Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle

Matching Questions
Use the following to answer questions 1-10: Choose the correct answer from the list below. Not all of the answers will be used. a) cytosol b) phosphorylation c) anaplerotic d) mitochondria e) cis-aconitate f) arsenite g) metabolon h) oxaloacetate i) inner membrane j) flavoproteins k) carbon dioxide l) glyoxylate cycle 1 ____________ Where does the citric acid cycle take place in the cell? Ans: d Section: Introduction 2 ____________ These proteins are tightly associated with FAD or FMN. Ans: j Section: 17.1 3 ____________ This is the intermediate between citrate and isocitrate. Ans: e Section: 17.2 4 ____________ This is the location of succinate dehydrogenase. Ans: i Section: 17.2 5 ____________ This TCA intermediate is both at the beginning and at the end of the citric acid cycle. Ans: h Section: 17.2 6 ____________ This is one of the products of the citric acid cycle. Ans: k

Ans: GTP Section: 17. Ans: thiamine pyrophospate Section: 17.3 10 ____________ This is the name applied to metabolic reactions that replenish citric acid cycle intermediates that are depleted because they were used for biosynthesis.2 16 The ____________ cycle is a process by which plants and some bacteria can convert twocarbon acetyl units into four-carbon units (succinate) for glucose synthesis. Ans: lysine Section: 17.2 13 E1 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex requires the coenzyme ________________ for proper activity.1 14 E2 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contains a lipoyl group that is covalently attached to a _______________ residue of the enzyme. Ans: b Section: 17. Ans: acetyl CoA Section: Introduction 12 In the citric acid cycle.2 8 ____________ This substance is toxic because it reacts with the neighboring sulfhydryl groups of dihydrolipoyl groups and blocks its reoxidation to lipoamide.1 15 _______________ is a citric acid cycle enzyme that is also an example of an iron-sulfur protein. Ans: g Section: 17. Ans: f Section: 17.5 .4 2 Fill in the Blank Questions 11 Carbons from carbohydrate enter the citric acid cycle in the form of _______________.4 9 ____________ This type of enzyme regulation process inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Ans: Aconitase or succinate dehydrogenase Section: 17. the __________ is produced by a substrate-level phosphorylation. energy production. Ans: glyoxylate Section: 17.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle Section: 17. and biosynthesis.2 7 ____________ This is a name suggested for associated multienzyme complexes in metabolism. Ans: c Section: 17.

Ans: high Section: 17. B) Cori cycle. and pantothenic acid B) thiamine.3 19 ________________ is the first citric acid cycle intermediate to be oxidized. and c C) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Ans: C Section: 17. 22 What molecule initiates the citric acid cycle by reacting with oxaloacetate? A) pyruvate D) All of the above.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle 17 During the oxidation of isocitrate. decarboxylation E) None of the above. niacin. the citric acid cycle is inhibited under ________ (high. lipoic acid. Ans: A Section: 17. lipoic acid. and lipoic acid E) none of the above .2 23 What enzyme(s) is (are) responsible for the following reaction? Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2 A) acetyl CoA synthetase D) a and b B) pyruvate decarboxylase E) a. niacin. riboflavin. b.1 24 What are the steps involved (in order) in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA? A) decarboxylation. decarboxylation. the intermediate that is decarboxylated to form αketoglutarate is ______________________.4 3 Multiple Choice Questions 21 The citric acid cycle is also known as the A) Krebs cycle. B) acetyl CoA E) None of the above. riboflavin. a. Ans: Isocitrate Section: 17. transfer to CoA. transfer to CoA D) oxidation. C) tricarboxylic acid cycle. low) energy conditions. C) oxaloacetate Ans: B Section: 17. and biotin C) thiamine. oxidation. Ans: D Section: Introduction D) E) a and c. b. pantothenic acid. riboflavin. and c.1 25 Which of the following vitamins are precursors to coenzymes that are necessary for the formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate? A) thiamine. riboflavin. transfer to CoA B) decarboxylation. transfer to CoA. Ans: thiamine Section: 17.2 20 Beri-beri is caused by a deficiency of __________________. oxidation C) oxidation. Ans: oxalosuccinate Section: 17. niacin.2 18 In general. and biotin D) thiamine.

1 27 Formation of citrate from acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate is a(n) _________ reaction. C) condensation Ans: C Section: 17. E) None of the above. A) oxidation D) ligation B) reduction E) None of the above.2 30 In which step of the citric acid cycle is FADH 2 formed? A) the conversion of succinate to malate B) the conversion of succinate to oxaloacetate C) the conversion of succinate to fumarate D) the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate E) none of the above Ans: C Section: 17.1 4 26 Which of the following functions as a “flexible swinging arm” when it transfers the reaction intermediate from one active site to the next? A) FAD B) NAD+ C) lipoamide D) thiamine pyrophosphate E) coenzyme A Ans: C Section: 17.2 29 In which reaction is GTP (or ATP) directly formed in the citric acid cycle? A) conversion of succinyl CoA to succinate B) decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate C) conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate D) All of the above.2 31 Which of these compounds is oxidized by a multienzyme complex that requires five different coenzymes? A) D) OH H - O 2C C C H CO2O E) - O 2C O CH2 CH CO2 B) - O 2C CH2 CH2 C CO2- CH3 C SCoA .1 and Table 17. Ans: A Section: 17.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle Ans: A Section: 17.2 28 What is/are the chemical change(s) involved in the conversion of citrate into isocitrate? A) hydration followed by dehydration D) dehydration followed by hydration B) oxidation E) a and b C) oxidation followed by reduction Ans: D Section: 17.

what other enzymes are key regulatory sites in the citric acid cycle? A) isocitrate dehydrogenase D) a and b B) E) a. b. B) acetate.3 35 The glyoxylate cycle enables plants to survive using only A) pyruvate. C) oxaloacetate.3 33 Approximately how many ATP or GTP equivalents are produced during one turn of the citric acid cycle? A) 10 B) 6 C) 9 D) 12 E) None of the above. E) none of the above.2 Ans: B 32 Which of the following conditions will activate pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase which catalyzes the phorphorylation and inactivation of E1 in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) elevated concentrations of NADH and ATP B) elevated concentrations of NAD+ and ADP C) Ca2+ D) insulin E) elevated concentrations of acetyl-CoA Ans: A Section: 17. Ans: A Section: 17.4 Short-Answer Questions 36 Give the net equation of the citric acid cycle. lipoamide: lipoic acid .Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle C) - 5 O O 2C CH2 C CO 2Section: 17.2 34 In addition to pyruvate dehydrogenase. D) all of the above. and c α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase C) citrate synthase (in bacteria) Ans: E Section: 17. which is a 2° alcohol that can be oxidized. The isomerization converts the 3° alcohol into isocitrate. vitamin B1 2. Ans: 1. Ans: B Section: 17. Section: 17.2 37 Why is the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate a necessary step of the citric acid cycle? Ans: Citrate is a tertiary alcohol that cannot be oxidized. thiamine pyrophosphate: thiamine.2 38 List the five coenzymes that are required for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α– ketoglutarate and give the essential nutrient (vitamin) that is required for each. Ans: Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + Pi → 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + FADH2 + GTP + CoA Section: 17.

Ans: The enzyme nucleoside diphosphokinase reversibly transfers a phosphoryl group from GTP to ADP according the reaction: GTP + ADP GDP + ATP Conversly. Section: 17. This reaction is easily reversible. 1. and the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase components are identical. Section: 17.2 40 Give the reaction in the citric acid cycle by which the energy is conserved in the formation of a phosphoanhydride bond by substrate level phosphorylation.2 39 Explain why a GTP is energetically equivalent to an ATP in metabolism. Give the name of the enzyme that catalyzes this reaction and give the structures of the reactants and products of this reaction. a phosphoryl group can be transferred from ATP to a GDP forming GTP. The transfer is usually in the other direction. which are decarboxylated. which has high transfer potential. Section: 17.1 & 17. coenzyme A: pantothenic acid Section: 17. The hydrolysis of the thioester of citryl CoA forms citrate and regenerates the CoA. NAD+: niacin 4. FAD: riboflavin. O succinyl-CoA synthetase Ans: O2CCH2CH2C SCoA succinyl-CoA Section: 17.5 ATP are produced when two electrons are transferred from NADH to oxygen by the electron transport chain. Ans: The total oxidation of one pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle produces 4 NADH.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle 3. 2.5 ATP are produced when two electrons are transferred from FADH 2 to oxygen by the electron . vitamin B2 5. The hydrolysis of the high energy thioester drives the reaction toward citrate. and involve formation of a thioester with CoA.2 45 How many ATP equivalents are produced from the total oxidation of one pyruvate to 3 CO 2.2 44 How does the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutatarate resemble that of pyruvate decarboxylation? Ans: Both are α-ketoacids. Section: 17.1 & 17.2 + GDP + P i O2CCH2CH2CO2 succinate + 6 GTP 41 What reaction serves to link glycolysis and the citric acid cycle? Ans: Pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ → acetyl CoA + NADH + H++ CO2 Section: 17. 1 FADH2 and one GTP. The enzymatic complexes and mechanisms are similar.1 43 What is the energy source that drives the condensation of oxaloacetate and and acetyl CoA to produce citrate? Ans: Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation of acetyl CoA and oxalacetate to form citryl CoA.1 42 Why is the observed electron transfer from FADH 2 to NAD+ unusual? Ans: It is unusual because the electrons are passed to the NAD + from the FADH2.

The carbons that leave as CO 2 come from oxaloacetate that condensed with acetyl CoA. Frequently. Section: 17. So a total of 12.5 ATP equivalents are produced. since succinate is symmetrical.2 46 The ΔG˚′ = −21 kJ/mol for the reaction catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase yet the ΔG˚′ = +29.Chapter 17 The Citric Acid Cycle transport chain. (4 × 2.1 & 17. and the carbons randomize. This resulted in neurological pathologies.7 kJ/mol for the reaction catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase. Section:17.2 47 How is succinate dehydrogenase unique when compared to the other enzymes in the citric acid cycle? Ans: It is the only enzyme embedded in the mitochondrial membrane. eventually all carbons are turned over. Ans: The oxidation of isocitrate produces oxalosuccinate.2 7 48 Are the acetyl carbons that enter the citric acid cycle the exact same carbons that leave as CO 2? Briefly explain. Ans: No. Section: 17. which essentially eliminates the reverse reaction. Both of these reactions involve the oxidation of a secondary alcohol. Section: 17. such as those on the dihydrolipoyl groups. The conversion of malate to oxaloacetate does not produce CO 2 and is endergonic. Give an explanation as to why the oxidation of isocitrate is so exergonic. the mercury would be absorbed and would react with sulfhydryls.2 49 How does the term “mad as a hatter” realistically reflect the condition? Ans: Hatters used mercury in their craft.3 50 Give a sequence of metabolic reactions by which all six carbons in citrate could be obtained from two pyruvate molecules. a GTP is equal to an ATP. However.5 + 1. Energetically. and it is directly associated with the electron transport chain.5 + 1 = 12. + Ans: NAD+ NADH + H O O CoA CH3C SCoA CH3C CO2 OH CoASH CO2 O CCH CCH CO 2 2 2 2 O CH3C CO2 ATP ADP + Pi O O2CCH2CCO2 CO2 Section: 17.5) Section: 17.2 . The decarboxylation of oxalosuccinate produces CO2 gas. In contrast. the loss of CO2 makes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate very favorable. the carbons are different.

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