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Ref: Chemical Process Safety , DA Crowl et al.

Ventilation is common method to control airborne toxic. Reasons: quickly remove dangerous conc. highly localised; quantity of air move less and size equipment small the equipment readily available the equipment can be added Ventilation principle: dilute the contaminant remove the contaminant Ventilation system: fans and ducts

Ventilation technique: local ventilation(hood) dilution ventilation(for contaminant cannot contain in hood)

Hoods: enclosed hood completely contained the contaminant (cont.) e.g. laboratory hood exterior hood to exhaust receiving hood cont. go to collection push-pull hood air used to push cont. to exhaust system

Hood calculation as assumed plug flow:

Qv A u

Where Q v = the air move per unit time

u = average velocity distance/time A = cross-sectional area

Assumed rectangular duct

Q v = LW u Where L= length W= width

Control velocity 100-125 feet per minute(fpm)

Hood area, A=50 ft2, velocity-100fpm Qv= Au = (50ft2)(100 ft/min)=5000 ft3/min i.e. less compared to dilution vent.

Do 3-9 & 3-14