2 f'c b0 d 0

(in psi)

0.33 f'c b0 d 1 + 2 f' b d (in MPa) 0.17 c 0 Vc = min d s 0.083 + 2 f' b d c 0 b0 s = 40 30 20 d for interior columns for edge columns for conner columns

= ratio of long side to short side of column = effective depth of footing

b0 = bc + d + hc + d 2 : parameter of critical section Beam shears Vu1 = qu B

) (

L hc
2

Vu2 = qu L

B bc
2

Beam shear strength Vc1 = 2 f'c B d Vc1 = 0.17 f'c B d Vc2 = 2 f'c L d Vc2 = 0.17 f'c L d (in psi) (in MPa) (in psi) (in MPa)
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The minimun depth of footing is 150mm. 13.3 Determination of Steel Reinforcements

Bending moments Mu1 = q1 L1 2 q2 L2 2


2 2

q1 = qu B

L1 =

L hc 2 B bc 2

Mu2 =

q2 = qu L

L2 =

Type of section: Signly reinforced rectangular beam Minimum steel area Asmin = min B d Top reinforcement As_top = t B h where t = steel ratio for temperature and shrikage.
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Distribution of flexural reinforcement

Example 13.1 Allowable bearing capacity of soil Depth of foundation Tributary area of footing Column stub Materials Strength reduction factor for shear Solution Loads on slab DL := 50mm 22 kN m
2

qa := 150

kN
2

m H := 1.5m B := 4.75m

L := 4.0m hc := 250mm fy := 400MPa

bc := 250mm f'c := 25MPa := 0.75

kN m
3

+ 120mm 25

kN m
3

+ 20mm 20

kN m
3

+ 1.00

kN m
2

= 5.5

kN m
2

LL := 2.00

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Loads on ground column kN Beam := 20cm ( 40cm 12cm) 25 3 ( B + L) = 12.25 kN m PD_slab := DL B L 3 = 313.5 kN PL_slab := LL B L 3 = 114 kN SW := 25cm 25cm ( 4.5m + 4.2m) 25 kN m
3

= 13.594 kN

PDL := SW + Beam + PD_slab = 339.344 kN PLL := PL_slab = 114 kN Dimension of footing qe := qa 20 kN m


3

H = 120

kN m
2

Areq :=

PDL + PLL qe

= 3.778 m

Actual dimension of footing B := 2m L := 2m


2

A := B L = 4 m Depth of footing:

Design bearing capacity of soil qu := qa 1.2 PDL + 1.6 PLL PDL + PLL = 195.088 kN m
2

Assume h := 400mm d := h 50mm + 16mm + 16mm = 326 mm 2

Punching shear A0 := bc + d hc + d = 0.332 m


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)(

Vu := qu A A0 = 715.626 kN Punching shear strength b0 := bc + d + hc + d 2 = 2.304 m := bc hc =1 s := 40

) (

f'c 0.33MPa b0 d MPa f'c 2 Vc := min 0.17MPa 1 + b0 d MPa s d f'c 0.083MPa + 2 b d 0 b0 MPa
Vc = 929.491 kN Punching_shear := "is OK" if Vc Vu "is Critical" otherwise Punching_shear = "is OK" Beam shears Vu1 := qu B

L hc
2

d = 214.207 kN

Vu2 := qu L

B bc
2

d = 214.207 kN

Beam shear strength Vc1 := 0.17MPa f'c B d = 415.65 kN MPa f'c L d = 415.65 kN MPa

Vc2 := 0.17MPa Beam_shear :=

"is OK" if min Vc1 , Vc2 max Vu1 , Vu2 "is Critical" otherwise
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Beam_shear = "is OK" Steel Reinforcements

f'c 0.25MPa MPa 1.4MPa min := max , = 0.0035 fy fy


In direction L = 2 m b := B kN q1 := qu b = 390.176 m L1 := L hc 2 q1 L1 2 Mu 0.9 b d
2

= 0.875 m
2

Mu := R :=

= 149.364 kN m

= 0.781 MPa

:= 0.85

f'c 1 fy

1 2

R = 0.00199 0.85 f'c

As := max , min b d = 22.82 cm n := floor B 50mm 2 + 1 = 12 170mm

As.pro := n In direction B = 2 m b := L

( 16mm) 2 = 24.127 cm 4

kN q1 := qu b = 390.176 m

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L1 := Mu := R :=

B bc 2 q1 L1 2 Mu 0.9 b d
2 2

= 0.875 m

= 149.364 kN m

= 0.781 MPa

:= 0.85

f'c 1 fy

1 2

R = 0.00199 0.85 f'c

As := max , min b d = 22.82 cm n := floor L 50mm 2 + 1 = 12 170mm


2

( 16mm) 2 As.pro := n = 24.127 cm 4 Steel reinforcement for shrinkage t := 0.0018 b := B As.shrikage := t b h = 14.4 cm n := floor
2

L 50mm 2 + 1 = 12 170mm
2

( 14mm) 2 As.pro := n = 18.473 cm 4

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