Agl"Oforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for

producing food , materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Tmst four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are:

£18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK.
Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Volume 4 Number 1

October 1995

i

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 4 Number 1

October 1995

Contents
2 3 Editorial & News Chestnuts special: Cultivation for nuts
3 4 9 11 13 15 17 19 Nut types & uses Flowering & pollination Pruning Feeding & irrigation Harvesting Diseases Insect pests Chestnut cultivars

39 40

Book review: Saponins News (Continued), classified ads

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officia ls of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes , Devon, Tag 6JT. U.K. Email: AgroResTr @ aol.com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 1

'"

...

Editorial & News·
There has long been a dearth of information about chestnuts in the English language, which this special issue hopes to remedy. Much of the information has been gleaned from French and Italian books and articles, especially the e:cellent Le Chfltaigner Production et Cultue by F.Bergougnouxand others. Although only the southern half of Britain is really suitable for nut cultivation of chestnuts (and only the very South and South West are possible commercial gro""";ng areas), a climate change giving a temperature rise of 2°C (as we have seen this summer and likely to occur normally within the next 35 years) will make much of Britain suitable, the Southern half possible commercial growing areas , and the South and South West good commercial growing areas. So chestnuts planted now for nut production should become increasingly viable and profitable as the plantings mature. The collection of chestnut articles from Agroforestry Nev.s is being published this rmnth as a booklet, 'Chestnuts: libduction and Cultue'.

New trial grounds
In September we took over 8.3 acres of land, rented from Dartington Hall Trust, which will form our new trial grounds - not open to the general public. The land is agriculturally Class 2, being a typical Devonian red soil, and has been under arable cultivation for several years (not organic, but not too heavily sprayed either.) It is a single, fairly rectangular; field , gently south sloping at an altitude of 50-80 metres above sea level. The barley stubble which was left. when we took over was ploughed in just after the first significant rain after the summer drought (75 mm = 3" during the previous week which left the soil pleasantly moist). Brief rolling and harrovving created a good seed bed , then a seed mix of dwarl perennial ryegrass, creeping red fescue and wild white clover (8 Kg::2 Kg::O.25 Kg per acre) was sown and rolled in. Moist, warm September weather since sowing has ensured good germination. This mix was chosen as a low-maintenance ground coverbetv..een trees Vvtlich should only need mowing 1-2 times per season. A small area of the field has been sown with tares (vetches) as a green manure. This area, about 0.15 acre, will be used from 1996 onwards for shade trials of bush fruit and some vegetables, and as propagation/lining out aeas for nursery stock. Although the field boundary is marked by trimmed hedges (which must be retained), the site is relatively exposed to the prevailing S/SW winds . Hence the first trees to be planted this VoIinter will be forwindbreaks: the S/SW VoIindbreaks will consist of a single row of Italian alders (Alnus cordata) - although these don't leaf out early in spring , they retain their leaves late into' autumn and should protect cropping trees from wind damage. On the N/E sides of the field, windbreaks of vvillo'M5 are planned - these leaf out very early in spring (and aren't frost-sensitive) and will hence protect flowering crop trees from cold Easterly winds. Trials due for planting this Wnter include W3lnut and chestnut IBriety trials.

Open days planned
From 1996 onwards, we plan to have probably two open days a year (June/July and September/October time), to show interested folk around our research grounds in South Devon (both the forest garden site and the newtrial glOunds~ More details wll appear in .AJ;Jroforestry Nev.s in 1996.

Effects of the drought
Despite the hot, dry summer, there were very few casualties from our plantings at the Forest garden site at Dartington: most plants had been mulched with a black polythene mulch (a strip for hedges, squares for individual trees). None were watered at all during the summer, & the only species to suffer slightly were the (Continued on page 40)

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

6

Chestnuts (2): Cultivation for nuts
Introduction
Chestnuts have for many years and remain today a major world nut crop. World production of chestnuts stood at about SOO,OOO tons annually in 1985, and has increased since, with the largest producers being China , Korea, Italy, Turkey, France , Spain, Portugal and Greece. All these countries have large, healthy and exparding chestnut industries. In Europe, after a low was reached in the 1970's, increasing acreages of chestnuts have been planted , with new varieties and less rugged terrain for planting reducing the role of the baditional rrountain orchards.

Nut types and uses
The French have long divided fruits from chestnut trees into two categories: Marrons and Cha:taignes. The categorisation is dependent on whether or not individual fruits have a single, whole seed or several smaller seeds divided by a papery skin (the pellicle} Marrons have a single 1Nh0ie seed 'Nithin a fruit; Chataignes have 2-S seeds within the single shell, with the kernel partitioned between each seed with a papery skin . Both types can haw several nuts wthin a single bur Since few trees produce 100% of one kind or nut or another, a variety is defined as a Maron if on average, under 12% of the nuts are partitioned; if under the same conditions, a tree produces on average over 12% of partitioned nuts, it is a ChcUaigne. To add to the confusion, several varieties have had the name 'Marron' misapplied, for example Don~e de Lyon (Syn: Marron de L}On) lNhich is a Chataignetype. The distinction is important because certain uses, and most commercial utilisation, of chestnuts demands Marrons, lNhereas Chataignes are usually only used for fresh eating -and even here they are more fiddly to eat than Marrons. Because there is no English equivalent to these two terms, they are frequently used here. Nut sizes vary betvo.een varieties and cops. Nuts can be dio.ided into foursize categories: Category A B Fruits per Kg Under 60 Fruits per Ib Under 28 Nut size (as in variety description) Large & very large Medium to large Small to medium Small

C D

61 -80 81 -100
Over 100

28 -36 37 -45
Over 4S

One factor.......tiich can greatly affect utilisation of nuts is the staining of the kEel wth colourfrom the shell. Approximate composition of fresh C.sativa nuts is (by weight): 43% water, 6.4% protein, 6% fat, 43% carbohyUrate, 1.S% crude fibre. The shell constitutes about lS% of the total weight of the nut. The composition of dried nuts, by weight, is 6% water, 10.7% protein, 7.8% fat, 70% carbohydrates, 2.9% crude fibre. The main uses of nuts ae: Fresh eating All varieties may be utilised for fresh eating , though of course the flavour is better in some than in others . Uses all sizes of nuts. Most chestnuts are eaten cooked (some, notably other species than C.sativa , are good raw), either by quickly roasting , or boiling for lS-20 minutes; steamed blarched chestnuts are a favourite French method.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 3

Flour producfon Some varieties are particularly noted for utilisation as chestnut flour; several are still used for this, notably in Corsica and Italy. Unlike most nuts, chestnuts are low in fats and hence are more akin to cereals than other eating nuts. To make flour, the nuts must be dried, then shelled and ground. The flour is often mixed vvith wheat flour or other foodstuffs; it is used to make a thick soup, porridge, in stews, to make bread, thin cakes/biscuits and chestnut ftters. Preserves, sauces, pun~s etc. Uses small sized nuts (Class D~ both Marrons and
Ch~Haignes .

• natural marrons, canned Whole

This requires Marron-type nuts, with no colour staining, which peel well, which have firm flesh which doesn't disintegrate after processing. Requires nut sizes of 80-90 per Kg (Class B & C). Nuts are cooked and then conditioned in fletal containes. Flavour and appearance after cooking are important. Confections, ego cr)Staliised marrons, marrons glacis, marrons in alcohol, fozen marrons. Requires Marron-type nuts, with no colour staining , which peel well and with very firm flesh. Requires large nuts of si2BS 40-65 per Kg (Class A & 8).

Flowering and pollination
Chestnuts are monoecious, ie the male and female flowers are found on the same tree, but are distinct and separate. FloVvers are borne tenninally and sub-tenninally on fruiting branches (sub-terminally to centrally on branches of hybrids) from the leafaxils. The male f1olN8rs are yellow catkins, borne beM.een about midJune and mid-July. The female flowers are borne in groups of 5 at the base of bisexual catkins; each f1olNer, enclosing several ovules, can develop into a nut vvith one or many seeds - a marron in the first case, a chiltaigne in the latter. The periods of maximum pollen dispersion and maximum female receptivity rarely coincide for very long; the period of maximum pollen dispersion almost alv.ays occurs about a week before the period of maximum female receptivity. The unisexual male catkins release their pollen before the bise):Ual catkins. Individual varieties and tl8es are divided into one of fourflov..ering types depending on the nale f1ov.ers: 1. 2. 3. 4. a-stamen: Without starrens, hence cannot poduce any pollen. Trees sterile. brachv=stamen: Stamen threads very small, 1-3 mm long; little pollen. Tees practically sterile. meso-stamen: Stamen threads 3-5 mm long; little pollen. Tees practically sterile. long-stamen: Stamen threads 5-7 mm long; abundant pollen ~ut not aillBYS very fertile).

It can be seen from these types that only the latter; long-stamen types, are suitable as pollinators, and then only those vvith fertile pollen. In these trees , the male catkins appear noticeably thicker and 'bushier' than . trees of the filSt three types. Pollination of chestnuts is bound up with weather conditions at flowering time. Pollen is liberated in warm, dry conditions, and the vvind efficiently transports this pollen in conditims of low humidity. This is fine in Mediterranean conditions, but in moister climes like Britain and W.France, the natural viscosity of chestnut pollen makes vvind pollination unreliable, and good pollination occurs via insects, particula~y bees (both vvild bumble bees and honeybees), also -.ta butterflies, beetles and syphids. Cold or wet weather throughout the flowering period can lead to very poor pollination and subsequent nut production; ex:essive rain \oVashes the pollen fom the catkins to the gound. Warmth is essential during flowering for fertilisation to occur: optimum pollen germination occurs at temperatures of 27-30°C. Given good conditions , pollination best occurs when the pollen-producing tree is up to 40 m away from the variety to be pollinated. In pactice, this rreans that at least eo.ery fourth tree in any direction is a pollinator Self-pollination is only possible vvith long-stamen type trees, but even these pollinate very feebly (under 10 nuts per 100 burs) compared with the same tree when well pollinated (165-225 nuts per 100 burs). Thus chesb1uts are practically self-sterile, and cross-pollination is essential. Planting only a single variety vvill never yield a good poduction of nuts -at least twJ varieties rrust be planted forcross-pollination.

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

For cross-pollination to take place and maximise nut production , the pOllinating variety must be of
compatible flowering period: ie the period of pollen emission of the pollinator and the period of maximum recepti"';ty of the fermle f1oll.ers of the rrain tree coincide.

Pollination of female f1oy,.ers is possible over about a 30-day period , though the period of maximum

1

receptivity occurs from about day 8 to day 21 of this period (ie for about 2 weeks). Male flowering, on the other hand. lasts only for about 10 days. A pollinator should be able to supply pollen throughout this period of maximum receptivity; altematively, more than one pollinatorcan be used to gi-e a good co\erage. The cultivar descriptions given later include the times of maximum male flowering and female receptivity. These are displayed in table 1. It will be seen from this table that for the majority of varieties , any of the usuallong.stamen C.sath.e selections Wli pollinate veil , ie French selee.ons: Belle Epine Campanese MalTon de Che\.enceaux Marron de Goujounac Montagne American seleeions: Myoka Nevada Portaloune Precoce Carmeille Rousse de Nay Verdale

Silver Leaf

Poor genetic corrpatibilityVolith other varieties for pollination is noted in these ariety descriptions. Very few selected varieties have a period of maximum pollen production for late or very late flowering varieties; these ae often pollinated by1ate~o\'\€ring wid trees nearby.

Rootstocks
To date, the only rootstocks 'Nhich have been developed and used for chestnuts are disease;esistant selections: there are no dwarfing rootstocks as such. In France, it is common to use seedling Castanea crenata (Japanese walnut) rootstocks, because of its resistance to ink disease. Sometimes the hybrid varieties Maraval, Marsol and Marigoule are used for the same reason; Maraval tends to produce a tree of 10\0V8r vigour. However, where ink disease is unlikely to be a problem (see later for more on the disease), there isn't much advantage in using specific rootstocks. In this case, seedling sweet chestnuts are often used as rootstocks. orvarieties are grown on theirown roots if theyare layered. Varieties of other chestnut species should always be grafted onto rootstocks of the same species ; graft incompatibility is common wth grafts of diffeent species.

MycolThizas
Mycorrhizas are beneficial fungi which live in symbiosis with plants in the soil. Not only do they significantly aid mineral nutrition (especially of nitrogen and phosphorus), but they proted the roots of their companion plant from attack: the fungal mycelium forms a cylinder which surrounds inoculated roots and forms a mechanical barrier against infection, the mycorrhizal fungus secretes antibiotic substances which encourage the root microflora to produce toxins against parasites, and the symbiosis alters the metabolism of the plant and allow it to s}Othesise fungicides against paasites. Ideally, roots of young plants would be inoculated with mycorrhizal material in the nursery or at transplanting; however, unless you can find fresh mushrooms of the corred species at the time , this is very difficult. Two methods worth adopting are to dig some soil from around the roots of large established chestnuts (preferably in forests), and to use this either in solution as a root dip or as an amendment to planting holes.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 5

Most of the mushrooms found beneath chestnuts in forests are mycorrhizal species. Known mycorrhizal species include: BolebJs edulis -the 'Cep' or'Penny bun', wth excellent edible rrushrooms Elaphomyces muricatus - not edible • Gyroporus casBneus (Syn. Boletus c.)- the 'Chestnut boletus' has good qualit~ible nushrooms Hygrophorus rmrzuolus (Syn. Camarophyllus m.) - has e>r:ellent edible rrushrooms Lactarius chrysorrheus -mushrooms sometimes eaten (poor quality), cause gastric upsets in some people Lactarius vellereus -'Fleecy milk-cap', not edible. Leucopaxillus cerealis Russula aurora -has good qualityedible nushrooms Russula erretica - 'The sickener, poisonous. Russula betens - 'Fetid russula', not edible. In addition, some species of truffle (Tuber spp), with excellent edible mushrooms, are known to associate vvith chestnut.

Planning the planting
Altitude: In Northern locations (and the UK), planting at low altitude (beneath 100 m, 330 ft) is essential, as summer warmth must be maximised. Chestnuts (C.sativa) need an average annual temperature of 8-1 SoC (46-59°F) and preferably over 1Q°C (SO°F); Chinese and Japanese varieties need average temperatures about 2°C (3}S.°F) warmer. For good nut ripening, average temperatures in September and October should reach 14.5'C (58°F) and 8.5'C (4rF) respecth.ely. Slope: Although planting on steep slopes has traditionally been used in Europe, this makes harvesting difficult and mechanical harvesting impossible. Terracing is still sometimes used on steep slopes, but genUe slopes orlevel areas are preferred . Soil: Should ha\E at least 2%organic matter (add manure if less)and a pH of 5.06.0 . Pollination: Since cross-pollination is the essential prerequisite to good cropping, the varieties to be used should be chosen to ensure plentiful pollen production so that all varieties are pollinated. It is now common practice to plant up to 4 varieties together, the more varieties lNhich are male-sterile, the more pollinating varieties are needed. Bees will ensure better pollination than the wind, and it it useful to place hives in orchards during the f1olA-ering period. Chestnut honey from such hives is relished and sold in Italy; it is bright in colour, strongly aromatic ..-.Ath a slight bitteness.

Planting
Planting distances depend on the rethod of pn.ming to be used: (a) With traditional'open-vase' pruning, ro'NS are normally 10 m (33 ft) apart with trees at 8-12 m (26-39 ft) in the row (8 m (26 tt) for varieties of low vigour, 10 m (33 ft) for moderate vigour, 12 m (39 ft) for very vigorous). This equals a density of 80-120 trees /Ha (3248 trees/acre). A variation is to plant at double density (10 m x 5 m [33 x 16 tt} = 200 trees/ Ha [80 trees/acre}), planning a thinning when the trees require more space; this improves early income from an orchard, but the disadvantages are (1) the value of the trees '#hich are removed rarely covers the costs of their culture and removal; (2) removal of tree roots is very difficult and increases the risk of ink disease; (3) the thinning must be carried out before the remaining trees suffer from croVvtling. The advantage of this option is maximised when seedling stocks (as opposed to grafted) are used, Wlen the best fuiting trees can be selected to etaining. (b) Using pruning to form a pyramid, a method recommended in recent years in France and Italy, takes advantage of the natural habit of chestnut to grow as an erect tree, and allows for closer planting of trees. Densities of 150-200 trees/Ha (60-80 trees/acre) are used, lNhich translates to planting distances of 6-8 m x 8-10 m (20-26 ft x 26-33 tt) . This method gives a quicker retum on the investment for large scale gro'Ners.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

&
Trees can be planted in either a rectangular or equilateral arrangement; in the latter, plants in adjacent rows are staggered so that any 2 plants are the same distance apart (eg. for a 10 x 10 m [33 x 33 tt] equilateral planting, roV\'S are 8.7 m [28% ftJ apart). Rectangular arrangements are slightly less dense and allow 'Nider raVvS for interpJanting. For good pollination , it is necessary to mix the varieties as much as possible; however, to facilitate the harvest (especially if it is mechanical) it is easiest to plant entire rows of a single variety. Pollen movement is limited in scope, hence no more than 3 consecutive rows of the same variety should be planted before a row of a pOllinatoris planted. See Fig 3a page 35) for examples of planting arangements. Planting should be undertaken between late November and early April, preferably in late autumn if weather conditions allow. Planting positions in large orchards should be marked out beforehand. Planting holes need not be prepared in advanced ; they should be about 30 cm (1 ft) deep by 40-50 cm (16-20") across for 2-3 year old bar-rooted stock. Dip the roots in water before planting, and make sure to avoid planting the tree too deeply.: Staking is not always necessary, but may be desirable where trees are to be grown on high stems where the sW3ying action leads to insufficient ancharge.

After planting
Like all tree fruits, chestnuts dislike transplanting (particularly those produced by layering). To ensure good survival in the fist year after planting: (1) Encourage root growth by using a nitrogen fertiliser equivalent to 50 g (1.75 oz) of N per tree immediately after planting. This can be achieved by mulching with 8 Kg (18 Ib) of farmyard manure or slightly less of compost; or by using 4}s' litres (8 pints) of urine; or 2.5 Kg (5 Jb) of seaweed meal; or 0.4 Kg (1 Ib) of hoof and hom; or 1.5 Kg (3Ib) of bonemeal; or by using a compound organic fertiliser- eg o0.5 Kg (llb)o! 10-10-10. (2) Equalise the root and aerial systems. Weak plants with a small root system should be cut down to 2 or 3 buds; very short shoot growth is pruned the following June, by pinching out the tips of unwanted shoots, 'vVith the aim of favouring the main trunk shoot; very well developed trees which are taller than 1.5 m (5 ft) are pruned doWl to the height equired for framev.K:lrk branches. (3) Irrigate if necessary (though if trees are mulched it may not be). In a very dry summer, unmulched trees may require 50 Htres (11 gallons)each for sufficient elfef. (4) Ensure there is no v..eed competition wthin 50 cm(20ft) of the plants -best achie\ed by using a rTlJlch. (5) In hot regions, lAhitev.esh the trunks against sun bun damage.

Interplanting
tn regions with sufficient rainfaU (INhere irrigation is not required), the soil beneath the chestnuts can be grassed down for grazing, though this requires trees to be trained with longer clean stems (eg. 1.4m [5 ft] for sheep, 2.1m f7 ft] for cattle) in the formation pruning stages. In dry regions , the ground is normally kept bare beneath chestnuts in ochards . Where there is sufficient rainfall, there is no reason why shrub or perennial crops cannot be grown beneath the chestnuts, as long as the understorey crops can tolerate the shade and dryness, and as long as harvesting is rrade wth the use of nets on ..ves. At standard spacings as described above, there is sufficient space between rows of young plants to grow other sun-demanding cultivated crops for up to 5 or 6 years. A general rule is: for each year after planting, allow an uncultivated diameter of 1.5 + (% x years) metres around the chestnuts. For example , in a 10 x 10 m rectangular planting scherre,:- in year 1, allow 2 m (6}s' ft) unculthated width of chestnut ro-ws, giving an inter-row width to cultivate of 6 m (20 fti

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 7


Fig 18

Flglb
.(--- Cut tip at 1.2.-1.5m
14-5 It)

Too upright Too low

Fig lc
Too upright

Secondary laterals developing after laterals cut back by a third

Clean stem of 60-90 em (2·3 £I)

foo upright

Fig 1 Open-vase pruning

• in • in - in - in - in

year 2, allow2Y2 m (8 ftl unculti\9ted wdth of chestnut OWS: inteHow width to culthate is 5 m (16}s' tt); year 3, allow 3 m (10 ttl unculti\9ted wdth of chestnut OWS: inter-row width to culthate is 4 m (13 ft~ year 4, allow3Y2 m (11 % ftl unculti\9ted wdth of chestnut ows: inter-row width to cult. is 3 m(10 ft~ year 5, allow4 m (13 ft) unculti\9ted wdth of chestnut OWS : inter-row v.ridth to culthate of 2 m (6% ft): year 6, allow4Y2 m (15 ft) unculti\9ted wdth of chestnut ows: inter-row v.ridth to culti\Bte of 1 m (3 ft~

To allow for permanent interplanting of different tree or shrub crops, nitrogen.fixing species etc, chestnut rows should be given wider spacing than for pure chestnut orchards; allow almost the whole extra width of the mature interplant species.

Pruning
Although mature fruiting trees may be managed with little pruning, formation pruning of young trees is essential for quick development and early fruiting at 4-6 years after planting (unpruned trees may take 15 years to reach good production). Pruning is easiest with a tree of good vigour, allowing a good choice of shoots - hence the importance of fertili sing during this period. The best time to prune in winter is in February. The chestnut fruits only on one-year old wood in good light, situated at the periphery of the crown . The aim in all pruning , therefore, is to obtain as large a crOIMl surface as possible which receives sunlight. In addition, recent research has found that fruiting branches decline in productivity after 2-3 years, hence pruning to encouege constant enewal of new fruiting branches is ad\Bntageous. There are tv.u methods of pruning which are both described here. The open vase form is the more traditional form, well-suited to varieties without a very erect habit: more recently, the pyramidal form has been used as it allo~ the tree to grow more upright (as is its natuel inclination) 1. To form an open vase f1alfstandard}- Fig 1 (page 16) Here the aim is to choose and rranage a nurrber of main fiame'MJrk branches . - If one-year old rooted plants t)0-100 cm [2-3 ftJ) have been planted, allowthese to gow for a further year. Year 1: If 2-3 year-old plants (1.2-1.5 m [4-5 ftl) have been planted , then cut the main shoot back to a height Wlich wll detemine ooere the frame'MJrk branches fork (usually 1.2 to 1.5 m (4-5 ftl). (Fig la) Year 2: choose 3-4 frame'MJrk branches. These should radiate around from the trunk at slightly different heights. The angle between these branches and the trunk should be near to 90° for good stability & future training. - The aim now is for the frame'MJrk branches to arch upwards, reaching an angle of about 3040° with the vertical. To achieve this, summer pruning in June is practised: the first shoots to emerge are often very erect and too vertical; these are pinched out, favouring the emergence of less erect shoots from immediately beneath the initial shoots . fig lb) - In general, vigorous and erect branches should never be left: a very open formation of the branches is the condition which promotes precocity of fruiting and productivity. Branches determined to grow into the centre should be cut back se"flrely. Year 3: framework branches should be cut back by one third of their increment to promote branch division. In summer, pinch out the tips of shoots growing towards the centre of the 'vase', of any likely to cross , and of any too erect. (Fig lc) When production commences, the branches are weighed down by the nuts, and tend to droop: this aids continued poduction. Ongoing pruning consists of removing shoots to allow better light penetration , removing branches of low vigour and those growing towards the centre of the tree. Unproductive fruiting branches should also be cut out every year or t'I.Q, to encouege new fruiting branches to gow. 2. To form a pyramid - Fig 2 (page 18) The main principle here is to manage a central leaderfaxis (eventually with a long pruning pole), and to choose lateral branches Wlich radiate all aound the aJ4s and fom the Main benches to suppot fruiting

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1


Fog 2a
Fig 2b

Take out laterals nearest axis Take out laterals nearest axis

Pinch out over
summer

Cut out in winter· too low

Too erect
faa low

Take out laterals nearest axis

Region of secondary laterals

Clean trunk of 60-90 em (2-3 ft)

Fig 2c

Fig 2 Pyramid pruning

shoots. The axis must alv.eys be a sbang shoot Yhich is higherthan anyof the tateals. Most of the pruning should take place in the summer betv..een June and August, in 2 or 3 sessions. In June, the pruning consists of pinching out shoot tips, to stop unwanted shoots from growing further (but the shoot is left in place with its leaves to help the tree grow); in August these shoots can be cut out completely - the lNOund 'Nill heal before winter. Winter pruning in February can be carried out to rectify insufficient summer pruning . Wlen the bare branches allowbettervisibility.

Year 1: Fanning an axis. In June, cut out the 2 or 3 laterals nearest to the axis - these threaten its
dominance. Also pinch out all other1ateral tips. (Fig 2a)

l

Year 2: Forming the main laterals. As in year 1, cut out the 2 or 3 laterals nearest to the axis; pinch out the tips of any strongly erect laterals, and in August cut these out completely. The laterals to be left to form the main lateral branches should make a large angle with the axis (about 60°) and be spread out both radially around the axis and regu lar1y up the axis; make sure there is a vertical gap (along the axis) between two opposite branches joining the axis. Choosing these lateElls is sorretimes difficult -often the angles with the axis are acute or there is a length of axis without laterals. In these cases it is possible to train laterals by stretching them vvith twne tied to the lateral and to a stake. Adean trunk of 60-80 cm (24-32") is needed at the base of the alis. (Fig 2b) Year 3: Forming the secondary laterals. Once again, the 2 or 3 laterals nearest to the axis are cut out in summer. The main laterals are allov..ed to continue gro'A'ing as long as they do not become too vertical, and the secondary laterals allov.ed to grow from them where they have plenty of space -otherwise they are pinched out and emoved completely later. (Fig 2c) Ongoing pruning : From the 4th or 5th year onwards, annual pruning consists of removing shoots to allow better light penetration, and removing branches of low vigour at the edge of the crown. Unproductive fruiting branches should also be cut out every year or two, to encourage new fruiting branches to grow. In time the centlal axis""';l1 becorre increasingly difficult to rraintain, and tees becorre more rounded.

Renovation pruning of adutt trees
Renovation of unproductive mature trees usually means severely altering the form of the tree and the development it takes. Then tf some or all of the folloving: - Eliminate all branches ffiich gi\-e the tree a pointed fom. - Thin the cente of the tEe to gi>.e better light penetEition. - Remove dead wad from the lov.er and central parts of branches. - Remove small unproducti-.,e branches of lowvigour. - Remove overhanging branches Wlich obstruct any machinery to be used. - Cut out blanches Voilich are touching orcrossing. A different approach to renovation is to coppice trees , removing all existing aerial parts, and then graft on scions of suitable varieties to the strong shoots that are produced. It is important to thin the multitude of coppice shoots produced , grafting to only 4 or 5 at the most, and to train them into a less erect habit by tying doW1 to stakes.

Feeding & irrigation
Feeding consists essentially of supplying nitrogen and potassium. Excess nitrogen can lead to small nuts, a delay of tree maturity of 10-15 years, and increased susceptibility to anthracnose; nitrogen shortage leads to lack of Vgour(making fOllT1ation pruning difficult)and poorproducti\1ty. The follown9 amounts (of pure nitrogen and potassiurTj are recommended per tree:

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 31

Year afterNitrogen planting 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Fertiliser Manure Compost Urine Seaweed meal Hoof & horn Bonemeal Fishmeal Wood ash 7-7-7 fertiliser

required Potassium required per tree per tree 50g(20z) 80g(30z) 100 9 (3)1, oz) 160 9 (5)1, oz) 150 9 (5)1, oz) 240 9 (8)1, oz) 320 9 (11 oz) 200 9 (7 oz) 250 9 (90z) 400 9 (14 oz) 450 9 (lib) 800 9 (lib 1202)

Radius to spread around each tee 1 m (3 ft) 1.5 m (5 ft) 2 m (6)1, ft) 2.5 m (8 ft) 3m(10ft) Beneath canopy

Nutriertt content of comnon organic fertilisers is:

% Nitrogen % Potassium 0.6 % (6g/kg, 1 oz/10 Ib) 0.5% (5g/kg, 1 oz/12Y:z Ib) 0.5% (5g/kg, 1 ozl12)1, Ib) 0.8% (8g/kg, 1 oz/8Ib) 1.1% (llg/l, 1 oz/4 pts) 2.0% (20g/kg, 1 oz/3Ib) 2.6% (26g/kg, 1 oz/2)1, Ib) 13% (130g/kg, 2 oz/Ib) 3 .5% (35g/kg, 1 oz/2 Ib) 10% av (100g/kg, 1)1, oz/lb)l% (lOg/kg, 1 oz/6Ib) 10% av (100g/kg, 1Y:z oz/lb) 7% (70g/kg, 1 oz/Ib) 7% (70g/kg , 1 oz/Ib)

From these two tables, a regime of fertilisers can be worked out, for example the first year requirements can be met by feeding each tree with 9 Kg (20 Ib) of manure plus 350g (1.25 oz) wood ash; or with 3 Kg (6% Ib) of seaweed meal. Considerable amounts of nitrogen and potassium are recycled via the fallen leaves if these are allowed to decompose beneath trees; up to 27 Kg of Nitrogen/Ha (24 Ib/acre) and 11 Kg of Potassium/Ha (10 Ib/acre). Chestnut leaves decompose quickly, with most nutrients released during the following spring-=autumn the year after leaf-fall. Fertilisers sho uld be spread early in spring (February to April). An alternative to the constant need for importing materials to supply nitrogen is to utilise nitrogen-fixing plants: interplanting chestnuts with good nitrogen-fixers (eg. Alders, EJaeagnus) at the rate of 33% N-fixers to 66% chestnuts (by canopy area) will mean that the chestnuts are supplied with the nitrogen they require . [See Agroforestry News, Vol 3 No 3, for more information of Nitrogen sources and N-fixing plants.] An alternative to importing potassium might be to grow comfrey (a n excellent dynamic accumulator of potassium) specifically to cut and mulch with ; comfrey leaves , if cut 4-5 times a season, can supply about 150g of Potassium per year. Hence 5 or 6 plants should be able to supply all the needs of a single tree. (the potassium made available in late summer will be largely utilised in the following spring by the tree.) These plants could be grown as an alley crop between rows of chestnuts, or even beneath the chestn uts themselves (though more would be needed per tree in shaded conditions.) As for Phosphorus, the requirements are not high. Unless so il analyses at 10-year intervals indicate a deficiency, then no phosphorus need be added. If manure , compost, seaweed meal , hoof and horn or a compound fertiliser is used as a nitrogen source, then plentiful phosphorus will be supplied in any case. Other good sources are wood ash and rock phosphate. The soil should be analysed every few years, and calcium added if the pH falls below 5.0. Irrigation is often required in regions with hot, dry, Mediterranean-type climates, though not in more northerly or oceanic climates . Trees under water stress vegetate poorly and yield badly irrigation can ensure good production of good sized fruits. Trees in these hot regions usually need some irrigation from about 3 or 4 years after planting. Irrigation may be needed as early as may, or when the soil starts to become quite dry, and may be needed up to harvest. Sprinklers, apart from being very expensive to cover large areas, are bad for soi l structure and their repeated wetting of foliage may increase leaf diseases. A better option is drip

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vo/4 No 1

F

i

irrigation: two drippers per tree (drip rate 4 IIhour = 7 pints/hour) give sufficient coverage, and an irrigation of 3·4 mm /day/m 2 (ie 3-4 litres/daylm 2 = 4Y2·6 pints/da~yd2) under the canopy area is recommended in SE France. For a denser. planted orchard with almost entire canopy cover, this may require a filtered water supply of 30-40 m IHa/day (2700-3600 gallons/acre/day). In Italy, up to double these arrounts are recommended . .Actual arrounts wI! obviously vary INith climate and soil .

i
)

Production
Nut production starts in most varieties by the age of 5 years, less in some very precocious selections. For trees planted at 6 x 8 m (20 x 26 ft.), and pruned to a pyramidal fonn, average approximate nut yields per tree are:

Hybnds Indigenous

5th year 5-8 Kg (t1-1Slb) 2-4 Kg (4l1,-9Ib)

Sth year 15-20 Kg (33-44Ib) 6-10 Kg (13-22Ib)

10-12 years onv..ards 25 Kg (55Ib) 15 Kg (33Ib)

The e;.:pected yields for the mature trees of 10-12 years old and o'£!r are: Hybnds: 5 tonnes ~OOO KgYH a (2 tons/acre) Indigenous: 3 tonnes ~OOO Kg YHa (1.2 tons/a",,)

Harvesting
The nuts are characterised by rapid growth and enlargement in the last phase of development: they quadruple in size in the last 6 weeks and double in the last 2 weeks up to ripening . Weather conditions in this period have a great bearing on the harvest: a period of rain and strong winds may cause the fall of premature nuts or burs, while a very dry or cold period may block the final development of nuts. Nuts harvested before natulCI.l nut-fall Qe picked off the tee) keep ~ry badly. Harvest is undertaken 'NIlen the nuts are mature and fall (either 'Within or out from the burs) - after nut-fall has started , then if bad weather looms, burs/nuts can be knocked off the tree: ripens within unopened burs conUnue to ripen for a about a week. The period of harvest can occur from mid-September for the earliest varieties to late October/early November for the latest. It is particular1y important to ensure a very quick harvest of nuts after they fall as a prolonged period on the soil in warm humid years affects the nuts (they may dry up in sun or absorb a lot of water in rain) and favours pests and pathogenic fungi. Nuts should be harvested daily (or at least every other day) for the typical 10-12 day period of nut fall for a particular variety. There are 3 methods of harvesting: 1. Manual harvest from the ground. Just before harvest: mow pasture or cultivate and roll cultheted land beneath tees. The harvest rate varies, depending on the speed and dexterity of the harvesters; but normal rates are 80150 Kg (175-330 Ib) per person per day. The rate is also dependent on the characteristics of the variety: some (eg. Belle Epine, Marron d'Olargues, Rousse de Nay) drop nuts to the ground and retain burs on the tree, which aids the harvest considerably; others (eg. Belle Rouge , Marigoule, Sardonne) drop their nuts either within or out of the burs, but the burs in any case also fall to the ground at the same time; in a few varieties (eg. Marron du Var, Marron Dauphine) the nuts fall almost always within burs , which slows harvest considelC.lbly. Harvest should be daily over the 'vVhole period of nut-fall, because nuts lying on the ground are very susceptible to attack by pests. Manual harvest is slow and laborious, necessitating seasonal labour on a large scale, and it is used to a lesser extent now than in the past, especially for the difficult to harvest varieties. On a small scale, though, it is the most economical method. Harvesters need thick rubber gloves to protect against bus. 2. Manual harvestwith nets - Fig 3b. (page 35) This is the best solution for those with a moderate number of trees up to small orchards. It necessitates investing in buying nets, but this can be rrinimised at the penning stage by planting varieties which ripen at different periods (eg. alternate rows of ea~y and lateiipening \8rieties ~

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 13

To prolong net life, and achiew a much better quality of production, the nets should not be spread out on the ground, but are attached to wires: for each row, 3 parallel tensioned wires are set up, one along the raIN'S of trees at a height of 1.5 m(5 ft) and passing though the trees (supported by them); and another two between the rows of trees either side of the first wire at 1.2 m (4 tt) high, staked every 3 m (10 ft). The wires are spaced apart the width of the nets, typically 4 m (13 tt). The tension of the wires supports the nets and stops them bowng to the gound ....nen full of nuts. S:!e Fig 3b fora diagram of the alrangement. The harvest is then made daily, using a large ladle-like tool attached to a breast harness which is used to ladle th~ chestnuts out of nets into sacks. The adk ntages of using nets for harvesting are that the nuts never touch the soil; harvesting daily is more practical because the routine is very quick; and the harvest is of very good quality and hence economic value. 3. Mechanical harvest Just before halVest: mow pasture or cultivate and 1011 culti\B.ted land beneath tees. Mechanical harvesting is now important to the large~scale chestnut grower, though it can only be used in gently sloping terrain ~ in hilty areas like Corsica, manual hafVesting is still needed. The machinery needed is costly to buy or rent. Several types of machines are available in France (See list of suppliers later). It is important to realise that the volume of material picked up (nuts, burs and leaves) is 3-4 times that of the nuts alone. This mixture must then be sated/processed to finish up 'v'Kh pure nuts.

Postharvest processing
Nuts for long-term storage should be cured at 10~15 G C for a few days in a room with good ventilation and high humidity, this allov.s starches to com.ert to sugars. After the nuts are removed from burs (taking care not to damage them if the burs require pressure to C) to kilt any fungal spores on their open), they are usually dipped briefly into hot v..ater (eg. 1 hour at 52-68 G surface and any weevil larvae INithin nuts (this provides 100% control); they must be surface-dried after this process . Nuts which have been eaten by weevil lafVae, where the larvae have left the nut, can be floated off at this stage. Long term storage (ie 3-6 months or longer) of fresh nuts can be carried out (for suitable varieties) at a temperature bel'v\een 0~5GC (32-40°F) at high humidity (65-70% relative humidity). Nuts should not be stored in la)ers thicker than about 15 cm(6 n ) and should be tuned occasionally For longer term storage, and nuts to be used for flour production , drying is necessary. In Southern Europe, traditional methods of drying were based on sun-drying , or kiln<lried over a wood fire (this gave the nuts a smoky flavour and inhibited moulds.) Drying was considered complete VYtlen the shells were easily separated from the kemels - in practice, when the water content reduced to about 6%. The drawback of this method is the often disagreeable flavour the nuts acquire. Mobile mechanical dryers are now used, 'Nhich complete the drying process much more quickly (a few hours as opposed to several days or weeks). Dried nuts can be fozen and stored for long periods.

Ongoing maintenance
Simple sanatory measures should be undertaken to minimise the risk of pests and diseases taking hold. This consists of, each winter, collecting and burning (or very hot composting) fallen branches, burs and bad fruits. Some commercial growers collect and bum all fallen leaves, but this seems an extreme measure, . since leaf diseases are rarely very damaging, and the nutrient content of the leaves themselves is considel3ble.

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

.j

Diseases
Ink disease (Phytophthora cinnamomi & P.cambivora)
This is a widely distributed fungal disease, serious in some mature chestnut orchards in Europe, which attacks the root bark, starting at the extremities of the fine root hairs and progressing along larger and larger roots and finally attacking the base of the trunk . The roots cease growing and crack , releasing a flow of sap which turns black from the oxidation of tannins ; the name of the disease comes from the oozing of this black liquid from the tree base in the latter stages of the attack. The attack on the root system is accompanied by the progressive death of the uppemost shoots and little byliUle the Wlole crolNrl. The first visible manifestations of ink disease are the abnormal appearance of leaves at the top of the crolNrl, and a characteristic silhouette of the tree. The leaves turn pale but do not wither or faU ; the following year, a number of shoots wither and do not bear many leaves. The fruit burs at the extremities of branches become more visible and an outline of dead branches appears around the cro\o\fl. The dieback continues progressively over several years, sometimes up to 10 years; in wet years the disease progresses well underground, wth fewabove-ground signs. Wlile in dry years the aerial symptoms progress more. Phytophthora is not al...vays fatal - plants can recover if conditions are favourable. All chestnuts in their dormant (winter) state are susceptible to ink disease, and all are resistant when they are in active growth. In soils containing fungus spores, INinter temperatures must be very low for attacks to start, when the fungus may cause lesions to develop on roots of the dormant plant. When active growth (leafing out) resumes, then in genetically susceptible plants, the roots start to die, but in genetically resistant plants the roots recover, fonning barriers of cork. Thus the so-called resistant varieties (all C.crenata varieties and many hybrids like Maigoule and Maaval) can wthstand and ecover from attacks.

)

Preventative measures
1. The best fom of preventative measure is to plant onlyin 'v\ell-drained soils. \l\et and poody drained soils. especially heavy clays , suit the fungi pefectly. 2. Use resistant rootstocks if the disease is \idespread in
~ur

area.

3. Phytophthora is very susceptible to certain antagonistic microbes, notably Trichoderma viride and T.polysporum . T.viride is sometimes used to attack silverleaf in plums by inserting plugs into the trunk, and this may be a possible rrethod in chestnuts. 4. There is now evidence that P.cinnarromi can be entirely avoided if root systems are inoculated INith mycorrhizas of several fungi of the Basiomycetes group, in particular the species Leucopaxillus cerealis. This lAOuld need to be done in the nuse'Y or at planting tirre. (See 'Mycorrhizas' above).

Chestnut blight (Endothia parasitica or Cryphonectria parasitical
Chestnut blight was imported in North America in the late 1800's and proceeded to decimate the native American chestnut (C.dentata) population. It was first found in Europe in Italy in 1938 and caused great damage there, especially in Campania and Piedmont. It soon spread to France, and is now present in all chestnut growing regions except Brittany and the UK; it has been found recently in Belgium, Hungary and (in 1993) in SW Gennany. It mainly affects chestnuts , but can also be a minor disease on several oak species. The Japanese (C,crenata) and Chinese (C .mollissima) chestnuts have variable resistance to the disease. This parasitic fungus attacks the aerial parts of trees, infecting them via a natural or artificial wound (including pruning cuts. grafting etc) on a branch or shoot. Flat filaments form beneath the exterior surface of the bark, and these secrete toxins which force the cambium cells to collapse and blacken. The plant reacts in defence by fanning a barrier of cork beneath the areas attacked, but when the fungus is of a normally virulent strain it is able to attack this barrier as it forms and soon penetrates to the wood. When the attack reaches the wood, the plant is unable to form barriers beneath it and the canker it has formed continues to spead in height and vidth, ewntuallygirdling the banch. Once a branch is girdled, the upper part dies. the leaves on it drying up and reddening (appearing burnt); this is often rrasked by the bushy advantageous shoots that ae often produced just beneath the canker

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 15

Very large cankers are soon produced as the fungus accumulates reserves from the shoot activity and before long (often within 3 years on susceptible trees) the main trunk is girdled. At this stage trees often shoot from the base as if theyhave been coppiced. Enormous numbers of fruiting pustules , the size of a pin~ead , develop on the infected bark and during moist weather, long orange-red tendrils made up of millions of spores sticking together, exude from the pustules. The huge numbers of spores ensure that the disease spreads very quickly; they are normally wind~ome , but can also be carried on the feet or beaks of birds , also on insects, small mammals and slugs.

Control
There are reports that if small cankers are plastered with moist soil taken from the base of the tree, the infection does not spread and the cankers heal over. This is presumably due to antibiotic soil organisms, but hasn't been canfimed as a reliable method of canto!. Treating and cutting out of cankers is effective but laborious and onerous; its must be followed by preventative protection of all wounds by disinfection. This method was successfully applied for 5 years in France (Ardeche) but v.as abandoned 'lhen biological cantol 'via hypovirulent strains becarre available. As the disease progressed in Italy, a biological control naturally emerged: these are the so~lIed hvoo'virulent strains of the fungus. It was observed that new bark arose around the cankered tissues which wasn't attacked by the disease; this bark drove back the edges of the cankers and grew beneath them and before long all the diseased pats '-\ere isolated, died up, died and fell off. The regression of the disease was caused by hypovirulent (HV) strains of chestnut blight: these are strains themselves infected with a virus, which are able to dominate the normal virulent strains, but which are not so damaging to trees - the cork barriers which trees form beneath cankers cannot be penetrated by HV strains. Thus an HVstrain possesses 3 essential IX>perties:(1) It only causes linited cankers on trees through v.ounds, Wlich heal ICIpidly, (2) When a tree is inoculated with an HV strain before or at the same time as a normally virulent strain , it protects the plant fom infection by the virulent strain; (3) If a canker caused by a virulent strain is inoculated at its edge with an HV strain, this causes the canker to heal in a rmUer of months (8-24 months, depending on the si:e of the cankeQ. Practical application of this phenomenon is now well advanced in France and could be introduced into any chestn ut growing region affected by chestnut blight in a short matter of time. The technique involves introducing suitable HV strains (that is to say, cOmpatible) to the virulent strains which are present. One does not treat all trees or all cankers, instead introducing the HV strains at certain points around the affected 20ne and allowng the natual spread of the newstrains to disseninate them widely. The actual introduction consists of inoculating the HV strain at the periphery of some of the cankers found on trunks and branches: holes of 5-6 mm diameter are made all around the canker at 2-3 em spacing apart, the holes made into healthy tissues but angled inwards towards the canker so that they enter diseased tissues further in, then a plug of mycelium of an HV strain is placed into each hole, and the holes temporarily covered with adhesi've tape (needs to stay in place for 24 hours.) Plugs of HV mycelium, containing all the common HV strains needed, are prepared by French laboratories associated with INRA and CNICM. The effects of inoculation should be obselVed within 8-18 months. If no regression of the disease is observed , then the HV strains introduced were not compatible with the virulent strain present; in this case, the virulent strain can be anal}6ed an appopriate HV strain obtained. The usual procedure is to initially inoculate 5 trees/Ha (2 trees/acre) and , after confirmation of positive results to then treat a sufficient number of trees to ensure protection in the whole area, normally 10-20 trees/ Ha (4-8 trees/acre). Many HV strains have now spread throughout Europe to the same extent as virulent strains, so that in many cases nov.: regression of chestnut blight OCCU!i naturally.

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Anthracnose (Mycosphaerel/a maculiformis)
This is a leaf disease caused by a bacteria which has two forms (anamorphs), Phyllosticta maculiformis and Cylindrosporum castaneicollum. It causes brown angled spots on leaves, sometimes very dense and numerous; in bad attacks. the leaves may fall prematurely (as early as September). severely hindering the photos:,nthetic processes which aid the growth and ripenirg of nuts. The bacteria overwinters on fallen leaves. Attacks are rarely very severe, but they are sometimes in cool, humid summers in susceptible locations, for example in valley bottoms where the dew is abundant and where mist persists in September and October. Variety resistance and susceptibility varies (see Table 2); Castanea crenata and most of its hybrids are resistant. Other minor diseases include Diplodina castanea and CrypfDdiaporf)e castanea - fungi which cause cankers on branches and young trees, particularly on trees grown in pastures , and sometimes a dieback of branches; rare. Prevention measures include keeping trunks free of grass and weeds to a reasonable diameter, and avoiding damaging bark of trees; cankers can be cut out. Coryneum modonium - a fungus causing long, thin cankers found in copses or in young trees in the understore~ Fusarium lateritium another minor fungus Ylhich sometimes causes cankers on branches and trunks; Powdery mildew (Microsphaeraa/phifDides) sometimes attacks ~aves in nurseries (this is the same disease which affects oak leaves.

Insect pests
There are 3 main insect pests (plus another in North America) described below which attack the developing burs and nuts. Without any control measures, it is quite common for 30-40% of the total nuts production in an orchard to be attacked by one or other of these pests, so they can cause large economic damage. To date, most commercial control involves use of insecticidal sprays applied between mid July and late September. This is unacceptable to organic growers and has the usual undesirable side effects of killing beneficial insects (naking trees even more susceptible to pests)as 'o\ell as polluting the en'ironment. Small scale and backyard gro'vYers should not suffer nearly so badly from pests as farge scale growers. To minimise pest darrege, ensuce that: (a) Nuts are halVested very quickly (daily) from the ground, or better stifl are collected in nets; (b) All early-falling, infested bus and bad nuts on hauesting ace collected and bunt.

It should be quite easy in theory to develop pheromone traps for the two moth pests, as has been done for the apple codling moth. This muld be an environmentally acceptable method of large & small-scale
control.

Chestnut moth (Pammenejuliana, Syn. P.fasciana)
Also called the early chestnut codling moth; moths lay their eggs on leaves in late spring (June~u ly); their reddish-yellow larvae eat into the burs in summer, and rarefy penetrate it to reach and eat the developing nuts. The attacka:l burs fall prematurely in July and August. One larva may attack several successive burs. The only indication of the presence of larvae is the appearance of frass (droppings) on the surface of burs , but damage often passes unnoticed until the burs fall ; the early-ripening varieties are generally most susceptible. The caterpillars weave a silky cocoon attached to branches in the autumn , from which hatches the adult moth next spring to start the cycle again. Sticky traps in mid-August are used in Europe for control.

Chestnut codling moth (Lespeyresia sp/endana)
From the same family as the apple codling moth, but with chestnut as its only host plant, this moth also lays its eggs on leaves in August-September. The yeUowsh-'Mlite larvae pierce the burs and enter into the nuts where they remain, eating the nuts, throughout their growth. The tiny hole they make in the burs is virtually invisible and the attack is not discovered until the nuts ripen. The larvae overwinter as cocoons in the litter or on the soil. Collection of leaves is sometimes practised for control; running poultry beneath
tr"''''c:. ::>lc:.n h",lnc:.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 17

Chestnut weevil or curculio (Ba/aninus e/ephas or Curculio e/ephas) .
This is a talMly-grey weevil , 9-10 mm long, IN'hich lay eggs on the developing nuts and whose larvae eat into them as they develop. The larvae pupate overwinter in the soil beneath trees. Other weevils/curculios (notably Curculio sayi and C.caryatrypes in North America) attack the nuts in similar ways. Some control of V\€evil numbers can be achie\ed by running poult'Y beneath the tees before and afternut harvesting.

Oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus)
A tiny ~all-forming all-female wasp; the wasps lay their eggs in the terminal buds and the de..elopirr;;! larvae cause shoots to become stunted. This has caused considerable damage in the SE U.S. but is not present in Europe. Some Japanese chestnut selection are resistant to the wasp. There is also considerable research taking place in Asia on biological control via the use of parasitic wasps which prey on this species. Minor insect pests of leaves include the European shot-hole borer (Xyleborus disper) which can cause considerable damage in young plantations , and another weevil (Peritelus sphaeroides) which attacks buds. Other animal pests which must be fenced out or controlled include squirrels, rabbits , deer, rats and field mice, and grazing animals unless tees are trained on high sterrs to allow grazing beneath.

Propagation of cultivars
Most varieties are either grafted or layered; the only exceptions are the French varieties which are populations ~g . Marron de Redan)

Grafting
Chestnuts (C.sativa and hybrids) are quite easy to graft or bud. Some incompatability problems with rootstocks occur, especially with the Chinese chestnut (C.mollissimcl. Generally speaking , hybrids should be grafted onto similar hybrid rootstocks and C.sativa varieties onto C.sativa seedlings. If all else fails, seedlings of the \Briety to be grafted neady al'NaYS oork . Budding: T-budding or Chip budding in mid-August to early Sept. There are reports that chip budding in spring after leafing out is 'ery successful. Grafting: Whip (Splice) or Whip & tongue graft in early spring. Established trees can be grafted using a kerf graft (notch graft).

Mound layering - Fig 4. (Page 37)
This ......orks well with many of the hybrids as well as some indigenous varieties; it is best with C.sativa and C.crenata.lt requires a welJ-drained , friable soil of pH 4.5 to 6.0. It produces plants on their own roots. See Fig 4 foran illustration. TII'JO to three year-old mother plants are spaced at 0.5-1 m (1 %-3 ft) in rows with 1 m (3 ft) between rows; if the propagation is mechanised (with tractor-lifting of layers), then rmvs are much wider apart. The mother plants can be planted in narrow trenches, about 20 cm(S") deep -this makes earthing up easier but makes non-chemical v..eeding harder. (Fig 4/1 ~ 1. The plant is cut down after planting - Fig 4/2b - (or an extra 1-2 years grov..1h for small plants - Fig 412a) to 10-15 em (4-6") above soille-.el or(if the mother plant is grafted onto a ootstock)above the graft union. 2. The layering process begins in late May - early June in the spring after cutting down. Some 2-10 shoots will have been produced. The very vigorous shoots (thicker than pencils/over 3S em (15"] high) are cut out, leaving 3-5 shoots of lower vigour (Fig 4/3). If any shoots have emerged from the rootstock (on grafted mother plants ~ these should be cut off as lov.as possible. 3. The remaining shoots ae de-leafed up to a height of 20 crr(S"). 4. Wrap thin (lh-1 mm), flexible copper wire around each shoot near the base, preferably just under a bud or 'Nhere a leaf has been cut (Fig 4/4). Only one or too turns around the shoot is necessary, more or excess

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

tv.1sting may damage the shoot. This

we girdles the shoot as it gows, leading to oat de\elopment.

-

5. Earth up the shoots 'Nith well-drained earth, if necessalY mixed wth sand etc., to a depth of 1015 em (46") above the ..-.ire. Earth up once ortv.1ce over the surrmer to reach a depth of 2025 em (8-10"). 6. Roots are formed in July and August (Fig 4/5); if the mother plants were allowed to grow for an extra year or Mo, the layers are severed after leaf-fall (Fig 4/6a) and are usually grolNfl on for 1-2 years in the nursery to form 1 +1 (60-100 em, 2-3 tt) or 2+1 (1-1.8 m, 3-6 tt) plants. If the mother plants were cut down immediately after planting, then the new rooted shoots are cut back byup to a half fig 6b) - this stimulates vigorous glO'vvth and a betterroot sy.:;tem; they are severed after a further year's growth (Fig 7b~ Be careful (with grafted mother plants) to check jf any of the layers have emerged from the rootstock instead of the scion. After the layers are lifted , the old mother plant roots are usuaUy removed and discarded: their use for a second crop of la~rs is not recommended. An option, instead of girdling with wire, is to abrade the shoot bases with fine emery cloth, and rub in a slurry of 0.5% ISA (Hormone rooting powder); then earth up as normal. This method has been used successfully in North America. Layering by this method can also be undertaken in containers, the earthing up being achieved by the use of collars (bottomless pots) placed alOund the sterrs .

Softwood cuttings
Softwood cuttings can be taken but require ISA rooting hormone treatment and mist. It is a difficult procedure wt1ich oorks best wth etiolated shoots (e those glOwn in the dark).

Chestnut cultivars
It should be noted that some of the French cultivars are in fact populations, propagated by seed and thus variable in chaacteristics.

Adaption to soil and climate
The adaption of a variety to a particular climatic region is principaUy a function of its need for sun and above all heat. Most varieties from dry Mediterranean climates (eg. SE France, Italy etc) are not adapted to cooler, moister climates (eg. W France , UK, etc) due to lack of heat and increased susceptibility to anthracnose. On the other hand , varieties from Western areas can sometimes acclimatise to drier ctimates if they are 'Nell irrigated. The topographic situaUon (altitude, exposure etc.) is an important factor, in that it greatly affects the dates of leafing out, flowering and ripening; these in turn may have a large bearing on resistance to late spring frost damage, cross pollination, and to the commercial value of the fruits (early-ripening varieties generally fetching a betterprice.) Soil type does not have a large bearing on the adaption of different varieties (apart from Sardonne, which appears to require volcanic soils). Heavy soils are generally unsuitable for chestnuts in any case, but other.vise the soil type can sometimes influence the flavour of nuts, probably due to the capacity of vva.terretention in heavier soils which can produce in some varieties very large nuts with a large percentage of water and little f1a\Our. In areas where ink disease is very VoJidespread (eg. several areas of mainland Europe), it is essential to pla nt

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 19

resistant \6rieties or trees grafted onto Jesistant rootstocks. Resistance to chestnut blight may be of great value where this disease is present (mainland Europe, North America), although the control by use of hypovirulent strains is now quite advanced in Europe. Japanese (C.crenata) and Chinese (C.mollissima) chestnuts have resistance to blight, and their hybrids sometimes display good resistance, eg Maigoule.

General characteristics

,

Origin/area of development
Most indigenous European cultivars are very old. Several have been maintained as populations rather than individual cultivars, '#hich means that the description given is of the overall average characteristics of the trees, nuts etc. Othes, especially the more recent culthars, are specific genetic selections. The older varieties are sometimes limited as to their adaptability, and are sometimes only productive in their region of origin. They do tend to be hardier, later to leaf out, and able to be grown at higher altitudes than the h)brid varieties. The hybrids are generally more adaptable as to location, though they require more careful cultivation. They have more demanding v-.ater requirements and rrust be inigated in aJeas wth dry summers.

Leafing out
An important characteristic, for if early-leafing cultivars are planted where they may be damaged by late spring frosts, production may be severely restricted. Leafing out occurs after the passage of sufficient cold over the wnter, and varies by as much as 6 v.eeks betv..een eally and late~eafing culthars. C.sativa cultivars require substantial warmth in spring to induce leafing, '#hich explains their later leafing times than h)brids, ....nich generally leaf out quite eaty and are susceptible to late fast damage. The tefITlS used refer to the follo"";ng approximate dates in Fence: Very early (VE): before 28 March Early (E) : 26 March - 15 Apnl Early-mid (EM): 15-30 Apnl Mid"ate (ML): 1-10 May Late (L) : 11-15 May Very late (VL): After 16 May

Flowering
An important characteristic. Note that many of the late-flowering cultivars rely on being pollinated by wild trees groy,.;ng nearby. Few selected cultivars flower late enough to pollinate these trees, though the best ' chance is wth Marron de Che\8nceaux. The tefITlS used in the table belowefer to the follo"";n9 approximate dates in Fence: Very early (VE) : 15-20 June Early (E) : 21-26 June Early-Mid (EM): 27 June -2 July Mid"ate (ML) : 3-8 July Late (L) : 9-14 July Very Late (VL): 15-20 July

Tree characteristics
Bearing: Most trees are erect or semi-erect, a few are spreading. Adult and elderly fruiting trees often become rounded and spreading, with horizontal or drooping branches, as a consequence of weight of fruits. Vigour & productivity: Much affected by the treatment in the first few years after planting. Good formative pruning allo'Ni rapid establishrrent and flUiting, Wlile a lack of puning can delayfruiting formany years. Disease and pest resistance/susceptbility: Notably to ink disease, anthracnose and chestnut blight. These are noted below Pollination: Essential for good productiv;ty. Good pollination can only be assured with the use of one or more of the indigenous longstamen types. See 'flov..ering' abo've for more infolTTlation.

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Harvesting period: When the mature nuts are ripe, they fall from the tree, sometimes with the burs which may be open or closed at maturity. With some cultivars, the fall of nuts is relatively quick, over a short period ; others fall over a prolonged period. The period of harvest can vary by up to 2 months between very early and very late maturing culthers; the terms used refer to the followng approximate dates in Fence: Very early (VE): before 10th September Early (E) : 11 ~25 September Early~mid (EM): 26 September ~ 10 October Mid4ate (ML): 11~25 October Late (l) : 26 October~ 10 NO\-ember Very late (Vl): Mer 11 November

\

Nut characteristics
Colour at maturity: May vary from chestnut-brown to mahogany or red, be dull or shiny and may have stripes. Some cultivars retain the colour and shininess for several months, while others fade and change quickly. Particula~y attractive colours are found wth Bouche Rouge, 8Jumette and Rousse de Nay Size: These ae defined in terns of nutslkg abo\e in 'Nut twes and uses'. Marron/Chataigne type: Defined abo\9 in 'Nut !)pes and uses' Natural storage: The nuts of some cultivars store very IN'BII naturally (eg. Marigoule, Marron de Chevanceaux, Laguepie, Roussette, Verdale) , while others spoil very quickly after falling . A general rule is that nuts tom Mid4ate and late tpening cu!ti\8rs naturally store better than Early~ripening culthers. Uses: See above for detailed descriptions of uses. For nuts which are destined for commercial processing (a big growth area), it is important that they are well adapted to mechanical shelling: nuts which have a smooth kernel with large, open winkles are easily shelled , whereas those with many fine wrinkles are very difficult to peel. Class: In Fance, class 1 applies to the best qualitlluts; class 2 to othes.

Synonyms of listed cultivars
Bastarrfo = Bastarde Capanelle = Carrpanese Cornballe = Maron Comballe Dauphinenque = Maron Dauphine de Collobrieres = Marron du Var Du Pont = Ridgely Eurobe/la = Siver leaf Goujounac = Maron de Goujounac Great American = Paragon Grosse de Loubejac = Montagne Grosse Rouge = Rousse de Nay Hative de Cadouin = Fbrtaloune Lyon = Doree de l}On Maraval 07 = MalSol Marron Cha/on Early = Chalon Marron Coujounac = Maron de Goujounac Marron de la fume = Sardonne Marron de Laguepie = Laguepie Marron de Lyon = Doee de l}On Marron de SaintNincent = Maron d'Olargues Marron de Vesseaux = Ebuche Rouge Marron de Villefranche = Montagne Marron des Pyrenees = Rousse de Nay Marron double de Goujounac = M. de Goujounac Marron du Luc = Maron du Var Marron Guepie = Laguepie Marron QuefCy = Ouerey Petite Fburette = Pourette Precoce Caprneille = fleecce Carrneille Precoce Ronde des \.ens = Precoce des \fcms Rossola = Rossa Rouge de Nay = Rousse de Nay Saint.Jean = Marron de Redan Saint.Jean-des-Marais = Marron de Redon Sardoune = S3rdonne Sobers Paragon = Paragon Tegbia = Tichjulana

~

Cultivar descriptions (C.sativa & its hybrids)
Aguyane: Indigenous French variety from SE & C.France (Ardeche, Lozere, Gard, Herault), grown at low altitudes (200-400 m). Tree: erect, very vigorous, productive if pollinated well. Flo\o\ers: Males are a-stamen type. Nuts: Marrons, triangular and characteristically pointed, reddish-brown but fading quickly after falling. Ripen eany (over a short period). Modelate-good adaption to mechanical shelling, moderate natural storage.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 21

f1avourgood~

Uses: principally for fresh consumption because of its ear1iness; also for canning (appearance very good, Class 2.

AJtre : Indigenous \Briety from Italy (Campania~ Anderson: C.sativa selection from the U.S. (New Jersey). Tree : Vigorous, very productive. Nuts: small, bright reddish-bro\o\'Tl , doW1Y. Arizinca: Indigenous French variety Southem Corsica, gro\o\'Tl betv.€en 500 and 1000 m altitude. Nuts: Marrons ~ long.elliptical. Colour penetrates into the kernel. Ripens mid~ate . Very well adapted for mechanical shelling. Uses: 'ery good for flour production. Class 2. Bartram: C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, spreading , productive; has large leaves. Nuts: Small, thickly pubescent at tip , dark reddish-mahogany, good quality. Nuts are rarely troubled by insect pests. Bastarde (Syns. Bastard, Bastardo): Indigenous French variety, gro\o\'Tl in SE France and Corsica. Poorly adapted to other regions. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, mahogany-reddish with black stripes, roundishelliptical. Ripens late over a short period. Adaptability to mechanical shelling is moderate to poor; natural storage good. Uses: Canning (l:ppearance & flavour good~ Class 2. Bastellicaciu: Indigenous variety from France (S.Corsica). Tree: very spreading. Flov..ers: Males are astamen type. Nuts: Chataignes, rredium size, ripen mid-late. Uses: fesh consurrption and flour Belle Epine: Indigenous French variety from Oordogne, dominates in some areas of SW France at low to moderate altitudes (1 00-600 m). Has shoWl good adaptabiJityto other regions. Tree: Mid leafing out; semierect, soon becoming rounded ; very vigorous (less so on Marsol rootstock~ fruiting rapidly by its Sth-6th year; very good producti"';ty; resistant to anthracnose. Flo\o\€rs: Male catkins are long-stamen type, with good fertile pollen (Volill not pollinate Camberoune). Peak pollen dispersion 20 June-2 July, peak female recepti"';ty 30 June-11 July. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large, shiny mahogany-red but fading quickly after falling, long.elliptical, thick-shelled. Ripening mid-late, within a short period; good separation from burs. Natural storage is bad , moderate to good adaption to mechanical shelling. Uses: Canning (very good appearance, good f1a\Our), confectionalY, fresh. A very good, productive variety. Class 1. Bouche de Bacon: Indigenous variety from France (Ardeche~ Tree: good vigour. Nuts: Chataignes , medium to large, colour sometimes penetrates kernel. Mid-ripening. Uses: very good eating quality, mostly used fresh. Class 2. Bouche de Betizac: Hybrid of Bouche Rouge afld c.crenata, originating in France in 1962. Grown in SW, W & NW France from the Pyrenees to Brittany. Very adaptable to other regions. Tree: Early to leaf out; shape very erect; vigorous, fruiting very rapidly, good productivity. Very resistant to anthracnose. Unusual in that it retains green leaves well into November. Flo\o\€rs: Males are a-stamen type. Flowering is a little before Boumette & Precoce Migoule. POllinated by most C.sativa long-stamen types. Nuts: Marrons, large, clear chestnut-red, quickly fading to dark brovvn, short.elliptical. Ripening eal1y, good natural storage, very good aptitude to rrechanical shelling. Class 1. Bouche de Clos: Indigenous variety from France (Ardeche~ resembles Bouche Rouge. Nuts: Marrons, medium size, ripen late to \ery late. Natual storage e:ccellent. Class 2. Bouche Rouge (Syn. Marron de Vesseaux): Indigenous French variety from Ardeche , dominates in some areas of SE France at moderate altitudes (300-500 m), progressively unproductive above 500 m. Often grown on its ovvn or VoIith Comballe and commercially knOIMl as 'Marron de I'Ardeche'. Not very adaptGble to other regions. Tree: Leafs out very late; tree very erect when young, vigorous and large growing; regular bearing. Very susceptible to anthracnose, in SW France it is common to see 80-90% of leaves falling 1-2 months early, affecting flo\o\€r formation for the folfowng year. Flov..ers: Males catkins are a-stamen and brachy-stamen types; peak female recepti..,;ty 9-20 July. Pollination is often by nearby late.ftowering wild trees. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, attractive shiny red , lightly ribbed , elliptical, shell medium thick. Ripening very late (over a long period), moderate falling from burs. Slightly susceptible to chestnut codling moth and chestnut weevil. Natural storage is good, good adaption to mechanical shelling. Uses: Canning (good appearance & f1a\tOur), confectionary. Class 1.

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Bournette: A natural hybrid of Castanea crenata 'Tamba Gury' and C.sativa, found in France (Ardeche) in 1948. Grown extensively in SW France up to 400 m altitude, also in Brittany, and shows good adaptability to other regions. Tree: Leafs out early (quite susceptible to late spring frosts ); tree semi~rect , becoming rounded (on its own roots), moderately vigorous (on own roots or Maraval rootstock; more vigorous on Marsol rootstock1 fruits rapidly (Volithin 2-3 years), good producti'vtty. Resistant to anthracnose. Somewhat susceptible to over-producing (without pruning and sometimes irrigation, the nuts can be very small). FlolA€rs: Males are long-stamen type, but the pollen is not very fertile. Peak pollen dispersion 19 June - 2 July; peak female recepti'vtty 30 June - 10 July. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, an attractive clear chestnut brolNl1 (fades rapidly after falling~ VoIith many fine ridges and a large scar, short-elliptical, very regular, thin-shelled. Ripening early-mid (over a short period); the nuts fall well from the burs. Very well adapted to mechanical shelling, very good natural storage. Uses: Canning (very good appearance, good flavour), confectionaty, fresh. A good variety v...tJich tolerates very exposed locations in dry regions; very productive jf grolNl1 in nch soils v.ith plenty of manure. Class 1. Bourrue de Juillac: Indigenous variety from C.France (Correze), adaptable to different soils but doesn't like cold locations. Nuts: Cha.taignes, very good natural storage. Uses Good eating quality - used fresh. Class 2. Bracalla: Indigenous IlIriety from Italy(Campania). Nuts: \ery late npening. Tree: slow to start fruiting. Camberoune: Indigenous French variety from Dordogne, dominates in several areas of C. & W.France, often grolNl1 w th Belle Epine. May be quite adaptable to otherregions. Tree: Leafs out ealy-mid; tree semierect, becoming rounded with age; vigorous, productive bud sometimes irregular due to poor pollination. Flowers: Males are a-stamen type. Peak female recepti"";ty 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium, reddish (rapidly dulling after falling~ triangular. Ripens mid-late to late over a long period. Very well adapted to mechanical shelling, good natural storage. Uses: Canning (very good appearance, good flavour), confectionalY, fresh (good). Class 1 or2. Campanese (Syn. Capanelle) Indigenous French variety from Corsica , groVvTl at 200-900 m of attitude. FlolA€rs: Males are long-stamen type. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium, chestnut-feddish wth black stipes, . elliptical with shoulders. late ripening, often a short period. Badly adapted to mechanical shelling; good natural storage, but susceptible to chestnut codling moth. Uses: main use in Corsica is for flour; canning (appearance and f1a\Our very good). Class 2. Campbell No 1: A Layeroka seedling (C.mollissima x C.sativa~ selected in Canada (Ontano). Tree: productive, reliable. Nuts: Medium sized , sweet, freely falling from burs. Mid season ripening. Spines on burs are finer and softer than most. Canby Black: C.sativa selection made in Oregon, U.S. Tree: Dwarf tree, productive. Nuts: Medium sized, good f1a\Our, shell eas il ~ Canby West: C.sativa selection made in Oregon, U.S. Tree: Dwarf tree, productive. Nuts: Medium sized , good f1a\Our, shell easil~ Cassagnole: Indigenous ChtHaigne tpe from W.France (Lot, Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne). Class 2. Cecio: Indigenous IBriety from Italy (Tuscany). Nuts: lage. Chaitaigne O'isola: Indigenous French variety from SE France. Tree: quite erect, quite vigorous . FlolA€rs: Males are brachy-stamen type. Nuts: Chataignes, medium to large, chestnut-feddish, long-elliptical but irregular. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Ripens mid-late to late. Uses: Exclusively for fresh consumption; jn the past rruch used for flour. Class 2. Chalon (Syn. Marron Chalon Early): old C.sativa selection from France, was grolNl1 in the U.S. Tree: Productive, precocious. Nuts: Snall-medium, early ripening. Colossal: a hybrid of C.crenata, C.mollissima and C.sativa, deeloped around 1880 in Caifornia where it is still gro'M1. Tree: Vigorous, productive. Nuts: medium to large, sweet, easy to shell. Fall freely from burs. Dries and stOleS y..ell. Ripens rrid season. Corrive: an old indigenous variety from France, now little grolNl1. Tree: Vigorous. Nuts: medium sized, good f1a\Our, do not all feely fall flOm burs.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 23

Corson: C.sativaselection from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, spreading , very productive. Nuts: Medium sized , ridged, very pubescent at tip, good quality Dager: C.sativa selection from the U.S., a seedling of Ridgely. Nuts: Snail to medium, dark broVYfl, doWlY, good quality Tree: Vigorous, spreading , productive.

Darlington: C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous . Nuts: Small to medium, dark brown , striped , thickly tomentose at tip , sveet, good quality Very ear1y ripening. Doree ete Lyon (Syn. Marron de Lyon): Indigenous French variety from C. & W.France, grown in Dordogne. Very adaptable to other regions. Tree: Leafs out late, tree is semi-erect (becoming rounded with age), moderately vigorous , moderate to good producti....;ty. Fto¥\ers: Males are brachy-stamen type. Peak female recepti"";ty 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Chataignes (the name Marron is misapplied to this variety), medium to large, an attractivt:! shiny chestnut,..ed . roundish-elliptical. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Ripens mid-late over a short period. Good natural storage. Uses: Exdusively for fresh eating. Productive at both low and medium altitudes. Class 2. Esclafarde: Indigenous variety from France (Ardeche~ Tree: moderately vigorous, sometimes an irregular producer. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large. kernel flesh is sometimes yello...... sh. Ripens early-mid. Class

2.
Garonne Rosso: Indigenous variety from Italy (Campania~ Nuts: ripen early-mid. Tree: good producti"";ty, rapidly fruiting. Garinche: Indigenous variety from France (Ardeche), very adaptable. Tee: leafs out eaty, tree semi-erect, a regular producer. Flo'vVers: males are long-stamen types. Nuts: Chataignes, ripen early-mid. The burs are distincti\e in theirsmall numbers of prickles. Uses: fesh eating. Class 2. Gellatly No 1: Hybrid of C.sativa and G. mollissima, selected in British Columbia. Tree: Productive. Nuts: Sweet, fall fleely from burs which are not very prickly. Early ripening . Gellatly No 2: Hybrid of C.sativa and C.mollissima, selected in British Columbia. Tree: Very productive. Nuts: good quaJit)t' Ripens earty-mid season. Fall feely from burs. Grosse Noire: an old indigenous ilriety from France. Nuts: lage, black. Good natual storage , dries ¥\ell. Herria: Indigenous variety from Westem France (Pyrenees-Atlantique~ Flo'vVers: Female receptivity late, often pollinated bynearby wild trees. Nuts: Marons, medium sized. Late ripening. Imperiale: Indigenous French variety from SE France (Var). groVvfl in south-facing valleys at 300-600 m altitude. Tree: Rather erect (becoming rounded 'with age), moderately vigorous, hardy, regular producer. FlolNers: Males are brachy-stamen type. Nuts: Chataignes, large to very large, chestnut,..eddish with black stripes, eUiptical,..oundish. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Ripens mid-late to late, over a long period. Good natural storage. Uses: Fesh consulTlltion; previously for flour. Class 2. Insidina: Indigenous variety from France (Corsica ), groVYfl at 400-900 m alutude. FlolNers: males are astamen type. Nuts: Marrons. medium size, long-elliptical, ripen mid-late. Very well adapted to mechanical shelling. Uses: forflour and to rrake grilled marrons. Class 2. Laguepie (Syns. Marron de Laguepie, Marron Guepie): Indigenous French variety from C. & W .France, groVvfl in Tam-et-Garonne and around Umousin. Very adaptable to other regions. Tree: leafs out mid-late, tree is semi-erect (becoming rounded with age), vigorous, good productivity. resistant to anthracnose. FlolNers: Males are meso-stamen type. Peak female recepti"";ty 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Chataignes, medium to large, shiny mahogany-red, elliptical,..oundish. irregular. Over 25% of nuts are partitioned. Ripens mid-late, over a short period. Natural stOfage is moderate to good. Uses: Exdusively for fresh consumption - good quality. Class 1. La)'t:roka: Hybrid of C.mollissima'Skioka' x c. sativa, bred in British Columbia (Canada) and grown commercially in Canada. Tree: Vigorous, upright. pyramidal , timber-type growth. Ear1y bearing and very productive; blight resistant. Flo'vVers: Males are a-stamen type (sterile.) Nuts: Medium sized , sweet, mid season ripening , freely falling from burs. This variety readily propagates by layering. Sometimes overproduces. reducing nut size. There is some evidence that on its own roots this variety may tolerate quite alkaline soils.

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Lusenta (Syn . Lucente~ Hybrid variety of C.sativa x C.crenata from Italy (Campania~ Tree: leafs out very early to early. Flov.ers: mid season. Nuts: rrediocre fla\Our. Maraval: A natural hybrid of Castanea crenata and C.sativa. found in the Ardeche; grown in C. & W.France. Moderately adaptable to other regions, but dislikes oceanic climates with mild winters. Tree: leafs out very early (susceptible to late spring frosts); tree erect (almost fastigiate) , of moderate vigour. fruits rapidly, good producti\otty. Resistant to anthacnose and to ink disease on its ow roots. RequiEs very fertile soils; formation pruning is essential. Flov..ers: Males are long-stamen type. but the pollen isn't very fertile. Peak pollen dispersion 20 June - 1 July, peak female recepti\otty 28 June - 10 July. Nuts: Marrons. medium- large & v.large. shiny mahogany-red with a large scar, triangular & very regular, shell medium thick . Ripens mid-late over a short period. Natural storage is good, aptitude to mechanical shelling is mediocre. Uses: Fresh, canning , confectionary. Propagates well by layering; prefers rich soils, doesn't like dry soils or climates. Sometimes used as a rootstock for other vars because of its resistance to ink disease. Class 2. Maridonne: A hybrid of Sardonne and C.crenata, originating in France in 1962. Grown in Westem France including Charente-Maritime. Tree: Leafs our early-mid; shape semi-erect, moderately vigorous (more vigorous on Marigoule rootstock), fruiting rapidly, good productivity. Slightly susceptible to canker (Diplodina castanea) resistant to anthracnose. Drought resistant - fruits well even in dry situations. ~: Males are long-stamen type, but the pollen has very low fertility - cannot be used as a pollinator. Pollinated by most long-stamen C.sativa selections. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large, dull brown, striped, pubescent, 10ng.eUiptical. late rpening, good natual storage, v..ell adapted to rrechanical shelling. Class 1. Marigoule: A hybrid of Castanea sativa and C.crenata (Migoule x Brive), widely planted in France in the SW, SE (up to 400 m altitude) & Brittany. Quite adaptable (though it dislikes cool humid climates), dislikes dry and shallowsoils; bears irregularly in cold Northerly locations. Tree: Leafing out is early or v.early (very susceptible to late spring frosts); on its 0'Ml roots the tree is semi-erect, becoming rounded with age; very dense and 'Nith a very straight bole. The tree is vigorous (sometimes to excess) and v.large, fruiting rapidly (4th-6th year); moderately productive. Resistant to ink disease, chestnut blight and anthracnose; susceptible to sunbum, canker (Dipladina castanea) and bark beetles (Scalytes spp.). Requires a rich, fertile soil , plenty of fertilisation and regular pruning. Flov.ers: Males are long-stamen but the pollen is not very fertile. Peak pollen release 18-30 June, peak female recepti\otty 20 June-7 July. Nuts: Marrons, medium-large and v. large, shiny dark mahogany 'Nith a large scar, elliptical, thick shelled. The flesh is v.dense. Ripens early-mid (over a short period), with quite good release from burs. V. well adapted to mechanical shelling, natural storage good-v.good. Uses: Canning (appearance poor to moderately good, flavour good), confectionary. Marigoule propagates well by layering and its good growth on rich soils have led it to be considered for forestry use. Sometimes used as a rootstock. for other varieties because of its resistance to ink disease. Class 1. Marissard: Hybrid of Laguepi e and C.crenata, introduced in France in 1962. At home in the SW of France up to 400 m of altitude. Tree: Earfy to leaf out; semi-erect, of moderate vigour. Flov.ers: Males are brachystamen. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large and very large, elliptical.triangular. Well adapted to mechanical shelling. Ripen eaty-mid. Uses: fesh and canning. Class 1. Marlhac: Hybrid of Laguepie and C.crenata, introduced in France in 1962. Grown in the Atlantic west (Gironde, Dordogne, Charente). Tree: earfy-mid to teaf out; very vigorous. Floy.,ers: Males are brachystamen type. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large, mahogany-red, elJiptical.triangular. Ripening ear1y-mid. Natural storage is good, aptitude to mechanical shelling is good. Propagates well by layering I cuttings. Class 1 or2. Marron Comballe (Syn. Comballe): Indigenous French variety (popu lation), grown in Ardeche and Lozere (C.France) often at some altitude (400-650 m). Adaptability to other regions is moderate to good. A clone, CA106, is normally propagated from the population. Tree: very late to leaf out; tree is semi-ered, of moderate vigour, fruiting rapidly (5th or 6th year), of good productivity. Susceptible to anthracnose. Floy.,ers: Males are a-stamen and brachy-stamen types. Peak female recepti\otty 9-20 July. Pollination is often by nearby late-flolfoJ€ring wild trees. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, shiny chestnut-red with distinct black. stripes, elliptical , thin shelled , rich sweet flavour. Ripening is very late, with an irregular fall from burs (better after dry weather). Very well adapted to mechanical shelling, natural storage very good. Uses Good for fresh consumption or processing. A rugged and adaptable variety. Note that most of the population are of Chataigne character. Class 1.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 25

&&

rE=

Marron Cruaud: Indigenous French variety, a clone from the population of Marron de Redan from Brittany (Morbihan, Loire Atlantique, life et Vilaine~ Moderately adaptable to other regions. Tree: leafing out midlate; tree is semi-erect, of moderate vigour and production, fruits rapidly. Susc. to anthracnose; chestnut blight is not present where cultivated. Flo'Ners: Males are brachy-stamen and meso-stamen types. Peak female reCepliy;ly 1-14 July. Nuts: Marrons, medium-large, mahogany-red with ribs & distinct stripes, longelliptical (often rounded and deformed). Colour penetrates a little into the large furrolNS. Ripens mid-late (over a short period), v.ith good fall from burs. Uses: fresh consumption - v.good flavour, also for process~g. Class 2. Marron Dauphin (Syn. Oauphinenque): Indigenous French variety from SE France (Gard, Herault, Lozere). Tree: leafing out late to very late; tree is semi-erect (becoming rounded with age), moderately vigorous, productive if well pollinated. Susceptible to anthscnose. Flovers: Males al8 a-stamen type. Peak female receptiy;ty 9-20 July. Often pollinated by nearby late-flo...-.ering wild trees. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium size, a clear chestnut-fed , elliptical. Ripening mid-late over a short period. Very well adapted to mechanical shelling, good natural storage but extremely susceptible to chestnut codling moth and chestnut weevil. Uses: Mostly for fresh consumption; also for canning (appearance and flavour good), and the larger nuts for confectionary. Class 1. Marron de Chevanceaux Indigenous French variety from W.France (Charente Maritime), adaptable to other regions. Tree: leaf out mid-late; tree is semi-erect, very vigorous with good productiY;ty. Flov.ers: Males are long-stamen types. Peak pollen dispersal 25 June - 10 July, peak female recepti'v1ty 5-15 July. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, shiny chestnut-brovvn to mahogany-red v.ith stripes, elliptical. Ripens midlate over a short period. Well adapted to mechanical shelling, good natural storage. Uses: Fresh (good), Canning (appearance and fla\Our very good~ Class 2. Marron de Goujounac (Syns. Marron Coujounac. Marron double de Goujounac): Indigenous French variety from W.France, dominating in parts of Oordogne, Lot and Lot et Garonne at low altitudes(100-300 m); may be adaptable to other regions. Tree: Leafs out early-mid; tree is semi-erect (becoming rounded with age), very vigorous (much less so on Maraval rootstock) and with very good productivity. Slightly susceptible to anthracnose. Flowers: Males are long-stamen type, with fertile pollen; peak pollen release 20 June - 2 July, peak female recepti'llity 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large, a clear chestnut-fed with black .stripes, long-elliptical. Colour penetrates well into the kemel. Ripens mid-late (over a short period). Good adaption to mechanical shelling, good natural storage. Uses: Canning (appearance very good, fla\Our good~ fresh. Class 1. Marron de Lostange: Indigenous French variety from the West of France. Nuts: medium sized , shell very easily. Class 2. Marron de Redon (Syns. Saint-Jean, Saint-Jean-des-Marais): Indigenous French variety (population) from Brittany (Morbihan, Loire Atlantique, Ille et Vilaine~ Moderately adaptable to other regions. Tree: leafing out mid-late; tree is semi-erect, of moderate vigour and production, fruits rapidly. Susceptible to anthracnose; chestnut blight is not present where this is culthated. Flovers: Males al9 brachy-stamen and rneso-stamen types. Peak female recepti'llity 1-14 July. Nuts: Chataignes, very large, mahogany-red with ribs and distinct stripes, long-elliptical (often rounded and deformed). Ripens mid-late (over a short period), with good fall from burs. Uses: ex::lusively for fresh consurrption - very good fla\Our. See also Marron Cruaud. Class 2. Marron d'Olargues (Syn. Marron de Saint-Vincenti Indigenous French variety from Herault (SE.France), grolMl there at moderate altitudes (200-700 m); poony adaptable to otherregions. Tree: leaf out late; tree is semi-erect, vigour moderate to vigorous, fruits rapidly (4th or 5th year) , good productivity. Susceptible to anthracnose. Flo...-.ers: Males are brachy-stamen type. Peak female receptivity 9-20 July. Often pollinated by nearby late-flo'Nering wild trees. Nuts: Marrons, medium size, chestnut-reddish with very distinct black stripes, long-elliptical. The larger nuts sometimes have a high percentage of partitioning. Ripening mid to mid-late (over a long period). Very good adaption to mechanical shelling, good natural storage. Uses: Canning (appearance good, fla\Dur very good~ confectionalY, fresh. Prefers south-facing slopes. Class 1. Marron du Var (Syns. Marron du Luc, de Collobreres): Old indigenous Fench variety. gfOlMl in SE France on S. slopes in cool mountain locations and valleys at 300-600 m altitude. Poorly adapted to other regions. Tree: leaf out late to very late; tree erect to semi-erect, vigorous when young but more moderate in vigour after a few years. Moderately productive. Susceptible to anthacnose .~: Males al8 brachy-stamen

=

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

type. Peak female receptivity 9-20 July. Often pollinated by nearby late-flolAering wild trees. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large and very large, chestnut-reddish with very di stinct stripes, roundi sh-elliptical, thin shell. Partitioning in the large and very large nuts can be over 20% (ie putting them in the Chataigne class) but is much less in medium sized nuts. Nuts fall poorly from burs. Ripening is mid-1ate to late, over a long period. Good adaption to mechanical shelling , moderate to good natural storage. Uses: Canning (appearance good, flavour very good), confectionary (good), fresh (good). Renown and greatly appreciated for its good eating qualities. Class 1. Marron Pazzo: Indigenous \Briety from Italy (Tuscany). Nuts: lalge. Marrone di Bruzollo: Indigenous &riety from Italy. Marrone di Casl!ldelpiano: Indigenous '0riety from Italy (Tuscany). Nuts: lalge. Marrone di Chiusa Pesio: Indigenous variety from Italy (Campania). Flov.ers: males are a-stamen type; mid season flovering. Nuts: late ipening. Tree: slowto start fruiting. Marrone di Greve: Indigenous variety from Italy (Campania). FlolNers: males are a-stamen type; mid season flolJ.ering. Marrone di Luserneta: Indigenous \Briety from Italy. Marrone di M>rlo Fini: Indigenous 'ariety from Italy (Tuscany). Nuts: lalge. Marrone di M>rlo Grosso: Indigenous 'IlIriety from Italy (Tuscany). Nuts: lalge. Marrone di S.Giorgi: Indigenous o.ariety from Italy. Marrone di SUza: Indigenous \Briety from Italy (Campania). Nuts: Marons, small to medium, late ripening. Marrone di Verona: Indigenous o.ariety from Italy (Campania). Tree: slow to start fruiting. Marrone Fioretno: Indigenous 'Brietyfrom Jtaly(Campania). Tree: slow to start huiting. Marrubia di Sernezzo: Indigenous &riety from Italy. Marsol (Syn. Maraval 07): A natural hybrid of Castanea Cfenata and C.saUvq found in France (Ardeche) in 1948. Cultivated in C. & W.France, Brittany and the Pyrenees. Moderately adaptable. Tree: leafs out early (susceptible to late spring frosts); on its 01Ml roots the tree is semi-erect and well-branched , becoming rounded with age; grafted onto C.sativa or Marigoule it tends to be very erect with little branching. Moderate vigour, rapidly fruiting (4th-6th year). Resistant to anthracnose and ink disease. Flov..ers: Males are longstamen types, pollen not very fertile; peak pollen release 19-30 June, peak female receptivity 27 June - B July. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large (sometimes with abnormally large burs with over 3 nuts), shiny mahogany-red, very large scar, triangular to elliptical, shell medium thick. Ripens early-mid (over a short period). Natural storage and adaptability to mechanical shelling are moderate to good. Uses: Canning (appearance good, flavour moderate), possibly confectionary, fresh. Marsol propagates well by layering. Sometimes used as a Dotstock forothervarieties because of its esistance to ink disease. Class 1. Marzatica: Indigenous IBriety from Italy (Campania). Merculiana: Indigenous 'lIriety from Italy(Campania). Nuts: Marons. Merle: Indigenous variety from France (Ardeche) , often grown commercially in a mixture with Marron Cornballe. Tree: of moderate vigour. FlolNers: Males are a-stamen type. Nuts: MalTons, long-elliptical, ripening eady-mid. Uses: Mostlyfor fresh eating. Class 1. Moncur; C.sativa selection from the U.S., a seedling of Ridgely. Tree: Vigorous, spreading, very producti-.e. Nuts: Snail, light coloued , doWlY. Montagne (Syns. Grosse de Loubejac, Marron de Villefranche): Indigenous French variety from C. & W. France, grovvn in Dordogne and Lot et Garonne. Tree: leafs out mid-late; tree is semi-erect, vigorous , with good productivity. Flov.ers: Males are long-stamen type. Peak pollen dispersal 20 June - 2 July, peak female receptivity 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, elliptical. Colour penetrates into kernel. Ripens early-mid to mid-1ate (over a long period). Aptitude for mechanical shelling is moderate to good ; natural storage is poor. Uses: Mostly used fresh, some for canning (appearance and flavour good) and for

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 27

'7&4
whole malTon processing. Class 1.

=
~riety

#!

Montellese: Indigenous

from Italy (Campania~

Montemarano: Indigenous variety from Italy (Campania). Nuts: MalTons, medium to large. Uses: Marrons

graces.
Myoka: Hybrid of C.salivaand C.mollissima,seJected in British Columbia. Not a synonym of Skioka. Tree: Upright, vigorous, timber-type gro'Nth. resistant to chestnut blight. Flo'hers: Males are long-stamen type. Good poilinator for Layeroka. Nuts: Medium sized, dark, sweet, good fla vour, easy to shell. Mid ripening, some nuts do not fall fom burs. Napoletana: Indigenous \Snely from Italy (Campania~ Tree: good plOducti'vity. Nuts: attactive, speckled.

Napoletanella: Indigenous 'lIriety from Italy (Campania~ Nuts: srmrt, moderately speckled.
Nevada: A hybrid, probably of C.sativa and C.mollissima. from the U.S. (Califomia). Tree: very vigorous and upright. Flov.ers: Males ale long-stamen type . Pollinates Colossal. Nuts: L3!)e. dark. late ripening. Nocella: Indigenous variety from France (S.Corsica), grown at 500-900 m of altitude. Flovers: Males ale astamen type. Nuts: Marrons, medium size, short-ellipticaL Ripening mid-late, very well adapted to mechanical shelling. Uses: Canning and flourClass 2. Nouzillard: C.sativa selection from Central France, Large, attractive.
\o\'aS

grown in the U.S. Tree: Very productil,€. Nuts:

Numbo: C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Compact. drooping. irregular cropping. Nuts: Medium to large, roundish. bright brolMl, striped , thinlytomentose. Pacora : Indigenous IBriety from Italy (Campania~ Tree: very productil..e. Nuts: rrediocre fla vour. Palummo : Indigenous \Briety from Italy (Campania).
C.dentata~

Paragon (Syns. Great American, Sobers Paragon): C.sativaselection from the U.S. (possibly a hybrid with former1y widely planted there. Tree: Spreading, vigorous, very productive; narrow leaves. Nuts: Medium to large, dull blOlMl , roundish, thicklytomentose, -.ery good quality.

Pellegrine: Indigenous French variety from SE France (Ardeche, Gard, Lozere). Tree: semi-erect to erect, very vigorous and productive. FlolM';'!rs: Males are a-stamen type . Nuts: Marrons, chestnut-feddish, ellipticaHriangular. Ripen mid-late over a short period. Very well adapted to mechanical shelling, good natural storage. Uses: mainly for fresh consumption; also for canning (appearance very good, flavour good - very aromatic). Class 1 despite its srmll fruits. Portaloune (Syn. Hative de Cadouin): Indigenous French variety from W.France, grown in Dordogne often Yvith 8elle Epine lNith \o\'hich is cross pollinates well. Tree: leafs out mid-late, erect, very vigorous, regular producer. Susceptible to anthracnose. Flo'M:!rs: Males are long-stamen. Peak pollen dispersal 20 June - 2 July, peak female receptivity 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium, chestnut-brown to blackish with large dark stripes, elliptical-roundish . Ripens ear1y-mid over a short period . Moderate to good aptitude to mechanical shelling, poor natural storage. Uses: Fresh , Canning (appearance good, flavour moderate). Class 2. Pourette (Syn. Petite Pourette): Indigenous variety from SE France (Ardeche, Gard, Lozere). Tree: very regular producer. Nuts: Marrons, small to very small. Uses: a very old variety known for making dried chestnuts and Ceme de marrons. Class 2. Precoce Carmeille (Syn. Precoce Capmeille): Indigenous French variety from W .France , grown in Dordogne and Lot et Garonne. Limited adaptability to other regions. Tree: leafs out ear1y-mid ; tree semierect, moderate vigour, good productivity. Flo'M:!rs: Males are long-stamen type. Peak pollen dispersal 20 June - 2 July, peak female receptivity 30 June - 11 July. Nuts: Chataig nes, medium to large, shiny mahogany-red with distinct black stripes, elliptical. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned . Ripens eaty-mid, over a short period. Uses: Exclusi-.ely for fresh consurrption. Class 2. Precoce des Pyrenees: Indigenous \8riety from France (Pyrenees-Atlantique} Nuts: Marons. Class 2.

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Precoce des Vans (Syn . Precoce Ronde des Vans): Indigenous French variety from SE France (Ardeche, Gard, Lozere). Tree: moderate vigour. Flo..-.ers: Males are brachy~s tamen type. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium size, chestnut-feddish , elliptical. Colour penetrates into the kemel . Ripens very early to early, over a short period . Uses: Exclusively for fresh eating because of its eainess . Precoce Migoule: A natural hybrid of Castanea sativa and C.crenata (Migoule x Brive), found in France. Grown in SW France, Brittany & SE France ~ very adaptable, doing well in the same areas that vines like. Tree: Leafing out is early (susceptible to spring frosts~ on its own roots , serri-erect and sparsely branched , moderately vigorous (more so on Marigoule rootstock~ good producti'-'ty, fruits very rapidly (within 2-3 years). Needs regular pruning to stimulate growth. Resistant to anthracnose. Somewhat susceptible to over~producing (without pruning and sometimes irrigation, the nuts can be very small). Flo...-.ers: Males are long-stamen type but the pollen is only moderately fertile; peak pollen release 15~30 June, peak female recepU'-'ty 25 June - 10 July. Nuts: Cha.taignes, medium (to large), an attractive clear mahogany, elliptical~ triangular with a large scar and medium thick shell. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Quite good release from burs. Ripening is early (over a short period). Natural storage is moderately good, good aptitucE to mechanical shelling. Uses: Used mainly for fresh consumption on account of its early ripening and good sized fruits. Propagates..-.ell by layering. Class 1 or2. Primato: Hybrid variety of C.sativa x C.crenata from Italy (Campania). Tree: leafs out very early; starts fruiting 'very early; very producti've. Flov..ers: very early. Nuts: ripen very early indeed. Prolific: C.sativa selection from Western U.S. Tree: Vigorous, spreading , producti've, reliable. Nuts: Medium sized, dark brown, good quality Quercy(Syn. Marron Querey): c.sativa selection from France, IN'aS groYoln in the U.S. Tree: Productive and early bearing. Nuts: Mediumsized, good quality Radulacciu: Indigenous \!Iriety from S.Corsica. Nuts: Chataignes. Uses: Esh use and flour CI 2. Ridgely(Syn . Du Pont): C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, spreading, very productil.e. Nuts: Medium sized, dark, moderately doWlY, very good qualityand f1a\Our. Rosino: Indigenous B.lIgarian variety, a consistent high ;elder. Rossa (Syn . Rossolaj An old indigenous variety (population) from Corsica , grown there at low to moderate altitudes (50-600 m). Tree: semi-erect. good vigour and productivity. Flov..ers: Males are a-stamen type. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large (very regular), attractive clear shiny mahogany with black ridges, shape irregular (round to elliptical-triangular). Colour penetrates well into the kernel. Late ripening (over a short period). Good aptitude for mechanical shelling, natural storage good. Uses: Very good quality for fresh consumption or processing; extensively used in Corsica. A clone of this population ('Zalana') is noted for the non-penetration of colourinto the kenel, and for its ease of rrechanical shelling. Class 1. Rossa di 5.Mango: Indigenous \Briety from Italy (Campania). Tree: precocious . Nuts: Chataignes. Rougieres: Indigenous variety from France (Dordogne~ Nuts: Chataignes , medium size, ellipticalroundish. Uses: fesh eating ~good quality. Class 2. Rousse de Nay (Syns. Rouge de Nay, Grosse Rouge, Marron des Pyrenees): Indigenous French variety from the Atlantic side of the Pyrenees, Ylhere it is cultivated be~en 400-600 m altitudes. Tree: leafs out mid-late; tree relatiwly erect, moderately vigorous , good productivity. Flov-ers: Males are long-stamen types. Nuts: Chataignes , medium (to large), an attractiw shiny mahogany-red with distinct black stripes, elliptical and irregular. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Ripen late to very late, over a long period. Good natural storage. Uses: Exclusiwly for fresh consulTl'tion . Class 2. Roussette de Montpazier: Indigenous variety from SW France (Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, Dordogne~ Nuts: Marrons, ellipticai-triangular, late ripening. Uses: excellent for fresh eating because of very easily removed shell. Class 2. Sardonne (Syns. Sardoune, Marron de la Bome): Indigenous Italian variety, cultivated in SE France up to 500m in altitude. Tree: leafs out late to very late; tree is quite erect, of moderate vigour, with good producti'-'ty if..-.ell pollinated. 3Jsceptible to anthacnose. Flov..ers: Males ale a-stamen type. Peak female

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 29

receptil..ity 9~20 July. Often pollinated by nearby late-fiov.ering wild trees. Nuts: Marrons. medium to large, reddish with black stripes, elliptical, thin shelled. Ripens mid-late over a short period. Good aptitude to mechanical shelling, natual storage very good. Uses: Canning ~ppearance v. good, f1a\Our good~ C11 . Sauvage Marron: Indigenous variety from France (Lot, Correze), adapted to high altitude. Flov.ers: Males are long-stamen type. Nuts: Marons, ripen ea~y-mid. Class 2. Scott: C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Open, spreading , very productil.re. Nuts: Small to medium, slightly ppinted, glossydark brown. Relathely free from 'N8evil attack. Settlemeier: C.mollissima x C.sativa hybrid from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, spreading, rounded . Nuts: medium to large. Silver leaf (Syn. Eurobella~ Hybrid involving C.sativa and other species, selected in the U.S. Tree: Productive, reliable. Undersides of leaves tum silvery grey as nuts ripen. Flov.ers: Males are long-stamen type and good pollen poducers. Nuts: Mediumto large, sY.eet, easifyshelled. Simpson: Corrplex hybrid in'-'Olving C.mollissima &C.sativa fom the U.S Tree: V. producti\.€. Nuts: lage. Skioka: Hybrid of C.sativa and C.mollissima, the selection made in British Columbia. Tree: Vigorous, upright, timber~type growth. Flov.ers: Males are a~stamen (sterile); late f1ov.ering. Nuts: medium sized, dark, s...-.eet, mid-late ripening. Not all feely falling fom burs. Skookum: Hybrid of C.sativaand C.moflissimafrom the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, upright, very productive and reliable, moderately early bearing. Leaves drop quite early. Nuts: Medium sized, shiny, attractive, sweet, fall freely from burs. Ripens ea.y. Soulage Premiere: Indigenous French variety from SE France (Garet, Herault). Poorly adapted to other regions. Tree: erect, v.vigorous, productive. Susceptible to anthracnose. Flov..ers: Males are brachystamen type. Nuts: Marrons, medium to large, chestnuti'eddish with distinct black stripes, elliptical. Ripens v. early over a short period. Uses: Usually for fresh consumption because of its earliness; also for canning. Class 2. Styer: C.sativa selection from the U.S. Tree: Very vigorous, upright leaves large. Nuts: Small, dark brown , striped, pointed, torrentose at the tip. Sweet Portland: c.sativa selection fom the U.S. Nuts: SNeeterand betterfla'-'Oured than many. Tempestiva: Indigenous '8rietyfrom Italy (Campania). Nuts: Chataignes, sl'T8l1 size. Tichjulana (Syn. Tegbia~ Indigenous French ·variety from Corsica, grown at 400~1000 m of altitude. Flo...-.ers: Campanese is a good pollinator: Nuts: Marrons, small to medium sized , reddish with black stripes, round. Ripens mid-late to late, over a long period. Adaption to mechanical shelling moderate; natural storage good. Uses: fesh, f1our(very good\ canning ~ppearance and fta\Our moderate). Class 2. Trayanov: Indigenous B..J!garian variety, a consistent high -;elder: Tricciuda: Indigenous variety from France (S.Corsica). FIOJM:!rs: Males are a·stamen type. Nuts: Marrons, medium to lalge, short-elliptical. \ery well adapted to rrechanical shelling. Class 2. Verdale: Indigenous variety grown in W. & C.France (Cantal, Dordogne, Lot), Italy (under the name 'Verdole') and Switzerland (under the name 'Veretesa'). Very adaptable to different regions, including harsh climates and high altitude. Tree: leafs out late, tree is semi-erect, vigorous, with good productivity. Flo...-.ers: males are long-stamen type. Peak pollen dispersal 25 June ~ 5 July, peak female receptivity 5~ 15 July. Nuts: Marrons, small to medium, dark chestnut.orown with blackish stripes, elliptical. Very late ripening, over a short period. Natural storage very good. Class 2. Vignols: A natural hybrid of Castanea crenata and C.sativa. grown in W. & C.France. Moderate adaptability to other regions. Tree: Leafs out early~mid (later than most hybrids); tree is rather erect but soon becomes rounded with age. Very vigorous and moderately productive. Slightly susceptible to anthracnose. Flo...-.ers: Males are long-stamen type. Peak pollen dispelSal 15~28 June, peak female receptivity 22 June - 10 July. Nuts: Chataignes, large to very large, dark reddish, ellipticaliriangular, thick shelled. Colour penetrates some'Nhat into the kernel. Over 20% of nuts are partitioned. Ripens early-mid, over a short period. Modelate nalulal storage. Uses: Flesh consurrption .
Pa~e

30

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

rag 3a : Example planting arrangements
II

I!.

Il
F! II F!
Il

II
~

A

S

R
A

S

B

A A

S
~

A
~

!!
B
B
G

B
[!,

B
(!,

B

"
B

C

Q
~

c
'3
!<
g

c

co
C
C

13

P
D

G
(!,

il
A

<
cc.

A
R

B
~

~

A

B

R
A

G

l!>
S3

11

D
D

B
A
A

R
II A

G
B

II
II
[J

II
A

A
A A

G
[J

B
(}

" " II
~

" B
11
P

11
S
B
B

a~

c
c

A

• "
"

c
C

B
B B

I>

C

A

A

B

13

B

c

R

c

B

"
D

Square planting. 2 varieties. both pollinators

Rectangular planting: wide iI1terrow width allows easier & longer intercrop cultivation. 3 varieties: A & C pollinators, B the main crop.

Equilateral planting: 4 varieties. B the main crop. 2 or 3 o( the others are pollinators .

/-----'~

,"' ---, "\
Fig 3b : Net harvesting system

~ ,

.~

(
(
'-

----, <, ,

-.., ,

-

1.5 m (5 fr)

I' "' "
Distance between wires depends on nel width & lree size; typically 4 m (13 fd.

ii*F -#

;;

Cultivars for the UK
Very few selections have ever been grown in the UK. There do exist good fruiting trees native to the UK, but a lot of work needs to be done to identify and study these. The southern half of the UK is most suited to chestnut cultivation for nut production and the best area is the SW of England. Only C.sativa selections and the hybrids between this and C.crenata & C.molllssima are feasible in the UK, the Chinese and Japanese chestnut varieties have no prospect at present of ripening their nuts in our climate . [ N8 but given a ~"C rise in mean temperatures , predicted to occurin the ne>t 50 ~ars , the situation rray change.) Cultivars should be chosen for 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Later leafing-Qut if possible; the earfier-Ieafing cuttivars should only be planted on sites not susceptible to late frosts. Very early leafing culthars are probably not lAable. Resistance to diseases is desmble but not essential. Pollination corrpatibility. Ripening times up to Mid-late, but probably no later than this, because the shorter growing season "WOn't allow time for nuts of Late culiil8rs to ripen. Adaptability. Some cultivars are known to be very adaptable from region to region; others a known to be very limited in their adaptability Flo.....ering times should be within the main period. ie early-mid to mid-late, to ensure that pollination will occur with one ormore of the chosen pollinating erieties.

In general, the cultivars most likely to succeed will be those from Western North America and from Western France, while those from Southern & Eastern France, Corsica , Italy etc are unlikely to like our moist condiUons The hybrids, while they will prefer our more moist soil conditions than those found in Mediterranean regions, are demanding in their requirements for feeding and care, and are very susceptible to late frost damage; nevertheless. if planted in favourable warm sites. many have good prospects here. Many of the C.sativa selections should do very well here. Remember that although most of the hybrids are long-stamen types, none have very fertile pollen and they should not be relied upon for pollination . Good pollinators are follov.ed by (Parr ) in the list below Of the cultivars listed below, most of the French selections can be obtained from nurseries in France; the N.Arnerican selections cannot be imported into this country from N.Arnerica, hO\oVever some of the older selections have been brought to Europe in the past (Eg. Numbo, Paragon) so they may be available; of the American hybrids, only seedlings to m them are available, many of ooich should bearwell. The follawng is a shOlt list of the culUl8rs most Ijkelyto succeed , taking into account the abOS' factolS: French hybrids Bouche de 8etizac Boumette Maridonne Marlhac Marsol Precoce Migoule Vignals American hybrids Campbell No 1 Colossal Gellatly No 1 & No 2 Layeroka Myoka (Poll) Nevada (Poll) Simpson Skioka Skookum French indigenous r:;.sativa) Selle Epine (poll) Doree de L~n Laguepie Marron Cruaud Marron de Che\Gnceaux (Poll) Marron de Goujounac poll) Marron de Lostange Marron de Redon Montagne (poll) Portaloune (poll) Precoce Carrneille (poll) American C.safva selections Darlington Numbo Paragon

Page 82

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

-Fig 4 Mound layering
'/././ /

-----~

~

Za. Grown for 1·2 years then cut down to 10.15 em (4-6-)

1. Planting of mother plants in trenches

2b. Cut down to 10-15 em (4-6-) after planting.

-v-,

", ,r .v ,

~~ /

)

3. MaylJune .(ter cuning down: very vigorous shoots removed.

4. After (3). shoots partially de-leafed and girdled with wire.

tt
.

6., Layer.; removed ~ ye" ~fter girdling" grown on
In

nursery beds.

~

/

5. Summer after girdling: mounded plant. new shoots staning 1 0 root

6b. Rooted shoots cut back the winter after girdling 10 stimulate vigorous growth.

7b . Well developed layers removed III.! years after girdling.

Table 1. Lealng & flowering times The periods of leafing out and flowering are shown below, relative to each other. See above for the approximate dates these refer to in France. The flowering table shows the period of maximum female flov.er receptivity, and also of ITBximum polle:n production ....nen the culti\8fS are long--stamen types:
'iRi"ifii' Maximum female receptivity
JUUUL Ma>:imum pollen production

~HHH~ Cultivar has max female receptivity at same time as max pollen plOduction

I
Selle Epine Bouche de 8etizac Bouche Rouge Boumette Camberoune Doree de Lyon Garinche Laguepie Lusenta Maraval Maridonne Marigoule Mal1hac Marron Comballe Marron Cruaud Marron Dauphine Marr. de Che\enceaux Marron de Goujounac Marron de Redan Marron d'OlaIQues Marron du Var Marsol Montagne Portaloune Precoce Carmeille Precoce Migoule Primato Rousse de Nay Sardonne Verdale Vignols
1

Leafing out tim IVE E EM M L ' VL

ill I
I

VE

~L:ujuu:UI
I

FIOWrin, time

L

II

ML

I

Innn1nnnnnnmnr

JUU UUUUUWUUUUUUI

t

lnnnnr nnnnnnr nr ""'''n''n''n''n''m''n''n''n''n''n''r Innnrnnnnnrr

1m""'' ' '!;'

I

Tlnlnnnnnnrnnr

I
I

Tlnrnnnnnrnr
Tln~nnnnn"rnnr

I I! I
I II II II

JUUUUUUlJUIUuuul'-;n;l; I "","",;F~ I "" ,nnnnnllnnnnn1 nnr

>nnrnnnnn~nnnnn~r

I Tln7nnnnnn r 1lJblUHHHHHH!Hn [UH~hnlnnnnr ",nnnn Innnnnr
I
I I
I I
~

Tllnnnnnnrnnnnnr "","n';1n';1n;Fnm ;;\; 1"nnnnnn"'n"'r' I
uuuuuuuuuuuuw~

II
III

uuuuuuUUUUUUI~,.",."~",,

I

I Innnnrnnnnnr Innn1nnnnnnrnnr Tll nnnnnnmnnnnnr li"'ffiin'iln'iln"nm" I"n"n;nn"nnnr' I mnnnnmnnnnnr

II III I

I
II II

JU

JUUUU~uuuuuuLuu,
I

uuuuuuwuuu'kn""nnnnew Ilnnnnnn(lnnnnnr l I JUI!JUUUUL.n..JULAJl.JUI~l M~I"""""",,",,,,,, nnr I Innnllnnnnnnr I JUlUUuuuuuuuuuuu1u o I..,",",",",,",,,,,, I Innnnnnnnnnrnnr I JUI!JUUUUuuuu~HHFl~tinnnnnmnnr
lnnrnnnnn1nnnnnr=iffinr
I

j

"I

ill
I !II I Ii ill

lnnnnnmnnnnnnr nnnnnl nnnr 1I1lnnnnr nnnnnr
ruuuuuwuuuuuu I
J

Innnnrnnnnnmr I Innnnnrnnnnn'lnnnnnnrrnr

~uuUUUUUUUI

L

I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

I
Table 2. Ripening tmes and other information

The period of nut ripening is sho'Ml in relative tenns. The symbols .t±± correspond to recorded dates in France; xxx corresponds to an American description, though the actual dates in Europe may differ. The other columns show the followng information: Type: Marron (M) or Chataigne
~)

Size: Nut size; VS = very small, S:; small, M :; rredium, L :; large, vt.. :; very large. Thus M./... :; medium to large etc. Sep'" : Separation of nuts fom burs on falling; Gd = good, Md :; roderate, Irr:; irregular, Bad.
Shell: ,Aptitude to rrechanical shelling; \G :; very good, Gd :; good, Md :; rroderate, Bad.

Store: NatUial storage qualities; \G :; very good, gd :; good, Md :; rroderate. bad. Anthr : Resistance or susceptibility to anthracnose; VR :; very resistant, R :; resistant. S8 :; slightly susceptible, S = susceptible, \S = very susceptible. Hy/cl : Hybrid nature and class. H = hjJrid , 1 = class 1 fop quality), 2 = class 2 t:>econd quaJit'0. Ripening time Type Size Sep'n IShell Store Anth r Hy/cl VE ~ IEM Mil L VL M Md-Gd Md 2 Aguyane Anderron S Arizinca VG 2 M Ii M-L Md-Pr 2 M Bastarde Gd Bastellicaciu C 2 M ill M Gd Md-Gd 1 L-VL Belle Epine Bad R II M-L C 2 Boudle de Baron liI I M Boudle de BetEcic L VG Gd VR H.1 M M VG 2 Boudle de Cbs III III M Md Gd M-L Boudle Rouge Gd VS II II M-L M Gd VG VG Boumette R H.1 1111 VG C 2 Bourrue de JJiliac Bracalla S-M M Gd 112 VG Camberoune I I M S-M Gd Campanese Bad 2 II xx M Gd H CampbeQ No 1 M Canby Back Canby West M L Cedo Chaitaigne dlsola c M-L 2 II iii S-M Chabn M-L Gd Colossal xx H Md M Corrrve M Corron S-M Dager
Dar~ngton

xx C

Doree de Lyon Esclafarde Garinche Garrone Ro$O Gellatly No 1 Gellatly No 2 Grosse Noi'e Herria Imperiale Insidina

S-M M-L
L-VL

Gd

M

C

2 2 2
H H

xx xx

Gd Gd Gd

III il il III

M
C

Gd VG

M

2 2 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 35

¥
Table 2. (conI)
VE E

Laguepie Layeroka Maraval Maridonpe MarigoUIe Marissard Mar1hac Marron Conballe Marron Cruaud Marron Dauphhe Marc de Che\6nceaux Marron de Q::lujounac Marron de Los.ange Marron de Redan Marron dOlargues Marron du Var Marron Pazzo Marron di Casteidelp. Marrone di Chiusa P. Marron fIor1o Fini Marron Mlrlo Grosso Marrone di Suza Marsol Merculiana Merle Moncur Montagne Montemarano Myoka Napoletanela Nevada Nocella Nouzillard Numbo Paragon Pellegrine Portabune PoureUe Precoce CarmeiUe Pr8coce des Pyrenees Precoce des Vans Precoce Migoule Primato
Pro~fic

Ripening time VL IEMla llL

~II xx I
I

I
I

I !!

II
Iii I

.1 I Ii III III I II I I

I
I

II

Ii
1 II II II
xx
>sX

I

IType l Size Sep 'n Shell C M-L M I Gd I Md I M M-VL VG M L-VL M M-L Gd VG M-L I M Gd I M L-VL Gd M Irr VG M-L M-L M Gd 5-M VG M M-L M L-VL Gd I M M VL Gd C VG M M I M M-L Bad Gd L L

I

I

I

Store Anlh r Hy/el Md-Gd R 1 H R H,2 Gd H,l Gd R H,l Gd R H,l H,1/2 Gd 1 VG 5 2 Gd 5 1 Bad 5 Gd 2 1 Gd 55 2 Gd 5 2 1 Gd 5 Md-Gd 5 1

II

M M M M M

L L 5-M L-VL

Md-Gd Md-Gd

R

H,l
1

I M

I
M
,

II
I.

iii

I
Ii II I iii

I
I

I
I

I

I

M M M C M M C

5 M-L M-L M 5 L M L M-L M-L 5 -M 5-M 5-V5 M-L 5 -M M M M

Md-Gd Md

Bad

1

H H 2

VG

VG Md-Gd

Gd Bad Bad

5

Gd

Gd

Md

R

Quercy Radulacciu Ridgely Rossa Rossa di S.Mango Rougieres Rousse de Nay Rouss.de fIontpazier Sardonne

I

I I
C

1 2 2 2 2 2 1 H

I
I

II !!I I II

I

I
I
I

I

I I

I
I

M C C C M M

I

M M-L M M-L

I
Gd Gd

2
1

I

VG M-L Gd VG 5

2 2 2 1

AGROFORESTR Y NEWS Vol 4 No 1

I

Table 2. (cont)

Ripening time
VE E EM MLL sauvage Marron Scott Settlemeier Silver Leaf Simpson Skioka Skookum Soulage Premiere Styer Tempestiva Tichjulana Tricciuda Verdale Vignals VL

II

T~e l size
S-M M-L M-L L M M M-L S

Sep'n Shell

Store I Anthr Hy/el
2 H H H H H 2

xx

xx
M

Md Gd

S
Md VG Gd VG Md

I

II

C M M M C

S
5-M M-L 5-M L-VL 2 2 2 H,2

55

Importation of plants & seeds into Britain
Because of fears about Chestnut blight becoming established in Britain (despite the likelihood of it doing so via airborne spores or on the feet of birds) , there are restrictions on bringing material into Britain. These fall into tv..o categories: 1. From EC countries : Seeds can be imported without restriction. Plants must have a plant passport which states that they originate in areas known to be free of chestnut blight, or that no signs of blight have been observed near the place of poduction mer the past 90win9 season. 2. From non-EC countries: No plant material may be imported. Seeds may be imported but this is under review.

Recommended nurseries - Europe
Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, De'lln, TOg 6JT, UK Mail order nursery, supplies seedlings of Jlinerican hybrids; hopes to supply Fench cu/tivatS in future. Clive Simms, Woodhurst, Essendine, Samford, line, PEg 4LQ, UK Mail order nursery, sometimes has Anerican hybrid seedlings, also Anerican and Flench cultivafS. les Pepinieres Jean Coufi~ Chasteaux; 19600 LaIChe, FR,PI\JCE. A wholesale nUisery, only supplying lage orders. Offers a vel}' good range of native and hybid chestnuts. Nutwood Nurseries, ahool farm , Dnneley, Nr.CrelNe, Cheshire, CW3 90J , UK New nursery which supplies Anen'can hybn'd seedlings, also Irnerican and Flench grafted cuftivars. Pepinieres du Rmdailfan , Rue du Fbndaiffan, 46200 SJuillae, FRPNCE. A nursery which can supply small or/arge orders. Offers 5 of the most poductive vane ties. Pepinieres Lattte, Mendionde, 64240 Hasparen, FRANCE. A wholesale nursery which can handle smalf orders. Offers 15 cultivars of native and hybrid chestnuts, as well as Japanese chestnut cultivas,

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 37

Recommended nurseries - North America
Burnt Ridge Nurser)( 432 SJmt Ridge Rd, Onalaska, 1M 98570, USA.. Supply several chestnut vaieties. R 0 Campbell , Carrpbeny Fann, RR 1, Niagara-on-the-lake, Ontario, LOS 1JO, C.ANADA. Supplies several cold-hardy chestnut selections. ChestniJt Hill Nurser)( RR 1, Ebx 341 , Alachua, FL 32615. U9\. Supplies the Dunstan hybh:J chestnuts. Grima Nut Tree Nursery, RR 3, Lakeshoe Rd, NiagalGl-on-the-fake, Ontario, LOS 1JO, C/lNAOA. Supplies seveel unusual cofdhardy chestnut vaieties. JerseyChestnut Farm, 58 Van Ou:yne Ave ., Wayne. NJ 07470, US\.. Musser Foress Inc, Dept NT-92, POBox 340, Indiana, ffi 15701-0340, USA.. Supplies Dunstan &other hybrid chestnuts. Nolin River NutTree Nursery, 797 Port Wooden Road, Upton, Kf 42784 . USA.. Northwoods Nurser)( 28696 SCramer rd , Molalla, OR 97038, US\.. Raintree Nursef)< 391 Butts Rd. Mo!on. WA 98536-9700, US".. Whitman Farms, 1420 Beaumont NW, Salem, OR 97304. Offers 4 varieties. Zilke Broilers Nurser)( Box 8, Baroda, MI 49101 , U!:A. Chinese chestnuts.

Processing & harvesting equipment
Bag-A-Nut, 10601 Thelesa Drive, JacksomH!e, Florida 32246. USA.. Small-scale, hand opeeted nut halVesters. Etablissements Cacquevel SA.E., Le Mesnil Rogues, 50450 Gatay, FRANCE. Mechanical halVe sting equipment. Ets Aubert et Cie, B.P.148, 24004 ~rigueux. FRANCE. Processing equipment. Mecanicagra, DOlT13ine de Lalanne, ~int-Maixant , 33490 S3.int-martin, FRANCE. Mechanical hafVesting equipment. S.a.Bobard Jeune, BP. 153, 17 Rue de Rmn , 21204 Eleaune Cede ~ FRANCE. Mechanical hafVesting equipment. So.Ma.Ref., Le Bas-Faget, Route depatementale 14, Fbmport, 24240 Sgoules, FRJrNCE. Mechanical hafVesting equipment.

References
Agro-Sur, 1990, 18:1, 30-34. Chestnut \Brieties gro'Ml in Chile. Bailey. L H: The 9.andard Cyclopedia of Hoticuitule. MacMillan, 1947. Bergougnoux, F et al: Le Chataigner: Production et Culture. (Chestnuts: production and culture.) Comite Nationallnteprofessionnel de la Chataigne et du Mat)n (CNICM). 1978. Burdekin, 0 A & Phillips, 0 H: Some Important Foreign Diseases of Broadleaved Trees. Forestry Commission , 1977.

Paqe 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Cummins. James N: Registerof New Fruit and Nut \Brietles. Hortscience \01 26(8), August 1991. Duke, James A'. CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC f?ess, 1989. Howes, F N: Nuts, Theirproduction and 6teryday Uses. Faber& Faber, 1948. Jaynes, Richaid A:. Nut Tree Culture in North America. NNGA, 1979. L'Arboriculture Fruitiere. 365 (Dec 1984} Le Chataigner(The chestnut) L'Arboriculture Fruitiere. 399 (Oct 1987). 20-30: Chataignes et Marons. L'Arboriculture Fruitiere, 458 (Feb 1993). 34-38. Chestnut Ochard management. Moore, James N & Ballington Jr, James R: Genetic Resouces of Terrperate Fruit and Nut Cops, V2. ISHS. Phillips, D H &Burdekin, D A Diseases of Foest and Omamental Trees. Macrrillan. 1992. Reed, C A& Davidson. J: The Irrproved Nul Trees of North America. and howto grow them. Devin-Adair. 1954. Rivista di FlUtticoltUICl , Vo153 No 12 OJec 1991} Italian chestnut culti-ers. Rivista di FlUtticoltura , Vol 56 No 11 ~ov 1994~ 65-73. Propagazione. irrpianto. alle\Bmento e tecnica collUlale del castagno (::hestnut p()pagation. planting, taining and rranagement). Ryugo, Kay: Fruit Culture, Its Science and Ai. John IJIJiley. 1988. WesMood, MelIJn N: Terrperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press, 1993. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Imentory. Seed Saver Publications. 1989 &1993.

A variety list of AmericanlChineselJapanfSe chestnut varieties and their hybrids will be published in
Agroforestry News, Vol 4 No 2.

Book Review
Saponins (Chemistry and Pharmacology of Natural Products)
K Hostettmann & A Marston
Cambndge UnhersityPress. 1995; 548 pp; lB5.00 (Us $120.00)Hardback ISBN 0-521-32970-1 Although this authoritative text is aimed primarily at organic chemists and phamacognosists, it will be of interest to those plant enthusiasts who utilise or intend to utilise plants for medicinal purposes and as sources of saponins to use as soap substitutes. From early times, saponin-containing plants have found widespread medicinal application for, amoung other ailments, coughs, s)philis. rheumatism and gout. Four of the seven main chaptelS concentrate on saponin chemistry, covering nomendature, occurrence in plants (and marine organisms). distribution, anal)6is and detemination of chenical structures. Chapters four and five describe the pharmacological and biological properties of the three groups of saponins (triterpene, steroid. and steroid alkaloid saponins). Some general properties are first mentioned: many saponins form stable foams (they are emulsifielS). y,.ith the advantage over soaps that their salt.free nature makes them less affected by acid and alkaline conditbns; many are bitter; many cause haemolysis of blood -they destroy blood cell rrembranes. causing a elease of haermglobin. The high le\els of saponins in sorre plants
~p

to 30%) may protect them from fungal attack. and this

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Page 39

i#

4F

g-

&

antimicrobial action often continues with plant extracts: several are fungicidal (eg. from alfalfa and primula roots) and some are antiviral (eg. from liquorice roots). Other medicinal actions include antitumour (eg. from Acer negundo, and possibly Soapwort and Ivy), anthelmintic (eg. Ivy), expectorant and antitussive, diuretic, and spermicidal (eg. Hedera nepalensis} Several are insecticidal {eg. the leaves of alfalfa and of l1ex opaca), whilst many have long been known and used as piscicides (fish killers) and moUuscicides (eg. Ivy, horse chestnuts} Despite these numerous properties, most saponins are of low oral toxicity to warmblooded animals as they are feebly absorbed into the body; and although vegetarians may ingest 5-10 times tQ8 quantity of saponins than heavy meat-eaters, this is not at all harmful (and probably has benefits} Prolonged e,,:>asure to e>eessive amounts, though , can be dangeous. The final chapter focuses on commercially important preparations and products. Important commercial sources of saponins, used on an industrial scale, are described and include Sarsaparilla root (Smilax spp.), Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza spp.), Horse chestnuts (Aesculus spp), Ivies (Hedera spp, especially H.helix), Primula root (Primula veris & P .elatoir), Senega root (Polygala senega) , Gypsophila species, Ginseng (Panax ginseng)and E1eutherococcus species. Industrial production of soaps, detergents and foam products uses Horse chestnuts, Ivies, Peas, Cowslip, Soapwort and Sugar beet; Soapwort, Viola tricolor, Sanicle and Ginseng are often used in soaps and shampoos at S% concentrations. Medicinal products are also made industrially from Agave spp, Dioscorea spp and Yucca spp. Finally, extensive appendices list plants and the saponins theJOntain .

News (Continued from Page 2)
Etaeagnus umbellata which started losing its leaves in early September; however, plentiful rain reversed this trend and they now look healthyagain.

Seed, plant and book catalogues
Our new seed and plant catalogue is enclosed with this issue: we have more than doubled our range of seeds. The plant catalogue was sent out about a month ago. Thanks to all of you 'vYho have already placed orders or intend to do so -it really helps funding the YOrk of the AR.T.

Agroforestry News price increase
You'll see from the back page of this issue that s!Jbscription rates have been increased. Rates have not changed since the journal was started in 1992, but we are forced to make the increases because of the recent large increases in paper prices (they have doubled within a few months). As a special concession, subscribers due to renew now can still use the old rates, and anybody 'vYho wishes to pay in advance can do so at the old ales until Decerrber.

Classified Adverts: 25p/v.ord, minimum £5.00. 20% discount forsubse'bers.
Experienced tee planting! caring indiyduals and couple sought. House and stipend, cganic permaculture, Southem France. Faxexperience and \ielA'S to Japan: 81.3.5484.3447. ECO-LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books , rmnuals and 'videos forpennaculture, sustainable s)6tems design and pactical solutions to en'ironmental problems. Send s.a.e. forour FREE mail order catalogue to iro-logie books (liN), 19 Maple Grove, Bath, BA2 3f>F. Telephone 0225 484472. NUTWOOD NURSERIES specialise in nut tees only and can offertrees from ftA" to "Z" (well at least "Almond ft to "lMilnut"!) Send for our catalogue, FREE on receipt of a 9" x6" (AS) SAE. NUTWOOD NURSERIES, SCHOOL FARM, ONNaEY, CREWE, CHESHIRE, CW3 9QJ.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 1

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agIiculturel horticulture t( produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food mateIials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees ir pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garder systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforcstry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Tmst fOUl times a year in October, January, April and JUly. Subscription rates are:

£! 8 per year in Britain and the E. U. (£ 14 un waged) £72 per year overseas (please remit in SterlIng) £32 per year for institutions.

<\. lisl of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x lst <.:lass stamps. Back issues cost 0.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Mnon, Dartington; Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK.

Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. lO07440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

r

==c=_

i\groforestry News

Volume 4 Number 2 January 1996

-

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 4 Number 2

January 1996

Contents
2 2 14 16 20 News Redcurrants Veneer grafting Plums: minor species Book reviews: Home-Grown Energy from ShortRotation Coppice I Tree Diseases and Disorders I Bob Flowerdew's Complete Fruit Book I The Fruit & Veg Finder I The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses I Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture

25 29 37

The yew: Taxus baccata Plums: minor species (cont) Chestnuts (3)

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody. somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K. Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.html Email: AgroResTr@ aol.com

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 1

News
Weather ... again
1995 may prove to be a seminal year weather-wise for growers in the UK: the weather data for SW England, which shows the mean maximum temperatures for 1995 1.0·C warmer than normal, mean
miniQ1ums above normal , winter rainfall increased and summer rainfall decreased , agree very well 'Nith1311 of the climate change scenarios. We can in fact expect this kind of 1lar to be the nom 'Nithin 10-20 years, which just shows how urgent the need is to persuade all growers, from gardeners to farmers, to start using perennial crops VoIhich can tolerate the type of drought we had this year. There is already great stress

o.re

on water resources in the UK, which simply will not cope with growers demanding more and more for irrigating annual cops.

Recent agroforestry research
Mainstream agroforestry research in the UK, conducted at the University level, concentrates on simple silvopastoral (ie trees dotted in pastures, usually with sheep grazing) and silvoarable (ie alley cropping of cereals betv.een lines of cop trees) systems. In silvopastoral systems, it appears that there is little reduction in total pasture production for at least 5 years after young trees are planted , and the sward composition is not significantly changed. Pasture production close to trees is reduced, even YVith VoIidely spaced trees, probably due more to sheep spending more time near trees for shelter than a shading effect. With trees spaced at 5 m (16 ft) apart, total PAR reaching the pastue is reduced by only 4-8% atter6 years. In silvoarable systems, wheat has been found to be resilient to PAR levels dOWl to 60% of normal , with yields unaffected. In an alley cropping system , the distribution of PAR across the alley flattens out as the trees grow. as long the rrean PAR in the alley reaches 60% of normal , yields of Vlheat are unaffected -with fastigiate hybrid poplars , this occurs roughly when the height of trees in the lines between alleys equals the width of the alley (thus 12 m (40 ft) wide alleys of wheat continue cropping normally until the trees reach 12 m high). For more spreading trees, the PAR levels VoIiIl probably reduce more quickly with respect to tree height.

Redcurrants
Description
The redcurrant is a deciduous shrub found in hedges and woods throughout Northern Europe. Cultivars are essentially draWl from three wild species, Ribes rubrum from Northem Europe to Siberia , Ribes sativum (Syn R.vulgare) from temperate westem Europe, and Ribes petraeum from mountainous areas of Europe and North Africa. Other minor Ribes species ha..e also been imolved in breeding newcultivars. These three species differ slightly from each other: R.rubrum is an erect shrub about 1 m (3 ft) tall; R.sativum is spreading, with drooping flower trusses, and often with brittle branches which break in exposed locations, and is the most productive of the three, VoIith the largest fruits; while R.petraeum is a vigorous shrub with large buds, late flowering, less productive and has the tartest fruits. Older varieties are often derived purely from one of these species, while most newer varieties are hybrids . A further species, R.muftiflotum from Eastern Europe. has been used in cross~reeding in recent years: this is late flowering and has resistance to leaf spot. Parentage if known is shown in Table 1 later in this article. The description given below is general to apply to all cuJthars. Redcurrants grow to about 1.5-2 m (5-7 ft) high and unlike the blackcurrant, their maple~ike, lobed , midgreen leaves lack glands and are not strong smelling when rubbed. Inconspicuous white flowers in ear1y spring (April-May) are follo\o\ed by small 5-15 mm round fruits. usually red, but sorretimes Wlite or

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

p ,

*l

yellowsh-while. Fruits are borne in bunches (stngs) from spurs of branches aged 1-10 years, and ripen 70100 days after flov..ering. Whitecurrants are the same species, simply with Vvtiite or yellowsh-white fruits which tend to be borne less abundantly than red varieties: they are treated identically and are included in the cuttivar descriptions below. Red and whitecurrants are fairly long lived (25 years plus) plants , generally hardy to at least ;WOC.

History
Cultivated varieties were first mentioned in Gennany in the early 15th Century; by the late 16th Century they were commonly grown in Holland and had appeared in Britain where they soon became common in cottage gardens. By the 19th century. new varieties were being bred in North America . Their popularity in North America has declined, mostly due to the alleged risk of redcurrants spreading white pine blister rust despite the fact that they are generally resistant to the disease. Their popularity remains high in Holland, 'Nhere many of the recent varieties ha\.€ been bred. Commercial quantities of reclcurrants are grown in Russia , ScandinalAa and Eastem Europe - for example , about 100,000 tons are haNested annually in Poland. Nearly all are used for processing, for the fruits handle badly and are difficult to market fresh in good condition. Whitecurrants, on the other hand, are only grown by amateurs as theirlow yields make them unviable cornnercially.

Siting and Cultivation
Redcurrants thrive in a wide range of soils (they do not require as fertile do like shelter from strong winds (some varieties have brittle branches). and continue to fruit well in semi-shade. Soil pH should be acid to neutral important. They do not do well in shallow soils over chalk, nor do they varieties are fai r1y resistant to sping frust damage. a soil as blackcurrants), but they They are very tolerant of shade, (5.5 to 70), and good drainage is thrive in hot, dry locations. Most

Plants are usually grown as bushes, planted about 1.2 -1.8 m (4-6 tt) apart, although they can be grown as cordons or fans: cordons are planted at 38-45 cm (15-18") apart and fans at 1 m (3 ttl apart. Cordons and fans grow well on North walls, fruiting very well there in conditions of only 15% of normal PAR light conditi(J1s. Fruit ripening is delayed in such conditions by up to a week or two after the same variety in sunny conditions, and also llIIy be less \-\ell coloured and flaIDured (less s....eet). All plants ae grown on a short stem of 10-15 em (4-6") - reclcurrants do not stool like blackcoonts. Sites near\-\Qodlands rray lead to seious bird damage to fruits.

Feeding and irrigation
Mulch plants if possible as redcurrants respond well to a cool moist soil. Mulched plants rarely need watering - even in droughty years, plants have usually fruited by the time the soil gets dry. In a very dry year, then without irrigation the fruits may be smaller than normal, but for fruits destined for processing this is no great problem. Potassium is the most important nutrient for redcurrants. Nitrogen is only required on poor soils, and phosphorus requirements are very low. Standard recommendations for potassium feeding are to supply 12 2 g/m of potassium annually in late winter. This could be supplied by 1 Kg (2.2 Ib) of seav..eed meal or250 9 (8 oz) of \-\Qod ashes per plant An excellent alternative would be to use comfrey: grow one comfrey plant per 5-6 bushes nearby, and cut the comfrey leaves 4 or 5 times per season, scattering them between and around the bushes. [~e 'Potassium', Agroforestry News Vol 3 No 3 formore information.]

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 3

Pollination
Most redcurrants have self.fertile f1ov.ers, though a few cultivars are partially self~teri le and thus set more fruits when cross-pollinated. Bees aid in pollination and should be encouraged where possible; flies also pollinate.

Pr.uning

,

Bushes: For the first 4 years or so , concentrate on building a frameYoQrk, to make a goblet-shaped bush with 8-10 main branches. Keep the centres of the bushes open , and cut back new growth by 50% each winter. Remove any shoots on the rmin stem beneath 10 em (4") to produce a clean stem Established bushes should be pruned lightly, by removing thin and overcrowded branches; remaining branches should have their side growths (laterals) shortened to one bud to encourage fruit spur production; the main leaders should be cut to lea-es about 8 cm(3") of newgrowth.
Cordons: For the first few years, concentlate on training a straight stem up to 1.5~1.8 m (5-6 ft). Remove 25% of the previous years' growth from the leader in winter to stimulate side shoot production. Cut laterals to 1~2 buds and remove suckers and shoots below10 cm (4"). Established cordons should have the leader cut back to 1 bud each winter: in addition , summer pruning in June should consist of cutting all current season side shoots to 5 leaves. For multiple-/eader cordons, treat each stem in the sarra way. General: One method to increase fruit size and numbers is to cut off part of the free ends of the strigs while the plants are flowering . Redcurrants are very tolerant of neglect, and lack of pruning will lead to smaller fruit sizes but yields remain high.

Harvesting
It is much easier and quicker to pick 1Nh0ie bunches (strigs) of fruits rather than individual currants, though there may be a few which are unripe and cannot be used. Don't pick the fruits immediately they have turned red , but wait a few days for the full flavOur to develop. Ripe fruits hang well on bushes, for 2 weeks or more. The fruits are easier to pick if their strings have clear lengths at the bases ~ some cultivars are noted forthis habit. Machine havesting is used forlarge plantations in wrope.
Ripe redcurrants are attractive to birds, and plants rray need to be netted to potect the ripening crop. Average yields from established bushes are about 4-6 Kg (9~ 13 Ib) per year, with cordons producing about 0.5-1 Kg (1-2Ib) per plant per year.

Fruit composition and processing
Ripe fruits make good eating raw: although not usually overly-sweet. they are rarely tart enough to be considered as lermn juice substitutes. Theyare also good cooked in tats, pies and puddings. Redcurrants make excellent preserves, including jams and jellies; they can be mixed with other fruits. They are high in pectin and jams/jellies containing them set well. Although jellies were always traditionally made, jams are equally good and the small seeds do not detract from the final product. Commercial varieties recommended for jam-making include Earliest of Fou'ands, La>ton's Perfection , and RabyCasUe. The fruits are excellent for home wne-making, and also feeze 'Nell.

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Other uses
The seeds, like those of blackcurrants, yields a valuable oil (gamma-linoleic acid) which extracted using solvents from dried and ground residues left from production of juices, preserves etc. The refined oil is a valuable ing2dient in cosrretic. dermatological, dietetic and phamaceutical pleparations. The fruits ha\€ a medicinal action, being apeient, antiscoDutic, refrigerant and sialagogue in action.

The leaws can be used to

d~

yellow and the flUits pink to black.

Propagation
Varieties are propagated by hardwood cuttings . These are taken over winter (best in November), and should consist of 25·30 em (10-12") cuttings of new growth, preferably about 1 em thick. Smaller cuttings may succeed if conditions are shettered. Cut to just below a bud at the base and leave 10 em (4") above ground. A good way to encourage cuttings to root is to plant them through a black plastic mulch: this keeps the soil warm and keeps weeds down. It can be left down until young plants are lifted after one of two years. Cuttings may also be planted directly into their permanent positions, ego in the understorey of a forest garden. The larger type of cuttings are preferable and weed control is important for the first year. It may be \oVOrth setting up a bed of coppiced plants to suppl~uttings on a egular basis. For cuttivars which are difficult to root, layering, grafting, and softwood cuttings in early summer (given mist) are all feasible. Seeds require 3-4 months of stratification , and germinate at low temperatures. Bushes grown from seed bear fruit at 2-3 years of age.

Pests and diseases
The only serious pesVdisease is that of birds eating the ripe fruits , especially pigeons and blackbirds. Netting rray be required to e>clude them Other minor pests and diseases include: leaf Spot Fungus: (also called Anthracnose) (Pseudopeziza ribis) Sometimes a problem in wet seasons, causing srrall broV>.fl spots on lea\eS V>k1ich may wither and fall. Made vorse by an e)(;ess of nitogen. Aphids: Notably the Redcurrant blister aphid (Cryptomyzus ribis) are common in spring when they cause new leaves to blister and curl and stunt new growth. Bushes are rarely damaged. Attract predators by planting, for example, Limnanthes doug/asii beneath bushes. Yields are not affected , but badly blistered leaves can be removed (with aphids on boad) and destroyed. American gooseberry mildew (SphaelOtheca mors-uvae) is a po\o\dery mildew which can cause defoliation and disfigurement of fruit. It is \oVOrst on gooseberries and is rarely troublesome on currants. Coral Spot (Nectria cinnabarina): A fungus, causing numerous coral red spots on old and dead wood, and can cause die-back of branches or even the death of a plant. Cut out and bum affected branches well below diseased areas, and perhaps paint wounds with Trichoderma viride paste. Currant clearNing moth! Currant borer (Synanthedon tipulifonnis): Larvae hatch from eggs laid on stems and bore into stems. Control by cutting out infected stems which show signs of wilting and die-back. Gooseberry sawflY! Curranw..orm (Nematus ribesi,,: Strips foliage from the plant just as leaves open fully, and again as fruits ripen. Rarely a problem on redcurrants.

Agroforestry use
Redcurrants are the most suitable of all the common bush fruits to use in agroforestry systems in the understorey. They thrive in much poorer soils than most fruits, require less inputs, and continue to fruit well in low light conditions. Theyare long Ii\ed and do not sufferfrom reversion disease like blackcurants.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 5

On the negati\€ side, the ripening fruits are vulnerable to bird predation. If this is bad locally then one option would be to use redcurrants as a sacrificial crop to lure birds away from a more valuable crop ripening at the sarre time.

Cultivars
There are many cultivars of red and whitecurrants, although a relatively small selection are available commercially. Despite the differences in bush habit and season of ripening, there is in practice little difference between fruits of different varieties in lenns of taste and acidity. Whitecurrants generally give low yields compared lNith redcurrants, and these YAlite-fruited varieties are reputed 10 have lower Vitamin C levels. There also a few Pink currant varieties, possibly hybrids of red and white parents, though none are available corTlTlercially. Synonyms of common eultivars: American ~nder= Houghton Castle Belle de Versailles = Red \ersailles Chenouceau = FaYs Prolific Comet = Fays Prolific Defiance = Houghton Castle Eclipse = Red \ersailles Erstling aus Uerfanden = Earliest of Foulands Fowler's = London Matl:et Gennan's SJur= Prince Albert Goliath = RabyCastle Hollande Rose = Rosa Hollandische Grand Ruby = Fa~s Prolific Knight's = Rince Albert

London Red = London Maket Magnum Ebnum = Red \ersailles Mailing Redstatf. = Redstart. May's Victoria = Houghton Castle, also Rab)Castle Red Grape = Houghton Castle Rhum von Haaiem = Rince .AJbert Rivers' Late Red = Rinee Albert Scotch = London Matl:et. Skinners Red = RabyCastie Transparent = VVhite TIansparent. Versailles = Red \ersailles Victoria = Wilson's Long 8.JOch. Wilder = Fays Prolific

Most of the infonnation about cultivars is presented in tables 1 and 2 later. Descriptions of the main cultivars YAlich are available in the UKare also gh.en below.

Redcurrants:
Earliest of Fourlands: Large, bright red, juicy fruits in long strigs, ripening very early. Upright vigorous bush, \€ry producti\€. Resistant to leaf spot. Leafs out eelf in spring, flolAers mid season. Fay's Prolific (Syns. Chenouceau, Comet, Fay, Grand Ruby, Wilder): North American cultivar, a sprawling bush of moderate habit with brittle branches, susceptible to leaf spot. Flowers early; fruits large, dark red , thick skinned, easy to pick on loose medium-long stngs, early ripening with excellent sweet flavour; good yields. Leafs out rrid season. Jonkheer Van Tets: A leading Dutch cultivar, a seedling of Fay's Prolific. Dark red large fruits, good flavour. easy to pick on long trusses; thin skinned - may split in wet weather; heavy yields. Early ripening. Upright, \'igorous growth, some......nat brittle branches, rrildewand aphid esistant, ea.y floVo.ering. Junifer: Very early flowering ; gives heavy crops of very early ripening fruits. May be prone to frost damage. Laxton's No.1: Heavy crops of bright red, medium-large sized fruits borne in long bunches, easily picked, good raw; good flavour, small seeds. Early-mid season ripening; flolNers late - avoids frosts. Susceptible to leaf spot. \{gorous, upright and slighUyspreading bush , eaty to leaf out. Areliable clOpper. Raby CasUe: Fruits small-medium sized, on moderate length trusses, hangs well; moderate to heavy yields, late ripening. Small, compact bush, leafs out mid-season, flowers late; susceptible to mildew; very cold.oardy. Red Dutch: Very old cultivar, very cold hardy and resistant to leaf spot. Moderately producti\€, fruits small, good fla\Our, on long stigs. Red Lake: American cultivar now popular in Europe. Very large, dark red juicy fruits of good flavour with thickish skins on long strigs, easily picked; heavy cropper, fruits hang well when ripe, seeds moderately large.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

¥
Upright & moderately vigorous growth . Mid season rpening . f1ov-ers late -avoids frosts. Very cold hardy. Redstart (Syn Mailing Redstart): Medium sized fruits produced on moderate length sings ; good acid flavour. A hea\oY. reliable cropper, moderately vigorous, upright · compact growth; late ripening, rrid-season flolA€ring . Sometimes groWl as a stooled bush.

Random: A leading Dutch cultivar. Late flowering ; fruits medium sized, red, acid , not very juicy, firm skinned , easy to pick, hangs well on moderate length trusses. Resistant to leaf spot and mildew. Late
season. Very producti\€ (heavy yields) and hardy; strong branches, upright and >Jgorous. Rovada: Cross of Fay X Heinemann's Rote Spatlese. Late to very late ripening. Heavy crops of large fruits on long strigs. Stanza: Good flavoured , medium to large, deep red firm fruits, heavy cropper; short trusses but easy to pick. Mid to late season, late flo'Bling . Vigorous bush. Wilson's long Bunch: Crimson fruits, medium sized, good flayuur, in medium-long strigs. Semi-erect, slightly sprawling bush of moderate vigour, low to moderate yielding , susceptible to leaf spot and mildew. Late to leaf out, 'ery late flo..-.ering and ripening. Descriptions of pink and vflitecurrants continue on page 12.

Key to Table 1.
P/RiS : Denotes parentage by species if known; P = Ribes petraeum, R = Ribes rubrum, S = Ribes satiwm (Syn. R.wlgare). A 'x in more than one location denotes a h\}rid betv.een those species.
Flowering: DiI,ded into E(EMy), M (Mid), L (Lale). Ripening: Divided into VE (Very early), E (Early -Iale
Junefea~y

July), M (Mid - earlyl mid July), L (Lale-

end July), VL (Very late -Augusn Dates apply to average English conditions. lS Leaf spot: Indicates resistance or susceptibilityto leaf spot. VS very susceptible, S = susceptible, R = resistant. \R very resistant. BS = Branches brittle: Indicates if branches are notedly brittle & thus bushes needing extra shelter. SI = slightly brittle, ~s = brittle. MO = Mildew Indicates resistance or susceptiblity to American gooseberry mildew. Most cultivars are not susceptible. R = notedlyresistant, S = susceptible.

=

=

Key to Table 2.
Vig = Vigour: Indicates \igour of bush, \4g = vigorous, Mod = rroderate vigour, Low = low vigour. Habit Indicates bush habit, Upr= upright. Spr = Spreading . Crrp = compact. Yield: Indicates likelyyields in good conditions, Hy = heavy, Mod = rroderate, Lgt = light. Strig size: Indicates a-erage strig (truss) size, Lg = long, Md = rredium, Sm = small. Fruit size: Indicates relative fruit size of plants regular1y pruned, V.Lg = very large, Lg = large, Md = medium, Sm = small. Fruit colour: Indicates f(Jit colour if unusual. Fruit skin: Indicates if skin is noticably thin or thick. Thin-skinned fruits often break or are damaged on picking and must be used very Quickly, and they may split in ..-.et V>.eather; thick-skinned fruits are less likely to be damaged on picking or in wet weather - these varieties are also most suitable for fruits picked for selling. Thick-skinned fruits are not suitable for making jelly as the skins may not break on cooking; they are fine forjam though. Fruit flavour. Although the flavour of redcurrants doesn't vary a great deal, some have noted characteristics; sw= sV>.eet, ac = acid , j juicy nj = not juic): (also: v = very, sl = slightl)( q = quite) Easy pick (Easy Pk): Indicates if fruits are easy to pick - ie the strig habit makes the fruits easily reached and visible. Yes/No. leaf out (LO): Indicates relative time of leafing out, E = early, M = mid, L = late. May be useful in frosty locations etc.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 7

E

Table 1. Redcurrant cultivar Argus Piros Selle de St Gitles Bridgeford Red

P

R
x

5

E

flowering M L

ripening

VE

E

M

L

VL

x x x x x

I I
1Il~;

s

LS

BB MD

yes

Cascade
Caucasechi Champagne Chetrry Chiswick Red

Hii

mill
S

yes

R

Ciddy Hall
Correction Devinska Velkoplodna Diploma Duitse Zure Dutch Earliest of Fourlands x Faya Ptodna Fay's Prolific

S

x

VR

Iml
x

R
S

liD
VR
S

S

yes

Fertility x Fertodi Hosszufurtu Frauendorfi Goeggingers Pyriform x Gyongyosi Piros Hans Geelstel Heinemann's Rote SpiHiese . Heros Holl anac Rouge x Hosszufurtu Houghton Castle x x Jonkheer Van Tets x Junifer Karelskaja Kimere Krenewer Kriekjenever La Constante x Laxton's No.1 x Laxton's Perfection x London Market x Lopersumer Maarse Prominent Mallow Leaved x Millearn Red x Minnesota Moore's Ruby x Mulka Neapolsky Cerveny New Red Dutch x Northern Star x Perfection x Pomona Prince Albert x Pyme Upright x Raby Castle x

S
S

Ill'!
llil1B

R
S

R

lilll!

UI

R S

sl

R

I
I I i Iii liB
1111111

VR R
S S

Ill!

iii

s
S R S

yes yes

S

Iii liil

Iii

liIil

s
S

mii

VR
R

R

yes yes
S

D
mill

s

yes

S

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Table 2. Vig Redcurrant Cultivar Argus Piros Belle de St Gilles Bridgeford Red Cascade Caucasechi Champagne Vig Cherry Chiswick Red Giddy Hall Correction Devinska Velkoplodna . Diploma Duitse Zure Dutch Earliest of Fourlands Vig Faya Plodna Mod Fay's Prolific Fertility Fertodi Hosszufurtu Frauendorfi Goeggingers Pyriform. Gyongyosi Piros Hans Geelstel Heinemann's Rote Spatlese Heros Holl anac Rouge Hosszufurtu Vig Houghton Castle Vig Jonkheer Van Tets Junifer Karelskaja Kimere Krenewer Kriekjenever Vig La Constante Vig Laxton's No.1 Laxton's Perfection Vig Vig London Market Lopersumer Maarse Prominent Mallow Leaved Millearn Red Vig Minnesota Moore's Ruby Mulka Neapolsky Cerveny Mod New Red Dutch Northern Star Mod Perfection Pomona Vig Prince Albert Pyme Upright Low Raby Castle

Habit Yield Hvy

Strig size

Fruit size

Fruit colour

Fruit skin

Fruit Esy L flavourPk 0

Sm Sm

Lg VLg pale red deep red

sl.sw aC ,j

Gmp

Mod Hvy Hvy Mod

Upr Spr

Hvy Mod Hvy Hvy Mod Lgt Mod Hvy Mod Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Mod Mod Mod Hvy Hvy Hvy Mod Mod Mod Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Mod

Lg M-Ig

Lg Lg

brt red dark red thick sw

E
yes M

V.ac Lg Lg Lg Md Lg dark red dark red no L yes

Upr Spr Upr

thin

Upr Upr Spr Upr Upr Upr

Md Lg Lg Md

Md M-Ig V.lg Lg Lg

bright red crimson

sw V.ac

L yes E M

M-Ig

M-Ig

Spr

M-Ig Lg Lg Md

Sm Lg Lg S-Md bright red pale red V.ac,j yes

E

Upr Gmp

L M

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 9

Redcurrant cultivar

P

R

S

E

flowering M L

VE

E

M

ripening L VL LS VS VR S S R S

BB MD yes

Red Champagne Red Cross Red dol Red Dutch Red Lake Red Versailles Redstart Rolan Rondom Roogwood Rosetta Rotet Rotewunder Rouge de Boulogne Rovada Rubina Rus . Nr 1 St. Annabes Seedless Red x Skinners Early Stanza Stephens No.9 Traubewunder Turiner Tydeman's Seedling Utrecht Verrieres Rouge x Viking Warners Grape Wilder W il son's Long Bunch. Wisniowa Czerwona Woolly Leaved Whitecurrant cultivar

x x

I
!ill
I~li

I

I

I

ul!Il

1111
ED
Iilli
l!I!!ill lill

m1ii
x

IlIII
I
!ill!

§jiii

R

yes

I'll I'll!
x
S VR

llil!
mill!

iill

Ill/I

liil
VR S S R

§jIll
Illl!

x x x x x
R S

S yes yes S

!!ii,
E

Iii!
flowering M L

1m!

10

R S S

P

VE

E

M

ripening L VL LS

BB MD

Biala z Lasku Bianca Dhugogronkowa Biala Echte Witte Pare! Goudouin x Grosse Blanche de Oesent Isposa Biala Patendls Sant Weisse Keiserliche Weisse Parel Werderska Biala Wersalska Biala White Cherry Wh ite Dutch White Grape x White Imperial x

Iliil
Iii

mIll

IiI

lili
Ill!!

1110 l!/m lili!!

!ll!l~rl I!

lilili
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 10

G
Redcurrant cultivar Red Cham pagne Red Cross Red Dol Red Dutch Red Lake Red Versa illes Redstart Rolan Rondom Roogwood Rosetta Rotet Rotewunder Rouge de Boulogne Rovada Rubina Rus. Nr 1 st. Annabes Seedless Red Skinners Early Stanza Stephens No.9 Traubewunder Turiner Tydeman's Seedling Utrecht Verrieres Rouge Vik ing Warners Grape Wilder Wil son's Long Bunch Wisniowa Czerwona Woolly Leaved Whitecurrant Cultivar Vig Habit Yield Strig size Fruit size Fruit colour Fruit skin

;e;~

Fruit Esy L flavourPk 0

Vig Mod Vig Mod Vig

Spr Upr Upr Upr Upr Hvy Mod Hvy Mod Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Hvy Lg Lg Md Md Md Sm V.lg M-Ig Md Md dark red dark red

thin thick ac thick aC,nj yes. yes.

Vig

Hvy Hvy Mod Mod Spr Spr Hvy Mod Hvy Mod Hvy

Lg

Lg Lg

bright red

q.Sw

Vig Vig Mod

Sm M-Ig

Md M-Ig Lg

bright red deep red

yes. yes

V.ac Vig Mod Upr StU Mod Mod M-Ig Md Md dark red crimson L

Vig

Habit Yield Mod Mod

Strig size

Fruit size V.Lg

Fruit colour

Fruit skin

Fruit Esy L flavourPk 0 sw

Biala z La sku Vig Bianca Dhugogronkowa Biala Echte Witte Parel Goudouin Grosse Blanche de Desent . Isposa Biala Patendls Sant Weisse Keiserliche We isse Parel Werderska Biala Wersa lska Biala White Cherry Spr White Dutch Mod Spr White Grape Mod Low Upr Wh ite Imperial

Mod Mod white Mod L-md M-hy Mod Mod L-md Mod Mod Mod Mod

Md Lg

Sm M-Ig Md

milky yellow creamy white white·pink

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 11

=
Whitecurrant cultivar White JOterborg White Leviathan White Pearl White Transparent White Versailles White Geelisteel • Wisn iowa Biala Pinkcurrant cultivar Couleur de Chair Gloire de Sablons Rosa Hollandische Rosa Sport Tinka

p

R

5

x

illI
IUll'll ~lBil
E

E

flowering M L

VE

ripening

E

M

L

VL

LS

BB MD

I
U!I II

Ijji~lll
i!!l~
I

I
yes

p

R

5

flowering M L

VE

ripening

E

M

L

VL

IIlU/
IIllll

I

LS

BB MD

Pink currants
Rosa Hollandische pyn. HoUande Rose) Fruits reddish-pink. vtgorous bush, rroderately productive.

Whitecurrants
White Dutch: Very old cultivar. Mid season. A spraVYIing bush , fruits small , milky-yellow, excellent flavour on medium strigs. ModeJate y;elds, bush of rroderate vigour. White Grape: medium to large, creamy·white fruits of good flavour in long strigs; moderate yields. Mid season ripening. Spreading bush of rroderate vigour, cold haldy. White Pearl: Large yellowsh-white fruit borne in large strigs. Mid season. Moderate vigour but light yielding. White Transparent(Syn. Transparent): Large, transparent yellowish, rather acid fruit on long strigs; light to moderate yields , rrid to late ripening. S:rong, vigorous, upright bush. White Versailles: Large, pale yellow fruits with a good sweet f1a\.{)ur on medium length strigs. Moderate yields. Early to mid season ripening . Lage, vigorous, upright bush. Cold.f1ardy cultivars recommended for exposed locations: Houghton Castle, Raby Castle, Red Dutch, Red Lake, Random Stephens No.1, Wlite GlC3pe. Cultivars recommended for frosty locations: Fay's prolific, Houghton Castle, Laxton's Perfection, Mulka, Prince .Albert, Red Dutch, 3anza. Cultivars noted for fruits hanging well when ripe: Laxton's Perfection, Raby Castle, Red Dol, Red Lake, Random, Wilder.

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

s
Whitecurrant Cultivar White Juterborg W hite Leviathan White Pearl White Transparent White Versailles Whitle Geelisteel Wisniowa Biala Pinkcurrant cultivar Couleur de Chair
GJoire de Sablons

Vig

Habit Yield

Strig size

Fruit size
S~md

Fruit colour

Fruit skin

Fruit EsyL flavourPk 0

Vig

Upr Upr Upr

Mod Vig
Vig

Lgt Mod Lgt Lgt Mod Mod Lgt

Md Lg Lg Md

Lg Lg Lg Lg

deep yellow
yellowish yellowish

pale yellow

ac sw

Vig

Habit Yield

Strig size

Fruit size

Fruit colour
pale pink

Fruit skin

Fruit Esy L flavourPk 0

Vig
Vig

Upr

Rosa Hollandische
Rosa Sport Tinka

Vig

Mod Mod Hvy

Md Sm

Lg Sm

white striped red
reddish-pink

ac ac

M-Ig

rose-pink

sw

UK Suppliers
J C Aligrove Ltd, The Nusery, Middle GOlen, Langley, Bucks. Tel: 01753620155.
Chris Bovvers & Sons, Vvhispering Trees Nurseries, W1mbotsham, Norfolk, PE34 BQB. Tel 01366..388752.
Deacon's NUlSery, Moorlliew, Godshill, Isle of Wght, P038 3HW, Tel: 01983<140750. Keepers Nursery, 446 Watenngbury Road, East Mailing,
~nt,

ME19 6JJ. Tel: 01622813008.

RVRogerLtd, The NUlSenes, F\ckenng, North Yoi1<s, Y018 7HG. Tel: 01751472226. Scotts NUlSenes (MelTiott) Ltd, Meniott. Somerset, TA16 5PL. Tel : 01460'72306.

J TV\€edie, Maryfield Road Nusery, Maryfield, NrTerregles, Duntries, DG2 9TH . Tel: 01387720880.

American suppliers
Ribes species ae still p/Ohibited in sorre areas , so check locallybefore you order plants!
Bear Creek Nursery, POBox 411H, Northport, WA 99157. Cloud Mountain Fam & Nursery, 6906 Goodwn Rd, Everson, WA 98247. Tel: 206t}66-5859.

Edible Landscaping , Michael McConkevP 0 Box 77, Mon, VA 22920. Tel: 804J61-9134. A I Eppler Ltd, POBox 16513, Seattle, WA 98116-0513. Tel: 206tJ32-2211. North Star Gardens, 2124 Unilersity Ave., St Paul, MN 55114-1838. Tel: 612659-2515. Northwoods Retail Nusery, 27635 S.OglesbyRd, Canby, OR 97013. Tel: 503266-5432.
Oregon Exotics, Rare Fruit Nursery, 1065
Messinge~

Grants Pass , OR 97527. Tel: 503846-7578.

Southmeadow Fruit Gardens, Box SM, Lakeside, MI 49116. Tel: 616469-2865. Whitman Farms Nursery, 1420 Beaumont NW, Salem, OR 97304. Tel: 503685-8728.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 13

-

~-

-

-

~--

-

~~

Veneer grafting
The veneer graft (Fig.1)
This is a useful way of renovating established trees which have areas bare of branches. The scion must be

much smaller than the stock, and the method can only easily be used when the rind of the stock easily
sepajates from the IAOOd. • • Cut the scion V()ad transversely about 25 mn (1~) below the selected bud . Shave alNaY do'Ml to the pith on the opposite side to this bucf{ig.1a.) The scion is sepaated by another transverse cut. about 25 rrm (1 ") above the bud (Fig. lb.) Lay the scion on the surface of the stock limb as a marker and make two cuts through the bark down

to the wod at top and bottomof the scion.
• • • • • •

-

Connect the tw:l cuts in the stock wh pa/CI.llel cuts spaced the 'v\dth of the scion . Remove the bark within the 4 cuts. Slide the scion into place so that the flat surface is in close contact with the wood of the stock and the scion is gripped by the sides of the stock bak (Fig.1c.) Secure the scion by tv.o small nails (thin with flat heads) driven through it into the stock lNOod [en) on Fig.1c). The edges rray be sealed using vex etc. TINO cuts are made in the stock bark, 25-50 mm (1-2") from the scion and extending a similar distance beyond it, to lei ease the tension of the be*; and to counteect shrinkage.

An extension of this is to use scions with several buds, which can be placed spirally or in line with the stock limb; if long scions are used , then the apical end can be left intact, protruding from the surface of the stock limb.

The veneer side graft (Fig.2)
Also called the spliced side graft, this is an excellent way of grafting small pot-grown plants, and is much used for conifers and evergreens, notably Abies sPP. Clematis spp, Cupressus spp, Juniperus spp and Thuja spp. The stock is cut f5t to a\Oid having to lay the scion doW1. • • The stock stem is cleared of lea'les in the tegion of the gaft. A cut is made, about 32 mm (1.25") long, along the side of the stock free of side branches and as close to the soil as possible. The width of the cut will be that of the scion. The cut is made through the bark and slightlyinto the mod. At the lov.er end of the fist cut, and inwm:l and dOW1ward cut is ITBde, about 5:' mm (0.2-0.25") deep, and the flap of bak/lM>od removed. This lea\es a short lip or tongue at the base fig . 2a and 2b.) The scion is cut with a long simple cut corresponding in length and width to that on the stock, and deep enough to expose the wood. A second cut is made across the base from top to bottom, slanting upward at the sarre angle as the tongue on the stocklfig.2c.) The scion is quickly put in place on the stock (held by the tongue) and firmly tied (Fig.2d.) If the stock and scion ale not the sarre size then the carmium layers should be rmtched along at least one side. Unless the plant is to be placed in huri1l conditions underglass, the gaft must be sealed. Once the gl3ft has taken, the head of the stock iSEmloved.

• •

• •

An extension to this is as follows: the second cut which makes a tongue is not made in the stock, thus a long flap is left intact. The scion is given 3 cuts: the first 5 em (2") long , the second a little shorter on the opposite side, and the third slanting across the base. The scion is then fitted to the stock with the longer side against the stock, the flap brought up and against the shorter side and tied etc (shown in Fig .2e.) This method is noted as useful for Camellia spp, Fagus spp, Ginkgo spp, Hamamelis molfis, lIex opaca and Magnolia grandiflora.

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

a.
Fig 1.
Fig la.

--Fig Ie.

. . ':',
:

.. :

. .... "
,
.~

\

.

.

Fig lb.
.:.

.

./

,,:
,,'

..
'

.. '

,:
,':
" '.'

....
.,~

,-

. -,
'.

(~)

Fig 2e.

Fig 2a.

'.'
~

"

" ..

"

: ""
.;

.

....

::

.

".', ,

. :~:
,"
"

.; . .

t.

Fig 2e.

;'

.

Fig 2b.

... ..

....,
~

',;

Fig 2,

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Plums: Minor species
Introduction
The plums, for this article, are defined as those species in the Prunus subgenera Prunophora as classified by Ingram (1948). The exception are the 'sand cherries', P.besseyiand P.pumila, lJ.ihich despite their name and misplacing tax)nomicaUy are true plums and hence ae included. Domestication and utilisation of the North American plum species advanced rapidly in the 19th Century, in many parts of the country, plums then represented the most reliable source of fresh fruit for many farm families. By 1900, over 300 native plums cultivars had been described, including 37 inter-specific hybrids. The interest in plums declined in the 20th century as agriculture specialised , but there has been recent renewed interest. Most of the cultivars described below were bred prior to 1900 and several of them may have been lost to cultivation . All of the American species hybridise with the Japanese plum (P.salicina) and the cherry plum (P.cerasifera), and inteF-hybridise, but not so easilyvvith European plums. All of the species below have edible fruits. In addition, the seeds from most species can be eaten if they are free of bittemess (caused by hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour). The fruits of all species can be used for dyeing, giving a dark greYiJreen colour. The leaves of some (eg. P .americana & P .salicina) give an olive green dye. Most species and cultivars are self-sterile and require cross pollination forgood crops of flUit. For British conditions, the best fruiting species are usually P.angustifolia watsonii, P.besseyi, P.maritima and P.simonii. Propagation of species by seed is relath.ely easy, most species requiring 2-4 months of cold stratification before sO\Mng. Culthars must be propagated bygrafting, orby root cuttings forthe suckering types.

Prunus alieghaniensis -Alleghany plum, Porte~s plum, American sloe. faslem USA. A small tree or shrub growing 3.5~ m (11-20 tt) high with erect branches, hardy to -20"C (zone 5~). Few thorns. White f1ov..ers are produced in April , before or wHh the leaves. Fruits are 12-16 mm (Yz"+) across, dark blue or purple with a blue bloom, acid (varying from austere to pleasant), and the stone is clinging ; ripens in August-5eptember. Fruits edible raw or cooked - usually used cooked in native range. Suckers profusely, resistant to black knot. Tolerates limestone soils. The natural variety davisii bears blue fruits. Moderately resistant to COW'l gall. Prunus americana (Syn P.palmeri) - American plum, Ri"", plum, Wild plum. W.N.America. A widely distributed species, a small. spreading, thorny, graceful tree to 6-10 m (20-32 ttl high with brittle branches which suckers vigorously (forming thickets in the wild). Flov..ers are large, white and fragrant, appearing in March-May, before or with the leaves. Fruits are 25 mm (1") in diameter, mostly red or yellow, hard and tough-skinned, ripening over a long period in late summer, with free or clinging stones and pulpy goldenl'ellcw flesh of pleasant aromatic flavour; the skin is astringent. Fruits , ripening in August, are produced in abundance and are mostly used cooked & in preserves. A hardy species (to -30"C, zone 3-4), late flov..ering and at home on light and calcareous soils. Often used as a rootstock and in windbreaks. Selections from the Western half of its range often have much more palatable fruit, and from these have been selected many good cultivars. It floV\€rs well in Britain but rarely fruits well here. Moderately resistant to Armillaria sp (honey fungus) and resistant to oot knot nerrntodes. Prunus americana mollis (Syn P.lanata)-Inch plum This is a variety with a dense round crown and pubescent shoots from Iowa, from which several cultivars have been selected. Fruits are round, yellow and red, 20-30 mm (a round 1") across, with flat stones. Hardy to zone 5. Prunus angustifolia (Syn P.chicasa)- Chickasaw plum, Mountain chery. Southem USA. Thinly branched, bushy.topped small tree or shrub usually only 2.5-3 m (8-10 tt) high (sometimes double~
Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

t
forming dense thickets, hardy to -20°C (zone 6). Has slender reddish zig-zag branches with thorns. White tlOlhers in March-April, preceedingthe leaves, are follolhed by cherry-like shining fruits v.tlich are 16-18 mm (0.7") across, thin-skinned , yellow or bright red, with a soft, juicy (sometimes watery when ripe) , tart to svveet pulp - good eaten raw or cooked. Fruits ripen early. Needs hot summers to thrive and prefers warmer parts of Britain, though e'en there it does not poduce fruit freely; likes sandy soils.

Prunus angustifolia varians - Big Chickasaw plum. Southern & Central USA. A larger, more robust variety, 'Which prefers more fertile soils. Has gi-en rise to rrany eal1y-fruited culti\Brs. Prunus angustifolia watsonii (Syn P.watsonii)- Sand plum, Sandhill plum Southem USA. A bushy variety, grovving only 1-2 m (3-6 ft) high, vvith thornier and more zig-zag branches, smaller flowers and larger fruits (average 2.1 em (0.8") across, exceptionally to 2.7 em (1.1 ") ) with thicker skins : quickly forms thickets up to 20 m (66 tt) across. Likes sandy soils and hot summers. Prized for its fruit where native; several varieties bred from this. Fruits ripen in July to ear1y September, over a 3-4 week period; the heaviest yielding selections produce over 4 Kg (9 Ib) of fruit, with prostrate forms yielding more than upright bushes. Plants start producing fruit at about 3 years of age, and fruit soluble solids content varies from 919%. This variety is not always recognised by modern botanists, but it is uniquely adapted for growth in a climate characterised by high heat (40°C) and drought in summer and biUer cold (-30°C) in mid-winter. Main insect pest in N.America is the plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) , and major diseases are bro'Ml rot (Monilinia frutico/a) and bacterial leaf spot (><anfhomonas campesUs pv.prum). Sandhill plum jam and jellies, traditionally popular, have recently been produced commercially and are described as 'pleasingly tart vvith an apricot-like flavour; other recent innovations include a fruit spread and syrup. Unlike the type species, this subspecies thrives in Britain. Prunus besseyi - Westem sand chefTY. USA. A small prostrate shrub gro'v'v'ing only 1 m (3 tt) high. hardy to -35"C (zone 3). White flowers are borne on the previous year's 'M)od in April- May and are follov..ed by svveet purple-black fruits, up to 18 mm (0.7") across, ripening July-September. Various slNE!et-fruited selections have been made. Does not fruit well in Britain. P.besseyi has been used to improve the cold hardiness of Japanese plums , and is also sometimes used as a dwarfing plum and peach rootstock. It is a true plum despite its name!. It flowers very well in Britain, wth some forms fruiting abundantly Prunus bokhariensis - Bokhara plum. Himalayas. Closely related to P.salicina . a small tree with white flowers appearing before the leaves. It is sometimes cultivated in N.lndia forits edible fIJit, eaten IClworcooked in pies, peselVes etc. Prunus cocomilia -Italian plum Naples plum Northern Italy. A thomy small tree or shrub, related to P.cerasifera . gro'v'v'ing to 5 m (16 ft) high; hardy to -20°C (zone 6). White fla..vers appear with the leaves in late April are followed by roundish or oblong yellow fruits. 30 rnm (1.2") across, wth a good flalDur, relished in Italy Fruits are rarely produced in Bitain. Prunus consociflora. Chinese wid peach . Cental China . Closely related to P.salicina , a small tree to 6 m (20 ft) high vvith shining bro....." young shoots; hardy to 20"C (zone 6). Very abundant flowers in April, before the leaves. are followed by fruits in late autumn very similar to cheny plums (P.cerasifera), 2 cm (0.8") across wth a good ich fla\Our. Prunus curdica. Southem AImenia. A low shrub, only about 50 em (18") high, with solitary flowers appearing with the leaves in April, followed by rounded, bluish-black fruits. Hardy to -20°C (zone 6). Intermediate in habit between P.spinosa & P .insititia. Prunus gracilis - Oklahoma plum, Praine chefTY. s.w. USA. A low thicket-forming bush to 1.5 m (5 ft) high. occurring on dry sandy soils ; hardy to -20"C (zone 6). Susceptible to black knot. White f1ov.ers appear before the leaves. Fruits are roundish, 12-18 mm OIi...Q.7") red with a light bloom. Needs hot summers to thrive; drought hardy. Fruits were collected for sale in markets.
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 17

Prunus gymnodonta. Manchuria. A shrub with crowded unarmed branches and large leaves. White flowers, appearing with the leaves, are follov.ed by edible fruits. Close to P.salicina -may be a form of it. Hady to -23°C (zone 5~ Prunus hortulana - Wild goose plum Hortulan plum Cenllal & Southem USA. A single stemmed tree or shrub to 10 m (33 ft) high. hardy to _20°C (zone 6), with thinnish peeling bark. White flov.ers are produced in April and May, before the leaves, on one year-old wood. Fruits are roundish, red to yellow, 18-30 rnm (0.7-1.2") in diameter; flesh is firm, acid, juicy, pleasantly flavoured, with a tough skin a nd clinging stone. Late flov.ering and slow to come into bearing; fruits ripen in September-October. Several cultivars available. Needs hot summers to thrive - doesn't fruit well in Britain. Flower buds are reportedly edible. Resistant to oat knot nerretodes and bown rut. Prunus hortulana mineri
This is nearer to P.americana and represents the and firmer; several culti\ars ..vere selected.
no~hlN3rd

extension of the goup. Fruits are laterripenirg

Prunus maritima (Syn P.acuminata. P.pubescens)- Beach plum Shone plum. Eastem USA. A low, straggling, thorny bush, 1·3 m (3-10 ft) high and to 2 m (7 ft) wide, which prefers drier soils; hardy to _35°C (zone 3). Requires a minimum of 60 em (2 ft) annual rainfall. Fragrant white flowers in April or May, before the leaves. Fruits f1at-round, are usually dark purple (sometimes red or yellow) with a heavy bloom, 12-25 mm (lS,-1") in diameter; the flesh is faity firm. sweet and juicy and the stone is free or clinging. Tough skinned. Fruits range from inedible to rich in flavour (as good as European plums), and ripen late summer. Very late floVo.€ring, cold hardy, drought tolerant and producth.e; several cultivars available. Of commercial importance in North America, this species thrives in Britain, flowering profusely, and prefers coastal locations. It is sorretimes used as a sand/dune binderP.maritima f1ava has yellow fruits. Prunus mexicana (Syn P.arkansana)- Big tnee plum, Mexican plum SW. USA. Mexico. A shrub or small tree up to 10 m (33 ft) high, haldy to -20°C (zone 6~ drought-resistant and free of suckers. Closely related to P.americana. White f1oVo.€rs are follo...-.ed by dark purplish red roundish fruits, 25 mm (1") or so across, with a bluish bloom; poor quality. Sometimes gathered for culinary use. Occasionally used in the USA as a non.suckering rootstock. Modeately resistant to honeyfungus V\rmillaria sp~ Prunus munsoniana - Potawatamie plum. Wild goose plum Cent",1 USA. A suckering shrub to 3m (10 It) high or more, forming thickets. White flowers produced in April to May. Fruits are oval to round, 15-25 mm (0.6-1") a'cross, thin.skinned, bright red or yellow in colour with yellow, juicy, aromatic flesh of good f1a'()ur; the stones ae clinging. Fuits ripen in PtJgust-September. Hardy to -20°C (zone 6). Needs hot summers to thrive. Many cultivars selected. Resistant to root knot nematodes and brown rot of fruits; f1ov.ers are frust-resistant. A parent of the Maianna rootstock selections.
Prunus ngra (Syn P.americana var.nigra) - Canada plum Canada black plum N.E. North America A very cold-hardy species - to -40°C (zone 2) - sometimes cultivated in Canada, closely related to P .americana. Small trees to 9m (30 ft) high; fragrant lNhite floVo.€rs in late ~ril follov.ed by oblong fruits, 20· 30 mm (around 1") across, red, orange or yello>Msh. v.ith astringent skin and a lage stone; ripen in PtJgustSeptember. Has gi\en rise to sorre good fruit-bearing varieties W'iich bear moderate crops.

Prunus X orthosepala (Hybrid: P.angustifolia ..tsonii XP.americana) Found wid in the US<\.
Much-branched spreading shrub to 1.5 m (5 tt) high. 'Nith zig-zag dk brown branches . White flowers (May) are fol1o..-.ed by late-ripening, round juicy palatable bloomy fruits. 25 mm (1") in diameter, red with white dots.

Prunus pumila - Dwarf cherry. Sand cherry. Northeastem N.America. A small shrub to 1 m (3 ft) high, hardy to -25°C (zone 4). White floVo.€rs in late April-May, on the previous year's mod, are follo...-.ed by oval-roundish. 1 em (O.4M~ purple-black fruits, often sour and astringent, ripening July-September. Sometimes used as a plum rootstock; hybrids with other American species have been bred.
Page 18 AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Prunus rivularis (Syn P.reverchonii)- Creek plum, Hog plum Southem USA (Oklahoma, Te,""s.) A slender·stemmed shrub, 0.6-2.5 m (2-8 ft) high with grey bark and chestnul-brown twigs , forming dense thickets . The \Yhite f101NefS appear in ApriJ-May before or with the leaves and are followed by round ish fruits, 10-25 mm (0.4-1") in diameter, usually yellow, blushed orange or crimson : very variable in quality; ripening in August..september. This species tolerates limestone and drought. Hardy to about -1 (zone

aoc

8.)

• Prunus salicina

(Syn P.triflora) - Chinese plum Japanese plum China. A diverse species; small trees grolNing 6·9m (20-30 tt) high are vigorous, productive, early bearing , and more tolerant of black knot, reaf blight and plum curculio than most species. New shoots are often shining reddish or cinnam:m-brolMl. Fruits are large (50-70 mm. 2-2.6"), pointed, yellow, red or green , with clinging stones; yields are usually high . The flesh is white, yellow or red, with a good flavour (although inferior to P .domestica~ The fruit keeps and travels well. Soluble solids content averages at 17%. This species is susceptible to Spring frosts because it flowers early (Early April), and also needs hot summers to ripen its \HOod, thus is not likely to fruit well in the U.K. (Late f1o'M:!ring selections such as Gaviota may fruit best). Less cold hardy than P.domestica (to around -15°C, zones 6-8) and is susceptible to brown rot. Widely grown in Asia and N.America , with many cultivars selected; several hybrids between this and P.hortulana and P.angustifolia have been bred. Does not cross pollinate with P.domestica. Tolerates periodic flooding ; moderately resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria sp). Only hybrids of this species are included in the cultivar table below- there are many pure varieties available as -.....ell.

Prunus simonii - Apricot plum Simon plum. N.China. An upright. conical tree to 6 m (20 ft) high with large smooth-skinned fruit (25-60 mm, 1-2.4") which are dark to purplish-red, with firm aromatic yellow flesh and a clinging stone; variable flavour, sometimes bitter with an almond--like astringency, but can be excellent, fragrant and very palatable. The fruits travel well. Flowers open in March to May, before or with the leaves, borne on short spurs on wood 2 or more years old and singly on the last year's growth. No longer found in the wild. Hardy to -20°C (zone 6). For good fruiting in the U.K., late flowering forms must be chosen; does best in the Pacific areas of N,America and has good potential in the UK though f10vers can easilybe damaged by frosts. Prunus spinosa - Blackthom, Sloe. Europe, Asia minor, N.Africa. A vigorous, thomy, suckering shrub to 3-8 m (10-27 ft) high, with small round fruits, 13 mm (%") in diameter. Thicket..forming. FlolNers are produced early (March & early April) and are frost hardy. Fruits, best in October or November after a frost, are dark blue to shiny black with a bloom; the flesh is greenish, acid and bitter. Very frost and drought resistant; hardy to _25°C (zone 4). It has been used as a rootstock for P.domestica. Forms with sweet fruits have been selected in the past, notably by Michurin in Russia; fruits are usually preserved or used in liqueu5. In France the unripe fruit is pickled like an oliYl. The f1oY\ers are edible and d}8s made from leaves , fruits, baric Good hedging plant, toleating maritime exposure. Prunus subcordata - Califomia plum, Klamath plum, Oregon plum. Pacific plum Sierra plum,
Westem Plum. W.N.America (Califomia & Oregon). This species resembles the Eurasian species nearer than any other American species. It forms thickets of small spreading shrubs or trees, often only a few feet high but up to 10 m (33 ft) high along streams. Has reddish young shoots and black bark on older shoots. Hardy to -23°C (zone 5). Fragrant white flowers appear in April before or with the leaves . It is a heavy cropper of fruits which are round to oblong, 25-30 mm (1-1.2") across, dark red or purplish; the flesh is sub..acid, occasionally astringent, and the stone clinging (although some selections have free stones~ Fruits ripen August-September. This species is selfsterile and requires cross pollination to assure fruit set. Thrives in the U.K. ; was sometimes planted around settlements in N.America. Moderately resistant to C[)V\f1 gall, lesion and ing nematodes; resistantto honey fungus (Armi llaria sp); susceptible to blossom rot. This species is being tested as a dwarfing rootstock for plums and peaches . W,rk at Oregon State Uni...ersity in the 1940's-1960's ga..e several named selections.

Prunus subcordata kelloggii - Sisson plum N.Califomia. This is a taller and more slender variety, with grey bark.. It has larger , yellow or red fruit which have fairly free stones; the flesh is soft and palatable. It is late f1c::M'ing, self-sterile and susceptible to bown rot. continued on oaae 29.
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 19

Book Reviews
Home-Grown Energy from Short-Rotation Coppice
George Macpherson
Farming Press, 1995; 214 pp ; £]4.95. ISBN Q-85236-289-7. This book is aimed at arable farmers and presents an attractive case for them moving some of their arable land into short-rotation coppice production - willow and poplar species which are planted densely from cuttings and coppiced ~sually) on a 3-year rotation.

It begins by outlinog the reasons for farmers to make the change (overproduction of food in the EU, climate change caused by burning fossil fuels, and lack of other viable alternatives at present, the coppice itself needing low labour, fertiliser and chemical use and able to use existing equipment) and explaining the uses and markets for short-rotation coppice wood. Interest at present is mainly concentrated on using the Vv'Ood, in a chipped fom, for both heating and forelectricity production on a srmll, local scale.
The chapter on siting , soils and climates includes a useful list of soil types along with the recommended willow and poplar species and clones. Wet conditions are neither necessary nor desirable for willow cultivation - it will grow almost anyw11ere except in very shallow or alkaline soils: wet conditions in winter Vv'Ould make the harvesting of coppice (Ising fOli3ge harvesters) very difficult. The economics of growing the coppice, harvesting and chipping it, and selling it to an electricity producer are detailed, along with information on grants etc. Emphasis is given that growing the coppice under the EU set-aside scherre makes the econonics much more attractive. Several chapters now detail all aspects of cultivating willow and poplar for short-fotation coppice. Planting material is in the form of cuttings, and emphasis is given to using several different clones in mixtures. Varieties ale recommended and the latest esuits of SNedish results of bleeding new clones are detailed. Establishing a stand involves cultivating a fine tirth (as with any other arable operation) and planting the cuttings at high density. Weed control is rightly emphasised as very important, both in the year after planting and at every harvest: uncontrolled weeds can reduce yields by 50% and actually smother low willow plants very easily. At present, the only rarge-scale method for controlling weeds which can be recommended is the use of herbicides. Alternatives, such as use of black plastic mulches or hand weeding, can be used on a very small scale, while use of mechanised cUltivation may damage both roots and shoots of the plants. More research is urgently needed to solve this problem and come up with a solution to the veed problem .....-tlich can a\Oid the use of chenica! control. There are few significant pests or diseases of willow: although a large number of insed species is supported , these rarely become a problem. Rabbits and deer are the vvorst pests - fencing is needed to keep these out - and only one disease is Significant, a fungal rust. This rust may attack one or two clones badly in a year but a mixed done stand is esilient. Unlike traditional coppice (for example, svveet chestnut on a 10-year rotation~ short-rotation coppice requires inputs of fertilisers to maintain production: these are about 20% of the levels needed by cereals. Most arable farmers will presumably use chemical fertilisers to supply nutrients, although the use of sewage sludge is ecommended by the author: At harvest. yields of 24-36 tonnes per Ha per year (fresh weight, oven dry yields are about 50% of this) are achievable. Chipping is necessay as buming of bales of shoots is unsatisfactqr. Further arguments for short-rotation coppice are made in a chapter titled 'the green credentials'. As a fuel, biomass from coppice is very clean, and of course is C02-neutral, so using it instead of fossil fuels will reduce overall C02 emissions . Willows are also good wildlife value, particularly for inseds and birds. The process of growing and harvesting short-fotation coppice is truly efficient - the energy value of the wood chips is 10-25

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

=
times the energy used in all aspects of production. The author argues that the effects of transporting wood chips on rural roads will be no more than agricultUial traffic at present. and that fears of drying up of groundwaters are unfounded, as water requirements are similar to winter wheat. The negative effects of herbicide use are not mentioned, but until the problems of weed control without chemicals are solved, short-rotation coppice rray not attlact those imolved in sustainable land use. A final chapter looks at possible developments in short-rotation coppice in the next few years , notably with the use of Miscanthus (elephant grass) and Phalaris (Reed canary grass ); and at further uses of biomass, for instance comerting into a fuel forvehicles.

Tree Diseases and Disorders .
Heinz Butin
Oxford Unh..,rsity Press. 1995; 252 pp; £l9.50 (Hardback) ISBN 0·19-854932-6.

This authoritati\e book. translated from the Gennan original, details all the common diseases and disorders found on Northem European forest and common ornamental trees. Tree species are not discussed in order, but instead the book is organised by the type of disorder: thus there are chapters on damage to flo1M'!rs and seeds, damage to seedlings, damage to leaves, damage to buds and shoots , barK damage, wilt diseases, wood damage (in standing and fallen timber) and growth abnormalities. The advantage of such organisation is that similar diseases which affect simitar spedes can easily be located; the disadwntage is that, to look up diseases of a specific4'e, the indexmust alv.ays be used.
Descriptions of the more important diseases are accompanied by brief details of the usual control measures , and rrost of the diseases and disoders are illustlated wth e)((;ellent, ~ry high qualltydraVoJings. A chapter on epiphytes (algae and lichens) and mycorrhizas found on trees , and parasitic plants found on trees (mistletoe , doddes and toothlAOrt) is an unusual but inteesting addition to the book.

Bob Flowerdew's Complete Fruit Book
Bob Flowerdew
Kyle Cathie Ltd . 1995; 256 pp; B9.99 haldback. ISBN 1-85626·185·9 This attractively presented book is split into two main sections: the first deals with individual fruits within categories of orchard fruits (standard temperate tree fruits from apples and pears to figs and mulberries), soft, bush & cane fruits (including some less common species like cranberries and chokeberries), annual tender fruits (which are often classed as vegetables - ego tomatoes, peppers , squash , melons etc) , perennial tender fruits (eg . Citrus, olives, Kiwis etc; some able to be cultivated in mild temperate areas , others only in glasshouses) tropical and subtropical fruits (for tropical gravvers only! But interesting to read about mangos, avocados etc.) , shrub and flower garden fruits (including many interesting specles like JunebelTies, barberries, medlalS, Comelian cherries etc~ and finaflynuts (both tel1l>erate and tlOpical}

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 21

===

w

For each fruit, details are given of cultivation methods, weed and pest control, harvesting and storing, a history of usage, medicinal and culinary uses, wildlife value, propagation, and a recipe involving the fruit. Also given are very brief details of a few of the more common varieties which may be available, although for the less common fruits there are often none mentioned. Clear and colourful photographs accompany every fruit, usuallyshowng the plant and a close up of the bits. As always with Bob Flowerdew, organic methods of cultivation are the norm and it's good to see these present~d clearly and simply, with no recourse to chemical methods even considered . Welcome notes on companion planting ae also included Wth most fruits. The second and shorter part of the book deals with more general aspects of fruit growing, with chapters on planning fruit gardens; glasshouse and container culture; orchards; garden maintenance induding fellility, water use, pest and disease control, pollination and companion planting; harvesting and storing fruits; and brief notes on otherby~products such as d)es and wod for tuming and srroking. Those VoIith a serious interest in fruit varieties, and in less-common fruits, VoIiIl find detail on these rather lacking and sorretimes missing ~ dearty Mr Flov.erdew has firrited his research to the rrore easily avaifable references, and doesn't ....ant to sVBmp readers "";th information. Overall this is a splendid book lNtlich should appeal to odinary gardeners and make a great introduction for them to the wide number of fruits, many virtually unknown, which can be grown and for which there is good potential forimprovement.

The Fruit & Veg Finder
Jeremy Cherfasl HORN 8rogdale Horticultural Trust
HDRA(Dist: Moodand Publishing Co.) 1995; 367 pp; lB.99. ISBN 0-905343·20-4. The 5th Edition of The Vegetable Finder has expanded to include fruit, and although this covers some of the same ground as the well knoVoAl Plant Finder, The Fruit & Veg Finderhas the Gdvantage that it indudes descriptions of many of the fruits , and also indudes several of the less common fruits and perennial vegetables vilich are not recognised as edible in rijlinstream litelClture. Brief sections describe common fruit tree rootstocks , tree forms, fruit varieties recommended for flavour, for northern Britain, and for late flowering. There is also a list by UK county of the origins of some apple, pear and plum varieties. The main part of the book lists the varieties of fruits and vegetabes available in the UK. Species are ordered in alphabetical order of common name, apart from some of the rarer varieties listed by Latin name. This sometimes means having to search in more than one place to see if there is a listing; it would help if there was an index of Latin names to speed searches, although the contents pages do list every species alphabetically as they appear. Another improvement which would make searching faster would be to indicate at the top of listing pages lNtlich fruiUveg is being listed, as one can open pages and not realise ....mere you are unless )OU recognise a \Briety name. Descriptions of F1 varieties of vegetables are deliberately not given. Descriptions of fruit varieties are taken mostly from nursery catalogues, sometimes VoIith additions from the expertise of Brogdale. Hence if nurseries do not give information about varieties, it is usually lacking in the listing. It should also be remembered that rrost nurseries do not gi\9 information about the deYJbacks of a \Briety. I'm sure that The Fruit & Veg Finder will become an essential reference to fruit and veg enthusiasts, helping them track doW1 fruit varieties and encouaging 'Aider use of a rrore diverse range of edible plants.

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

I
I

The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses Deni Brown
Doning Kindersley, 1995; 424 pp; £35.00 (Hardback). ISBN 0-75 13-020-31. This extensive book, a companion volume to 'The RHS Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers', covers over 1000 herbs groWl for cullnal)'. aromatic, medicinal, and econonic uses. It is split into fourmain sections. A section on garden designs, illustrated with photos and drawings, covers fannal, informal and container gro'Ning, along with purposeful designs and interplanting of herbs with fiONers and vegetables. The main uses of herbs are briefly covered, including culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. 'Herbs in the wild' emphasises the importance of herbs to people and highlights the dangers of overexploitation. Regions of the oor1d are highlighted, voith major herbs and threatened species descibed. The first of the two main sections is the catalogue section: this gives detailed botanical descriptions of species, along with colour photographs to aid identification. Symbols show the hardiness, parts of the plant that are used and Yhat they are used by. The second main section is the dictionary section: this gives detailed information on the uses of each herb, including for cooking and medicine. Both traditional and modem uses are described, including Chinese, Ayurvedic, and native American medicinal uses. A section at the end of each plant entry describes growth and cultivation and gives details of harvesting. Thus if botanical and medicinal information are both required, the species rrust be looked up tvice. The final part of the book deals with cultivating herbs and includes siting , planting, routine care, propagation and indoor gardening. The harvesting and processing (drying and utilising) of herbs is also given space hee. As the use of herbs and the importance of plant chemicals in both traditional and modem medicine become more widely recognised, this is a good time for this authoritative, comprehensive and readable herbal to be published and becore the new'Mrs Grieve' for the 1990's.

Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable Agriculture
Miguel A Altieri
Intemied iate TechnologyPublications, 1995; 433 pp; £16.95 (paperback) ISBN 0-8133-1718-5 (paperback), 0-8133-1717-7 (hardback) The field of agroecology provides the basic ecological principles for how to study, design and manage agroecosystems which are productive and sustainable, socially just, viable and culturally sensitive. This excellent book describes the theoretical basis of agricultural ecology, and the design and practice of altemative production systems, including chapters on traditional forms of agriculture, organic farming , po[yculture systems, cover cropping, agroforestry systems, pest, disease and weed management, pasture and soil management. It goes far beyond the normal one-dimensional view of agroecosystems to embrace the understanding of ecological and social levIs of co~voJution , stlJcture and function . Modem agriculture is an artificial ecosystem that requires constant human intervention, and the ecological equilibrium in such systems is very fragile. This potential instability is because natural ecosystems reinvest a major proportion of their production to maintain the physical and biological structure needed to sustain soil fertility and biotic stability; artificial monocultures have low species/genetic diversity, open mineral cycles, short-term crops and soil-destructive practices, all of which lead to instability. True stability is not simply achieved with simple agricultural techniques: "Stable production can only take place within the context of a social organisation that protects the integrity of natural resources and nurtures the harmonious interactions of hurrans, the agoecosystem, and the emironment. n

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 23

The ecological • • • • •

sustainabilit~f

an aglOecosystem increases wth the followng strategies:

Constant \egetatiw cover to maintain/build soil stocture and fertility and protect water resources ; Nutrient recycling through crop rotation, c()p/animal mixed systems, agroforestry, intercropping; Efficient use of sun/soil/wter resources, by using pol)CUltures ; Small harvest of nutrients in relation to total biorrass; Maintenance of a high esidual biolTBss (lAfOody/herbaceous etc.) f\4aintaining biodilBrsity.

Of course, in the real lNOr1d sustainability must also be achieved in terms of work (the physical tasks required of a farm) , economics and socioeconomically. It is no coincidence that traditional sustainable systems tend to be srrall scale, selfsustaining, lowinput - moderate output, dhersified. The efficiency of an agroecosystem can be measured by energy flow: all inputs (solar radiation , human labour, fertilisers etc) and outputs (vegetable and animal products etc) are expressed in energy terms, and the outpuVinput ratio is calculated . This ratio decreases with use of fossil fuels . thus for labour-intensive maize growing in Mexico the value is about 30, while for intensive mechanised production in the USA it is only 2.5, that is 12 tiITes less efficient. Polycultures, that is growing more than one crop in the same space at the same time, are perhaps the single most important factor lacking in modern agriculture, and which is extremely important for long term sustainabifity. Though they have been lost in modem agriculture, most traditional agricultures were/are based on polycultures - 80% of the cultivated areas of W.Africa are still polycultures. Some agroecosystems in the Philippines include over 600 cultivated and managed plants, which is as many are found in some natural ecosystems. The few polycultures still used in modem agriculture are very simple in comparison , for example undersowing cereals ....tth grass/legume mixtures. Total yields in polycultures are usually greater than would be obtained from similar areas of monocultured crops, and the overall yield is stabilised to a greater degree with greater diversity. Polycultures also use natural resources more efficiently, and pest problems are usually much reduced. The natural tendency to'Nards complexity is achieved, and vvith increased crop biodiwrsity, less external inputs are required to maintain the cop community. Agroforestry systems can form some of the most sustainable polycultures, which are particularly well adapted to the circumstances of small farmers. The complex vertical structure of the three-dimensional physical environment supports greater species diversity. Tree products may be obtainable over a larger part of the year, thus evening out labour requirements and income; external inputs may be minimised, especially with the use of leguminous trees and mycorrhizal associations: the risk of failing crops and the consequences thereof are much reduced. Most traditional polycultures include the use of trees as multipurpose crops. The transition to"lNards sustainable agriculture is not going to be easy Tt'e structure of corporate agriculture and the organisation of agricultural research (focusing on short-term problems) prevent ecological research recommendations from being incorporate into agricultural management systems; investment in sustainable technolcgies won't take place if immediate profits are not available. Indeed, the emphasis on bigger yields continues with high-tech. biotechnology claimed to be the new technological fix. Sustainable agriculture is not about quick fixes to solve the next little problem; it requires long-term holistic research, an ecological perspective for all land use, producer-consumer cooperatives lNhich encourage local markets and selfsufficiency, smaJf-scale and family-oriented farming, and challenges from consumers and society to current agricultural agendas. The problems facing us in this challenge are summed up by the author in his final remarks: ''The requirements to develop a sustainable agriculture clearly are not just biological or technical , but also social , economic and political, and illustrate the requirements needed to create a sustainable society. It is inconceivable to promote ecological change in the agricultural sector without advocating comparable changes in art other interrelated areas of society. The final requirement of an ecological agriculture is an evolved, conscious hurran being Mose attitude tOWird nature is that of coeXstence, not e>ploitation."

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

The yew: T axus baccata
Introduction
The yew is native to Europe (from Scandinavia and W.Russia to Spain), Asia Minor and North Africa It is a very long-lived tree. possibly up to 4000 years, and was sacred to the Druids, who built their temples nearby· a practise continued byChristians as displa}ed by the nuITtler of yew trees found in chuchyards. In Britain it is found mainly on chalk and limestone, often as an understorey in mixed deciduous woods but sometimes as pure stands. Little has been planted in woodlands - most arise from seeds spread by mistle thrushes and blackbirds. All through the middle ages until gunpowder came into general use, yew wood was more valued than any other for bow manufacture, and although Spanish-grown wood was considered best, yelMi throughout Europe v.ere drastically reduced in nurrbers.

Description
Taxus baccata, the English or Common yew. is an evergreen tree gro.....;ng 12 to 25 m (40-85 tt) high with a roundish crown. The w110le tree is non-resinous. It grows into a densely branched tree, developing a short massive trunk with age to 6 m (20 tt) or more in girth. Individual trees vary greatly in crown and bole fonn . with fluting very common. In old trees the heartY.-ood rots but the tree continues to grow. forming a series of arched and twsted. Branches sorretimes put doW1 new roots through the lOtting heaft\MJod.
Shoots are long, outspread and sometimes ascending . ""';th reddish-brown , thin , scaly bark (young shoots are green). The tiny buds at shoot tips ae yellowsh~reen. wth leaf~ike scales. The needles (leaves) appear spirally arranged in erect shoots, but ranked in pairs on more horizontal shoots. The needles are 1-3 cm (0.4-1.2") long, linear, convex and shining on the upper side, paler and yellowish below; they taper to a horny point. They snap off if pulled, but fall singly leaving rough scars when they are shed natuGlly. The yew is dioecious, so the male and female flowers (strobili) usually appear on different trees between February and early April. The Male flowers are stalked, a round 6 mm (0.25") cluster of yellowish stamens, from the axils of leaves on the previous year's branchlets, which shed golden pollen : female flowers are tiny, solitary, green, resembling growth buds, also from leafaxils. Plants occasionally change sex, and monoecious plants ~th both sees of f1ov..ers) are sometimes found. F\:>Jlination is \ia the wnd. On female trees , f!\lits are fleshy red berries about 10mm in diameter, containing a single seed. Fruits ripen in autumn betv.een September and November. The seeds are usually 2-sided, 6 rnm (0.25") long, olive-brown. Fruiting begins at about 20 years of age and continues to a great age - 650 year-old trees have been recorded as yielding 30-50 Kg of f!\lits . Fruit yields are larger in hot dry summers; seed production is usuallyprolific, wth some seed normally produced e-.ery year.

Cultivation
Yew is an extremely easy plant to grow - it is tolerant of cold, heat, drought, full sun and deep shade, exposure, pollution , wet and dry soils, and any pH. Severe maritime exposure can damage plants. It is hardy to about -25°C. Plants produce very little fibrous root and should be planted in their final positions w11en still srrall. Male and female trees must be grown if fruits are required. The fruits, on the female trees, are mainly produced on the undesides of one.year old branches.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 25

E€¥

H

Yew is a strong shade-bearer, tolerating deep shade, and grows Quite sloVoAy (20-30 cm = 8-12" per year) GrolNth of 4.5 m (15 ft) in 20 years can be expected. They cast a deep shade and little will grow beneath them. The use of standad plastic tleeshelters is not recommended, as failues can occur due to O\erheating.

Pests, diseases & problems

There are few pests. Roe deer and some breeds of sheep appear to suffer no harm from browsing yew foliage, though cattle and horses may be killed (see below). An aphid , known as Yew Scale, can damage yew hedges and topia~, causing a sootymould.

Yew is very resistant to honey fungus, but susceptible to phytophthora root rot which can be a serious problem in nurseries. The needles can be damaged by several fungi of minor importance, and branch cankers are not uncommon. The commonest decay fungi of heartwood is Laetiporus sulphureus ('chicken of the 'IIOods'). Young shoots ae sometimes damaged by late frosts.

The bark is very soft and branches or even the whole tree can be killed if the bark is removed by constan friction such as bychildren climbing the tree.

Uses

The red fleshy cup of the fruits is gelatinous, very svveet and edible raw, but the crushed seeds are very poisonous. The seeds are harmless if swallowed uncrushed, nevertheless this is not recommended. The fruits should only be eaten wth great care and childen should not be encouaged to do so.

Female flower

Male flower

Taxus baccata

Immature & ripe fruit

Cross section throU! ripe fruit

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No ,

Extracts from the leaves are insecticidal, being a contact poison YoIhich is effective against beetles , flies (including livestock pests), Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), Forest moth (Lymantria monacha), the Apricot tent caterpillar (Malacosoma neustria) and the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis). The leaves are used in a decoction and the aclle ingredients are believed to be the alkaloids ephici1e and taloine .. The timber is highly valued. It is tough, strong , heavy, very durable, very hard, elastic, close and usually straight-grained (sometimes curly and irregular); the hearr.....ood is golden orange-brown , the sapwood pale yeUowsh-white. It is one of the densest timbers of all conifers, and dries rapidly with little distortion, though needing some care . The wood , though moderately difficult to work, works well and finishes with a smooth, glossy surface. It is used for furniture, parquet flooring , panelling, external and internal joinery, gate and fence posts , bows (archery), mallets, handles, pump machinery, and turnery like candlesticks, door knobs, egg cups and pepper mills. It makes good firewood . Minor fluting can increase the value of the timber for veneers. The 'v\Ood is bURlt as an incense. Hedging - responds well to trimming; commonly used for thick ornamental hedges and topiary work. Even very old trees resprout well after cutting back. Clipping is normally practised in August-8eptember, with more drastic cutting back in May New hedges should be planted up wh plants at 45 cm(18") spacing. Some dvvarf, spreading culthers can be gOIMl as a ground cover - notably'Cavendishii' and 'Repandens'. Eating of yew leaves remains a common cause of death in livestock, which can succumb very quickly after eating withered/cut foliage. Death in cattle (by heart failure) occurs some 4 hours after eating more than 0.3 grams of fresh leal.es per Kg of body weight. Needles, shoots and seeds at! all poisonous.

Medicinal uses
In recent years, modem medicine has examined the yews dosely for the compounds they contain . Of particular interest is the substance Taxal , found initially in the Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia) but also present in the common yew. Taxal shows great promise as an anticancer drug, notably for ovarian cancer. Exploitation of the Ricific ~w for Taxal extraction has led to its suvival being theatened in sorre areas. Taxal concentrations vary INidely be~en yew species and even be~en culthers - amounts between 100 and 900 ppm are common. About 20% of Taxus baccata trees have been found to contain equivalent amounts of Taxal in their needles and bark as found in the barK of Taxus brevifolia (the usual commercial source). Taxus baccata needles also contain high amounts of dosely related compounds, which can be processed to produce taxol and another medicinal compound, Taxotere; needles could be harvested annually on a sustainable basis forth is purpose. The English and other species of yew have been used in the past as herbal medicines , usually by utilising a decoction of the shoots. This is now knoW"! to be highly dangerous and should not be tried . A speciallyprepared, non-toxic tincture is sometimes used byhomoeopathic ph)6icians for rheumatism and arthritis.

Cultivars
Numerous ornamental cultivars have been selected over many centuries, which are not always easily distinguishable. These include columnar fOOllS, conical forms, spreading and dwarf forms. The cultivar list below includes only those of knoW"! sex - necessary information for seedlfruit production. The females YoIhich fruit most prolifically are 'Elegantissima' and 'Lutea'.

Females:
Adpressa:
~reading,

shlUbby to 6 m (20 ft) high.

Adpressa AJrea : Spreading , shlUbby to 3 m (10 tt) high; needles goldenyelJowand variegated. Adpressa Erecta: Upright, conical, to 36 m (10-16 ft) high. Aurea: Bushy, compact shrub to 4 m (13 tt); young shoots and needles )!!lJowsh.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 27

Cavendishii: LoW """;de-spreading, to 1 m (3 ft) high. Good gound cover. Cheshunensis: Upright, fast go""";ng, conical lage shrub/small tree. Dovastoniana: Tree or shl1Jb to 3-5 m (10-16 ft) high; sorretimes male. Dwarf White: Small, slowgro""";ng; needles Wth a narrow V\'hite margin. Elegantissima: Vigorous , spreading; fruits abundanti)! Young shoots &needles )€lIowsh. Ere¢ta: Upright, bushy, to 8 m (26 ft) high. Fastigiata: Broad colurmar, 4-7 m (13-23 ft) high. Lutea: Fltlits are yellow, abundant. Upight shrub to 3-5 m (10-16 ft) high. Repandens: DlA8rf, spreading, only40-50 em (16-20") high but 2-6 m (7-16 ft) spread. Repans Aurea: LOIN; spreading bush; needles ~rrow-margined. Standishii: Dense, colurmar, slowgro""";ng; needles golden ~lIow. Variegata : Washingtonii : Corrpact shrub , 1.5-2 m (5-7 ft) high. Sometimes male.

Males:
Adpressa Variegata: Large, openbranched shrub. Young needles golden. Dovastonii Aurea Spreading srra!! tree; needles )allow-margined. Fastigiata Aureomarginata: Male form of Fastigiata wth needles )9l1ow-margined. Glauca: Loose, uprght, "';gorous shltlb; needles bluishgreen. Neidpati1ensis: Colurmar to conical tee. Semperaurea: Suubby, to 2 m (7 ft) high and wde; needles usty-yellow.

Propagation

Seed can be very slow to germinate, taking 2 or more years. If possible, sow when it ripens in autumn expect germination 18 months later. Stored seed should be given 3-7 months warm follo¥.ed by 2-1 months cold stratification before sowing. Dry s:eed can be stored at 2°C for up to 6 years without loss o viability. There are about 13,500 seeds/ t9 , of vJlich about 11 ,000 ae viable (6,100 seedsllb, 5000 .;able)

Cuttings of half;ipe terminal shoots , 5-8 em (2-3") long, taken in July-August often succeed. They nee warmth and shading, and should oot by late September; transplant in late spmg. Cuttings of ipe teminal shoots Wth a heel , taken in Octoberand given shading , often succeed.

References

Bean, W; Trees and 9'lrubs Hatdy in the Bitish Isles, \blume 4. John Muray. 1978. Bown, Deni: The Royal Horticultural Society Encylopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley 1995. Dallimore, W & Jackson: A Handbook of Conifeae and Ginkgoaceae. Gordon, A G: Seed Manual forForest Trees. HMSJ. 1992. Grainge, M &Ahmed , S: Handbook of Rants wth Pest-Control Properties. VViley, 1988. Krussmann, Geld: Manual of Culti'.ated ConifelS. B T Batsotd, 1984. Las-Polski, 1987, No.5, 1315. Lincoln, W World Woods in Colom Stobart, 1986. Lines , Roger. Minor Species in \'\essex. Quarterly Joumal of Forestry, October 1992. Phillips , 0 &Burdekin , D: Diseases of Foest and Ornamental Trees. Macrrillan, 1992.

Paqe 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No

Plums: Minor species (continued)
Prunus X sultana - Wickson plum (Hybrid: P. salicina xP. simonii). Tree or shnJb hybrid, hardy to -20°C (zone 6). The fruits of named selections are large with a maroon skin and yellow flesh, sirrilar to Japanese plum;, and are eaten Jawor cooked. Prunus thibetica Wesl China. Resembles P.salicina, a small tree up to 6 m (20 ft) high, fOffiling thickets. Has bluish-pink flowers opening
with the lea\E!s.

Prunus umbel/ata - Black sloe, Flatvoods plum. Hog plum Sloe plum, Southem sloe. S.E. USA. A mggy, single-stemmed tree 3-6 m (10-20 ft) high, densely crolNrled, thorny, hardy to -1 aoc (zone 8); sometimes forms thickets. Small ......nite f1o...-..ers produced in April-May with or just before the leaves. Fruits are round, 10-20 mm (0.4-D.8") across, dark purple, red or yellow with a tough skin; the flesh is sour and very bitter and only edible cooked and sweetened. The natural varieties injucunda and larda are later flov.ering and ripening. Tolerant of ring nematodes, resistant to CO'WTl gall. Prunus ursina. Bear plum. W.Asia: Turkey-Syria.
A slightly thorny shrub to 3 m (10 tt) high. White flowers appear before the leaves and are followed by
smooth roundish fruits, 25 mm P.cerasifera.
(1~)

across, violet·md. May be a natural variety or sub-species of

Prunus ussuriensis (Syn P.triflora var.mandshurica) - Ussurian plum. Manchuria, E.Russia. A late f1olM3ring tree normally 4-6 m (13-20 tt) high (occasionally taller), which comes into bearing early. White flov-.ers open in April along INith the foliage. Fruits are round to ellipsoid, greenish yellow to dark red, juicy INith a pleasant flavour. Hardy to _23°C (z 5). Some forms are v.cold hardy with sweet flavourful fruits. May be a natUial variety/sub-species of Psalicina. H}bridises easily\rVith American & Japanese plurrs .

Cultivar list
A huge number of cultivars have been bred, especially from the American species, in the last 100-150
years, many by Fruit research stations in the USA and Canada. The selections included below all have fruit of reasonablequality(fair or better). Because of the large number of cultivars, only brief details are given in the table below. Despite the fact that many of these were developed at the end of the last century, quite a few are still available from American nUiseries - you are advised to consult Cornucopia, the Fruit, Berry and Nut Im.entory or NAFEX (North American Fruit Explorers) for latest supplierlists. The parentage is given lNtiere knoWl - for some cultivars it is complex and unknown. Abbreviations used here are hort.min. ::: hortulana nineri; ang.var. = angustifolia \8rians. Fruit size is either in mm (diameter); or Ige = large, m-I = medium to large, med ::: medium, s-m = small to medium, sm = small. Fruit colour is the main colourof the skin -often ffUits are speckled, blushed ordotted in addition. Fruit gualitvdescribed the eating qualityof the flesh: fai( gd = good, \lgd = \£ry good, e>e = excellent. Ripe period: ely = early, e-m ::: early to mid, mid, m-I ::: mid to late, late. Yield: poor, fair, mod::: moderate, gd = good, hW = heavy. Tree vig/hab describes main features of tree vigour and habit: bush = dwarf variety forming a bushy shrub, low- low vigour, mod::: moderate vigour, vig:: vigorous; upr= upright, spr:: spreading. Cultivar Acme Admiral Schley Advance African Aitkin Parentage P.nigra hybrid P.americana P.americana P .angustifolia \Brians P.nigra fruit fruit size colour 50mm dk red yellow dk red Ige m-I dk red m-I dk red fruit qual exc v.gd gd gd gd ripe period yield late gd mid e-m gd tree vig/hab

vig low,spr vig

;

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 29

1F-=-¥€%
Minor ~Ium;: cultivar table Parentage Cultivar Alderman Alhambra Alice Allfruit Allie ~ AlphaMAmericana America American Eagle American Golden P .salicina h}brid Jap*Amer hybrid P.americana fTK)lIis P.X sultana P.nigra? P.americana P.munsoniana Xsalicina P .americana fTK)lIis P .hortulana P .americana X salicina P.americana P.arnericana P.americana P.americana P .munsoniana P.nigra P.americana P.americana P.americana P .americana P .americana? P.americana P.X sultana P.americana P .angustifolia IBrians P.americana P .hortulana P .arnericana P .hort.min. X P .salicina P.maritima P.americana P.besseY; P.americana P.americana P .angustifolia vatsonii P.arnericana P.americana P.nigra P.americana P.americana P.angustifolia Xsalicina P .munsoniana P.americana P.americana P.salicina Xamericana P.arnericana P .hortulana P.arnericana P.americana P .americana fTK)lIis P.nigra P.americana Amer·Jap hybrid P. X sultana

:
size fruit colour fruit qual

i&i
dk red red red red red
yellow

......",

""'---

fruit ripe period yield

tree vig/hab

*

Ige Ige Ige med med Ige
35mm

gd v.gd gd
v.gd

upr ely
mid

gd
fair fair

gd gd gd gd

Ames
Anderson Annual Bearer

Apple
Apricot Arkansas Assiniboia Atkins Bailey Baldwin Baraboo Barkley Barnsback Bartlett Bean

red dk red gold 40mm red med purple Ige dk red Ige med red 25mm red yellow med Ige red dk red m-l Ige dk red red med green med Ige red Ige med
30mm purple yellow s-m It red med

ely
mid late mid mid mid mid mid

gd gd
fair

vig,spr vig ,spr vig mod,sp

gd gd
fair fair

gd gd gd gd gd
fair

e-m
mid mid

gd gd gd

bush low,spr vig,upr vig,upr vig vig,spr

mid mid v.ely mid

Beaty
Bender Benson
Ber~iII

Best of All

Beta
Bixby Black Beauty Blackhav.4<:

Ige med Ige med sm Ige Ige m-I med Ige Ige m-I Ige Ige

dk red red red dk red
yellow

gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

gd gd gd hvy hvy gd gd gd

low,upr

spr ely
late late vig vig vig vig,spr

red dk red
purple

18mm black

Blaugh
Bluemont Bomberger Bouncer Bounty Brittlewood
Brookl~

gd gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

ely
mid mid late

vig
vig

Bruce (Bruce's Early) Brunswick

Bryan Budd
Bursoto California Captain Captain Bacon Captain Watrous Caro Carstesen Carver

Cel
Chabot Blood

red red purple red dk red dk red 40 mm dk red m-I red dk red Ige red Ige Ige red red med gold med red Ige red Ige Ige red dk red med sm red yellow med red med

ely
mid mid

gd gd gd gd gd
fair

vig,upr

v.ely

gd hvy gd gd gd

upr,spr vig,spr vig,spr

gd gd gd gd gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

ely
mid

upr

ely
mid late vig vig vig vig

mid

ely
late late

gd

gd gd

n~",,,

'In

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No

IF;

;:

Minor ~Iums: cultivar table Parentage cuttivar Chalko Champion Cheney Cherry P. X sultana P.americana P.nigra P.nigra P.munsoniana P .americana P.americana P.munsoniana P.munsoniana P.X sultana P.hortulana mnen P.angustifolia \Brians P.americana P.americana P.americana P .besseY; X P .hort.min. P.americana rrollis Amer. hybrid P.americana P.americana P.americana P .hortulana mneri P.nigra P .hortulana P .hortulana P .munsoniana P.americana P .munsoniana Xsalicina P.umbellata P.nigra P.americana P .munsoniana P .hortulana mnen P.americana P.salicina Xbessey; P.salicina Xmahaleb P.americana P.americana P.amencana P .americana rrollis P .munsoniana P.americana P.munsoniana P.nigra P.munsoniana P.hortulana P.americana

-

size

fruit colour

fruit qual

fruit period

ripe

yield hvy

tree vig/hab vig ,upr vig,spr

m" Ige med m-I med Ige Ige Ige

dk red red red red red red

gd
fair fair [ate mid

40mm orange

Choptank
Christie

City
Cleveland Clifford Climax Clinton Cluck Colman Colorado Queen Comfort Compass Consul Convoy Cook Choice Cottrell Craig Crescent Crimson Culberson Cumberland Curry Cyclone Daisy Dander Dandy Davenport Davis Decker Deep Creek Deep Purple Delight Dennis De Soto Diana

purple scarlet 45mm dk red

gd gd v.gd gd gd gd gd
fair fair

e-m e-m m-I
mid v.ely late mid mid

hvy gd hvy gd gd gd gd
fair

vig
vig vig,spr vig,spr

vig
vig

med med Ige med sm Ige sm med Ige Ige med m-I m-I med Ige Ige Ige

red red red red red dk red red red red
yellow

gd
fair

upr
bush vig,upr

ely
mid

gd
fair

20mm purple

ely
late mid mid mid v.ely late

gd

gd gd gd gd gd
fair

vig

red It red dk red
yellow purple

dk red red

40mm purple 30mm yellow med yellow

gd v.gd gd gd gd gd exc v.gd v.gd
fair

gd
fair

vig vig,spr bush

ely
mid v.Jate

ely
mid mid

hvy gd
bush

Ige m-I med med Ige Ige Ige sm Ige med med Ige sm Ige med Ige

red red red red red
yellow yellow

gd gd
fair

low
vig,spr

40mm purple

40mm orange yellow

Don
Dorsett Douglass Downing Dropmore Blue Drouth King Dunlap Dunlap No.1 Dura Eagle Early Large Red #8

gd gd gd gd gd gd
v.gd

ely ely
mid mid late

hvy

low,spr vig,upr

ely
mid late mid mid late

30mm red 35mm purple

red red
green

Amer.hybrid
P.angustifolia 'Brians P.bokhariensis P.angustifolia \Brians P.mantima P.americana P .nigra X salicina

Early Red
Eastham Edith Elite
~

dk gm It red red red dk red dk red

gd gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

mod gd

vig,spr vig

ely ely hvy
mid late

bush low,spr

gd gd gd

vig,upr low,spr

2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 31

Minor Qlums: cultivar table Parentage Cultivar Ellis Emerald Emma Esttter P.munsoniana Xhortulana P .salicina Xamerica na P.americana P .hortulana mnen P.americana P .nigra P .nigra P .salicina Xmunsoniana P .angustifolia Xsalicina P.americana P .munsoniana P .munsoniana P.munsoniana P.nigra

size Ige

fruit colour

fruit qual

ripe fruit period yield

tree
vig/hab

red
yellow

Etta
Eureka

Eva
Excelsior Explorer Fairchild Fancy Fanning

Fawn
Fin de Sieele first First Sweet Fitzroy Forest Garden Forest Rose freeman Freestone Gale Gates Gaviota

Amer-Jap h)IJrid
P.nigra? P.americana Amer.species P.hortulana mnen P .munsoniana P.amencana P.americana P.americana p.salicina xamericana P.americana P.americana P.america na P .americana fTK)lIis

Ige med med Ige Ige sm med m-I m-I Ige med med Ige med med m-I

red dk red
yellow purple

red dk red
purple yellow yellow

gd gd gd gd gd gd exc gd v.gd
fair

gd
late mid v.ely mid

poor

vig ,upr vig

ely
mid mid mid

gd
fair fair fair

hvy gd gd mod mod
fair

vig

red red red
yellow

ely
v.ely

red
yellow

30mm red 25mm cnmson cnmson m-I

Ige s-m med
v.lge

Gaytord Gaytord Gold Gem
Gloria Glow

Amer.h)IJrid

Goff Gold
Golden Golden Beau\, Golden Boy Golden Queen Grace Grayson Grenville Guinea Egg Haag Hammer Hancock Hansens Hanson Harvest Hawkeye Heep Hendrick Hiawatha

P.amencana P.americana P.munsoniana ,Xsalicina 25mm P.hortulana p.besseyi Ige P.americana med P.americana P .munsoniana Xamericanamed 50mm p.nigra h)IJrid P.americana P.americana p .hort.min. X americana P.maritima p.besseyi P.amencana P.americana P.americana P .angustifolia \Brians P .munsoniana? Amer.hybrid P .americana P.amencana P .munsoniana p.salicina Xang .var. P.americana

med med med Ige Ige Ige med m-I

It red red red dk red red gold red red
crimson

exc gd gd gd gd gd
fair fair

ely
late late

vig,spr

mod
vig

ely
v.ely late mid mid mid

hvy gd hvy
vig vig

red
orange

gd gd gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair fair

late

mod low
vig ,spr

gold
orange

mid v.late

poor

mod

gold gold
yellow

Ige m-I

red red dk red

30mm crimson blue

Ige med Ige

purple red red 30mm red red m-I yelloW med
v. lge

exc gd gd gd exc gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

mid

m-I
mid mid poor

vig mod,sl vig ,spr

ely ely ely
mid

gd
fair

gd hvy

gd
fair fair

Hilltop
Hinkley Holiser Holland

sm Ige med Ige Ige

purple dk red yellow

ely ely
mid mid mid

vig vig vig

bush.~

red
yellow yellow

gd gd gd gd

gd

vig, s~

Holt
..... _ __ 'l .....

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 N<

fi
Minor (;!Iums: cultivar table Parentage cultivar Homestead Honey.yood Hoosier Hughes Hunt size fruit colour fruit qual fruit period ripe

yield

tree vig/hab

Ida Idall
Imperial Indiana lona Iowa Beauty Ironclad Iroquois Isabella Itasca Jennie Lucas Jessie Jewell Jones Juicy Kaga Kanawha Kappa Keith Kelsaw Kickapoo Klondike Kober La Crescent laire

Lake III
Lake IX Lake X Lake XXII lang langsdon lannix Late Conical Late Rollingsbne Le Duc Leib Sour Leonard Lillie Lizzie Lone Star Lottie Louisa Luedloff Red Macedonia Mankato Manor Mansan Marble Marcellus

pr

spr

"
02

P.americana sm P.besseY; 20mm m-I P .hortulana P.munsoniana med P.munsoniana Xamericanamed P.americana med P.ffiunsoniana Xhort.min. Ige sm P.americana P .hortulana mineri med P.hortulana mineri med med P.americana P.americana med P.hortulana mineri med P.americana med P.nigra med med P .angustifolia 'lBrians P.americana med P .munsoniana med P.americana med P.munsoniana Xsalicina 40mm sm P .americana X simonii P .hortulana med Amer.hybrid P.americana Ige P.sal icina Xmunsoniana Ige P.americana med P.americana s-m P.americana Ige P.americana Xsalicina sm P.X orthosepala 30mm P.subcordata P.subcordata P .subcordata P .subcordata v.lge P.americana Ige P.hortulana mneri sm P.salicina Xmunsoniana med P .X sultana Ige P.americana med P.americana med P.X sultana Ige P.americana med P.americana med P.americana Ige P .angustifolia ISrians med P.americana mollis Ige P.americana med P.americana P .munsoniana med m-I P.americana Amer.hybrid P.besseY; X hortulana sm sm P.hortulana mneri med P.americana mollis

dk red
purple

v.gd
fair

dk red red dk red red red
yellow

gd
fair fair fair

late late mid late late late

vig,spr

low

gd gd
fair fair

red
yellow

vig,upr bush

gd
fair fair

ely
mid mid mid mid

dk red
dk red

dk red
purple yellow

gd
fair fair

gd gd gd

low,spr

low
vig upr,spr vig,spr

red red dk red gold
crimson

gd
fair fair fair

ely
mid mid mid late mid mid

red
dk blue orange

red red
yellow

gd gd gd v.gd v.gd gd
fair fair

9

gd

ely
mid

vig

hvy
gd vig low
bush bush

ely
mid mid late

red
yellow green

gd v.gd gd exc v.gd gd
fair

ely
v.ely mid mid

yellow yellow

vig

It red red
yellow yellow

mod
vig

gd v.gd gd
fair

red It red dk red
yellow yellow

late mid mid mid

mod

v.gd
fair

red
'White

exc gd gd gd
fair v.gd fair

vig,upr vig,spr

ely
mid

red
It red

mod
mid late late mid vig

red red
purple

gd
v.gd fair

gd gd

vig

dk red
It red

gd
fair

"""

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 33

Minor ~Iums : cultivar table Cultivar Parentage Marcus Marion Marjorie P.americana P.americana P.americana P.americana moHis

size

fruit colour

fruit qual

fruit ripe period yield

tree vig/h

Ige med Ige

dk red red
yellow

Mary
Ma(ytand Mason Maynard McCartney Melon Milton Minco Miner Mississippi Missouri Monitor Munson Mussey Nebraska Nellie Nellie Blanche Never Fail Newman Newton Newtown Egg NewUlm Nimon Nome Nona Norther Noyes Ocheeda Odegard Ohio

Amer.hybrid
P .angustifolia -.arians P.X sultana P.angustifolia -.arians P.americana P .munsoniana h}brid P .hortulana mneri P .hortulana mneri P.munsoniana P.munsoniana P .americana X salicina P .angustifolia -.arians P.americana P.hortulana mneri P.americana P.americana P.americana P .munsoniana P.americana P.americana P.americana P.hortulans Xmunsoniana P.americana P.salicina Xmunsoniana P.nigra P.americana P.americana P.nigra P.munsoniana P.salicina Xbesse~ P.americana Amer-Jap hybrid P.arnericana P.munsoniana P.nigra P.munsoniana P.americana

II red sm red red med 35mm dk red med gold yellow med 25mm dk red dk red med med red Ige red red med Ige red med red red Ige med red Ige yellow Ige yellow Ige red 25mm red Ige red m-I purple
30mm cannine med crimson

gd gd gd gd
fair

ely
mid mid' v.ely

vig ,u

gd gd gd gd gd spr

gd
v.gd

ely
mid v.ely late late mid late

vig vig,u

v.gd
fair

gd v.gd gd gd gd gd
fair

mod vig

vig.s

m-I ely
v.late late

hvy

gd gd gd gd gd
fair

vig.s

m-I
mid mid late mid mid mid

gd gd gd gd gd

Oka
Omega

Opata
Oren Osage Oxford Patten Patten Pattersons Pride Pearl Peerless Pembina Piper Piram Plunk Poole Pride Pottawattamie Prairie Prairie Flov-er Premium Presley

P.nigra hybrid
P .americana mollis P.americana P .nigra hybrid P.americana P .angustifolia -.arians P.americana P.munsoniana P.munsoniana

P.nigra hybrid
P.hortulana mneri P.americana P .hortulana mneri

red dk red s-m red Ige red 25mm red Ige dk red med red Ige black Ige red m-I purple 30mm red red med Ige dk red red med m-I purple 40mm red It red Ige Ige dk red Ige red Ige red m-I yellow Ige dk red 25mm red 25mm red 50mm dk red med red med dk red med red
m~

Ige

gd gd gd gd gd gd
fair

vig,u vig,s vig ,s vig

mod ,

ely
v.ely

gd gd gd
fair

e-m
mid

gd
poor

mod vig upr spr vig vig
vig vig

vig ,sp

ely
mid mid late v.ely mid mid v.ely

hvy gd gd hvy
poor

gd gd gd gd
fair

low
bush vig

gd
poor

gd gd gd exc exc gd gd gd gd gd
fair

late

m-I m-I
mid mid

gd hvy gd gd gd gd gd

low

vig,up

vig ,up vig vig

gd gd gd gd gd

ely ely ely
late late mid

mod spr
vig

0'::),.'1/:> ':\4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 Nc

Minor ~Iums: cultivar table Parentage cultivar Price Quaker Quality Queen Rachel Ragland Raribank Red Diamond Red Glass Red Orna Reed Robinson Robusfo Rockford Rollingstone Roulette P.americana P.americana moHis P.americana P.americana P.hortulana mneri P.salicina Xang.var. P.maritima Amer.hybrid P .hort.min. X domestica Amer hybrid P .hortulana P .munsoniana P .angustifolia Xsalicina P.americana P.americana P.munsoniana P .salicina Xmunsoniana P.munsoniana P.americana mollis P.salicina Xbesseyi Amer.hybrid P .angustifolia \Brians P.americana P.salicina X besseyi Amer.hybrid P.nigra? P.americana P .subcordata P.americana P.besseyi P .angustifolia Xsalicina P .salicina h}brid P .munsoniana P.americana P.nigra P.nigra P.americana P .munsoniana P .americana X salicina
P .besse~

size

fruit colour yellow

fruit qual

fllJit ripe period yield

tree vig/hab

yellow purple 40mm maroon

Ige Ige s-m Ige sm med

dk red
purple gold

gd gd
fair

mid mid

v.gd
fair mid

upr ely
vig bush mid late bush vig vig,spr vig bush

red

Ruby Ruby
Sada St. Anthony Salsberry Sanders Sanderson Sapa Sapalta Saskatchewan September Sierra Silas Wilson Sioux Six Weeks Skinner's Favourie Smiley Smith Smith Red Snelling Snyder Sophie South Dakota Speer Splendid Sprite SQuibnocket Steinman Stoddard Sucker State Sunrise Sunset Supreme Surprise Tecumseh Terry Texas Belle
~

red red dk red 20mm red m-I red med purple 25mm dk red med red med dk red red sm Ige red Ige purple Ige sm sm
30mm maroon purple sm Ige It red 25mm purple purple

v.gd gd gd gd gd
fair fair

ely
mid mid mid

gd gd gd
fair

mod gd gd gd

gd gd
fair

gd exc
fair

mid mid v.ely v.ely mid

gd

hvy

bush

med Ige Ige Ige Ige med m-I Ige Ige m-I Ige

red red
crimson

gd gd gd gd
fair

bush

ely ely
mid

red
yellow yellow

gd gd
fair

gd
fair

ely
mid

red dk red
purple

South Oakola Ruby(Ruby)

P.americana P.americana P.salicina Xmahaleb P.maritima P.americana P.americana P.hortulana P.americana P.americana P.nigra hybrid P.americana hybrid P.americana Xsalicina P.americana mollis P.munsoniana

dk red red 30mm red med yellow med red s-m purple med dk red sm purple med
crimson 30mm red

gd exc gd gd gd
fair

hvy
gd gd gd gd

e-m
mid mid late late

vig,upr bush vig,spr vig

vig
vig,upr vig,spr poll bush bush

gd
fair

m-I Ige Ige med Ige m-I

dk red red dk red dk red dk red
It red

50mm 30mm dk red

gd gd gd gd v.gd gd gd gd exc exc
fair

m-I m-I ely
late mid late late mid late mid mid mid

hvy
gd

hvy
gd gd gd

vig

vig,spr vig vig

hvy
gd gd gd

mod
vig vig vig ,upr

gd gd
fair

ely

low

,2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 35

e;Toka Tokeya Truro Underwood

"'"

e

+¥#
size fruit colour red dk red red dk red purple dk red red red red red crimson red red yellow red purple red orange red

oF"

Minor glums: cultivar table Cultivar Parentage

fruit qual exc gd v.gd fair gd gd gd gd v.gd fair gd exc gd gd exc v.gd gd gd gd gd fair gd gd gd gd gd gd gd fair gd gd gd fair gd gd gd

"

M
hvy

fruit ripe period yield

tree vigfha

m-I US.~ Value mid Van Buren late Venus ely Vermilion late Vick mid Virgie Wagner mid Wallace mid vig gd Waneta late gd Ward October Red late vig,sp hvy Waugh e-m vig Wayland v.1ate gd vig,sp Weaver m-I gd vig ,up Welcome mid gd vig Wessex bush gd Whitaker yellow e-m fair mod White Prune red Whyte dk red mid Wickson e-m poor vig dk red Wier red Wilder dk red mid Wild Goose red v.ely vig,spr gd Wolf crimson mid gd vig,spr Wood dk red mid hvy mod,s Wooten mid red World Beaer cannine v.late gd vig,spr Wragg yellow mid vig gd Wyant cannine mid gd low Yellow Sweet yellow Yellow Transparent yellow ely vig Yukon red ely References Akin, J S: Search for the DanderPlum. Pomona. 64, \til xxiv No.4 (1991). Bailey, L H: The Sandard Cytopedia of Hoiticulture. MacMillan, 1947. Bean, W J: Trees and S1rubs Hardy in the Bitish Isles, \blume 3. John Muray, 1976. Facciola, S: Comucopia. 1990. Gibson, M D: The Nati'fl Pacific Plum. NNGA56th Mnual Report, 102-103, 1965. Hedrick, U P: The Plums of New York. New York Agricultural Experiment Station, 1910. Moore, J & Balfington Jr, J: Genetic Resouces of Terrperate Fruit and Nut Cops. 15I-IS. Payne, J et al: Neglected Natie Fruit Trees and Slrubs. NNGA81st Mnual Report, 76-92, 1990. Reid, W & Gast, K: The Potential for Domestication and Utilisation of Native Plums in Kansas. In Janick, & Simon. J: Newcrops. John Wley, 1993. Rom, R & Canson, R: Rootstocks forFruit Crops . John Wley. 1987. USDA: Seeds of \!\body Plants in the United Sates. USJA Agriculture Handbook No.4S0. 1974. WesMood, M N: Terrperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press. 1993. Whealy. K & Demuth , S: Fruit. Berry and Nut Imentory. 2nd Ed. Seed Saver Publications. 1993. Paqe 36

m-I P.americana Xsimonii P .besseyi X simonii 30mm P.americana Xhort.min. Ige P.americana Xsalicina Ige P.americana Ige P.americana Ige P.americana mollis med P.munsoniana v. lge P.americana med P.munsoniana Xamericanamed P.hortulana mneri med P.americana sm P.americana Ige P.americana Xsalicina Ige P.rivularis X m-I P.salicina Xhortulana P .hortulana 25mm P.americana 25mm P.americana m-I Amer.hytJrid m-I P .munsoniana P.americana P.nigra med P. X sultana SOmm P.americana Ige P .munsoniana med P .munsoniana 30mm P .americana mollis 20mm P.americana 30mm P .munsoniana P .hortulana 2Smm P.americana v.1ge P.americana 30mm P.americana Ige P.angustifolia ~rians med P.nigra? med

late ely late

mod,p upr vig vig vig spr upr

gd gd gd mod gd

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No

Chestnuts (3)
Cultivars of JapaneseChinese/American chestnut origin
Varieties of the American chestnut (C.dentata) are still sometimes grown in North America outside of the natural range of the species (eg. Western U.S.), where they are often safe from chestnut blight; but few if any are commercially available now American chestnuts boe smaller nuts than other species, but the nuts were very sweet and rich eaten raw. More commonly planted are various hybrids between this and the Chinese and Japanese chestnuts, seeral of ......nich are blight-fesistant and ae gro'Ml commercially.

Chinese chestnut (C.mollissirra) varieties are often grown in North America. The Chinese chestnut is
resistant (but not imm une) to chestnut blight - cankers usually heal, and is highly resistant to ink disease. It is susceptible to honey fungus (Arm illaria spp) though (other chestnu ts are not) . It requires slightly warmer conditions than 3rveet chestnut. T he nuts ae sv.eeter and richer than most European chestnuts. Japanese chestnut (C.crenata) varieties are commonly grown in North America, Southern Europe, and other parts of the \oVOrld. T he Japanese chestnut is also highly resistant to blight (though slightly less so than the Chinese chestnut) and is highly resistant to Ink disease. It requires slightly warmer conditions than the SWeet chestnut. T he nuts ae coarser and stalCh ier than those of otherchestnuts. Abundance: C .rrollissima selection fom the U.S. Nuts: rich brolNfl, good fla\Our. Easily shelled. Alachua: Hybrid of C .dentata and C.moJlissima from the U .S. Tree: Vigorous, upright, productive. Immune to chestnut blight. Nuts: Mediurrsized. sv.eet, easilyshefled.

HlM: Small to medium. dark, fair quality.

Alpha: C.crenata selection made in the U.S., seedling of Parry. Tree: Upright, very vigorous, productive. Ripens \€ry early. Appalachia: Hybrid of C.dentata and C.mollissima from the U .S. Tree: Vigorous, large, upright, early bearing (2-4 years). Immune to blight. Nuts: Mediurrnized, s.....eet, easily shelled. Armstrong: Thought to be a C .mollissima x C.dentata hybrid from the U.S. Tree: Very upright. Nuts: medium sized, very s\oV€et. AU-Cropper: A C.moflissirna selection from the U.S. (Alabama)T ree: Very producti\-e. Nuts: Small to medium, dark chocolate boWl, glossy, att/active. Ripen rrid season. Fall feely from burs.

AU-Homestead: A C.mollissima selection from the U.S. (Alabama)Tree: Very productive. Nuts: Small to medium, very dark chocolate boWl. Late ripening (over a long period). Fall moderately well from burs. AU-leader: A C.mollissima selection from the U.S. (Alabama)Tree: Very producti\-e. Nuts: Medium sized, daik chocolate boWl, glossy and attractive, fall freely from burs. Mid season ipening. Beta: C.crenata selection rrade in the U.S Nuts: Small, light bOINfl, good quality: Ripens eady. Biddle: C.crenata selection rmde in the U.S Tree: Rounded, ";gorous, reliable . Nuts: Mediumsized, bright brolNfl, broad, dOWlY, fair quality. Ripens rrid season. Bill's Earliest Hybrid involving C.mollissima, selected in British Columbia. Nuts: Very early ripening; fall freely from burs . Black (Syn. Dr Black): C .crenata selection made in the U.S. Tree: Rounded, dense, vigorous, productive. Nuts: Small to medium, irregular, dark brolNfl, good quality: Early ripening. Black Beauty: C.mollissima selection from the U.S. Tree : Moderately productive. Nuts: Small to medium. Early ripening . Nuts fall feely from burs. Boone: C.dentata x C.crena ta hybrid, selection made in the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, productive, precocious. Nuts: Medium to large, light bOINfl, doWlY, good quality: Ea rly ripening.

2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 37

is

7T

Carolina: C.dentata x C.moliissima hybrid from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous , spreading , productive, early bearing (2-4 years). Immune to chestnut blight. Nuts: large to very large, shiny chocolate brown, very sweet.

Carpentar: Hybrid of C.dentata and C.mollissima from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, productive. Immune to chestnut blight. Flovers: Males ale long-stamen type. Nuts: rredium sized, reddish-bro1M1, sy,.eet. Carr: C.rrollissima selection fom the U.S. (North Carolina). Nuts: Very small, sv.eet, very dOIM1Y. Clapper: C.nnllissima hybrid from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous , upright (timber-type).

Coe: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (Califomia ) Tree: Upright, somewhat spreading vvith age. Nuts Medium sized, very sVo.€et.

Crane: C.mollissima selection made in the U.S. in 1963 (possibly a hybrid). Tree: upright, very early to bear (2-3 years), resistant to chestnut blight. FlolNE!rs: Males are long-stamen; mid-season. Nuts: medium to large, dark cherry-red, good fla\Our. Natural storage is..ery good. The bus are exceptionally large. Clapper: Ahybrid of C.dentata and C.rrollissima , selected in the U.S

Douglass: C.mollissima x C.dentata hybrid from the U.S. (New York) Tree: Upright. Nuts: Small, swee flavour.

Douglass #1: Hybrid of C.dentata and C.mollissima from the U.S. (New York). Tree: Productive, bligh resistant. Nuts: Snail, good fJa\Our.

Douglass #1A: Hybrid of C.dentata and C .mollissima from the U.S. (New York). Tree: Productive, bligh resistant. Nuts: Mediumsized, very good sv.eet f1a\Our. Early ripening. Douglass #2:
H~rid

of C.dentata and C.rrollissima from the U.S (New York). Nuts: Mediumsized.

Douglass Manchurian: Hybrid of C.dentata and C.moJlissima from the U.S. (New York). Tree: Very blight resistant. Nuts: Mediumsized, good quality Dulaney: C.dentata selection tom the U.s. Nuts: Mediumsized, good quality Dunstan: C.dentata x C.mollissima hybrid from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, precocious (bears in 3-4 years) highly blight resistant. Nuts: Easy to shell, \/ary good t1a\Our.

Eaton: Possibly a seedling of 'Sleeping Giant' (C.mollissima x (C.crenata x C.dentata)), selected in the U.S. in 1970. Tree: very like C .mollissima, early bearing . Nuts: medium sized , sweet with a good flavour. Early ripening.

Ederra: A recent C.crenata selection from France. Tree: Fruits quickly. Nuts: Marrons, large, very sweet. Ripens early-mid. Etter: C.dentata xC.rnollissima hybrid from the U.s. Tree: Upright, vtgorous , blight esistant.

Felton: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. Tree: Rounded , moderate productivtty. Nuts: Small, dark brovm, good quality. Early ripening .Ford's Sweet C.dentata x (C.crenata x C.mollissima) hybrid from the U.S., introduced in 1980. Tree: Upright, vigorous, timber-type grovvth; heavy bearing, early to start bearing (3-4 years). Nuts: Small, sYteet. Ginyose: C.crenata selection . g01M1 in Italy and Chile. Griffin: C.dentata selecUon tom the U.s. Nuts: Medium sized, verydo'M1Y, good quality:

Grimo 1420: A C .mollissima selection or hybrid from Canada (Ontario). Tree: Very productive. Nuts: Medium sized. Hale (Syn. Eighteen Months1 C.crenata selection made in the U.S. Nuts: Medium to large, dark bro1M1 , good quality
(Califomia~

Tree: Very early bearing .

Hathaway: C.dentata selection from Michigan, U.S.A. Tree: Productive, reliable. Nuts: Medium sized , light coloured . sYteet.

Henry VIII: C.mollissirra selection from the U.S., Crane x Orrin. Tree: Vigorous at first, slowing once bearing begins. Nuts: rredium sized . shiny mahogany, ......;th a very good fJa\Our. Kernel is yellowsh.

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Heritage: American hybrid selection of C.dentata x C.mollissirm. tree: Very vigorous and erect, precocious (bears in 2-4 years), straight-boled INith a good timber form. Low producti".;ty, blight-resistant. Nuts: Small, elongated, chocolate bo......n, very slNeet. Nuts fall veil from burs. Ripens late, mer a short period. Hobson: C.mollissirna selection from the U.S. (Georgia). Tree: Productive, reliable, early bearing. Nuts: Small, very slNeet. Honan: C.rrollissima selection fom the U.S. (Oregon). Nuts: Small, fair quality. Ipharra: A recent C.crenata selection from France. Tree: Quickly fruiting, very productive. Nuts: Marrons, very large, sv..eet. Ripens \ery early. Ishizuki: C.cenata selection. Jersey Gem: C.mollissirna selection from the U.S. (Orrin x Nanking~ Tree: Rounded, moderately vigorous, reliable, very productive. Nuts: Medium sized, mahogany-red, glossy, good flavour; kernels are a rich yellow. Nuts ripen and dlOp over a short period. Natural sto13ge good. Kent (Syn. Extra Early): C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey). Tree: Rounded, productive, early bearing. Nuts: Snail to medium, dark, good quality Ripens \ery early. Kerr: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey). Tree: Vigorous, rou nded, very productive. Nuts: Small to medium, dark bro......n, broad. Early ripening. Ketcham: C.dentata selection from New York. Tree: Vigorous, productive. Nuts: Small, oblong, downy, sweet. Killen: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey). Tree: Upright, open, moderately vigorous and productive. Nuts: Lalge, light blOlMl, slightly ridged, good quality Ripens old season. Kuling: C.mollissima selection from the U.S. (Georgia). Tree: Vigorous, quite upright. Nuts: Small to medium, freely fall from burs. Good natural storage.Kungki: C.mollissima selection from the U.S. Tree: vigorous, rapidly starts fruiting (3 years). Nuts: Mediumsized, very attractive. Linden: H}brid from the U.s Flov..ers: Males al8long-stamen type. Nuts: rredium sized. Manoka: A selection of C.mollissima, selected in British Columbia. Tree: Upright. timber·type growth, productive. Nuts: Mediumsized, dark broV\'Tl, easily shelled, good flal£lur. Yellowkemels. Marki: A recent C.crenata selection from France. Tree: Quickly fruits. Nuts: Marrons, large to very large, very slNeet. Ripens ealy-mid. Martin (Syn. Col. Martin): C .crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey) Tree: Vigorous, open, productive. Nuts: Mediumto large, bright reddish-broV\'Tl, broad. Ripens nid season. McFarland: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (Califomia). Tree: Spreading, very productive. Nuts: Medium sized, good quality Early ripening. Meiling: C.mollissima selection made in the U.S. (possibly a hybrid). tree: Quite upright, heavy and early bearing ,. Nuts: srrell to medium sized, good f1a\Our, ear1y ripening. Good stoege qualities. Mossbarger: Hybrid involving C.mollissima from the U.S. Tree: Very productive. Nuts: Medium sized, slNeet, good natual storage. Murrell: C.dentata selection film the U.S. Nuts: Mediumto large, good fla\Our. Nanking: C.mollissima selection made in the U.S. in 1949. (possibly a hybrid) Tree: Spreading, vigorous, very ear1y to bear (2-3 years), reliable and productive. FlolNers: mid season. Nuts: medium sized, dark tan , some split on falling. Ripen nid-late. Nevada: A hybrid selected as a pollinator for Colossal. Flov..ers: Males are long-stamen. Nuts: Smallmedium, dark broV\'Tl, very sVoJeet. Orrin: C.mollissima selection made in the U.S. in 1963. Tree: erect, low vigour, early bearing. Flov..ers: Late. Nuts: medium to large, dark mahogany with a light scar, good flavour, good natural storage. Easy to shell. Otto: C.dentata selection fom the U.S. Nuts: Medium sized, oblong, ~ry do'MlY at tip, rich & very s...veet.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 2

Page 39

Parry. C.crenata selection made in the U.S. Tree: Open, spreading, moderate vigour; large leaves. Nut Large , dark brolMl, ridged , fair quality.

Penoka: A selection of C.mollissima, selected in British Columbia. Tree: Upright, timber-type growth producti-.e, reliable. Nuts: Mediumto large, good f1a\Our, easily shelled.
strip~d .

Prolific: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. Tree: Compact; leaves small and narrow. Nuts: Small, long Early ripening.

Reli~nce: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey), seedling of Parry. Tree: Dwarfish spreading, drooping, very productive and earfy bearing; may overbear. Nuts: Small-medium, light brown long, ridged, fairquality. Ripens rrid season.

Revival: Hybrid selection of C.dentata x C.mollissirna from the U.S. Tree: Vigorous, upright, spreading upper canopy. Precocious (bears in 2-4 years), heavy and reliable annual cropper. Blight resistant. Nuts large, dark reddish{)rolMl, sv..eet, easily shelled. Ripens O'er a short period.

Rochester: C.dentataselection from the U.S. Tree: Very vigorous and producti\€. Nuts: Small to medium dull brown, rounded, doWlY at the tip, ex:ellent quality Ripens late.

Sleeping Giant A hybrid of C.mollissima, C.crenata and C.dentata, selected in the U.S. in 1960. Tree Vigorous, some'vVhat spreading, a heavy and reliable bealer, VYith large leaves. Blight resistant. Nuts: srra medium sized, attractive, good qualit)( easily shelled.

Success: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey), seedling of Parry. Tree: Upright, productive Nuts: Medium to large.

Superb: C.crenata selection made in the U.S. (New Jersey), seedling of Parry. Tree: Vigorous, ver productive. Nuts: Mediumsized. broad, fair quality. Earfy ripening. Tanzawa: C.ctenata selection , gOVvTl in Italy and Chile. Tsuboka: C.clenata selection, gOIMl in Jtalyand Chile.

Wards: Hybrid of C.dentata and C.mollissima from the U.S. Tree: Very vigorous. Nuts: Small, swee yellowkemels. Ripens eaty-mid. Watson: C.dentata selection rom the U.S. Nuts: Snail to medium, slightlydoWlY, good quality

Willamette: C.dentata x C.mollissima hybrid, from the U.S. Tree: Of moderate vigour, semi-erect, ver productive, precocious (bears in 2-4 years). Blight resistant. Nuts: Very large, reddish-brown, sweet, easil shelled.

Classified Adverts: 25piword, minimum £5.00. 20% discount for subscribers.
Experienced tree planting/ caing indilAduals and coupl e sought. House and stipend, ~anic perrnaculture, Southem France. Faxexperience and IJelNS to Japan: 81.3.5484.3447. ECO-LOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, rmnuals and v;deos forpennaculture, sustainable s)6tems design and pactical solutions to en'ironmental problems. Send s.a.e. forour FREE mail order catalogue to a:o"ogic books ~N), 19 Maple Grove, Bath, BA2 3AF. Telephone 0225 484472.

NUTWOOO NURSERIES specialise in nut tees only and can offer trees from "A" to "2" (-.veil at least "Almond" to "'vValnut"!) Send forourcatalogue, FREE on receipt of a 9" x6" (AS) SAE. NUTWOOD NURSERIES, SCHOOL FPRM, ONNaEY, CREWE, CHESHIRE, CW3 9QJ.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No;

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturei hOliicultuI produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing j mp.terials, timber and other products. It can range from planting tre\ pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest ga systems incorporating layers of tali and small trees, shrubs and gr~ layers in a self-sustaining, interGolmected and productive system . Agn::f(;restl·y News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust limt:s a year in October, January, April and July. SubscriptIon rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £'22 per y<'ar c,verseas (please remit in Sterling) £32
Oi1

pe~

year for institutions.

/\. list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, avail request for 3 x 1st class :;tamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per, inc1udi'lg postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payab 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research T 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK.

Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. [007440), witli object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through book AgrolorestlY News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donat and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which incl1 various practical research projects.

Agro fore stry News
e t·
od,
S
I!:

del:

ut,d

four

ble
~ui.'J

Ie to ~ust,

the and ets. ons des

Volume 4 Number 3

April 1996

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 4 Number 3

April 1996

Contents
2 4 7 15 28
38

News Soap plants Elaeagnus Pear rootstocks Diospyros virginiana: the American persimmon Book reviews: Alternative Silvicultural Systems to
Clear Cutting in Britain I Natural Woodland I Prirwiples of Forest Pathology I Herbs and Herb lore of Colonial America Video reviews: Forest Gardening with Robert Hart I Gaia Theory with James Lovelock

40

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered .9" the advice of a qualified practitioner: somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even. tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or-misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford . ~Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial. Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT. U.K. Email: AgroResTr@ aol .com Website: http://members.aol.com/AgroResTr/homepage.html

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 1

News
Alder phytophthora
"Forestry Commission Research Note 277: Phytophthora Oisease of Alder: The situation in 1985" describes the current state of research on this recently discovered disease which mostly attacks the native alder (A.glutinosa) but can also affect Aincana and Acordata. Thet disease, which is caused by a fungus resembling P.cambivora , is now known to be widespread throughout most of England and Wales. The increase in disease between 1994 and 1995 was relatively small. Most of the affected trees are in riparian sites or on land that is subject to flooding from adjacent rivers 'Nhich suggests it may be transmitted via the flow of water. Symptoms of affected trees are small, yellowed , sparse foliage which frequently fall prematurely. tarry or rusty spots at the base of trees, and eventual death.
No cause is suggested for this sudden increase in the disease (it has probably been present for many years and not noticed). One possibility worth looking at is that riparian alders are simply becoming more stressed by the frequent sunmer droughts and thus nure susceptible to the disease.

New Publications from the A.R.T.
The past few months ha\e seen the publication of se-eral new titles:-

Chestnuts: Productbn and Culure
1st Edition, No-.ember 1995. I!:EN 1-874275-26-2. /l5, 52 pages.

A complete guide to growing chestnuts, mainly for nut production but includes coppice production.
Subjects covered include different chestnut species; silviculture and coppice ; flowering and pollination; nut types and uses; rootstocks; mycorrhizas; planting; intercrops; pruning ; feeding and irrigation; production and harvesting; processing of nuts; diseases and pests; propagation ; chestnut cultivars in Europe and North America; culthars for the UK; sources - nurseries, equiprrent supplies etc. The first comprehensive guide to chestnut cultivation in the English language, this is essential reading for anybody interested in glOwing chestnuts on a srmll or large scale. Price: £8.00

Hazelnuts: Production and Culture
1st Edition, NO\ember 1995. I!:EN 1-874275-27-0. /l5, 27 pages.

A complete guide to growing hazels, both for nut production and coppice pole prodLdion . Includes details
of pollination , siting , pruning , harvesting, processing , storage and cultivars. A comprehensive guide to growing hazelnuts. Price: £8.00

Walnuts: Production and Culture
1st Edition , Febuary 1996. t<EN 1-<174275·28-9. AS , 28 pages. A complete guide to growing walnuts, both for the valuable timber and for nut production. Includes walnut silviculture and uses, rootstocks, siting and planting, feeding and irrigation , pruning , pollination , harvesting , cultivar selection, extensi...e cultivar notes, nut processing , pests and diseases , propagation and sources. A comprehensive guide to \"Blnut growing in Bitain and othertemperate climates . Price: £8.00

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Plums: Production, Culture and Cultivar Directory.
1st Edition. Febuary 1996. tffiN 1-874275-29-7. AS. 60 pages .

This is a comprehensive guide to growing plums, including the different plum species, also bullaces,
damsons and mirabelles.lncludes descriptions of all the different plum species, a minor plums cultivar list, the cherry plum , rootstocks; Cultivation of European plums including siting, pollination, pruning , harvesting,

pests and diseases; European cuttivar selection which indudes tables of flowering characteristics,
descriptor lists of cultil.ars for specific situations, and descriptions of over 250 cuttivars; cultivar descriptions of buUaces, darrsons and mrabelles; and sauces. A must for all plum growers.

Price: £10.00

Plant availability, spring-summer 1996
Many of our container-groWl plants \Nill contim.e to be available over the spring and summer. Please see enclosed sheet for a list of available species (including a few new ones), and refer to the main catalogue produced last auturm for descriptions, prices Oncluding postage)and an Older form.

Open days 1996
Please see enclosed details (m the reverse of the plant a'Bilabilitylist) of our tv.<:> open da}S in 1996.

Agroforestry - definitions and scope
Although Agroforestry News concentrates clearly on the practical aspects of tree and shrub crops, v..e have been reminded recently that the use of agroforestry/forest gardening must also be viewed in a wider social and ecological contet. Leakey (1) suggests that instead of viewing agroforestry as a set of prescriptions for land use, "agroforestry practices can be seen as phases in the development of a productive agroecosystem , akin to the normal dynamics of natural ecosystems. Over time, the increasing integration of trees into land use systems .. can be seen as the passage towards a mature agroforest of increasing ecological integrity." Wyant (2) in turn defines ecological integrity as "a state of system development in which the habitat structure, natural functions and species composition of the system are intel3cting in ways that ensure its sustainabilityin the face of changing enVronmental conditions, as veil as both intenal and eJotemal stresses." Leakey goes on to suggest a definition of agroforestry as: "" a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that. through the integl3tion of trees in farm and rangeland, diversifies and sustains srrnllholderproduction forincreased social, econorric and en~ronmental benefits." Although the authors of these ideas work in tropical agroforestry, where alleviation of poverty and mitigation of deforestation are the main aims, the implications are general: agroforestry systems, because of their increasing complexity and the difficulty of integmting them with present-day mechanical farming , are most suited to smallholders and gardeners (and Permaculturalists). This ties in well with Frank Hemming's comment (3) that ''the forest garden" can be seen as a basic productive unit in a decentralised society 'Nhere plant-based products provide for most needs. This implies a very radical change from our present society in Britain wth implications forall aspects of life." Whilst the transformation of society into something more decentmlised, democratic, self-sufficient and sustainable is rather more than the TlJst can aim to achie\e, hopefully the ART. and Agroforestry News is helping in a srrall way by promoting the use of sustainable wody crops . (1) Roger Leakey. Definition of /groforestry revisited. Pgroforestry Today, Vol 8 No 1. (2) James Wyant: Pgroforestry-an ecological pespectiw. Agroforestry Today, Vol 8 No 1. (3) Friends of the Forest Garden, Newsletter No.8, Feb 1996. [Available by donation from Jane Powell, Priory Cottage. 3 Sandfold Road. O';old. OX4 4PU.)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 3

Soap Plants

Many plants contain saponins in low concentrations, in leaves, seeds and sometimes roots. One propelt of saponins is that they form a lather in water which is a gentle but effective cleanser. This article highlights the main plants Wlich can easily be utilised in this way to provide home production of soap substitutes. The adrantage of saponins over other soaps is that they are salt-free and thus are less likely to be affected by alkaline or acid conditions for example, hald water).

Saponins are also toxic glycosides (though poorly absorbed into the body, and destroyed by heat) and

have numerous medicinal uses , both traditional and modem. Many saponins are steroids and are used, fo example, as the starting materials for the production of steroidal hormones. Saponins also often have insecticidal ormolluscicidal poperties.

Several plants have been and still are exploited for the industrial production of saponins used in soaps detergents and other products. These include horse chestnuts (Aesculus spp), Ivy (Hedera helix), cowslip (Primula), soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) and sugar beet (Beta) . Saponins at a concentration of about 5% are frequently employed in soap, sharrpoo and bath salt fomulations.

Soap plants

Aescuvs species ~orse chesnut family} Small to large deciduous trees which grow on most sites. Most species of horse chestnuts, including the common tree found in Britain, have seeds rich in saponins. They lather well in cold water when rubbed bet'oNeen the hands, and can also be cut into small pieces and infused in hot water. The drawback is tha they do impart a distinctiloe odour of horse chestnuts. Dry seeds of A.hippocastaneum contain 3-6% saponins .

Species which can be used in this way include A.califomica, A.x camea, A.chinensis, A.f1ava , A.glabra, A.hippocastanum, A.indica, Aparviflora, Apavia, and Aturbinata.

Agave species

~oes}

Small and medium shrubs (or, more accurately evergreen perennials) from warm desert areas of North America. They need a very well drained soil and are only hardy to about _10°C. Several species from Southern N.America have been used , usually by using the leaves in water, but also sometimes by using the roots in the sarre \Al3YS as Yuccas. Species wth saponaceous lea-es include Aamericana, Aparryi and Autahensis.

Artemesia abroanum (Southernwood) A small shrub grolNing only 1m high, which likes a sunny well-drained site. The leaves can be used as a soap source. Ceanothus species

North American shrubs , both evergreen and deciduous, 'Nhich like a well-drained soil and sunny location. Ceanothus species are good nitrogen-fixing plants. In many (pemaps all) species, the flowers can be used as a saponin source which also imparts a pleasant aroma. The fresh flowers are merely rubbed in water. Care should be taken to remove any green stalks adhering to the flowers. as these impart a weedy smell. Recommended as a skin cleanser. The fresh green seed vessels may also be used , though these often have a resi nous coating that is apt to cause a yellowsh stain; the foliage of some species can also be used.

Includes C.americanus , C.cuneatus, C.divergens, C.fendleri, C.integerrimus, C.ovatus , C .prostratus, C .purpureus , C.sanguineus. C .thysiflorus, C.velutinus.

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Chenopodium caHfornicum (Pig weed)
A weedy Califomian perennial plant INith a spindle-shaped root up to a foot long, brittle when fresh but very hard when dried. The fresh root can be readily crushed and forms a good lather when agitated with water. Drted roots can be grated or ground. The native annual Chenopodium album (Pigweed, Fat hen) can be l!.sed in the sarre way.

Chlorogalum pomeridianum(Amole, Soap lily, California soap pianO A bulbous perennial plant from Califomia, 'Nhere it groINS in sun on well-drained soils. Slender, grass-like ieaves are follo.....ed in summer by a slender, tall f1ov.er stalk. The bulb is bottle-shaped, fairly deep in the ground, and thickly covered in a layer of coarse brown fibre. The bulb, after the outer layer is peeled off, is very rich in saponins. It can be crushed and rubbed in water to give an effective cleanser, particularly valuable for delicate fabrics and for using as a hair shampoo (reputedlyanti<landruff). The peeled bulbs can also be crushed and rubbed directly onto the material to be washed. Bulbs can be dried and stored, and also gated into flakes. Clethra alnifolia A large shrub from Eastern N.America, which likes a shady site and soil on the acid side. The flower stalks are used as a soap sauce.
Cucurbita foe tidissima (Buffalo gourd, Mssouri gourd) A relative of squashes and pumpkins, this annual gourd has foliage which emits a strong garlicky odour. It requires similar conditions to other squashes. The roots and the pith from the gourds has been used as a soap source (the gourds can be cut up into pieces and simmered in water). It is a second-rate source, though, not recommended for skin or clothes; "To wear under-clothes thus washes, one must be indifferent to the prickles of the ough hailS and broken fibre that are of necessitymingled IAith the v.ater." Dianthus caryophylus (Carnation, Clove pink) A popular garden flower, a low growing evergreen perennial which likes sun and a well drained soil. The leaves are rich in saponins and ae simmered in IABter to extract them. Used for clothes and on the skin. Dioscorea spp tfams) Several species of these tropical climbing or trailing plants contain saponins in their tubers. They are utilised commercially for steroid production. Species used thus include D.deltoidea and D.elephantipes. In temperate climates, these can be treated like potatoes, lifting the tubers before frosts and replanting in spring. Euphorbia 'lOfflsoniana Roots are used. Gleditsia species t-ocusts) Trees and shrubs vmich like a sunny, well..cJrained site. The pulp from the seed pods of several species can be used as soap. Includes G.caspica, G.delayi, G.japonica, G.lTBcracantha and G.sinensis. Gymnocladus species Leguminous trees requiring sun. Fruits of two species (G.chinensis and G.dioica) are high in saponins and can be used as a soap forfabrics and the skin. OnlyG.dioica is toly hardy in temperate climates. Gypsophila species Perennials from Europe 'Which like sun and a well-drained soil, often grown as garden ornamentals. Traditionallyused as soap substitutes, the saponins Urn these plants are some of the most useful as soap sources. The saponin content is very high, over 10% in some species, is very soluble in water and lathers in dilutions of only 1;1000 in water, hence they are often added to detergents as a foaming agent. TIM) of the most effecthe are G.acutifolia and G.paniculata.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 5

~

--

--

.

-

~

Hedera helx (Ivy) Vigorous climber which tolerates deep shade. The lea-es of this conmon European plant contain saponis in significant quantities. These saponins have a strong molluscicidal effect (ie kill snails and slugs). They are boiled VoJth soda to exract them and the eJillract is used as a hairrinse. Mesembryanthemum crystaJljnum (Ice Plant) A South African annual plant, now often grown in the vegetable garden for its edible leaves. The crushed foliage is used as a saponin source , but presumably cannot contain large amounts as this would affect its edibility. Panax japonicus Perennial wich likes a shadysite. The oats contain 5%saponins. Philadelphus species Sh rubs which tolerate most sites. P.lewisii from W.N.America has bark, leaves and flowers which all lather well in cold water. likes a loamy soil and sun or part shade. Several other species have leaves used in the same ways, including P.coronarius, P.delavayi, P.microphytlus , P.pubescens and P x virginalis. Phytolacca americana (poke~ed) A North American tali-growing perennial which tolerates most sites. The roots are rich in saponins, which can be e>¢.racted by cutting the oots into pieces and sirnnering in 'AElter. Primula species tp.veris, Cov-slip and P.elatior, Oxlip) These small perennial hems contain 5-10% saponins in theirroots ; once used as a cornnercial source. pteridium aquifnum (Bracken, Brake) Very common fern (perennial) which likes acid soils. The rhizomes are rich in saponins and lather readily in INCIter. Sapindus drunmondii (Soap ber~ A deciduous North American tree, needing sun and a sheltered site - hardy to only _1Oo e. It produces fleshy berries containing 1-2 seeds. The berries contain saponins, which lather readily when the berries are rubbed in water. The yellow berries, turning black as they dry, are a conspicuous feature in winter as they persist until sping. The related species Smu~orossi can be used sinilar1y. Saponaria species f:)oapwort, Bouncing Be~ Soaproot) One of the best known European soap plants is the soapwort, Saponaria officinalis, a perennial which grows in most soils both in sunny and shady sites. The saponins are extracted by briefly boiling (up to 30 minutes) and infusing the whole plant (including the roots) . The extract is still used for cleaning and restoring delicate fabrics, but can also be used as a hair and body wash (though it may leave you with a boiled cabbage odout)
Similar uses can be made of S.ocj1Tloides and the closely related ragged robin family (Lychnis flos~uculi and Lfulgens)and cafTl)ion famty (Silene dioica and Slatlfolia)

Shepherdia canadensis ~usset Buffalo berr)i A medium North American shrub growing 2.5m high, which likes a sunny, well-drained site. A good nitrogen fi)Qng plant. The fuits {vvtlich are edible)contain saponins, etracted by macerating in lIBter. Solenostemon aromaticus (Indian borage) A tender annual from Malaysia, needing a warm, sheltered, well<lrained site. The leaves (which are edible) are used as a soap souce.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Trichosanl1es species

~nake

gourds)

Annual climbing/scrambling plants from Eastern Asia, needing a hot sunny site. The fresh or dried fruits of several species ae used, including T.cucurreroides and T.O\igera .

Withania sormifera
An Asian annual plant. The foits are rich in saponins.

Yucca species fioap roots)
These desert plants from southem N.Arnerica, forming small evergreen shrubs vvith slNOrd-shaped leaves, have long been used as soap sources. Many have large, thick rootstocks in which are found saponins. The roots are freed of bark and broken into convenient sizes. Then , when needed, a piece is mashed with a stone or hammer, dropped into water and rubbed vigorously. An abundant lather quickly forms and after removing the root fragments, the infusion is used to wash clothes (particularly 'WOol) and is said to be a particularfy good body and hair wash. The plants need a very well drained soil and several are hardy in Britain (the best are underlined belo~. Species of use include Y.aloifolia, Y.angustissilTB , Y.baccata, Y.brevifolia, Y.constricta, Y.elata, Y.filamentosa, Y.filifera, Y.glauca, Y.qloriosa , Y.harrimania~ Y.recurvifolia, Y.rupicola, Y.schidigera, Y.smalliana, and Y.......nipplei.

References
Agroforestry ResealCh Trust: Database of Useful Alants, 1996. Saunders, C F: Edible and Useful Wid Plants of the United Sates and Canada. Do-er, 1976. Stevenson, M C: The Zuni Indians and TheiUses of Rants. Do\€r, 1993. Hostettmann , K & Marston, A:. Saponins . Carrt:lridge Uni\€rsity Press, 1995.

Elaeagnus
The genus Elaeagnus consists of 30-40 deciduous and evergreen shrubs and small trees, often with prickly branches, from S.Europe, Asia and N.America. The young leaves (alternate) and branches are covered INith slivery or brolMlish scales; the fuchsia~ike flowers are usually fragrant, borne in clusters from the leaf aJlils; f"-lits contain a single seed and attlct several species of wtdlife. Elaeagnus species are fast graINing and excellent INind-resisters, tolerating maritime exposure. All can be used in hedges and INindbreaks; they are very tolerant of pruning - evergreens should be pruned in spring after they have fruited. The deciduous species like full sun but tolerate part shade, the evergreens tolerate quite deep shade; they have excellent potential as understorey crops and green manure shrubs . They are good in any soil apart from waterfogged soils, and are drought tolerant They are fast growing and the hardy species are very good in Entain . .AJI species ae resistant to honeyfungus. The flowers are small but produced in abundance, and are pollinated by insects including bees; the fruits

which follow are usually edible, containing a single large seed (also usually edible, it can be eaten with the
- fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous and may be spat out); the fOJits are very attractiw to birds. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bioactive compounds. They are also a fairfy good source of essential fatty acids, 'Nhich is fairiy unusual for a fruit. They are being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing - the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. Ripe fruits can be picked byhand or

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 7

beaten flOm the branches onto sheets below Elaeagnus form a symbiotic relationship with Frankia bacteria in root nodules, much in the same way as legumes do with Rhizobium bacteria. Species lNhich do this with Frankia bacteria are called actinorhizat, they are found primarily in the temperate zone (whereas most legumes are tropical) and are especially important in high4atitude countries like Britain where conditions are generally unfavourable for mos~ legumes. Frankia nodules form on all Elaeagnus species, and have done so on all species grown to date by the A.R.T. in Britain - artificial inoculation appears unnecessary, but if desired it can be undertaken by crushing" root nodules from an Elaeagnus already possessing them, making a slurry with water, and dipping the roots of plants in il. The strains of Frankia which infect Elaeagnus are generally also compatible with other members of the 8aeagnaceae farrily (Hippophae and Slepherdia) as v..ell as Myica species. Via this symbiosis, Elaeagnus species fix large amounts of nitrogen, with Nitrogen accumulation rates (ie amounts made available to other plants via leaf fall, root and nodule turnover) recorded of up to 240 Kg/Ha/~ar (100 Kg/acre/year, or 24g/m2 /year). For this reason, Elaeagnus are excellent companion plants; when grown in orchards at normal spacing, they can increase yields significantly. They can also be used as the major source of Nitrogen for other crops, by interplanting a proportion of the crop area. Orchard crops like apples and pears require similar-height Elaeagnus species at a proportion of about 3:1 Crops:Elaeagnus for their Nitrogen supply, while more demanding tree crops require about 2:1 Crop:Elaeagnus. In most temperate areas, including Britain, only the hardier species are recommended for hedging and interplanting: E.angustifolia, Ecommutata, Ex ebbingei, Emultiflora, Epungens, Ex reflexa and E.umbellata. In Britain, the most vigorous deciduous species appears to be E.umbel1ata, and the most vigorous evergreen E.x ebbingei. As well as being of great use in fruiting and forest gardens, Elaeagnus are widely used in forestry as ecosystem improvers (eg. as an N-fixing understorey beneath crop trees, to reclaim degraded soils and as soil-improving nurse trees). They are often planted in alternate rows with a tree species, and don't usually compete for light due to their shrubby form. Interplanting of Eangustifolia and Eumbellata with black walnut (Juglans niga) has been shoWl to significantlyincrease the height and dianeter of the y.,alnut trees. Other effects include the wlnut leales being higherin Nitrogen, A1osphorus, Calcium and Magnesium

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Oleaster, Russian olive

A deciduous large shrub or small tree from Europe and W.Asia, gro'Ning 7 m (23 tt) high and in spread, sometimes more; hardy to zone 2 (-40°C); tolerates part shade, salt and air pollution. It has silvery branches, often thorny, with silvery scales when young, silvery willowlike leaves, silvery flowers in June and yellowsh-silvery fruits ripening in October. Plants prefer a continental climate and are apt to be cut back in se\ere wnters in Britain because the sumner is often not WHm enough to full yripen the v.ood. This species is often cultivated in Europe and Asia for its edible fruits; there are many named varieties and some of these are thornless. 'King Reel' is virtually thornless and has very large fruits. Very tolerant of pruning, even right back into old 'M)od. The ffov.ers are s-..veetly and heavily scented. Fruits hang on the plant through much of the winter (bird predation permitting), the pulp gradually drying out. Bushes start fruiting at 3-6 years of age. Thi s species is considE8!d v.eedy in some parts of the W)r1d. Uses; edible fruit - raw or cooked as a seasonng in soups: dry, sweet and mealy; it can also be made into jellies or sherbets. The oval fruits are about 10mm (0.4") long (slightly less in width), and contain 17 amino acids, with total sugars making 54% of the composition. In China they are made into a beverage. When dried, the loose skin peels off easily to reveal the cream-coloured soft pulp. EXpected fruit yields are 7-9 Kg (16-20 Ib) per plant. The seed is edible - raw or cooked. The seed oil, flowers and leaves are used medicinally. Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery. A gum from the plant is used in the textile industry in calico printing. Leaves are used as goat and sheep fodder. The oood is had. fine.grained: used for posts, beams, carving, domestic items, makes a good fuel. Bee plant. This species is now sometimes groVyfl as a biormss crop on a 3.year rotation; in

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

pakistan it is \Blued as a polladed fuel and foddercrop.

Elaeagnus angustifolia orientalis (Syn E.orientalis)

Trebizond date

A large deciduous shrub from W.Asia, grolNing to 12 m (40 ft) high; hardy to zone 2 (-40°C); tolerates part shade. This sub-species is only slightly thorny, but does not flower so freely in Britain as the species. The flo'Mlrs are very fragrant and are rich in nectar Occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. The fruit used to be commonly sold in the rmrkets of Iran and Turkey but is rarely found there nowadays. Uses: edible fruit· raw or cooked: slNeet and mealy, about 20 mm (0.8") long, of better quality than the type. It is eaten fresh or made into sherbet and preserves. Edible seed - raw or cooked. Plants can be gtOVYTl as a hedge in eJposed positions, toleaUng maritime exposure. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus commutata (Syn E.argentea) Silverberry, Wolfberry
A medium deciduous shrub from N.America , typically growing 3 m (10 ft) high and 1.5 m (5 ft) in spread, but sometimes almost double that; hardy to zone 2 (-40°C). Branches are thornless and reddish-brown, leaves are silvery on both sides; a profusion of fragrant silvery f10'Mlrs appear in May-June, followed by round silvery fruits ripening in September. Tolerates very alkaline soils and should grow well on chalk. Plants prefer a continental climate and are liable to be cut back in severe winters in Britain mainly because the wood is not fully ripened in our cooler summers. It can regenerate from very old wood and so can be cut back severely if required . Resents root disturbance. Plants produce suckers quite freely, often sendi rg them up at sorre distance fom the plant. Rants start fruiting at a )Dung age -often after2 years. Uses: edible fruit· raw or cooked : 10 mm (0.4") long, dry and mealy, good when added to soups they also make an excellent jelly. Edible seed - raw or cooked. Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. The fibrous bark is used in weaving and rope making. Dried fruits are used as bead s. 132!e plant.

Elaeagnus X ebbingei
A large evergreen shrub (semi-deciduous in colder areas) : a hybrid of E. macrophylla and E. pungens. Grows to 5 m (16 ft) in height and spread; hardy to zone 6 (-20°C). White fragrant flowers appear in October-November, follov..ed by fruits ripening in April-May, leaves are silvery beneath. Tolerates deep shade and can be gOVYTl under trees. The cultivar 'Salcombe seedling' is said to flower more abundantly than the type. The cultivar 'limelight' produces a good crop of fruits even on small bushes . Plants produce a fair crop of edible fruit and seeds most years in Britain. Since this is a hybrid species yields may be improved by growing a selection of cultivars or one of the parent plants nearby for cross pollination . E. pungens is perhaps the best candidate for this. Rants produce ~ry aromatic f1ov.ers in late auturm and early \o\'inter. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked: about 2cm (0.8") long and 1em (0.4") wide, pleasant tasting with a slight acidity (astringent if unripe). Edible seed - raw or cooked, with a peanut-like taste. Plants can be grown as _ a hedge in very exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. Very resistant to damage by salt winds and tolerant of regular trimming. Strong vigorous growth, it is faster growing than E. macrophylla and can be planted in the line of an old shelterbelt of trees that is becoming bare at the base and it will in time fill up the empty spaces and climb into the bottom parts of the trees. Bee plant. Makes a large ground cover -plant.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 9

,

Elaeagnus multiflora

iii
Elaeagnus formosana
An evergreen shrub from TailNan, unknoWl hardiness. Toteeles very alkaline soils and quite deep shade. Uses: edible fuil - raw or cooked.

Elaeagnus fragrans
A medium deciduous shub from C. and SJapan, unknoW1 hardiness. Toleates part shade.

Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked. Edible seed - raw or cooked. Plants can be grown as a hedge in
exposed positions, tcleating maritime exposure. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus glabra
A large, vigorous, evergreen shrub from China and Japan, growing 6 m (20 tt) high; hardy to zone 8 (12 C). Branches are thornless; bears white fragrant f1o~rs in October-November, followed by orange and silver fruits in spring. Very shade tolerant, it can be planted under other trees and will eventually climb up into them. Closely related to E pungens, diffemg in its unamed branches and thinnermore glossy leaves.
Q

Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked, oval and about 15mm (0.6") long. Edible seed - raw or cooked . Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. Bee plant. The substance Epigallocatechin fem this species is antibacteial in action and used in taditional Japanese rredicine.

Elaeagnus gonuanthes
A medium deciduous shub from China, unknoWl hardiness. Toleates part shade. Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. 6:tible seed -raw or cooked. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus latifolia Bastard oleaster
A deciduous shrub from India, hardy to zone 9 (-5°C). Needs full sun. Not very hardy in Britain and is unlikely to succeed outdoos even in the rrilder areas of the countlY. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked: acid and somewhat astringent, mainly used in preserves, pies etc. Edible seed -raw or cooked. Bee plant. The V()od is a good fuel.

Elaeagnus macrophylla
A medium sized, rounded, evergreen shrub from Japan and Korea, growing to 3 m (10 ft) in height and spread; hardy to zone 8 (-12°C). Branches are erect, thornless and silvery; leaves are silvery both sides, becoming green over the season; o,.ery fragrant sil\ery f1ov-.ers appear in September-November, followed by reddish fruits ripening the following May. Tolerates deep shade. Succeeds in the warmer counties of Britain , though plants can succumb to 'vVind-rock in very wet seasons; they are also sometimes damaged by voles. The f1ov.ers are very aromatic. Thicketforming . Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked : 16 mm (0.6") long (somewhat less wide) , somewhat astringent unless fully ripe. A potentially very valuable ClOp, ripening as it does in IPril and May. Edible seed -raw or cooked . .Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, they are very tolerant of maritime exposure. Very tolerant of regular trimming , they can also be cut back alrrost to the gound and wll resprout. Rather

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 31

slow growng though. B3e plant. Can be used forground co\er.

Elaeagnus maritima
An evergreen shrub from Japan and Korea, unknown hardiness. Tolerates deep shade. This species is probably a h~rid, E. glabra x E. macrophytla. Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. Edible seed -rawor cooked.

,

Elaeagnus montana
A medium deciduous shub from C. and s.Japan, unknoWl hardiness. Tolerates part shade. Uses: edible fuil - raw or cooked. Edible seed -raw or cooked. Bee plant. Hedging.

Elaeagnus multiflora

Goumi, Gumi, Cherry elaeagnus

A medium sized, spreading , deciduous (sometimes semi-evergreen) shrub from China and Japan, growing 3 m (10 ft) high and 2 m (7 ft) in spread; hardy to zone 6 (-20°C); tolerates part shade. Branches are scaly, leaves are silvery beneath; pale yellow f1oV\€rs appear in April-May are follo'..\ed by dark reddish-brown fruits ripening in July An easily cultivated plant, Wlich tolerates atrrospheric pollution. Cultivated for its edible fruit in Japan, there are some named varieties. Plants can crop in 4 years from cuttings and bear heavily in Britain. The fruit is well hidden in the shrub and is quite difficult to harvest without damaging the plant. The ssp E. multiflora ovata produces brown fruits on long stalks which may be easier to harvest. The synonym E. longipes is sometimes accepted as a distinct species, differing mainly in having very long peduncles about 2.5cm (1") in length. Fruits should be alloV\€d to hang until completely ripe until picking. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked: 15-20 mm (0.6.Q.8") long, tangy, juicy and pleasantly acid when ripe, they are usually made into pies, preserves etc. In Japan, whole branches are cut off with their ripe fruits and sold in markets as such. Edible seed - raw or cooked. Bee plant. Medicinally, the leaves are used in the treatment of coughs; the fruit is prescribed in the treatment of watery diarrhoea; the root is astringent, a decoction is used to treat itch and foul sores. Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure . Often used as a rootstock for evergreen species that are hard to grow from cuttings; it fequently sprouts from the base and can outeompete the scion.

Elaeagnus oldhamii
An evergreen shrub from S.China, unknoWl hardiness. Tolerates part shade. Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. Edible seed -raw or cooked .

Elaeagnus pungens

Thomyelaeagnus

A medium/large dense, vigorous, spreading evergreen shrub from Japan, grovving up to 4 m (13 ft) in height and spread, though often less; hardy to zone 7 (-15°C). Branches are brown and thorny; silvery white fragrant f1o'v\€!rs appear in October-November, followed by fruits, brown ripening red , the following May. Tolerates deep shade. The foliage can be daraged in se..ere "";nd<;hill conditions. This is a potentially valuable fruit crop, fruiting as it does in April and May; there are a number of named varieties. The floV\€rs are very s'Neetly scented . Closely related to E. glabra. Succeeds Wlen planted under trees that have become bare at the base, in time it scrambles up into the tree and fill out the bottom. Several

Page 12

A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

cultivars exist, some of which are thornless or with few thorns. 'Variegata' is the most vigorous of the named culthers. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked: 12-15 mm (0 .5-0.6") long, VJith a nice sub-ucid fla\Our 'NIlen fully ripe but astringent if eaten before it is fully ripe. Can be made into preselVes, drinks etc. Edible seed - raw or cOoked , with a taste reminiscent of peanuts. Medicinally, the leaves and the stems are concocted and used in the treatment of asthma, cough, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids etc; the seed is used to treat watery diarrhoea; the root is astringent and is applied to sores, itchy skin etc. Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, toleating maritime exposure. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus pyriformis
A deciduous shub from the Himalayas (Assam), unknoW1 haroiness. Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. 8:lible seed -raw or cooked. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus X reflexa
A large, vigorous, evergreen shrub, a hybrid of E. pungens and E. glabra. Gro'WS to 4.5 m (15 tt) high; hardy to zone 7 (-15°C); tolerates deep shade. Branches have few thorns. Fruiting as it does in April and May, this plant has e:cellent potential as a foit crop. It wll clirrb into trees if planted underthem. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked . Edible seed - raw or cooked. Can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. It can also be planted in windy gaps under trees in shelterbetts and will in tirre fill in the gaps and clinil into the tees. Bee plants .

Elaeagnus thunbergii
An evergreen shlUb flOm S.China, unknoWl hardiness. Toleetes part shade. Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. 8:lible seed -raw or cooked. Bee plant.

Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive, Autumn elaeagnus)
A large deciduous shrub from E.Asia, gro'Ning 4.5 (13 tt) m high and in spread; hardy to zone 3 (-35"C); tolerates part shade, very drought tolerant. Branches are often thorny, leaves are bright green, silvery beneath; yeJlowsh-vvhite, fragrant flov.-ers are produced in May-June, follov.ed by rounded sil~ry brown (ripening red) fruits in September-Qctober. Somewhat similar to E. multiflora, but flowering a few weeks later. Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, there are several named varieties: 'Cardinal' is a hardy plant which fruits prolifically, 'Ellagood' retains its fruits well into winter; 'Elsberry' is a large plant with large fruits about 12 mm (%") across; 'Red Wing' bears large fruits which are especially sweet; other recent selections made for quality edible fruits include 'Brilliant Rose', 'Jazbo' , 'Jewel', 'Ruby Red', 'Sparkling Blush', and 'Sweetntart' - all with large, tasty fruit. Flowers are rich in nectar and very aromatic. Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed. Includes the natural variety 'parvifolia' (Syn. E.palVifolia~ Fruits should be allowed to hang until corll>letely ripe until picking. This species is considEBd v.-eedy in some parts of the 'v'Dr1d. Uses: edible fruit - raw or cooked: 8 mm (0.3") in diameter, juicy and pleasantly acid, they are tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preselVes etc. The fruit contains about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 12mg per 100g Vitamin C. Mature bushes in the VJild yield about 650g (1 Ib 7 oz) of fruit over 2-3 pickings, whereas reported yields for a mature 'Cardinal' bush are some 16 Kg (36 Ib). The halVested fruit stores for about 15 days at room temperature. In Japan, whole branches are cut off with their ripe fruits and sold in markets as such. Edible seed - raw or cooked. Medicinally, the plant is astringent, cardiac, pectoral. Very -tolelant of maritime

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 13

exposure, it makes a good informal hedge, succeeding even in very exposed positions. The wood is a good fuel. Makes a good bee plant, with nectar comprised 28% sugars. Nurse plant and dune stabiliser. Can be glOlNIl as a biorrass crop on a 3-year rotation.

Elaeagnus yoshinoi
A deciduous shub from C.Japan. unknoWl hardiness. Toleetes part shade.
Uses: edible fuit - raw or cooked. Edible seed -raw or cooked.

Propagation
Most E1aeagnus species can be popagated fom seed, by cuttings, and bylayering.

Propagation by seed
Flov.-ers of the deciduous species are at least partially self-fertile, and seedlings come relatively true from seed. Seeds of roost species can eitherbe SOWl in auturrn and allov.ed to O\.erwinter in cold telll'eratures, or stratified in storage. Dried seeds in good storage condiUons remain viable for 2-3 years. Note that the hybrid species wll not carre true from seed. Species E.angustifolia E.commutata E.multiflora E.pungens E.umbellata

No seeds/l<g 11 ,500 8,400

Stratification &other treatments required 8-12 v.eeks. Seeds often vait fortheirsecond season befoe genninating unless the seed shell is C3cked or nicked 9-13 v.-eeks. SJ'Ning in autum1 in sometimes recommended. 4-8 v.1<s Not dormant - sow in spring. 8-16 v..eeks

59,700

Propagation by cuttings
1. Semi-ripe cuttings: take these in July-September. They should be 7-10 cm (3-4") long terminal shoots, 'Nith or without a heel. Give hormone rooting powder/dip treatment and keep moist with a polythene covering. These W)rk v.-e11 wth most species elCept E.angustifolia (jifficuJt) 2. hardwood cuttings: take these in October-November. They should be 10-12 cm (4-5") long terminal shoots. with or 'Nithout a heel. Give hormone rooting po\o\der/dip treatment, bottom heat of 15-20°C (5968°F) and keep evergreen species moist with a polythene covering. Allow to grow on for 12 months before transplanting . Good formost species, especiallyevergreens like Ex ebbingei; difficult w:h E.angustifolia.

Other methods
All species rray be la}Ered in September-October. Lea\€ for 12 months before transplanting . E.angustifolia, E.commutata and E.umbel1ata often produce suckers which can be dug up and transplanted . These species can also be JXlpagated by using lOot cuttings in vmter.

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Pear rootstocks
Introduction
uke other fruit varieties, pears must be grown on rootstocks to preserve cultivars bred for good fruiting habit. Seedling pear rootstocks have been used for thousands of years , and remain the most common type of stock used in the world today, these are sometimes wid seedling trees that can be taken advantage of, and sometimes seedlings raised in nurseries. Only comparatively recently have dwarfing and clonal stocks , notably quinces (Cydonia oblonga been developed, and their use has increased rapidly, especially for commercial pear production.

The main pear rootstocks
The major characteristics of pear rootstocks are summarised in Tables 1-5, with extra details about the origin and usage of stocks gien here:

Seedling rootstocks
pyrus cOlTYTlunis seedling t;ommon pear) Open-pollinated seedlings of Williams (Williams Bon Chretien , Bartlett), Beurre Hardy, Beurre D'Anjou and Winter Neils have often been used as rootstocks in Europe , though their use has declined dramatically in recent decades INith the introduction of clonal stocks. Fruits are susceptible, especiaUy in the first year of fruiting, to be covered with small spots and patches of colour. The rootstock can sometimes overgrow the scion. Other Pyrus species Many other pear species have been used as seedling rootstocks; most species have very good graft compatibility. The species descibed here fall into the fOIJOWlg geographical origins:Europe: P.caucasica, P.cordata , P.nivalis. Mediterranean: P.amygdaliforrnis , P.elaeagrifolia , P.gharbiana , P.longipes , Pmamorensis , P.syriaca. Mid Asia: P.pashia, P.regelii, P.salicifolia. East Asia: P.betulifolia, P.calleryana , P.dimorphophylla, P.fauriei, P.hondoensis, P.kawakamii, P.koehnei, P.pseudopashia, P.pyrifolia (syn. P.serotina~ P.ussuriensis.

Seedling selected rootstocks
INRA Fieudiere Origin: IVIgers, France from controlled pear crosses. Scions growlNith a dense canopy Used almst e)'Clusively in France forcidercultivars . Kirchensaller Origin: Jork, Germany. Scions grow INith an open canopy Used in Gemany. Retuziere series _ Origin: France ; Nine seedling selections obtained by pollinating Beurre Hardy, Old Home, Kirchensaller and other varieties .

. Clonal pear rootstocks
BP1 Origin: South Africa ; P.communis clone selected from seedlings of open pollinated A.F .De Wett with P.communis.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 15

06
Origin: A clone of Pyrus calleryana , much used in Australia and New Zealand for Asian pears, now being tried in Europe .

Old Home
Origin: Old P .communis cultivar from USA, selected for resistance to fireblight and ease of propagation bi hardlMJod cuttings.

Origin~ Oregon , USA; clones of P.communis seedlings of crosses between Old Home and Fanningdale."a
The best 13 selections are included , some of which have been named (OH x F 51 = Broklin , OH x F 333 = Brokmal). Oregon 1 (Oregon Pear Rootstock 1, OFR 1 ) Origin: Oregon, USA.. P.communis selection .

Old Home X Farmingdale series (OH x F)

Oregon 211, 249
Origin: Oregon, USA.. P.calieryana selection s.

Oregon 260, 261, 264
Origin: Oregon, USA.. P.betulifolia selections.

Clonal quince rootstocks
BA29 (paBA 29. Provence a 8A29) Origin: Ailger, France; clonal quince selection. Available "rus-free. Abate fetel, f<aiser & Williams may necessitate an intestem.
Ct.s. series Origin: Pisa , Italy; clonal selections of seedlings of crosses between Marring Quince A and quince. Ct.s. 212 is the rrost promising, nowused corrmercially. Mailing Quince A(Malling A Quince A QA) Origin: East Mailing, 81gland; clonal selection of quince (:ydonia oblonga) Produces good quality fruits; virus·free (EMLA) material is obtainable. Incompatible with Abate Fetel, Kaiser, Williams; necessary to use an intermediate stock with Beurre Hardy, Beurre Precoce Morettini, Conference. Mailing Quince C fJjatiing C, Quince C, QC) Origin: East Mailing, 8lgland ; clonal selection of quince. Virus·free (EMLA version) available. Requies a clean, fetile soil and best forvigorous culthers.

PQ Lapage C provence Q Lapage C) Origin: France; clonal quince selection .
Quince Adams (Adams Q) Origin: Belgium; clonal quince selection. Demands a clean, fertile soil, suited to vigorous cultivars. Grafted plants need accurate pruning to remain producth.e. Good for vigorous culti\6rs; incorJl)atible wth Williams.

Sydo Origin: France; clonal quince selection . Doesn't respond v..ell to dense plantings.
Other clonal quince rootstocks with similar characteristics and performance to Quince Adams include Pillnitz, Palestine , Caucasian, R"ovence Quince and Fontmay.

Other clonal rootstocks
Winter BananalM26 A very dwarfing combination of the apple rootstock M26 with an interstem of the apple cuttivar Winter

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3


Table 1. Pear rootstocks lised in increasing size orde r The size of rootstocks is expressed as a percentage of standard trees, plus as a heigtt when used with a scion cultivar of average vigour - note that these distances will vary by up to 30% smaller or larger, depending on the scion cultivar. The spread of the tree is usually slightly less than the height. Orchards are usually planted at distances slightly larger than the full spread expected to ensure good light penetlOtion plant at distances equal to the ru ximum height e>{)ected, but \Bry these IAith the \oigour of the scion. Rootstock W inter Banana/M26 Amelanchierspp. sdlg Oregon 211 Sorbus spp. sdlg Oregon 249 P.syriaca sdlg P.fauriei sdlg Mailing Quince C Crataegus spp. sdlg Ct.s.212 Sydo Williams (Bartlett) Cydonia oblonga sdlg Mailing Quince A Quince /!dams BA29 PQ Lapage C OHxF51,513 BP1 Ct.s.411,412,414 Retuziere BH15, K15,OH11 06 OHxF 34,69,87,230,333 P .cordata sdlg P. longipes sdlg

r

% std Height
5-10% 1-1Yzm (5 ft) 15% 1 Yzm (5 tt) 15% 1Yzm(5tt) 15% 1Yzm(5ft) 25 % 2Yzm (7Yz tt) 30% 3m (9 It) 40% 3Yzm (12 tt) 45% 4m(131t) 45-60% 45% 4m (13 ft) 45% 4m (13 It) 50% 4Yzm (15 tt) 50-60% 4}1m (15 It) 50% 4Yzm (15 tt) 50% 4Yzm (15 tt) 55% 5m (16 It) 55% 5m (16 It) 60% 5Yzm (18 tt) Low 5}1m (18 It) Low 5Yzm (18 ft) Low 70% 70% 70% 70% 5Yzm 6Yzm 6Yzm 6Yzm 6Yzm (18 ft) (20Yz tt) (20Yz tt) (20Yz tt) (20% tt)

Rootstock P.pyrifolia sdlg OH xF 40 OH x F 217, 267, 361 P.amygdafiformis sdlg P.caucasica sdlg Retuziere BH13, F26, K32, OH20, OH33 Ct.s.407,410 4}1m (15 It) Kirchensallir OH x F 9, 220 P .calferyana sd lg P.communis sdlg P .d imorphoph~la sdlg P.nivalis sdlg P.pashia sdlg Old Home OHxF 18,97, 112,136,340 Oregon 1 P.elaeagrifolia sdlg P.ussuriensis sdlg INRA Fieudia-e OH xF 198 Oregon 260,261,264 P.betulifolia sdlg

% std Height 70% 75% 80% 80% 80% 6Yzm (20Yz ft) 7m (22 It) 7m (23}11t) 7m (23}11t) 7m (23}11t)

High 8m (26 It) High 8m (26 It) Anjou 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 90% 8m (26 It) 100% 9m (29}1 It) 100% 9m (29Yz tt) 100% 9m (29Yz ft) 100% 9m (29}1 It) 100% 9m (29Yz tt) V.high10m (33 It) 110% 10m (33 It) 110% 10m (33 It) 130% 12m (39 It)

Worldwide rootstock usage
Europe/Middle East Clonal quinces and seedling P.communis have long been used. More recently, selections for hardier and lime-tolerant quinces, semi-dwarf P.communis, hardy P.caucasica , drought and lime-tolerant P.amygdaliformis and P.salicifolia, and Sorbus interstems for dwarfing have been made. P.amygdaliformis is used in former Yugoslavia, P.elaeagrifolia in Turkey and P.betulifolia is often used in Israel. Asia: Mostly seedling P.betulifolia(China~ P.calleryana (China), P.communis (Japan), P.koehnei, P.pashia (India). P.pynfolia (Taioon), P.ussuriensis (China). -North America: Mostly P.communis seedlings, with P.calleryana seedlings in the south and west. There is increasing used of clonal quince'Nhere cold winters and alkalinity are not problems. P.betulifolia and OH x F selections are coming into use for both Asian and Western varieties. Various clonal dwarfing stocks are being dewloped. Southern Hemisphere: AustlOlia, New Zealand & South Africa mainly use seedling P.calleryana, P.communis and donal quince stocks; also clonal 06 and seedling hGthoms.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 17

Rootstocks in Britain
Nearly all pears gro'Ml for sale in Britain use the Mailing stocks, Quince A or Quince C. There isn't much to choose between them , though Quince C is slightly less vigorous and produces a slightly smaller tree. Both are suitable for all tree fanns including bushes, dwarf pyramids, cordons, espaliers and fans. Both produce their first fruit crops 4-5 years after planting rraiden (1 year-old) trees. The major drawbacks of these two quince stocks are their intolerance of dry, calcareous and poor soils; their susceptibility to fireblight and honey fungus; and their limited range of size control of the pear scion

~c

-

Several other rootstocks have potential to be useful in Britain. To use these, you'll probably have to
grafUbud them yourselves, but this is an easy procedure. Some of the more interesting dv.rarfing stocks include: Amelanchier spp. - Aalnifolia dwarfs to about 15%, while A lamarckil & A .laevis will probably be larger, perhaps 25-30%. Graft compatibility may be a problem, and plants will need pennanent staking . Producth.4ty and o\Erall disease esistance is \Cry good. Sorbus spp. - several members of the rov.ran-whitebeam family are suitable. The whitebeam itself (S.aria) is not, because of its susceptibility to fireblight; the rowan (S.aucuparia) is more resistant, while S.decora, S.intermedia and S.latifolia are immune. Dwarfing is again around 15% or slightly more. Trees do not need staking unless exposed, but graft compatibility may be a problem. Productivity is low but overall disease resistance is good. Crataegus spp. - our native halNthoms are unfortunately not too suitable, because of their susceptibility to fireblight; but they may be useful VYhere already gro""';ng, for top-grafting pears onto. C.coccinea and C.prunifotia are immune to fireblight and are more suitable. HaVYthoms dv.rarf to a similar degree as quince stocks (45-60%), they don't need staking . and ha-e good general disease Esistance. Althoug h it is deeply unfashionable in Britain to plant pears (except perry pears) on moderate to high vigour stocks, this is still common practice in most parts of the world, and the possibility should not be dismissed. Stocks of greater vigour may have several advantages - a much longer productive life, for example, or much better anchorage. Some possibilities ae: OH x F series - the American OH x F series of rootstocks, not yet available in Britain , has a good range of size effects, from 60% to 110% depending on selection . Two of these, OH x F 51 (60% dwarfing) and OH x F 333 (70% dv.rarfing) are now being used commercially in parts of Europe. The series very good anchorage and compatibility, high productivity, moderately good disease resistance (very resistant to fireblight), and good tolerance of different soil and climatic conditions. The stocks can also be easily propagated byhardlNOod cuttings. Pyrus calleryana - this is one of the most promising Pyrus seedling rootstocks, dwarfing to about 90%. It has very few suckers, good anchorage and graft compatibility, high productivity, is very tolerant of most soils, and is extremely disease resistant. If considering a vigorous stock then this has considerable advantages mer the traditional Pyrus communis (see belo.....,. Pyrus communis - used traditionally in Britain as a vigorous seedling stock, and still used for perry pears. It has few suckers, anchorage and graft compatibility is very good, productivity is high, and it has good tolerance to diffeent soil conditions . The dawback is its susceptibilityto many diseases. Pyrus betu lifol ia, Pyrus pyrifolia and P.ussuriensis- these are the best vigorous Pyrus stocks for Asian pears, dwarfing to 50% (due a genetic incompatibility), 70% and 100% respectively. Asian pears are ' incompatible wth quince, and sorretimes short-lived on seedling P.communis stocks. Perry pears continue to be produced mainly on vigorous seedling perry rootstocks (P.communis or P.nivalis). Many of the perry cultivars are very susceptible to fireblight though, so it may be worth considering a resistant stock (eg . P.calleryana) to increase their resistance to this serious disease. Most perry cultivars are incompatible with quince stocks, but can utilise these if an interstem is used of Beurre Hardy or Old Home.

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

.4% Table 2. Rootstock characeristics Rootstock S _ eed ling Amelanchier spp. Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga
~ .am ygda liformis

Root suckelS None Few Sey V.few None V.few Few Few V.few V.few V.few Many Few

Root anchorage V.poor Mod Poor V.good V.good Good V.good V.good Good V.good V.good Poor Good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good Good V.good V.good Mod

Uniformity Good Mod Poor V.good Mod Mod Good Mod Mod Mod Mod
Good Mod Mod Mod

Graft compatability Poor Mod Mod V.good V.good Good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good
V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good

Prop by layering
No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Oiff

Prop by cuttings No No No No

r

P.betulifolia P.calJeryana P.caucasica P.comm unis P.cordata
P.dimorphoph~la

s/mod s/mod
No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

P.elaeagrifolia P.fauriei P.koehnei P.longipes P.mamorensis P.nivaliS P.pashia P.pyrifolia P.salicifolia P.syriaca P.ussuriensis Sorbus spp. Seedling selecton INRA Fieudiere KirchensalJer Retuziere series Clonal pear Anjou BP1 ,BP2,BP3 06 Old Home OH x F series Oregon 1 Oregon 211 ,249 Oregon 260,262,264 Williams (Bartlett) Clonal quince BA29 Ct.s. series Ct.s.2 12 ' Mailing Quince A Mailing Quince C PQ Lapage C Quince ,Adams Sydo Other clonal selectons Winter Banana/M26

V.few Few None V.few Sey None Few

V.poor Good Mod Good Good Good V.good Good Good V.good V.good V.good Good V.good Good
V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good Mod

V.good V.good Poor

V.few

V.good

V.good

None None V.many V.few V.few None None None
Sey

V.good Mod V.good V.good V.good Good V.good V.good

V.good Good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good V.good
Mod Mod Good Mod Mod Mod Good Mod Mod

Diff
Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

!

V.poor

Many Sey Sey

V.poor V.poor V.poor V.poor

Yes Yes

Few

Poor

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 19

Notes and key to table 2
Root suckers: Many pear rootstocks produce suckerslsprouts, some very many, which must be removed regularly to sustain scion gowth. The relative measures used here are: None - V.few(very few) - Few - Sev (several) - Many- V.many (very many) Anchorage: Tree anchorage depends on strong foot growth, something which many dwarfing stocks do not po?sess. The elative measures used here are: V.poor (very poor) - Poor - Mod (moderately good) - Good - V.good (very good) Generally, trees wth V.poer or QQQ[ anchorage need staking. often fortheir Wlole life. Trees on quince roots need support for best performance. Quince roots are much branched and fibrous, but large roots are brittle and tend to break under the weight of crop and 'Nind. Other dl,wJfing stocks including haWhom and Serbus spp. can be gown v.;thout support. Uniformity: This is a measure of the genetic unifonnity of the rootstock, and hence the unifonnity of its effects the scion cultioar. The relative measures used here are: V.poor (very poor - not unifom) - Poor - Mod (moderately good) - Good - V.good (very good) Clonal rootstock selections are invariably very unifonn by definition; seedling selected rootstocks also have a high degree of uniformity (since this is one of the criteria by which they were selected). Seedling stocks show natural variability, but this varies in range from species to species, ego P.betulifolia has very good uniformity whereas P.syriaca has -.ery poor uniformity. Graft compatibility: Most scions graft \Nell to pear rootstocks, but with others (notably Amelanchier spp., Quince stocks and Sorbus spp.) incompatibility often arises and grafts fail unless an interstem (interstock) is used. \1rus content can affect conpatibHityof the scion. The elative measures used here are: V.good (very good) - Good - Mod (moderately good) - Poor - V.poor (very poor) Quince and incompatible pear scions must be double-worked with a compatible interstem (ie a short stem of another variety which is grafted betv.een the stockand the scion). Beurre Hardy has been used for many years as an interstem variety, though Old Home is often used in preference now as it induces higher yields . Pear cultivars incompatible INith quince include Beurre Giffard, Bosc, Bristol Cross , Clapp Favorite, Coscia, Dr J.Guyot, Doyenne d'Ete, Eldorado, Fanningdale, Forelle, Laxton's Superb, Seckel, Starkrimson, Williams (Bartlett), Winter Nelis and ffiian pealS). Some pears are incompatible INith ha'hthom, INhere Old Home can again be used as an interstem; however, Old Home is incompatible with Sorbus spp. There is good graft compatibility between pear species, but thee is natural variation in corrpatibilityin all seedling populations. Prop byla}Ering : Indicates if the stock can be lDPagated by layering ormarcottage. Terns used are: Yes \

,

=can be la}8red, Diff =can be l a~red but difficult, No =cannot be la~red.

Most clonal quince stocks can be IDpagated by layering. Prob by cuttings: Indicates if the stock can be propagated by hardVvQOd cuttings in winter. Tenns used are: Yes, Diff = difficult, No = cannot be propagated by hardwood cuttings; s/wood = can be propagated by softv..ood cuttings in sumner.

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Table 3. Roostock effect on fruiting cultivar Rootstock
Producti~ty

Start of fruiting V.fast Fast Fast Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Slow

Tree size
15% 45-60% 50-60% 80% 130% 90% 80% 90% 70% 90% 100% 40% 70% 90% 90% 70% 30% 100% 15%

Carl< spot

Fruit quality Good Good V.good

Fruit size Lge Med Med<ge Lge V.lge Lge Med Med Med Lge Lge Lge Med Med Lge Lge Med Lge Sm-med

Seedling Amelanchierspp. Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga P.amygdalifonnis P.betulifolia P.caileryana P.caucasica P.communis P.cordata
P.dimorphoph~la

P.elaeagrifolia PJauriei P.longipes P.nivalis P.pashia P.pyrifolia P.syriaca P.ussuriensis Sorbus spp.

V.high High V.high Mod Mod-high High High High Mod High High Low-mod Mod Mod Mod High Low-mod High Low

S MS MS

Good Good Good Good Fair

MS

Fair Fair Fair Good

Seedling selecton INRA Fieudifre Mod High Kirchensallfr Retu~ere BH13. F26. 1<32. OH20. OH33 . Retu~ere BH15. K15. OH11 High Clonal pear Anjou BP1 06 Old Home OH x F series OH xF 9 OHxF18 OH xF 34 OH xF 40 OH x F 51 OHxF69 OH xF 87 OH xF 97 OHxF112 OH xF 136 OHxF198 OHxF217 OHxF220 OH x F 230 OH xF 267 OH xF 333 OH xF 340 OH xF 361 Oregon 1 Oregon 211 Oregon 249 V.high High High Low V.high High High High V.high V.high High High High V.high V.high High V.high High V.high High High Mod Fast Mod V.slow Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod Mod

V.high 90% High Low
90% Low 70% 100% 60-100% 90% 100% 70%. 75% 60% 70% 70% 100% 100% 100% 110% 80% 90% 70 80% 70% 100% 80% 100% 15% 25%

Med

Good VS S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S V.good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good

Med Lge Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med Med V.lge Lge Lge

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 21

~~

Rootstock
Producti"';ly

Start of

fruiting
Mod Mod Slow

Tree size

Corl< spot

Fruit quality Good Good V.good Good

Fruit

size
Med V.lge Lge

Clonal pear t;ont)
Williams (Bartletl) Oregon 260,261,264 High High V.high High V.high High V.high V.high V.high V.high High Low-mod

50%
110%

Clonal quince
BA29

55%
45% High Low Low 50% 45% 55%

Ct.s. senes
Ct.s.212 Ct.s.407,410 Ct.s.411 Ct.s.412,414 Mailing Quince A Mailing Quince C PO Lapage C Quince Pdams Sydo

Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast
Mod

V.good V.good V.good Good Good

Med Med Lge

50%. 45%
5-10%

Other clonal selectons
Winter Banana/M26 Lge

Notes and key to table 3
Productivity Strictly speaking, the measure used here is yield efficiency, that is yield of fruit per unit area . The scion cultivar obviously affects this measure. Very vigorous rootstocks will yield more per unit area when a weak vigour scion is used with them . To apply these measures to areas of several trees assumes they are planted at maximum density for the stock involved, ie vigorous stocks at large spacing, dwarfing stocks at close spacing etc. Relatie measures used here are: V.high (very high)1 High I Modlligh I Mod !noderate)I Low-mod I Lowl V.low(very low) Start of fruiting: A measure of the precocity of the scion cultivar (ie how long before it starts fruiting) with respect to diffeent rootstocks. Relati>e measures used here are: V.fast (very fast, 2-3 yrs) - Fast (3-5 yrs) - Mod (moderately fast, 6-7 yrs) - Slow (8-9 yrs~ V.slow (1 0+ )fs) Dwarting stocks geneelly induce plecociousnes~ and Vgorous stocks delay the start of flUiting. Tree size: Indicates relative size of fully grown tree on the relevant rootstock, compared with a standard pear (100%) for the same scion cultivar. Percentage of standard is given for most stocks; 'Low' is around 60%. 'High' alOund gO%. Cork spot This is a disfigurement of the fruit, similar to bitter pit; often caused by a calcium deficiency or poor calcium uptake by the rootstock. A few stocks make the scion cultivar susceptible. Relative measures used are: VS = very susceptible, S = Susceptible, MS = Moderately susceptible. If blank then not susceptible. Fruit quali1y Indicates the overall quality of the fruits produced on that rootstock. Relative measures used here are: V.good (very good) - Good - Fair Fruit quality is generally good on quince stocks. Fruit firmness at harvest is greater when grown on P.betulifolia, P.catieryana, P.pyrifolia and P.ussuriensis than when grown on quince or P.communis. Rootstocks affect acid content (particular1y malic and citric acids) more than sugar levels. P.betulifolia and P.pyrifolia induce lower acids, whilst Quince, P.catieryana and P.ussuriensis result in similar acid levels to P.communis. A fruit disorder affecting fruit quality and sometimes caused by rootstock is black-end (hardend), caused by P.pyrifolia and P.ussuriensis. Fruit size: Indicates relative fruit size compared with seedling Pyrus communis (counted as Medium). The relative terms used hele are: V.lge (very large) I Lge Qarge) I Med~ge (medium to lalge) I Med (medium) I Sm-med (small to medium)

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Table 4. Rootstock tolerance of soil and clirmtic conditions Rootstock Seedling Amelanchierspp. Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga P .amygdaliforrnis P .betulifolia P .calleryana P.caucasica P.communis P.cordata
P.dimorphoph~la

Cold

Winter Summ Dry hot soil

Wet
soil

Calc soil

Acid soil

Clay
soil

Sandy Poor soil soils

T T
I I

T T MT
VT

I

MT MT
I

MT MT
I VT I I

MT MT T
I

T
VT

MT T T MT
VT VT

MT MT T T
VT

MT
I

T
VT I

VT

T T
I

T T
I I

T T MT T
I

T T T
I

T MT T
I

T T T MT
I

T T
VI

T T T T MT T MT MT T T T T MT MT MT MT MT T

P .elaeagrifolia PJau riei P .gha rbiana P.hondoensis P.kawakamii P.koehnei P.longipes P.mamorensis P.nivalis P.pashia P.pseudopashia

MT T T
I

T
I

T MT
VI

T MT T MT MT

VT
I

T MT T M T M T MT T MT

T,
VT

T

MT
VI VI

T MT T
VI I

VT VT

MT MT

T
I

MT MT
I

T

T
VI

P.pyrifolia
P.regelii P.salicifoHa P.syriaca P.ussuriensis Sorbus spp.

T M T MT MT
I

VT I I

VT

T

M T
I

MT
I I

VT

T T MT

MT MT T
I

T

M T MT T MT T MT MT MT MT T T
VT

MT MT MT

MT T T

Seedling pear selecton Kirchensaller T Retuziere series Clonal pear Anjou

T

T

MT

T
I VT

T
VT

BP1

06
Old Home
OH x F series

OH xF 51 OH xF 333
Oregon 1

T MT T T
I

T MT MT MT T
VT

Oregon 211 ,249 Oregon 260,261,264 Williams (Bartlett)
Clonal quince BA29

T T T T MT MT MT T T
VT

MT T
I

MT T MT M T M T MT MT T T MT T MT MT

T T T T T T T
VT VT I VT

T MT T T T T T
VT

MT M T T T MT
I I

T T

M T T

T T

MT M T T

MT
VT

MT
I

T T MT T MT MT
Page 23

Ct.s. 211 Ct.s.212
Mailing Quince A Maili ng Quince C

T T T
VI VI

T
VT VT

VI VI

I I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

-1F"'
Table 4. (Cont) Rootstock PO Lapage C Quince Mams Sydo • Other ~Ional selectons Winter Banana/M26 T , Winter Summ Dry hot soil Cold I VI Wet soil VT Calc soil VI VI I T Acid soil T MT Clay soil VT

=

Sandy Poor soil soils MT

VI

MT

VI

T

Notes and key to table 4
The relative measures used forall soil/clirmtic conditions ae: VI = Very intolelant I = Intolerant MT = moderately tolerant T = Tolelant VT = Very tolerant

Winter cold: indicates rootstock tolerance to cold wnter climates. Quince stocks are not very cold-hardy, whilst many pear stocks are. Approximate hardiness ~e killing terrperatures} are: VI =hardy to -20°C. I -40°C.

=hardy to -24°C, MT =hady to _27°C, T =hardy to -30°C, VT =hardy to

Summer heat indicates rootstock tolerance to hot summers+warm winters (Mediterranean conditions). Quince are generally not well-suited to these conditions; pear rootstock tolerance varies widely, with Mediterranean species doing best as \Quid be elPected. Ory soil: indicates toleence to dIY. shallowsoils . Wet soil: indicates toleence to VIet soils lhigh v..ater tables} Calc soil: indicates toleance to high soil pH {e calcium-rich/alkaline soils} Acid soil: indicates toleance to acid soils vtth a pH of 4. Clay soil: indicates toleence of clay'heavy soils . Sandy soil: indicates toleence of sandy soils . Poor soils: indicates tolerance of poor infertile soils. Quince and other dwarfing stocks often require a fertile soil to crop well , lNhereas some of the deep-rooting pear stocks can still grow and crop well in poor soils .

Pa~e

24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Table 5. Ro05tock resistancefsusceptbility to pests & diseases Rootstock Seedling Amelanchierspp. Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga P.amygdaliforrnis P.betulifolia p .callel)'ana P.caucasica P.communis p.cordata
p.dimorphoph~la

Aphid VR VR VR MS R VR MS S VS VS R S

Woolly Cro......." Fire blight gall

Nema- Collar todes rot

Leaf spot

Pear Honey decline Canker Mildew fung o

R R VR R R S S MS MS

P.elaeagrifolia P.fauriei P.kawakamii P.koehnei P.longipes P .mamorensis P.nivalis P.pashia P.pseudopashia P.pyrifolia P.regelii P .salieifolia P.syriaca P .ussuriensis Sorbus spp. Seedling selecton INRA Fieudiere Kirchensaller Clonal pear Anjou

S R MS S R R VR S S S S S VR S VR VR R VR VS

R R R-VS R VS R S S VR R VR VR S VS VS VS VS MS MS MS S S R MS R R VS VS S S S MS S S S VR R-VS R VS MS VR VR VR S VR VS VS VS VS VS VS S S

R R R R R MS MS S R R R

R R VS R R R MS MS MS R R

MS VR VR R VR R MS R R R R MS MS MS MS R R VS MS VS VR R VR MS VR VR VR R VR VR R VR VR VR VR R

R R MS R R MS MS MS MS R MS MS MS R MS
R

VR R VR VR R R MS MS
R

MS R R VR R

VR R R

MS VS

VS S R S R MS MS MS MS MS R MS VS VS VS VS VS

R MS MS R R R MS R R R MS R R VR R VR VS

R VS

MS R

R S S S S S R S R R VR VR VR VR R R

R MS S S R MS R MS R MS S R R MS MS MS MS MS MS MS

VS

VS VS VS VS VS VR VS R R R R

MS MS R MS MS MS R MS R R R

R R R R R R R MS MS MS

BP1 06 Old Home
OH x F selies Oregon 1

Oregon 260,261,264 Williams (Bartlett)
Clonal quince

BA29 Ct.s.212
MaJilng Quince A Mailing Quince C

PO Lapage C
Quince Adams

Sydo
Other clonal selectons Winter BananafM26

S

VR
Page 25

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Notes and key to table 5
For each pest/disease, the follo\ing relative measures of resistance/ susceptibilityare used: VS

= Very susceptible, S = Susceptible,

MS = Moderately susceptible , R = Resistant.

~

= Very resistant.

All of the pests/disea ses in this table exist in Europe and North America. Rootstock resistance to diseases can be transmitted to some degree to the scion , hence rootstock resistance to fireblight, fungal leaf spot, cankf r and mild ew may be of consideable interest Wlere these diseases ae prevalent. Woolly aphid: the molly pear aphid (Eriosoma pyricofa) , also called the pear root aphid , is distinct from the 'v\Oolly apple aphid . and can darmge pear roots . Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) a soil-borne bacterium, entering plants via wounds, and causing rounded , irregular galls v.hich are eventuallY1M)ody and fissuled. Most seious in nUlSeries.

Fireblight(Erwinia amylovora}: the most serious North American pear disease, also in Europe since 1957. It affects many of the Rosaceae family, including ornamental trees and shrubs. Infection is usually via the flowers, and the bacterium spreads down the shoots, which wilt and die, the affected leaves tuming black. Several pears, quince, Crataegus monogyna and Sorbus aria are very susceptible, although other Crataegus/Sorbus spp. are resistant or immune (eg . C.coccinea , C.prunifolia , S.aucuparia , S.decora , S.interrnedia, S. l atifolia~
Nematodes: Root lesion nermtode (Praty/enchus vulnus)can cause lesions and damtge to roots. Collar rot (Phytophlhora cactorum ): sometimes involved in root diseases, and able to cause a collar rot in some species . It emains a mnor disease of ITDst pear rootstocks. Fungal leaf spot (Fabraea maculata or Dip/ocarpon mespil~ causes reddish or brown spots on leaves; with severe infections, fruits may become cracked , small lesions may appear on young shoots and premature defoliation may occur. Pear nurseries sometimes suffer badly but orchard infections are usually minor. Pear decline: this is an induced SCion/rootstock incompatibility caused by a mycoplasma transmitted to trees by pear psylla insects ~acops~la spp .} The pathogen nigrates through the phloemdolMlward to the union ; if the rootstock is susceptible, the phloem just below the union is killed, effectively girdling the trunk. In time, the roots starve and the top then declines or wilts and dies. All seedling stocks are somewhat variable in theirtolel3nce, e>eept those of P.b.etulifolia Wlich are all resistant. Canker: Bacterial canker (Pseudomonassyringae pv. syringae) is a bacterium W"iich can cause a blosSlm blight and occasionallycankers. Mildew. Pow::lery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) is a fungus which distorts leaves, especially on young shoots , covering them with a white powdery growth. Pears are rather less susceptible than apples, with most stocks shoving resistance . Honey fungus (Armillaria mel/ea): Also called oak root rot, bootlace fungi and shoestring fungi, this is a common pathogenic fungi found in 1M)odlands and orchards, spreading via its bootlace~ike rhizomorphs. Infection through the roots often leads to eventual death, hence rootstock resistance may be an important factor if the disease is widespread in the locality. Most quince stocks are moderately susceptible, while several pearseedling and clonal stocks showesistance.

Other diseases:
Viruses: Several viruses commonly affect pears . Rootstocks with noted resistance to common viruses include INRA Fieudiere , Ct.s. 212, Mailing Quince A & C, PQ Lapage C and Sydo; BA29 and the Retuziere series are notedly susceptible. Pear scab (Venturia pin·na) is a fungal disease causing very similar symptoms to apple scab - spots and blisters on leaves and fruits, sometimes premature defoliation and deformed , split fruits. P.ussuriensis is resistant.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

-

-

--

~~

--=-

---

---~-

-

-~-

----

---::;-

--

Propagation
Seedling stocks : Pear seeds require 1-4 months of stratification , depending, on species: P .calleryana & PJauriei need 1 month, P.betulifolia needs 2 months, P.communis, P.elaeagrifolia, P.ussuriensis needs 3 months, P .pyrifolia needs 4 months. Amelanchier spp. require 3-6 months and Sorbus spp. 3 months stratification. Clonal stocks: These are propagated by trench or mound layering (quince stocks} or by hard'M:)()d cuttings (some quince and pear stocks). For difficult to root selections , root cuttings, root suckers or leafy cuttings lTBy be taken . Trench
la~ring

is canied out OI.er winter and spring; mound

la~ring

over the grow;ng season.

Hard'M)od cuttings are taken in autumn and treated with IBA hormone rooting medium ; bottom heat in the propagation bed irrproves rooting. Root cuttings are taken in late winter and can be cleft grafted immediately with a scion cultivar, prior to IBA treatment to encourage rooting. Semi-nardwood cuttings under mist is more successful than hardwood cuttings for many pear species, especially the Asian and Mediteranean species.

Future prospects
Research is under way in many parts of the INOrld to develop new pear rootstocks , particularly dwarfing stocks which lack the compatibility problems associated with quince. Tolerance to alkaline soils is being bred from P.amygdaliformis and P.elaeagrifotia; whilst winter hardiness, hot-climate tolerance, good compatibility, tolerance of wet and alkaline soils, and resistance to many pests and diseases comes from P.betulifolia , P.calleryana and P.communis.

Suppliers
Europe Deacon's NUlSery, Godshill, Isle of Wght, P038 3HW, UK Tel : 01983<340750. Quince A& C. Frank P.matthev..s Ltd, Berrington Court, Tenbury Wells, Wores, WR15 8TH , UK. Tel: 01584-810214 . Quince A & C, P.communis -wholesale . Plandorex, Domaine de Comay, 45590 Saint-Gyr-en-Val, Orleabs, FRANCE. Tel: 38 76 23 79. BA29, Sydo. Scotts NUiseries (Merriott) Ltd, Merriott, Somerset, TA16 5PL, UK Tel: 01460-72306. Quince A& C, pear USA: TRECO supplies byfar the wdest range, including the OH xF series and quince stocks. BearCreek Nursery, PO Box411H, Northport, WA 99157 . Grootendorst Nurseries, 15310 Red !trow H'Nf., Lakeside , MI 49116. Tel : 61~69·2865. NRSP5/tR-2 Virus-test Fruit Tree Collection, IfREe, WSU , Rt. 2, 8)x 2953A, Prosser, WA 99350. Rocky MeadowOrchard & Nursery, 360 RockyMeadowNW, New Salisbury, IN 47161. Tel: 812347-2213. TRECO, Oregon Rootstock and Tree Co., 10906 Monitor-McKee Rd . NE, Woodburn , OR 97071. Wholesale.

References
Luckwll , L C & Pollard, A:. Peny Pears. University of Bristol, 1963. Moore, J N & Ballington Jr, J R: Genetic Resouces of Terrperate Fruit and Nut Cops , Vol 2. IsrtS, 1990. Ogawa , J M & English, H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit and Nut Crops. Univ. of Califomia, 1991. Phittips, 0 H &Burdekin, D A Diseases of Foest and Ornamental Trees. Macrrillan, 1992. Rom, R C & Canson , R F: Rootstocks forFruit Crops. Wiley, 1987. Speciale portinnesti: Pero. Rivista di FlUtticoltUla No 9, 1994. Westv.ood, M N: Terrperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press , 1993.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 27

Diospyros virginiana:
The American Persimmon
Introduction

One of the few hardy members of the ebony family, the Am erican persimmon is a tree well knoWl in North America , and which deserves to be better known in Europe. Not only does it produce large crops of edible fruits with very little attention , but it also has valuable timber and bears flowers which produce good bee forage.

The persimmon is native to the Eastern United States from Florida to Connecticut, and its culture has been extended to southern Canada and westwards to Oregon in the northwest. It is so prolific in parts of America

that it is 50rretimes considered a \heed on account of its suckeing habit.
persimmon, Butter 'NOod . Possum\¥Ood , Possum apple and \Arginian date palm

Other common names for this stately North American tree include Common persimmon, Eastern

Description

The persimmon is a spreading deciduous tree, occasionallygro'vVing to 30m (100 ft) high but more usually to 12-20 m (40-65 ft). It has a rounded crown and outspread or pendulous branches . The bark on olde trees is very distinctive, fissured in a fouF-squam pattem into rectangular blocks of sootygrey.

Branches end in markedly zig-zag t'Nigs , because shoots lack well-defined terminal buds. The side buds are small , pressed close to twgs , pointed , coneshaped , ~lIowsh green .

The altemate leaves are oval-elliptic, 6-12 cm (2Yl-5") long, pointed at the apex, glossy deep gmen above and tighter beneath , on a short downy stalk. In the autumn they tum to spectacular colours of yellow to crimson before falling at the fist frosts.

Tiny "lNhite male flo..-..ers (1 em , Yl" long) are borne in clustelS of 1-3, usually in the leaf axis or on very shor dOIM1Y stalks . Female f1ov..ers are larger, solitary, greenish-yellow. Flov..ers are borne on one-year-old wood near the branch tips. Both sexes are bell-shaped, 'vVith 4 petals. Flowering occurs in early summer (June July in Northern areas & UK) and most trees are dioecious (ie bear male or female flowers only). The sex of dioecious trees can only be determined by examining the flowers. Some trees bear both sexes o f10INE!rs , and on male trees, occasional bise)QJaf flov.ers occur. Pollination is via insects, including bees insects may cross pollinate tees up to 50-100 m (150-300 tt) apart.

Fruits are typically 2.5-3 em (1"+) wide, though often larger (to 5 em , 2") on named cultivars. They are green before ripening, becoming yellow or orange as they ripen; they are round , and become sweet and edible (often after the first frosts), though before they ripen they can be very astringent Oust like kak persimmons/ Sharon fruit). Like other persimmons, they bear a persistent 4-tobed calyx. When fully ripe the pulpy fruit has a delicious flavour. Fruits often persist on the tree well into winter, then making the tree very ornamental. Fruits contain up to 6 or more large brown seeds, though several cultivars set seedless fruits Fruits ripen betv.een September and November, depending on the culti-er.

Diospyros virginiana naturally develops very strong , deep tap roots and few lateral and fibrous roots . Wild trees often suckervigorously. The tree is hardy to zone 4 (-2S0C).

There exist t'M) races of the Persimmon, a 90-chromosome 'Northern' race (earlier ripening , more cold hardy, pubescent leaves and shoots , larger fruit) and a 60-chromosome 'Southern' race (smooth leaves & t'Nigs, smaller fruit), "lNhich do not cross pollinate. Most cultivars have been selected from the 'Northern race.

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No:

Cultivation
The persimmon is easy to grow, and is the hardiest member of the persimmon family. though young trees are slightly for their first few years. Growth of young trees is fast, about 4.5 m (15 tt) in 10 years; growth

slow.;; once fruiting COmTlences.
It prefers a deep , loamy, fertile, well.<frained soil, but tolerates almost any soil which is not waterlogged, It
needs a sheltered site (disliking exposure), and full sun (it tolerates part shade but does not fruit well there). A soil pH range of 5.8 to B.O is peferred. Wlen planting . aJlowfar a tree spread of 6-9m (20-30 ftl. The tree is drought resistant.
For fruit production, plants of both sexes are usually needed, though a few cultivars will set seedless fruits without pollination. Areasonablywann summer is required for fruits to ripen. Because of its tap-rooted nature, persimmons are often difficult to transplant. Container-gro\oVll or rootpruned plants are much more likely to transplant successfully. The roots are naturally black, so don't worry that they are dead. Because of their deep-rooting nature, persimmons are well-suited to interplanting with other, more shallow-rooted, species. Persimmons are relatively free of pests and need little maintenance, yet with proper pollination they are reliable croppers; they are thus one of the best low maintenance fruit trees for the home garden. The harvest is e)(f.ended, wth fruits often pesisting on the tee into wnter. For Northern areas, .....nere summers are short, early-ripening cultilars should be chosen. Like many other fruit trees , a natural thinning (fruit drop) occurs in summer. After this , hand thinning can be undertaken (where branches can be reached!) to increase fruit size and reduce overbearing if it seems likely. Overbearing can lead to the tee becorring biennial in copping. American persimmons have not been highly bred, and good fruiting trees are usually obtained from seedlings of cultivars. Seedling female trees start to bear fruit at about 6 years of age, cultivars somewhat ear1ierthan that: pecocious selections 12 years after grafting. FlUiting continues for50 years or more. Pruning can be undertaken in winter when trees are donnant. The wood is brittle, so it is wise to build a sturdy framework of branches while the tree is young. Train trees to an open centre or modified central leader form. If the aim is to pick fruit by hand, then trees can be kept low-headed and planted rather closer (5-6m , 16-20 ft apart). Once bearing has commenced, some pruning may be needed to stimulate new growth on which fruit will be borne in the following season. The tree naturally drops some of the branches which have borne fruits, so is naturally self-pruning to a degree. Suckers arising from rootstocks should be removed. In warm areas, trees are susceptible to sunscald in winter, and here the SW side of trunks should be protected wth a tree guard of .....nite latex paint. Pests and diseases rarely pose a problem. In North America, black spot of the leaves (a fungal disease) is sometimes a problem; several cultivars are notedly resistant. Persimmon wilt can also be a problem in areas >Mth long hot seasons. American persimmons often drop from the tree when ripe , though many selections hold their ripe fruits well into the 'Ninter. A net or soft rrulch beneath tees may help cushion theirlanding. Aten-year-old tree should 0 eld 20-45 Kg (50-100 Ib) of fruit per year.

Fruit uses
The fruits are edible and delicious when ripe, often after a frost; before then they are astringent. The astringency is caused bya compound, leucodelphinidin, Wiich bonds to poteins in the nnuth. Ripe fruit is pulpy and very soft, usually too soft b be transported commercially (the main reason why it has hardly become a commercial crop). Ripe fruits have a soft, smooth , jelly-like texture, a honey-like slNeetness, and a richness "akin to apricot 'Nith a dash of spice". Persimmon fruit are softer and drier than kaki/oriental

AGROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 29

=
persimmons, but have a richer flavour. When ripe, the skin is almost translucent and the calyx (the green cap to Wlich the stem is aUached)separates readily from the fruit. Ripe fruits contain on average 35% total solids, 0.88% prolein, 20% sugars and 1.4% fibre. They are also high in Vltamin C. Frosts are not essential to ripen the fruits , with early-ripening selections often ripening their fruits during the autumn before any frosts. Ripening continues aftedight frosts but ceases at tenperatures of 4 "C (25"F). Fruits can be ripened artificially. but the fruit must already be nearing ripeness on the tree - hence the importance of choosing appopriate culti\8rs.

Near-ripe persimmons will ripen in time just with storage in a wann place in the kitchen; to accelerate
ripening, put the fruits into a plastic bag with a ripe apple for about a week, or sprinkle fruits with a spirit (eg whisky) and seal them in a plastic bag for1-2 'Neeks. Fresh fruits can be stoed for about 2 m:mths at a terrperature just abo\e freezing. Drying removes persimmon astringency naturally and preserves the fruit for winter use. American Indians extracted the pulp by rubbing the fruit through a sieve, then formed the pulp into sticks which were dried in the sun or in an oven . Alternatively, fruits can be squashed and dried whole (but watch out for seeds). Fruits of some late-i"ipening cultivars can be left hanging on the tree into VoIinter, VoIhen they tum sweet, dark and dry, resembling dates. Freezing near-ripe fruits also removes astringency; frozen fruits are delicious in themselves, slightly softened like ice cream - the pulp can be pre-mixed with cream if desired. To freeze pulp, simply rub through a colander into bags and put straight into the freezer. Some cultivars are noted for retaining their flavour after freezing , including 'John Rick', 'Lena' and 'Mais Burton'. Persimmons can also be cooked into pancakes , pies, cakes and biscuits; and made into jams, preserves and molasses. American Indians used them in gruel, cornbread and puddings. Spiced fruit bread remains a popular use in North America. Recommended cultivars for cooking include 'Beavers', 'John Rick' and 'Manis Burton'. Any astringency still present in the fruits is accentuated by cooking , but can be removed by the addition of}S teaspoon of baking soda for each cup of pulp. Cast iron utensils shouldn't be used, or the pulp '1.411 tum black . Persimmon bread is made by simply adding persimmon pulp to the f1our'yeast mix. Like other fruits, persimmons can be fermented . American Indians made an alcoholic beverage from persimmons and honey locust pods ; in the American South , persimmons have been mixed with cornmeal (maize) and brewed into '''simmon beer" . No doubt vinegar could also be made as it is with oriental persimmons .

Other uses
The tree makes a fine ornamental specimen , although it is usually recommended that the tree doesn't overhang pavements as the fruit. when it drops, can make a slippery mess! The flowers in early summer are deliciously fragrant, the leaves turn to beautiful colours in autumn, and fruits which hang on the tree give interest in wnter. The fruits have good potential as a self-feeding fodder crop for livestock. All livestock, particularly pigs and poultry, but also cattle and horses, relish the ripe fruits as they fall from trees. Different selections drop their fruit betvveen September and February, making a succession possible. Unripe fruits are high in tanninsand toxic, especially to horses. The fruits are attractive to wildlife, particu larly opossums, deer, songbirds, and faxes; also rabbits and squirrels. The seeds may be roasted and ground , to use as a coffee substitute; reports do not rate this beverage too highly. Ar1 edible oil can also be obtained bm the seeds , said to taste like peanut oil. The leaves can be used to make a herbal tea , they contain Vitamin C. The tea , antiscorbutic in action , isn't particularly flawurful but the lea\es can be rrixed V>.1th other heros etc to rrake a mxed tea .

Page 30

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Diospyros virginiana

&

-#

The bark has been used as a fish poison; it also has a long list of traditional medicinal uses by Nort American Indians: it is highfyastringent.

The tree consists almost entirely of straw-coloured sapwood, the heartwood being a small central core o dark brolMl or black. The commercial timber is the sapwood , which is straight, fine and even grained heavy, exceptionally hard, tough , elastic, stable and resistant to shock and wear. It is valued for turnery utensils, carving, shoe lasts, plane stocks, golf club heads (still the major source), textile shuttles (for which it is .still imported into India) etc. It is suitable for any purpose which requires a heavy, close, compact wood 'Nittf outstanding ability to wear very smoothly. Selected logs 'Nith wavy grain are sliced for veneers fo cabinet v.ork. The pelSimmon is a good bee plant --it is valued for honey production in Noth America.

The American persimmon has been used as a rootstock for the oriental persimmon (Diospyros kakl) , bu this is no longerrecommended as it leads to poorgrowth and decline of the scion.

Cultivars

Several cultivars have been selected and bred in North America, and are still in demand as 'home orchard trees; an orchard industry based on it has ne'er developed.

Several cultivars are noted as sometimes producing male as well as female flowers . These will pollinate but are not usually reliable enough for pollination every year. Self-fertite cultivars include Early Golden Meader, Rubyand Szukis; but el.en these often poduce better crops wth cross pollination.

Cultivars from the tINa races (Northern and Southern) do not cross pollinate. Most cultivars belong to the Northern (90 chromosome) race. Those noted as from the Southern race include Ennis seedless, Knowles and Penland. all of vfiich set seedless fuits wthout pollination ; Caggs is also pobably Southem.

Similarly. rootstocks must be of the same race as the scion variety. Compatibility is rarely a problem as most cultivars are of Northern race. Vigorous seedlings of Ruby are sometimes recommended for use as rootstocks.

Cultivars with notedly omamental autumn leaves include Gehron (reddish\ Morris Burton (bright yellow and Wabash (bright red).

Several of the better cultivars are grolMl commercially in Indiana for fruit pulp canning, including Early Golden. John Rick and Rpher. Fruits noted fordrying quickly on the tlee into
a, date~ike

fruit include Dooleyand Sweet lent

Best recommendations forNorthem areas and short-summer areas (like the UK) include {with those setting fruit 'Nithout pollination underlined]: Early Golden and John Rick (which ripen their wood early as well as ripening quickly); also Garretson, Meader, Miller, Runkwitz and Szukis. All of these cultivars are currently available in North America. For other suitable \8rieties , see the 'cold aeas' colurm in Table 1. Common
s~onyms:

American Honey = Josephine Daniel Ebone = Ebone Honey = Josephine Little's Ruby = Ruby

Mitchellena = Lena New Hampshire NO.1 = N.H.No 1 Owen = Knowes Pennland's S;edless = Fenland

Marion is sometimes listed as a synonym of Miller; these two varieties are distinct, but are now often confused.

Page 32

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No :

Table 1. Cultivar Beavers Begole Blagg Bolton Boone Burrier Campbell #10 Craggs Delmas Dooley Early Bearing Early Golden Edris Elder Evelyn Ennis seedless Fehrmann Festirnoon Florence Gailey Gardner Garretson Gehron Geneva Red GlideVo.eIl Golden Gem Golden Supreme Grayville Hamilton Hicks John Rick Josephine Juhl Kansas Killen Knowes lady Maryland Lena Marion Meader Mildred Belle Miller Missouri Manis Burton NC-10 Ne\\bold N.H.No 1 Penland Pieper Pipher Ruby Runkwtz Shoto
Tree vig desc upr

Bear -ing Prod

Ripen start

Ripen Male period Hws

Req poll yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes no no no no yes yes yes no no yes yes yes yes no no yes yes no yes yes yes no yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes yes no no no yes no yes yes

Cold areas no

Black spot

Needs thinning

vig

Prec heavy heavy early Prec good good long late early early mid-late late mid mid Prec ely-mid mod late v.early heavy early mid Slow late heavy mid early ely-mid late mid late mid mid-late late mid-late early early mid v.early mid early late mid early late ely-mid early ely-mid short

no yes no no yes yes yes yes Res

yes

yes

yes many yes

no

cmp

Prec good
bi Prec

long long

yes no yes no no yes yes

vig

heavy vig
upr upr

Prec heavy Prec Prec Prec heavy Slow heavy good Prec heavy Prec Slow good

long short
mod

yes

Susc
no

yes

vig 1M<
upr vig vig 1M< upr

yes

long long long long
yes

yes yes

yes

upr

late v.early heavy late heavy early v.early

long mod

no yes yes yes no yes Res

pass

1M<
vig vig

late good late Mod heavy ely-mid mid

long

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 33

A-

A5#t~

Table 1 (cant)
Cultivar Smeech Sweet Lent Szukis TaQ.le Grove Tatum Wabash Waterloo Weber William Woolbright Yates Tree Bear vig desc -lng Prod Ripen start late Ripen Male period flw.; long v.long

Req poll yes yes no yes yes no yes yes yes yes no

Cold
areas

Black Needs
spot

thinnin

yes yes no

spr
Slow

good v.late heavy early
good early mid early early

yes

vig heavy vig

most

Bi
heavy

mid v.early

Susc

Key to Table 1
Tree vig = tlee vigour: vig = vigorous, Y.k = v..eak "";gour, cmp = corTl>act. Tree desc = tree description: upr= upright, spr= spreading.

Bearing: Prec = precocious (quick to start bearing), Mod = moderately precocious, Slow = slow to sta bearing, Bi = tends to biennial beaing. Prod = productivity heavy, good productivity. Ripen St;;lIt: relative time of the start of fruit ripening: ea6y, mid, late etc.

Ripen period : indicates the length of time over which fruits ripen: long, mod = moderate, short. Lat ripening selections vith long fnJit ripening tirres hold theirfruits on the tee '¥\ell into wnter.

Male f1ws: indicates if the cultivar also produces some male flowers in most years: these cannot usually b relied upon forsatisfactolY pollination though.

Req poll : indicates if the cultivar requires cross pollinaten for fruiting to take place. Most cultivars do; thos lNhich do not wll set seedless foits if not pollinated.

Cold areas: indicates if the cultivar is suited to more Northern areas where cool short summers are th norm. Black spot: indicates any knoW1 resistance/susceptibility to black spot of leaves. Res = resistant, Susc susceptible.

Needs thinning: 'yes' means that the tree tends to produce so many fruits that thinning is often necessar to either achieve a good fnJit size and/or prevent breakage of branches. Male pOllinatos

Note that kaki/oriental persimmons will not cross pollinated with American persimmons. Pollinators are needed for all cuitivars except those able to set seedless fruits. These can be male seedlings, or selectee cultivars which ale either male orbise)QJal. These include: Ennis seedless: Male tee which also poduces sorre fruits - see abo\e for details. Gailey a good pollinator- see below for details. George: Male tee , seedling of 'Kilen'. Meader: a good pollinator- see below for details. Mike: Male tee, a seedling of 't1llen'. Szukis: a good pollinator- see below for details. William: Male t1ge, fast gowing and a good pollinator Produces a fewfruits in sorre years.

Page 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No

Table 2. Cultivar Beavers Begole
81agg

Size
s-m Ige Ige

Shape Colour
flat flat

-fla\oQurflesh fresh ckd froz
red mod gd gd gd mod gd exc exc exc v.gd v.gd gd gd gd m od gd exc gd gd

skin

seeds

Bolton Boone Burrier
Craggs

v.lge
med med m-I med med med m-I Ige med s-m Ige med sm med sm

soft

Delmas Dooley Early Bearing
Early Golden

yellow oblong yellow soft conic yelloworange soft red·yellow yellow yellow oblong yelloworange .

tough tough v.gd thin

many few/none
few

many few, lge

Edris
Elder

Ennis seedless Evelyn Fehrmann Festimoon Florence Gailey Gardner Garretson Gehron Geneva Red GlidelAEll Golden Gem Golden Supreme
Grayville

dk orange
soft

few/none few/none few/none small
exc

conic
soft

poor orange-red red blush
exc gd gd gd exc gd mod mod exc exc exc gd gd exc gd gd gd gd mod gd gd gd gd exc gd gd mod m od gd gd gd gd gd exc exc

v. lge
Ige med m-I med med

none if unpoll none
few

long

It gold

soft

orange-red

v.lge
sm med m-I

Hamilton Hicks John Rick Josephine
Juhl

gd

tough

none jf unpoll none if unpoll

round

yellow yellow
yellow & red yellow & red

v.lge
med m -I med Ige sm med m-I

soft fi rm soft firm

exc

thin few tough tough few tender few small

Kansas Kitten Kno ...... es Lady Maryland Lena Luther Marion Meader
Mildred Belle

ovate
flat

orange orange-red orange yellow orange orange-red yellow pale yellow yellow-red pale yellow yellow-red yellow yellow & red

soft

gd

tender noneifunpoll tender tender few
few

v.lge
Ige med Ige Ige s-m sm Ige sm sm m-I flat

Missouri Morris Burton
NC-10 N.H.No 1

gd

Penland Pieper Pipher
Ruby

conic

soft soft

tough tough

none sm/none if unpoll none if unpoll

med+
med Ige med m-I

Runkwtz
Shoto

firm

tender few tough many tough few

Smeech Sweet Lent

" 3

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 35

Table 2 (coni)

-f1aw u r Cultivar Szukis Table Grove Tatum Wabash Size m-I oblong sm Ige Ige v.lge Shape Colour orange
fil111

flesh fresh gd gd exc exc gd exc gd

ckd

froz

skin

seeds

poor

small/none

Wa·ter1oo
Weber Woolbright

soft

Yates

1ge+

yellow

noneifunpoll

Key to Table 2
Shape, Colour: indicates fIJit characteristics. Flesh: indicates flesh (ruit pulp) characteristics - colour or firmness.

Size: indicates relati>ve fruit size. sm = small , med = medium, Ige = large, S-iTI = small to medium, m·1 :; medium to large etc.

Flawur fresh/ckd/fR)z: indicates fIJit fla\Our fresh, cooked and tozen. exe = 8J11Cellent, v.gd = very good,
gd :;; good , rrod = moderate, poor. Skin : indicates toughness of the bit skin. Seeds: indicates the SiE or number of seeds usuallyfound in flUits.

Propagation

Seed: There are 1500-3900 seeds/Kg (680-1800 lib), wilh an average of 2600/Kg (1200/Ib). Seeds should be stratified for 2-3 months. Germination takes about 3 weeks . Protect seedlings from strong sun for the first few weeks. Too seed lea\es preceed normal leaves. Budding : Shield budding with long heavy buds in summer is sometimes recommended . Also successfu are chip budding, ing budding and patch budding.

Grafting: Whip grafting just below the ground .surface on 1-2 year old seedling stocks is recommended. Also cleft grafting (on large trees). Grafting is most successful if the rootstock leaves are just starting to unfun (the scion is cut vfien fully dormant and kept in a fidge until needed) Suckers: Dig and tansplant if not fom a grafted plant.

Cuttings: HardVoJOod - from 2-3 year--old wood , 30 em long , seal ends with wax. Root cuttings take quite well - seal ends also. Cuttings of half;ipened wood , taken in July-August and given protection (eg in a cold frame) may also oork. • Layering in spring .

Suppliers

Incredibly, there are no cultivars available at present from the UK or Europe. Seedlings of good fruiting cultivars are available from the A.R.T. , and other seedling stock is available from several other nurseries. Seeds are also a\Gilable fum the AR.T. Several nurseries in North America can supplynamed selections, including the folloliYlg:

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Bear Creek Nursery PO Box 411H, Northport, WA 99157, USA.. Burnt Ridge Nurser)( 432 Burnt Ridge Rd, Onalaska, 'M 98570, USI\, Tel: 206B85-2873, Chestnut Hill Nurser)( Rt 1, Ebx 341, i'Jachua, FL 32615, US\., Tel: 800{)69-2067, Grimo Nut Nursery, RR 3 La keshoe Road, Niagaa-on-the-lake, Ontario, LOS 1JO, CPNADA Hidden Springs Nurser)( 170 Hidden !:prings Lane, CookvUe, TN 38501, U~ . Tel: 615-268-9889. Jersey Persimmon Farm, 58 Van Duyne Ave, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA. Tel: 201-694·1220. Co/d-hardy

vars
John Gordon Nursery 1385 Carrpbell Blvd, Amherst. NY 14228-1404, USA.. Early varieties especially Louis Gerardi Nursery 1700 EHighv.ay 50, O'Fallon , IL 62269 , US\.. Offers 10 varieties Louisiana Nursery Rt.7, Ebx 43, Opelousas.LA70570, USA.. Tel : 318-948-3696. Nolin River NutTree Nursery, 797 Port Wooden Rd, Upton, Ki 42784 , USA.. Tel: 502-369-8551. Northwoods Relail Nurser)( 27635 SOglesbyRd, Canby, OR 97013,US'I, Tel : 503-266-5432, Oregon Exotics , Rare Fruit Nursery, 1065 Messingec Grants Pass, OR 97527, U~. Tel: 503-846-7578. Pampered Plant Nursery, PO Box 3, Bournonnais, IL 609140003, USA.. Tel: 815-937-9387. Wiley's Nut Grove Nurser)( 2002 Le~ngton Ave, Mansfield, OH 44907, U~ . Tel: 419-756--0697.

References
Bailey, L H: The Sandard Cyclopedia of Hoticulture. MacMillan, 1947. Bean, W J: Trees and Slrubs Hardy in the Efitish Isles. John Muray, 1974. Califomia Rare Fruit Growers Journal No 19: Uses of the R!rsimmon Tree. Duke, J A Handbook of 8jjble Weeds. CRC A'"ess, 1992. Facciola, S Cornucopia. 1990. Krussmann, G: Manual of Boad-leaved Trees & Shrubs. B T Batsford, 1984. Lincoln, W A: Wor1d Woods in Coloue Stobart, 1986. Northem Nut Growers Association Pnnual Reports:Vol 47 (1956): American Persimmon varieties and their desirability, Persimmon evaluation - further notes. Vol 48 (1957~ The .American Persimmon as

v..e see it.

Vol 50 (1959): My Five Years wth Persimmons. Vol 54 (1963): Some Improved Varieties of the Imerican Persimmon. Vol 57 (1966): Persimmon Vari eties. Vol 81 (1990~ Neglected Nati'S Fruit Trees and Slrubs. Pomona. Vol xxviii No 2 (Spring 19 95~ Too New American Persimmons. Reich, L: Unconmon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Pddison-Wesley, 1991. Smith, J R: T ee Crops: A Penn anent ,Agriculture. Island A'"ess , 1987. USDA: Seeds of V\body Plants in the United 3ates. ,Agriculture Handbook No.450, 1974. Whealy, K & Demuth. S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Imentory. Seed Saver Pubs, 1993.

AGROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 37

§£%

Book Reviews
Alternative Silvicultural Systems to Clear Cutting in Britain: A Review Cyril Hart
HMSO, 1995; 101 pp ; fl5.95 . ISBN 0-11-710334-9,

,

This booklet (Forestry Commission Bulletin 115) is written for landowners and foresters who want t convert their woods or forests from uniform, even-aged stands to mixed, irregular, uneve n ~aged stands , i particular to those looking for altematives to extensive clear cutting , with the aim of achieving divers structure , biological dilErsity and sem-permanent or continuous foest cover. The bulletin errphasises fourkey conside.ations influencing the use of iregularforeslry:

1. The use of i,-egular systems is possible on a lIicIe range of sites in upland &lo-..Mand Britain. 2. The key to success is continuity:Jf management. 3. The costs, calculated using conentional econonics, can be high conpared 'With clear cutting. 4. The potential to produce non-market benefits (ie those not considered by conventional economics) can be high. These include soil, 'Alter and clirrete protection to rrention just a few

Most of the bulletin consists of descriptions of 44 examples of alternative silvicultural systems in use i Britain, classified into shelteNOod, group selection , single tee selection and othersilv;culturaJ systems.

ShelteM'Ood systems are used VYflen a forester wishes to use the old stand to provide seed and shelter fo the regeneration and earty development of a new crop. The old stand is felled in 2-3 stages over 10-3 years, depending on the circumstances. The new crop regenerates and becomes established under the changing conditions produced by manipulating the retained seedbearers in the old stand; the amount o shelter produced by overhead andl or side shading can be used to stimulate the formation of mixed stands Some planting may also be undertaken to reinforce the stocking or diversify the mixture. The phased removal of the old stand may be effected over quite large areas, or may start from several small nucle VYflich are gradually extended , or it can be done in strips. In all these shelteM'Ood systems the two stands one mature and the other young , grow on the same site for several years. More irregular sheltef"INood systems proceed on a continuous basis, etaining continuous foest coYer.

In group selection systems , the grolNing .stock of trees is arranged in groups of varying dimension appropriate to the requirements of each species (smaller for shade-tolerant species, larger for ligh demanders). These groups are dispersed through the forest to form a continuous mosaic; the dimensions allo¥.ed for each group make sure they retain their identity. Access to the groups is provided by a networ of rides and paths. These systems are flexible and particularly suited to small stands where intensive VY'Orking is possible; they accommodate a vvide range of species. They require skill and care to manage though.

In the single tree selection system, felling and regeneration are distributed over the whole managemen area. The fellings remove Single trees and are combined with thinnings with the aim to perpetuate a structure in which all age and sizes of trees are mixed together over every part of the stand. Continuous forest cover is maintained and the environment is stable and appears unchanging. This system is commonly used in rreinland BJrope (eg. mountainous aeas of SNitzertand) as 'natural' or 'perpetual' fores to provide soil, water and climate protection; it is not very common in Britain. A system of extraction paths aids harvesting and reduces damage to regeneration. The system is particula~y well suited to small woods VYflere intensiYe management is possible. It does require great Skill, and is applicable chiefly to shade tolerant species; contol of brovvsing anirrals can be difficult.

A chapter on the economics of irregular forestry attempts to take into account environmental and socia benefits, but concludes that it is only likely to be attractive where silvicultural, aesthetic and environmenta reasons rather than economic viability are the overriding factors, and that these are easier to justify fO state-owned forests where the owners are acting wholly in society's interests. Finally, the Bulletir concludes that cleaFcutting foresters may have difficulty in adjusting to the rrore

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No:

innovative and opportunistfcapproaches required to manage irregular systems. A key factor in the success of examples of irreg ular forestry in Britain has been continuity of ownership/management, something relatively rare these days. Nevertheless, successful examples show that these more sustainable forestry systems can be ifllJlemented in aitain .

Natural Woodland: Ecology and Conservation in Northern Tem perate Regions
George F.Peterken
Cambridge Unil.ersity Press , 1996: 522 PP: 127.95 (paperback, £75 .00 (hardback) ISBN 0-52 1-36792-1 (paperback, 0-521-36613-5 (hardback, The aims of this book from an eminent British ecologist are to summarise our understanding of the original natural temperate forests of North America and Europe; to construct a view of natural woodland in Britain, which can act as a reference point for ecologists and foresters; to develop nature conservation policies and practices for British woods and plantations; and to raise the level of interest in and appreciation of nonintervention reserves and long-term ecological esearch. The structures and range of habitcts found in natural woods are described, along with how woods grow, die and regenerate in the absence of human influence; the role of disturbances in their ecology is emphasised . Examples of virgin and old growth forests in Europe and North America to outline the dynamics and structure of natural temperate ooodiand. he cultual Significance of natuel 'N)odland is also discussed. This knowledge of woods is then applied to nature conservation issues in British woods and forests, particularly the maintenance of 'untouched' reserves ; the management of native broadleaved woods; and the design of conifeous plantations.

Natural Woodland is fascinating scientific account of woodland natural history for all concerned with the management and ecologyof natural and conmerciallAOodlands.

Principles of Forest Pathology
F H Tainter & F A Baker
John Wley, 1996: 805 pp : !li0.00 (hardback) ISBN 0-471-12952-6. This authoritative volume describes both the principles of forest diseases and the biology and management of such diseases, aining to be of use to both students of fCBSt pathology and practising fOlesters. The book is divided into two main sections. The first deals with the principles behind forest diseases, concentrating on causes of disease (induding allelopafly, insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria , mycoplasmas, viruses, parasitic plants , climate , chemicals and nutrient defiCiency), but also describing major disease impacts (eg. chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease), the infection process and disease ecology, and principles of disease rmnagement. The second half of the book concentrates on the biology and management of forest diseases. This contains detailed descriptions of all the main tree diseases found in the North American continent. Each disease is dearly profiled , with description of its importance, susceptible species, distribution, causal agent(s) and their biology, diagnosis, and control measures. Diseases are split into chapters by their effects, ego root diseases, rusts, cankelS , diebacks, mistletoes, wood decays etc. Induded in this part of the book is a good geneel overview of the role of mycorrhizas in forming symbiotic relationships wth trees.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 3

Page 39

Herbs and Herb Lore of Colonial America
Colonial Dames of America
Dover Publications , 1995; 74 pp; B.95. ISBN 0-486-28529-4.

ThiS booklet makes dear the importance and usefulness of herbs amoung settlers in the Amer wlonies. It is basically a herbal, with descriptions of over 50 herbs and plants with mostly medicinal u but also dyes, disinfectants, taste enhancefS etc. Ea ch plant is illustrated by a drawing taken from e herbals and accorrpanied by anecdotal and infamative descriptions.

Video reviews
Forest Gardening with Robert Hart
Iota Pictures/Green Earth Books. 1995: 48 nins: £15 .00. ISBN 1-900322.(J1 03.

Gaia Theory with James Lovelock
Iota Pictures/Green Books, 1995; 52 rrins ; £15.00. ISBN 1-870098-62-5. Distributed by Green Earth Books/Green Books, Foxhole, Dartington, Totnes , Devon, TQ9 6EB. add £1.50 P & P per video v.hen ordering from them.

Ple

Forest Gardening with Robert Hart describes three gardens. Robert Hart's only gets 15 minutes (the seems a bit of a misnomer) and is clearly the hardest to capture on camera because of its maturity. Ro himself briefly describes the basics of multi-storey design, mulching, compost and companion plant The second location is Plants for a Future in Cornwall. Here Ken Fem describes a selection of unus plants with edible or other uses. Filming was on a windy day and the sound quality is poor in places at point. Finally, Mike & Julia Guerra's suburban garden is visited and they describe how forest gar techniques fit into a pemaculture design. .

Gaia Theory with James Lovelock describes how Jim Lovelock's early career of inventing the Elec Capture Detector, and then VoIOrking for NASA, Jed him and his colleague Lynn Margulis to formulate Gaia Hypothesis that the planet is a self-regulating organism. The video goes on to describe mathematical models which he developed to support these ideas , and how these and criticisms from scientific community have helped the hypothesis to evolve and mature. The only fault with this video is some of the graphs do not appear at all clearly; nevertheless, this makes fascinating viewing and recommended.

Classified Adverts: 25plword, minimum £5.00. 20% discount for subscrbers.
ECO-lOGIC BOOKS specialise in books, mmuals and videos forpermaculture, sustainable s~tems design and pactical solutions to enironmental problems. Send s.a.e. forour FREE mail order catalogue to «:o"ogic books qlN). 19 Maple Grove. Bath. BA2 3AF. Telephone 0225 484472.

NUTWOOD NURSERIES specialise in nut tees an and can offer trees from "A" to "z " ~II at least "Almond" to "V\elnut"!) Send for our catalogue, FRE on receipt of a 9" xS" (AS) SAE. NUTWOOD NURSERIES . SCHOOL FPRM. ONNaEY. CREW CHESHIRE. CW3 9QJ.

Page 40

AGROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 4 N

,e

In

,e
lat is

,e

y

E

E.

Agroforeslt·y is the integration of trees and agriculturel horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. it can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and gfOund layers in a ~elf-3ustaining, interconnected and productive system . .'\grofol"estl·Y News is published by the Agroforestry Research TlUst four times a year in October, January, April and July. Suhscription rates Hre: £18 per yenr in Britninand the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year 0v"rseas (please remit in Sterling)
£:~ 2 pet year for institu(ions.

A list of back issue contents is included in our cun·ent cataiogt,e, available on request for 3 x I st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy induding postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make ch~ques payable to 'Agroforestry Research TlUst', aad send tf): Agroforeslr)' Research TlUst, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Reseal'ell Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and otheJ crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

---Volume 4 Number 4

July 1996

t& ~

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 4 Number 4

July 1996

Contents
2 4 6 News Diospyros lotus: the Date Plum Pears: cultivation & varieties
7 10 11 12 13 Pruning Pests Diseases Harvesting & yields Pear Gultivars

29 34

Mycorrhizas Book Reviews: Cherries / Mushrooms: The Art of
Cultivation / How To Make A Forest Garden / Edible Mushrooms & Other Fungi / Food and Feed from Legumes and Oilseeds

37

Black walnut (1): Silviculture

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed, and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody , somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestsy Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 1

News
Tweed Horizons Agroforestry Demonstration Site
Th4s site, recently set up in the Scottish borders by Earthward , aims to demonstrate land use diversification through the interplanting of trees in a pastoral landscape. Seven contoured strips of woodland on the steeply sloping 4 Ha (10 acre) site are designed to provide several benefits: livestock health maintained through shelter and better pasture production; stock shelter in winter improved; summer shade for reducing stress through overheating; understorey forage for poultry; erosion control; soil building through leaf fall; coppice craft production; wild fruit and fungi production ; and landscape improvement. The combined product of all these features should give all round economic benefits , particularly directed at marginal farming landscapes. Contact: Derek MackenziewHook, Project Manager, Earthward, Tweed Horizon s, Newtown 3t Boswells, Roxburghshire, TD6 OSG. Tel: 01835 822122.

North Wyke agroforestry & bi-cropping trials
The agroforestry trial (part of a nationwide network of identical trials) consists of treewpasture systems using trees at different densities and grazing sheep beneath . At North Wyke, ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is the main tree used, although some sycamore was planted but didn 't succeed; hybrid larch has also been used on other sites. Trees were planted into an established grass sward in 1987 w 8 at spacings of 2 x 2 m , 5 x 5 m , 10 x 10 m , and none (con trol) which is equivalent to 2500, 400, 100 and 0 trees per He ctare respectively. All except the 2 x 2 m trees were protected with tree guards - the closely spaced trees (at Farm Forestry spacing) were not intended to be grazed beneath . Then , throughout the grazing season, the grass was grazed down to 5 cm by introducing an appropriate number of sheep. The trees at 5 and 10m spacings were pruned as needed to maintain a good form . As may be expected, the trees in the pasture did not produce as large a volume of timber as the farm forestry trees, but most interesting was that, after 7-8 years of growth . the carrying capacity (ie the number of sheep supported) of the areas with 5 and 10m spaced trees was not significantly different from the open pasture, and the growth in weight of the sheep was not decreased in the pasture with trees. The bi-cropping trials involved a continuous cloverw winter wheat cropping system. The system is started by thickly sowing white clover (Trifolium repens) at a seed rate of 6 w 12 Kg per Ha , to produce a good sward. North Wyke have mainly used the variety 'Donna' , but they have found that the variety is not too important. In October, the clover is mown and removed (to make silage ), and winter wheat is sown at standard seeding rates (a short straw bread wheat is chosen). The following February, an application of Nitrogen is made at 50 Kg/Ha: if this is not done then the clover competes too strongly with the wheat. The crop then grows unaided until harvest. After the grain and straw are harvested, the clover recovers quickly until the cycle starts again in October when the clover is cut. Wheat yields are about 60% compared with conventional yields, but financial returns are overall 90% of conventional returns, because only a third of the conventional quantity of Nitrogen is used, and because there is very liUle disease or pest trouble (slug populations are low, spider and beetle populations are high, aphids are reduced greatly because the wheat is not so Nwrich and sappy). The only problem North Wyke have found is competition from annual Poa grasses (due to the large seed bank inherited), and these are sometimes killed off with herbicides just before the wheat is sown. Despite these problems , there is great potential for this to become a truly sustainable system of ce real growing.

New seeds arrived
Thanks to everyone who ordered seeds fro m our last seed catalogue . We have unexpectedly been able to secure supplies of the following , which are now available:

100 107 142F
155H

Actrnidia arguta Amelanchier lamarckii Gfycyrrhiza glabra Myrica Pennsylvanica

156 165T

182

Myrtus commun is Pueraria lobata Viburnum rentago

Forestry Commission Research Information Note 278: Poplar and Willow Clones for Short Rotation Coppice
This note lists the poplar and willow clones (varieties) most suited for growing as short rotation coppice in the UK, and which will be acceptable under the Woodland Grant Scheme. The main criteria for choosing these clones is health (clones very susceptible to disease are not listed) and acceptable yields. The willow clones listed are given a mix code , to aid in establish ing a polyclonal mixture of clones which are varied in their responses to different diseases.

New name for Agroforestry News?
It has been apparent for some time now that the title of this journal is both offputting and confusing to quite a lot of people who believe that 'Agrofo restry' must mean conventional farming techniques with the odd tree thrown in for good measure , whereas the A.R.T . and this journa l both concentrate on intensive agroforestry systems like forest gardens and unusual tree crops , as well as profiling more common tree , shrub and perennial crops w hich other magazines tend to present rather too simply for the fruit enthusiast. For this reason, we're think ing of changing the title of the journal , perhaps to Tree Crops (formerly Agroforestry News). Does anyone have strong opinions about this, or ideas for a suitable title? We 'd like to hear what you think , so please drop us a line if you'd like. We're not thinking of changing anything else like the format or presentation particularly.

Nitrogen-fixers update
Some interesting information has come to light in a book we 've just got hold of ('Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainab le Agricultural Systems', editors J K Ladha & M B Peoples; Kluwer, 1995) :o A ll ey cropping in the tropics , with prunings from the nitrogen-fixing trees used as mulch , can lead to gains of 60-180 Kg N/Ha/year to the alley crop itself. These amounts are potentially enough to sustain an N-hungry crop if they are made available at the times when needed. An ongoing problem in alley-cropping seems to be the competition between surface-feed ing tree roots and the crop in the alley ; this is especially significant in the tropics w here water competition is often intense. It should also be noted tha t temperate N-fixing trees & shrubs can fix similar amounts of nitrogen as tropical species , though the amounts vary from species to species. o Below ground Nitrogen contributions (from root turnover and nodule decay) from N-fixing trees and shrubs to other crops, are very similar in quantity to above ground contributions (from leaf & branch litter). Because most measurements to date have only taken into account above ground contributions , this means that most figures for amounts of N co ntrib uted by tree and shrub croos are orobablv low bv a factor of about 2.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

---__ - - T ______

-~-

-

Diospyros lotus: the Date Plum
Introduction
Diospyros lotus (synonym D. japonica), commonly called the date plum , false lote-tree , or lotus plant, is one of the lesser-known members of the persimmon genus (in the ebony family , Ebenaceae) , yet in many parts of temperate Asia (especially China) it is widely cultivated as a fruit tree, rootstock, and for other useful products.

Description
The date plum is a small or medium sized deciduous tree, growing up to 6-12 m (20-40 ft) high in cultivation , but sometimes double that in the wild where it is native (China, Japan and the Hima layas, from Manchuria to Yunnan, found in mixed mountain forests); and to about 6 m (20 tt) in spread. It has a rounded crown. Young branches are brownish and pubescent; older branches become grey but remain pubescent. Winter shoots lack a terminal bud . On older trees the bark becomes furrowed and cracked. Leaves are oval and pointed, 5-12 cm (2-5") long by 25-50 mm (1-2 ~ ) wide, both sides pubescent at first but eventually only pubescent on the veins below ; they are dark green, glossy, leathery and tough , and alternate on stems. Flowers are tiny (males 5 mm, females 8-10 mm long), urn-shaped, greenish-yellow tinged red , appearing from the leafaxils, mainly on one-year old shoots; female flowers are produced singly , males in clusters of 1-3 on downy stalks . like other persimmons , this species is usually dioecious, hence male and female flowers are produced on different plants. Flowering occurs in July in Britain and pollination is via insects, including bees. On female plants , fertilised fruits form; these are round (cherry tomato-shaped and sized), 15-20 mm across , green when immature, ripening to yellow or reddish-purple with a bluish bloom. They have · a blackcurrant-like aroma. The four-lobed calyx remains attached to the base of the fruit and grows with it. like most other persimmons , fruits remain high in tannins and very astringent until they ripen , often after a frost; then the taste varies between plants from insipid to tasty. Fruits contain 0-8 small, flat, black seeds, and continue to hang on the tree well after the leaves fall in autumn. Winter hardiness is to zone 5 (-21 CD, _5° F); it is fully hardy in Britain.

Uses
The fruits develop freely in Britain. Unless the summer is particularly hot (when they may ripen in October) , they usually need to be bletted (picked and stored in the cool) or frosted before they lose their astringency and become edible; when fully ripe they are then sweet with a floury texture, date-like , rich and delicious. The fruits usually remain on the tree after leaf-fall , thus can be picked in November after frosts. The fruits may also be dried, losing their astringency; if left on the tree to shrivel, they take on a
... ~.~ la, ....... .... "....
c~_

.,,'

...

h_ ......... ; .......

, . , ... _1,

h ......

h~~

...

" ......... _.... I.~ ...

; ...

Page

as

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4


The fruits are also used medicinally in Chinese medicine, being antifebrile (ie used as a febrifuge against fevers) and secretogogue. Much used, especially in Asia and North America, as a rootstock for cultivars of the Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The date plum is more cold-hardy than the Oriental persimmon, and some of this extra cold-hardiness affects the scion cultivar when grafted. Hence in colder Asian regions, D.kaki scions are grafted high on D./otus rootstocks. The date plum is also grown commercially for its unripe fruit, which are processed to provide a so urce of tannins . These tannins (and those from unripe fallen O.kaki fruits) are widely used as a deproteinizing agent in the brewing process of sake (rice wine). Falling fruit can be used for pig fodder in the late autumn and earty winter . The wood is durable, pliable and resists rotting. It is used for construction, joinery etc. The flowers provide bee forage.

Cultivation
The date plum needs a warm position in full sun to fruit well, but it does tolerate partial shade. It prefers a deep , fertile, moist but well-drained loamy soil and some protection from the wind. Young plants are somewhat frost susceptible. The growth rate is slow to moderate - about 3 m (10 ft) in 10 years. It is best to transplant container-grown plants as the tap roots are very susceptible to damage on transplanting. Trees can be trained against a wa ll as a fan or espalier; or in the open as bush trees. There are no serious pests of diseases in temperate zones.

Propagation
Seed: There are approximately 8000 seeds per Kg (3600 per lb). Seeds need a short period (4 weeks) of co ld stratification before they germinate. After this, sow in the warmth and germination occurs within a few weeks. First year growth is 20-30 cm (8-12"). Cuttings: half-ripe wood, taken in July-Aug ust, placed in a frame or cool greenhouse. Layering in spring. Container-grown plants are available from the Agroforestry Research Trust.

References
A.R.T.: Planl dalabase. 1996.
Bathgate, J C: The rare fruit that many plant but few recognize. Fruit Gardener, Vol. 25 NO.5

(Oct 1993).
Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Vol. 2. John Murray, 1974. Krussmann, G: Manual of Broad-leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford , 1984-6. Pijpers, 0 etc.: Th e Complete Book of Fruit. Admira l Books, 1986. Plants For a Future: Plant database, 1995. Schaffer, B & Andersen , P: Handbook of Environmental Physiology of Fruit Crops, Volume 1. CRC Press, 1994 .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 5

!

Pears: cultivation & varieties
Introd uction
This article concentrates on the cultivation and uses of the common pear , Pyrus communis; a future article will cover the increasingly popular Asian pears (derived from P.pyrifolia and P .us5uriensis) . The common pear is an entirely cultivated form , possibly derived from P.caj.Jcasica and P.nivalis; it is naturalised in Northern Asia and Europe , including Britain. The fruits of wild trees are small, hard, gritty, sour, astringent and are not improved by cooking . Perry pears were selected and bred from wild P.nivalis trees , to be used for making the alcoholic cider-like drink, Perry (Perry pears are to be covered in a future article). The first record of pears cu lti vated in Britain is from around 800 AD , when severa l cultivars were grown for dessert and cooking. Many cultivars were brought over from France in the 13th & 14th centuries, and by the 17th ce ntury numerous new varieties were being ra ised and imported from France and Belgium. Pears are much longer-lived trees than apples , especially on seedling stocks; such trees may live for 2-300 years. Pears generally need more warmth and sunshine than apples to grow and fruit well ; young leaves are more prone to wind damage , and flowering is earlier and hence more susceptible to late spring frosts.

Siting
The chilling requirement for most pears is 500-1500 hours (below 7°C (45°F»). and pears do well in a warm to hot, dry summer. Low humidity aids in controlling fireblight. The growing season for pears varies from 100-180 daysd depending on variety . Fully dormant trees can withstand temperatures as low as _26°C (-1 5 F) without injury. If possible, choose a warm she ltered position which isn 't prone to late frosts. Adequate shelter is necessary to ensure warm conditions for pollination and as protection for the fruit and foliage. In Britain, many of the late-ripenin g cultivars require the protection of a south or west facing wa ll for the production of quality fruit and for scab protection. Pears grow well in a variety of soils (best in sandy loams or clay loams, but othe r can be accommodated by use of rootstock - see Ag rofo re stry News, Vol. 4 No 3). The common Quince stocks are tolerant of wet soi ls, but are rather susceptible to drought; neither do they do well on thin soils over

cha lk.

Flowering and pollination
All pear cultivars should be regarded as self-sterile, and hence all need pollen from another cultivar to set a good crop of fruit. The single exception is Improved Fertility, which is selffertile ; Conference is not, although it may set parthenocarpic (seedless) fruits without pollination , most of which are misshapen. Some cultivars are triploids , and hence have no fertile pollen; these will need to be planted with two other compatible varieties for all to be pollinated . Such triploids include Beurre Alexandre Lucas , Beurre d'Amanlis, Catillac, Doyenne Boussoch , Jargonelle, Marechal de la Cour, Merton Pride , Pitmaston Duchess, Uvedale 's St Germain and Vicar of Winkfield . Other (diploid) varieties with infertile pollen include Beurre Bedford , Bristol Cross and Margeurite Marillat. There are also two incompatibility groups of pear cultivars , within which varieties are self- and cross-incompatible . These are: Beurre d'Amanlis 2. Fondante d'Automne Pnkoce de Trevoux 1. Conference Laxton 's Progress Seck le Laxton 's Superb Williams' B. Chret Louise Bonne of Jersey

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Flowering lasts for about 2-3 weeks, depending on cultivar. The flowering period itself also varies by 3 weeks from the earliest to latest flowering varieties; this period corresponds approximately to the second to fourth weeks of April in Southern England. For cross pollination to be successful, compatible varieties must overlap significantly in their flowering periods - by at least a week . See the flowering table later for an indication of the flowering group of each cultivar. A minimum of 1 pollinator to 8 main cultivar trees should be planted. Pollination is via insects, primarily drone flies and bluebottles , and also by bumble (wild) bees. Flowering is rather early to attract much activity from hive bees. Flower initiation in pears occurs about 60 days after full bloom, ie around midsummer the year before flowering occurs. Flower buds are formed on term inal s of shoots and short spurs two years old or older. Most pears flower every year, although Beurre Hardy and Doyenne du Cornice on quince rootstocks tend to flower lightly following a heavy crop year.

Planting and pruning
Nearly all pears bear fruit on short spurs on 2-year old and older wood, thus after planting and formation pruning, the main object of pruning is to induce spur formation . Pruning for the different forms is basically the same as that for apples (see Fig.1 for examples of a dwarf pyram id, spindle, cordon and vertical axis tree). Trees on dwarfing stocks, such as Quince C, may need staking permanently. Varieties vary in their growth form , but are often described as upright or pendulous; the pyram id form of prun ed tree is nearest to the natural growth habit of such varieties, more so than the bush form . Heavily pruned pears tend to become upright, while lightly pruned pears tend to spread. Most pendulous pear trees are tip bearers and should only be pruned lightly because they make few fruiting spurs.

Standards & half standards
For standards, use seedling pear rootstocks or a vigorous clonal stock (some of the OH x F stocks are suitab le). for half standards , use a moderately vigorous stock , for examp le the Quince stock BA29 (now available in the UK) . pruning is basically the same as for the bush tree (below), except that the main stem is grown on to 1.2-1.5 m (4-5 ft) for a half standard and 1.8-2. 1 m (6-7 ft) for a standard, before cutting; this may take two seasons. Train them to a cane during this period and leave any side shoots to help thicken the stem, but pinch back any vigorous laterals in the summer to about 6 leaves. Once the tree has formed a stout trunk, remove all laterals below the head .

Bush trees
The best all-round rootstock is Quince A, which shou ld be planted at 3.5-4.5 m (12-15 ft) apart. For fertile soils and vigorous cultivars , Quince C can be used and planted at 3-4.3 m (10-14 tt) apart. The aim is to produce a goblet-shaped tree with a strong framework of branches growing outwards and upwards. At planting, cut back the maiden whip to a bud at 70-75 cm (27-30~) . In the second winter, select 3-6 evenly spaced branches and prune the leader of each by a half to two-thirds to an outward facing bud, and remove any shoots on the main stem beneath the selected branches. In the 3rd and 4th winters, the leading shoots of each branch should continue to be pruned as above. In addition , laterals not required as part of the framework can be spur-pruned by cutting them back to 3-4 buds ; strong laterals selected as branches should be cut back by a quarter to a third to an outward facing bud . In all but notably spreading cultivars , shoots crowding the centre should be removed. In latter winters, and with established bushes, laterals should be pruned back to 3-4 buds to induce spu r formation. For tip-bearing cultivars , only the strongest laterals should be pruned back, and the leaders can be pruned back by a third.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 7

Dwarf pyramid

Spindle

, "
Cordon

Figure 1. Tree shapes.

Vertical axis

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Cordons
For cordons, the more dwarfing Quince C rootstock is preferable ; plant trees at 60 em (30n) apart and at an ang le of 45°, with the scion part of the graft upwards and preferably the tops pointing northwards. Cordon rows should be spaced at 1.8 m (6 tt) apart. At planting , cut back any side shoots longer than 10 em (4H) on the maiden to 3 buds ; from then on, prune in the summer on ly. Summer pruning takes place at around mid-July in S.England (late July or early August further north or in wetter western regions), when all mature side shoots longer than 20 em (s n) arising from the main stem are cut back to 3 leaves; those arising from spur systems are cut back to 1 leaf. Repeat in September to prune shoots too immature earlier in the summer. The leader is trained up a cane throughout the summer, and is on ly pruned back (by a third) in winter if growth is very weak; once the cordon has reached the desired height, the leader is pruned back to 1 cm (O.S") each May.

Dwarf pyramids
Use a Quince rootstock, planted at 1.2-1.S m (4-5 tt) apart in the row with at least 1.B m (6 tt) between rows, which should preferably run North-South. At planting, cut back the main stem of a maiden to a bud SO cm (20 ") above the gro und, and cut any side shoots to a bud 12 cm (5 from the main stem. In the second winter , cut back the leader to leave 2S cm (10 ") to a bud on the side of the shoot opposite the cut made the previous winter (helps to keep the stem straight) . Prune laterals to 15-20 em (6-B ") to a downward or outward facing bud. Remove blossoms on the central leader for the first few years to encourage the growth of side branches. Subsequently, summer and winter pruning are practised. With summer pruning (at similar times as for cordons), cut mature branch leaders to S-6 leaves, prune laterals ari sing from the branches to 3 leaves and those arising from existing laterals or spurs to 1 leaf. Repeat in late September to catch immature growth and secondary growth from the earli er prun ing . Winter pruning consists of cutting the central leader to allow 20-25 cm (B-l 0 ") of growth . When the trees reach about 2 m (7 ft) high, they may be kept at this height by pruning the ). central leader in May to 12 mm (O.S R
R )

Espaliers
Training pears as espaliers is an excellent use of a wall or fence , and they will benefit more than, say, apples, from such a location. Quince A rootstock is most suitable, planted at 3.54.S m (12 - 15 ft) apart; in fertile soils where only 2-3 tiers are required , Quince C can be used at 3-3.5 m (10- 12 ft) spacing . Wires are stretched at 30-4S cm (12-1B ") apart to train the tiers along. At planting, the maiden is cut back to a bud about 5 cm (2 ") above the first wire , preferably with two buds closely below it, facing left and right. which will form the first tier. In the first sum mer, tie the shoot from the top bud to an upright cane; the shoots from the two lower buds are also tied to canes, initially fixed at 4So because shoots grow more vigorously at that ang le rathe r than horizontally. In October, lower both side shoots and canes to the horizontal and tie them to the first wire. Repeat th is procedure to form subsequent tiers. The leading shoot of each existing tier should be pruned only if growth has been poor, when the previous summer's growth can be cut back by a third to a quarter to an upward facing bud. Established espaliers are pruned in summer at the same time as for cordons . For each tier , prune mature laterals longer than 22 em (9") which arise directty from the tiers to 3 leaves, and those arising from existing spurs to 1 leaf. Spurs arising from the central stem should be treated sim il arlr The leading shoots from the tiers are not pruned in summer, but are tied at an angle of 4S ; in the autumn, after leaf fall , they are tied down horizontal. Once a tier has reached the required length, prune back its leader to 12 mm (O.S") each May.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 9

Spindle bush
This form is quite similar to the dwarf pyramid. Unlike that form, laterals arise all along the stem rather than in regular order. The spindle form is established by cutting the maiden at 60 em (2 ft), forcing la terals starting at 30 em ( 1 tt) above the ground. In early summer, strong co-leaders are removed to maintain a single-leader tree . Lateral shoots are either tied down to the horizontal , or if the variety is precocious (eg. Williams Bon Chretien) then early cropping pulls the branches down with little need for tying.

Vertical axis
This is very much like the spindle bush , except that training consists of developing a central leader with fruiting branches arising around the leader in natural order. As the branches become bent down by cropping, they are systematically renewed so as not to become large branches. This system needs only modest pruning.

Thinning
Natural fruiUet drop occurs in June. Most varieties do not need thinning ; two which may over· produce are Beurre d'Amanlis and Fertility. For these, manual thinning can be undertaken by thinning each cluster to 1 or 2 fruits.

Feeding and irrigation
Pears on quince rootstocks always benefit from a mulch over the growing season which retains soil moisture. A shortage of water can result in poor shoot growth , heavy fruitlet drop, small fruits , poor fla vo ur, and skin cracking. In dry weather, standard recommendations are to apply 50 litres/m 2 water over the rooting area per 10 days. Commercial orchards use 10·15 tons of farmyard manure per acre per year, or artificial fertilisers which supply 29-48 Kg (63-105 Ib) of N per acre per year, 27-54 Kg (60-120 Ib) potash pel rear, and 24·41 Kg (54·90 Ib) phosphate every 2·3 years. These rates are equal to 7·12 g N/m Iyea r + 7·1 4 g K20/m2/year + 2·5 g P20 5/m2/yea r. Nitrogen·fi xing species planted in a ratio of 1: 1 by area with the pear trees could supply all the nitrogen required here; scattered comfrey plants growing beneath the pear canopy and cut regularly with the leaves used as mulch cou ld supply the potash and phosphate.

Pests
Birds, especially tits, may peck ripening pears. Difficult to control , but fruits can be netted with mesh or muslin bags . Alternatively, use a small piece of card for each fruit as follows: use 7 x 7 cm (3 x 3 N) pieces of card, make a hole in the centre and a slit from the centre to the edge. Slide the card over the stalk end of the pear; it is held in place by the stalk. Birds find this prospective perch in fact very unstable, and soon avoid it. Bullfinches occasionally attack flower buds in winter, especially with the cultivars Conference, Dr Jules Guyot, Merton Pride and Williams Bon Chretien; Beurre Hardy and Doyenne du Comice are rarely attacked . Attacks are worst where trees adjoin hedges or woodland, though plentiful ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds reduce attacks as they are preferred food. Aphids (including the pink pear bedstraw aphid, Oysaphis pyri. and woolly aphid, Eriosoma pyrico/a) infest young growth and distort the leaves. En courage predator numbers by planting flowering plants near the pear trees which attract hoverflies . and attract aphid·eating birds in winter.

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Pear leaf blister mites produce pustules in young leaves . Severe attacks may cause premature leaf fali , but most do little permanent harm . Infested leaves can be hand picked an d burnt. Pear midges produce small orange-white maggots which feed in the young fruitlets, which distort, discolour and drop prematurely. Collect and destroy infested fruitlels to remove number of maggots which carryover to the following season. Running poultry beneath trees is also effective. Winter moth caterpillars feed on the leaves , flowers and fruitlets . Pla ce grease bands around trunks (and stakes if still in place) in late October to trap the wingless females as they climb up the trees from the soil to lay their eggs. Keep in place until the end of March . Pear & cherry slugworms are larvae of the pear sawfly (Caliroa ceras/). They are black , slimy, slug-like caterpillars which graze away the leaf surface, and which can build up over Ihe years into substantial populations. Running poultry or cultivating beneath trees should contro l the problem; affected leaves can be picked off and burnt. Codling moths are an occasional problem , but are nowhere near as serious as on apples; routine control measures are not usually necessary, but pheromone traps can be used. Wasps are sometimes a problem in late summer. Traps using sticky juice can be hung in trees.

Diseases
Scab (Venturia pirina) is most serious in moist climates , where fruits may develop blackish scabs and in severe cases may crack. On leaves it produces olive-green blotches , and affected shoots become blistered and scabby. Unlike apples, it affects fruits before leaves .; too much nitrogen increases susceptibility. Try to encourage good air circulation, shred fallen leaves with a mower (spores overwinter on leaves) and choose resistant cultivars if it is likely to be a problem. Fireblight (Erwinia amy/avara) is probably the most se riou s pear disease. Originating in North Am erica, it spread to the UK in the 1950's and has spread widely in Europe since. Attempts to control the disease by destroying affected plants failed , and it is now widespread in Britain so uth of N .Yorkshire. The very susceptible cultivar Laxton's Superb was grubbed from British commercial orchards in the 1960's. The fungus , spread by blossom infection, causes the flowers to blacken and shrivel ; it then spreads down th e shoots causing them to die back, and the leaves on affected shoots blacken and wither but do not fall. Cut out and burn affected wood, disinfecting secateurs after each cu t. Where trees are rarely fertilised or pruned , even the most susceptible varieties are rarely seriously damaged . Blossom infection occurs most readily when mean daily temperatures reach 18° C (65°F), not such a common occurrence in the UK during flowering, except on varieties which regularly produce summe r blossom, ego Laxton 's Superb, and it is on these varieties that the major attacks have occurred ; Perry pear orchards (which flower later) are also severely affected, often via hawthorn hedges. Many rootstocks show resistance , which will aid culUva r resistance. Any practice that encourages sappy growth should be avoided , hence try not to fertilise in spring and minimise pruning . Similarly, only irrigate (if necessary) in late summer to aid fruit swelling, as earlier irrigation will encourage shoot growth. Hawth orn hedges should be
~\Injrl""rl

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 11

Canker (Neetria gal/igena) causes cankers on stems and branches. Susceptibility varies between cultivars, and in moist areas, choosing a resistant cultivar is the best procedure. Some control can be given by cutting out all cankered wood from September to December. Fungal leaf spot (Fabraea maeulata or Dip/ocarpon mespill) causes reddish or brownish spots on leaves; severe attacks can lead to premature defoliation and cracked fruits. Only a serious problem in pear nurseries. Powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) is a fungus which distorts leaves , covering them with a white powdery growth. Pears are less susceptible than apples and it is rarely serious. Brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) is frequently a problem on pears, causing fruits to rot , mummify and eventually fall. Affected fruits should be removed and burnt. Honey fungus (Armillaria melle a) can cause the sudden death of pear trees, as it does apples. Rootstocks vary in susceptibility, with most quince stocks susceptible; most P.communis selections and some other Pyrus species are resistant. Stony pit is a viral disease which produces depressions in the skin with hard areas of tissue below . It may be severe in susceptible cultivars (eg. Beurre d'Amanlis, Beurre Hardy, Doyenne du Cornice) and is rare in others (eg. Williams). Pear rusts (Gymnosporangium spp.) are fungi which cause damage on leaves, shoots and fruits of pears in Europe and North America. None are significant in Britain.

Harvesting
Time of picking is of great importance; the fruits are not left to completely ripen on the tree, but are picked while they are still firm (if picked when ripe on the outside, they will be overripe and mealy inside) . The best test of readiness is to lift the fruit slightly and twist it gently on the stalk; if it parts easily from the spur when lifted to the horizontal then it is time to pick. Except for late-ripening cultivars, pick selectively because not all fruits ripen together. Once off the tree, store in a cool place; they will ripen in a short time. Fruit of late ripening cultivars mustn't be' picked too early, or they ten d to shrivel and fail to develop their full flavour. Fruit of very late ripening cultivars should be left on the tree as long as possible, then all picked w hen the first fruits drop.

Yields
Pears on quince stocks come into bearing a year or two later than apples on moderate rootstocks - 4-6 years or so; trees on pear stocks may take a decade or more. Typical yields for trees tra ined in different ways on Quince rootstocks , compared with standards on seedling rootstocks , are as follows: Dwarf bush Pyramid dwarf 3-5 Kg 8-121b Single cordon 2-3 Kg 4-6 Ib

Bush Average yield

Espalier 7-9 Kg 15-20 Ib

Fan 5-14 Kg 12-30 Ib

Standard 36-109 Kg 80-240 Ib

18-45 Kg 9-18 Kg 40-1001b 20-401b

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Storage
Coolness. darkness, and humidity with some air circulation are the essentia l condit ions for good storage; fruits should be placed in stora~e as soon as possible after picking. The best D temperature to store pears is 0_1 C (32-34 F) . This is diffi cult for amateurs, the best com promise for small quantities being to store fruit in the bottom of a refrigerator; the temperature should not fall below freezing. Fruits are best laid on trays or shelves for easy inspection, and should not be wrapped on placed in plastic bags . There is only a slight change in the skin co lour of pears, from green to yellowish-green, at low temperatures . Proper ripening and conditioning takes place if those fruits nearing ripeness are brought into a warm room for a few days before eating. At these optimum conditions, many late-ripening cultivars will store for 3-6 months (eg. Confe rence and Doyenne du Comice , 3 month s; Willia m s Bon Chretien , 6 months) . These periods are doubled in commercia l stores with refrigerated gas storage using an atmosphere of 6% CO 2 and 15% 02.

Undercrops and agroforestry use
Pea rs grown on Quince rootstocks are susceptible to drought, and any plants grown beneath them wilJ increase this susceptibility. As long as an area free of vegetation is kept around the trunk, plants can be grown; deep-rooting plants may be preferable to grasses as they will compete less directly with the sha ll ow surfa ce-feed ing roots of the rootstock . Pears grown on seedling pear rootstocks are much stronger trees , and give much more potentia l for underplanting. Pears need good light to fruit: shading reduces fruit yields and quality , and the formation of flowe r buds on spurs depends on light received by the spur leaves. Thus in a forest garden they must almost always be placed as canopy trees as part of the tallest layer. The only exceptions are those varieties which are known to tolerate low light levels (eg those which tolerate north wall conditions) - for example Jargonelle - and cooking varieties , which will be most tolerant to low light levels. Because there are few really dwarfing pear rootstocks, thoug h, pears on (say) the common quince stocks sti ll ma ke trees on the large side for the understorey unles s very large upper canopy trees are used. Underplanting pears with herbs and soft fruit is ce rta in ly feasible (Robert Hart has successfully done this) and increasing lo cal diversity like this no doubt in creases pest and disease resistance .

Pear Cultivars
The pears in this article are categorised as dessert or cu linary; perry pears are cove red in a future article. There are hundreds of pear cultivars , but this article concentrates on about 70 of the most popular and common in Europe. For a more extensive coverage of pear variet ies , see Directory of Pear Cultivars (to be published by the A.R.T. later this year). The ideal dessert pear is juicy or 'buttery ', with a good sweet-acid blend and a strong delicious aroma. Most dessert pears can be used for cooking (culinary purposes) , but they need to be picked before they are fully rip e and cooked very slowly in syrup . True cu li nary varieties are hardy and prolific, and their fruits are not acid , but are hard and lacking in flavour and ju ice; th ey keep ve ry well. Only a few culinary varieties are described below, as their popularity is now low. Pear fruits are usually classified into the fo ll owing shapes (see figure 2):

AGROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 13

--.

Calabasse

Turbinate (bergamotte)

Round

Best flavoured cultivars
Beth Beurre d'Amanlis Beurre Hardy Seurra Superfin Doyenne du Cornice
Gorham Josephine de Matines Marie-Louise Merton Pride Olivier de Serres Onward Seckle Thompson 's Williams ' Bon Chretien

Cultivars preferring a South or Wes,t wall in Britain
Almost at! good dessert cultivars will do welt ' on a South wall. The following really need the extra protection and warmth of a South wall to ripen their fruit well in Britain .

Seurra Seurra Seurra Seurra

Bedford d' Anjou Diel Easter

Seurra Hardy Seurre Superfin Doyenne du Cornice Emile d'Heyst

Josephine de Malines Passe Crassane (5 wall) Seckle

Tip bearers
These fruit mostly at the tips of shoots , and require little pruning:
Jargonelie

Josephine de Malines

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

A&

Pyriform Conical Oval Turbinate belong here. Calabasse

With a distinct waist. Tapering with no waist. Usually russetted, without any red colour. Top-shaped ; russetted or green when rip e, Bergamot cultiva rs Long with little or no waist.

Several cultivars are not directly compa tible with Quince rootstocks; to utili se such stocks , they are grafted or budded with an interstock - a piece of wood from a second cultivar between the incompatible wood and the quince, Beurre Hardy is most commonly used as the interstock variety, though many others can be used, for example Doyenne du Comice, Glou Morceau, Pitmaston Duchess and Vicar of Winkfied,

Synonyms of pear cultivars
Anjou = Beurre d'Anjou d'Anjou = Beurre d'Anjou Bartle tt = Williams' Bon Chretien Belle Lucrative = Fondante d'Automne Beurre Bosc = Calebasse Bosc Beurre Bugiaf = Vica r of Winkfield Beurre d 'Arenberg = Grou Marceau Beurre de Hardenpont = Grou Marceau Beurre d'Esperen = Emile d'Heyst Beurre Easter = Easter Beurre Bergamotte d'Esperen = Huyshe's Bergamot Bergamotte d'Pentacote = Easter Beurre Bergamotte Esperen = Huyshe's Bergamot Bloodgood = Jargonelle Comice = Doyenne du Com ice (;lI rMn = Vir:::Ir of Winkfip.lr! Doyenne de Juillet = Doyenn e d'Ete Dumont = Beurre Dumont English Jargonelle = Jargonell e Epargne = Jargonelle Erdelyi Mezes = Doctor Jules Guyot Fondante de Charneu = Legipant Giffard = Beurre Giffard Hardy = Beurre Hardy Le Cure = Vicar of Winkfield Marie-Louise Delcourt = Marie-Louise Mailing Concorde = Concorde Santa Claus = Fin du Oixneuvieme Siecle Seckle = Seckel Soeur Gregoire = Fin du Dixneuvieme SiEkle Trout Pear = ForeUe VArlllRm = RIl'lr:k Worr:A!':.tAr

::

,.

.

,::'
~~ '

"
,"

':o..: ',:~,

'-',
';to '
" 0 0"

~~~;:;~
Pyriform

;;- '

.~' t:..~"

Conical

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 15

Cultivars for warm wet areas (SW England, W Wales & Ireland)
Scab is the most damaging disease in these areas of high rainfall. The following cultivars are either scab-resistant or vigorous enough to withstand mild attacks: Seurre Dumont Seurre Giffard

Seurre Hardy
Bristbl Cross Catillac Conference Doctor Jules Guyot

Ourondeau Jeanne d'Arc Fin du Dixneuvieme Sieele Laxton's Foremost Glou Red Williams Legipont Gorham Louise Bonne of Jersey Hessle Onward Improved Fertility Precoce de Trevoux Jargonelle Souvenir de Cong res

Cultivars for cool wet areas (NW England & W Scotland)
As well as scab, pears in these areas have to cope with a shorter growing season: Catillac Conference

Durondeau

Gorham Hessle Improved Fertility

Jargonelle Louise Bonne of Jersey

Table 1. Flowering times, pest & disease resistance
The average relative date of full flowering is indicated in the first column : day 1 is equivalent to April 8th in Southern England, but the correspo nding date will of course vary with location. This is an average and in different seasons can vary by as much as a month. The first set of columns (A·G) indicate the spread of flowering from first flowering to last flowering . The spread of flowering is marked with ' x' , with ' f' indicating where full flowering occurs. When choosing cultivars with compatible flowering times , try to choose them with the same ' f' period, and at the very least with adjoining 'f' periods. Each of these co lumns represents about 5 days, and they correspond with the relative date of flowering (as above) as follows (with the average date in S.England represented in brackets): A = day 1-6 (April 8-13) 0 = day 18-22 (April 25-29) B = day 7-12 (April 14-19) E = day 23-27 (April 30- May 4) C = day 13-17 (April 20-24) F = day 28-32 (May 5-9) G = day 33-37 (May 10-14)

After columns A-G, the column marked 'Poll' is used where the cu ltivar cannot be relied upon for pollination. In this column, 'trip' means it is a triploid; 'inf' means it bears infertile pollen. The remaining columns list any known disease or pest resistance or susceptibility. Codes used in these columns are: T = tolerant SR VR = very resistant

= slightl y resistant S = sus ceptibl e MS = moderately susceptibl e

R = resistant VS = very susceptib le

The diseases and pests represented in these columns are (see above for more details): scab pear scab mild mildew cank = apple & pear cankerbblt = blossom blight fblt = fireblight spit = stony pit

=

=

moth = codling moth bfch = bullfinches

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Table 1 diseases & pests flowering A1 B rCD E F G poll scab ieank fblt Imild bblt spit moth bfch r I m . x f x ...

I

Alexandrina Bivort Baronne de Mello Bellissime d'Hiver Beth Beurre Alexandre Lucas 12 x f lxlx _ I _ 23 I . . . x f · x Beurre Bedford 13- xfxx Beurre d'Amanlis 13 . x f x x Beurre d'Anjou Beurre d'Humboldt 17 f x x x Beurre de Jonghe x f x x 16 Beurre Diel x f x x 20 Beurre Dumont 17 Beurre Giffard 19 Beurre Hard y x f x x 21 Beurre Superfin 16 1 _ x f x x x Black Worcester 22 _ Bristol Cross . f x f x 24 Calebasse Bose Catillac 20 I _ x f x x x f x x Clapp's Fa vourite 21. . x f x Concorde ml Conference 17 I _ x f x x x f x x Doctor Jules Guyot 20. Doyenne d'Ete 14 1 Doyenne de Merode f : Doyenne du Cornice x f x x . Duchesse d'Angouleme 16 x f x x x Durondeau 16 x f x x Easter Beurre 17 Emile d'Heyst 15 . x f x x x f x x Fertility 19 I _ x f x Fin du Dixneuvieme Siecle 2 x xx _ Fondante d'Automne 20 xf x x Forelle 14 x f x x x 21 Glou Morceau x f x x Glou Red Williams 20 23 ', . x f x Gorham m x f x Harrow Delight Harvest Queen m I_ x f x 19 _ x f x x Hessle 19 x f x x Huyshe's Bergamot x f x 20 Improved Fertility x f x x x 16 Jargonelle 22 Jeanne d'Arc Josephine de Malines 19 r Kieffer 20 Laxton's Early Market f . . f x x Laxton's Foremost 22 _ . . f x x . Laxton's Record x f iX _I _ m Laxton's Satisfaction

l~ I~ ; I~ ~I xl
l

trip inf trip VS S

VR

S S
S S
S MR

S
trip MR VR

;~~;x:_ 1
x x x.1inf
trip

S R
MS VS

R S
VR

I MS

S

R

S
VR VS MS R

S

S S

MS

1

S

S
S
S

MR

MS I S S MS MS

S

MR MS

MR MS

S S

23: x

; Ix

MS

VS MR MS MR

S

MR

R

S
VS S

S
VS

S R
VS MR

R
VR

T

VS

R
VR VR R R

VR

trip

:1 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~

R R R
R MR MR

22 1 -ixi xIx

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 17

F

Table 1 (cont)
flowering diseases A Be DIE F IG poll scab cank fbll mild
&

pes t s
I

bbll spit moth bfch

21 22 LE~gipont 22 Louise, Bonne of Jersey 14
Laxton's Superb Laxton's Victor

Marguerite Marillat Marie-Louise Merton Pride Merton Star Nouveau Poiteau Olivier de Serres

17

Onward
Packham's Triumph Passe Crassane Pitmaston Duchess Precoce de Trevoux Roosevelt Seckel Souvenir du Congres Thompson's Triomphe de Vienne Vicar of Winkfield Williams' Bon Chretien Winter Nelis

x x 22 x f x x trip 19 I 21 . x f Ix x 23 x x 18 x f x x . x f x x 23 14 x f x x 15 . I X f I X X 20 x f x x trip 11 x f x x 19 x x f x x 20 x f x x 19 x f x 19 x f x x 21 x f x x 13 x f x x trip 20 x f x x 22 f x x x

x f x f x x f x x f x x f x x f x

x x x
rnf

S R VR

vs
MR

I
IS

I

T

R MR MS MS VS R MS R S S VS MS MS VS MR VS S VS S MS MS MS MR MS
T

S MR

MS

S

S

VS

S

Table 2. Ripening dates of pear cultivars.
This table displays the approximate ripening dates of pear cultivars . It assumes that cultivars are picked from the tree at the appropriate time (see cultivar descriptions for times of picking) , and have been sufficiently ripened in the summer. In the UK this is sometimes difficult for late ripening selections .

If the fruit are stored in typical amateur conditions - cool and dark but not controlled cold storage - then the period for which fruits can be expected to store are marked with 'x'. The additional period for which fruit can be expected to store in controlled cold storage is marked with's'. The dates used below refer to the average dates when fruit is grown in Southern England ; it will vary with location and season.

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

AsP
Table 2 Cultivar

. #5

July

Aug

ripening Sept Oct Nov Dec I

I

I

I

d ate s Janl FeQ Ma 1 April

May

Alexandrina Sivorl Saronne de Mello Beliissime d'Hiver 8eth Beurre Alexandre Lucas 8eurre Bedford Beurre d'Amanlis Beurre d'Anjou Beurre d'Humboldt Beurre de Jonghe 8eurfe Di el Beurre Dumont 8eurre Giffard 8eurre Hard y Beurre Superfin Black Worcester Bristol Cross Calebasse Bose Catillac Clapp's Favourite Concorde Conference Doctor Jules Guyot

x x

Ix x x
xxx l xxx

xxx x x x xxx xxx xxx x x x xxx i x xx i

I

x xx xx
xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxx xxx
xxx l xx J

xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx x x s s s sss sss x xx xxx xxx x xx xxx x x x x x x xxx xxx xxx xxx x x x xxx l xxx l xxx xxx xx
xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx X x x xx xxx sss sss sss sss SSS x xxx sss

I I I

Doyenne d'Et€! Doyenne de Merode Doyenne du Cornice Duchesse d'Angouleme Durondeau Easter Beurre Emile d'H eyst Fertility Fin du Dixneuvieme Sieele

x x
x x x x

xxx xx x xx xxx x x x x s s S
X X X X

5 S5 555 SSS

I
xxx

xxx xxx x x x x

I

x x
xxx i x x xxx xxx xxx xxx x x x

Fondante d'Automne Forelle Glou Marceau Glou Red Williams Go rham Harrow Delight Harvest Queen Hessle Huyshe's Bergamot Improved Fertility Jargonelie Jeanne d'Arc Josephine de Malines Kieffer Laxton's Early Market Laxton's Foremost Laxton's Record
I
~)(tnn'!,: S~ti ... f~r.tinn

I

x x x xxs l SSS SSS I
xx xx
xx x sS x x xS s

xxx
xxx xxx xxx xxx

x x
x x x x

x x x x x x IS
I
xxx xxx xxx

x x xI sss

x

x xx
x x x x
)( )()()(

I
Page 19

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

k
Table 2 (conI)
CuUivar Laxton's Superb Laxton's Victor Legipont Louise Bonne of Jersey Marguerite Marillat Marie-Lou ise Merton Pride Merton Star Nouveau Poiteau Olivier de Serres Onward Packham's Triumph July Aug r i P Sept Oct

e n i n g
Nov Dec

d a I Jan Feb,

e

5

Mar. April May

xx xx x x x x x x x x J x x x x x x x 555
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

I

,

555 555

x
XXX ! XXX

xxx

x x5

5 55
X X X

X X X

xxx

555

sss sss
' X

Passe Crassane Pitmaston Duchess Precoce de Trevoux Roosevelt Seckel Souvenir du Congres Thompson's Triomphe de Vienne Vicar of Winkfield Williams' 80n Chretien Winter Neils

x x xxx

x xxx x x xxx xxx xxx xxx x x x 555
X X X X X X X X X

xxx xxx xxx xxx

xx x xx5
555
X X X

xxx x x x x x x

555 555 555

Cultivars tolerating low light/north wall conditions
Jargonelie Williams' Bon Chretien (NE)

Cultivars for Northern areas (including Scotland)
Beurre d'Amanlis Black Worcester Catillac Clapp 's Favourite Conference Duchesse d'Angouleme Durondeau Emile d'Heyst Gorham Louise Bonne of Jersey Margeurite Marillat Thompson's Triomphe de Vienne Williams' Bon Chretien Winter Nelis

Hessle I m proved Fertility Jargonelie

Cultivars with frost-resistant flowers
These are useful in gardens with frost-pocket problems; any of the late flowering selections are also useful (those with full flower after day 20). Note that only Durondeau below is also suited to Northern areas. Doyenne du Cornice Durondeau Passe Crassane

lin
Cultivar descriptions
Note that recommended picking times for the fruits given in these descriptions refer to the Southern half of Britain; further north they will be delayed accordingly.

Culinary cultivars
Bellissime d'Hiver Tree: Vigorous (even on Quince rootstock) , upright, well spurred, reliable cropper (part self~ fertile). An old French pear. Fruit pick October. Large , oval , green to pale yellow, with a red flush and conspicuous dots ; flesh white, soft. Considered one of the best cooking pears. Black Worcester (VeruJam) Tree: Moderately vigorous, hardy, a moderate cropper. Fruit: pick October. Large, bergamot shape, covered in reddish~brown russet; flesh pale yellow, crisp, rather gritty, good cooked flavour . Catillac Tree: Vigorous , spreading and weeping; a regular and heavy cropper. Extremely hardy and a triploid. A very old French pear; has large flowers. Fruit: pick late October ~ early November. Roundish ~ bergamot in shape, large, dull greenish· white with a reddish flush, smooth skinned ; flesh hard, greenish·white but cooks to a deep red with a fine flavour. Although classified as culinary, quite acceptable for dessert in the Sp ring. Doyenne de Merode Tree : Vigorous , sturdy and low spreading. Cropping good , tending to biennial. An old Belgian variety. Fruit: pick mid August· mid September. Roundish to oval , medium to large, yellow flushed red with brownish·grey spots and mottling; flesh white, fairly smooth , juicy, sweet , sub·acid: thin skin. Also makes a sprightly dessert pear. Kieffer Tree: Vigorous, hardy, early to start bearing , reliable and good cropper in a warm location . A hybrid of the European and Asian (P.pyrifolia) pears , notable for being practically immune to fireblight. Fruit: pick late October. Medium to large, long , golden· yeUow with a crimson flush; flesh yellowish· white, coarse, crisp, juicy, not sweet, sometimes astringent, but good for canning and cooking. Vicar of Winkfield (Beurre Bugiat, Curato, Le Cure) Tree: Vigorous, upright, cropping excellent. A triploid from France. Fruit: pick October. Long calabasse , very large, pale green shading to pale yellow, smooth skinned; flesh pale yellow, firm , dry, very good fla vour when properly ripened . See also in the dessert listings: Beurre Superfin, Calebasse Bosc, Clapp's Favourite, Conference, Doyenne du Cornice, Gorham, Hessle, Kiefer, Legipont, Pitmaston Duchess, Seckel, Williams' Bon Chretien.

Dessert cultivars
Alexandrina Bivort Tree: Compact, upright: a good cropper. Fruit: pick late July. Small, green. Baronne de Mello Tree: Hardy, regular and good cropper. Moderately vigorous , upright. Fruit: pick October (ripens over a long period). Small , golden·brown , russetted ; flesh soft, melting, aromatic, very good flavour.

Beth Tree: Moderate vigour, upright, a good reliable cropper. , spurs freely. Starts fruiting at an early age. A recent introduction , from Beurre Superfin X Williams' BC . Fruit: pick late August - early September. Pale yellow covered with fine golden brown russet , small to medium sized; flesh white, juicy, sweet, melting, excellent flavour. Beurre Alexandre Lucas Tree: Vigorous , upright, spreading with age, quite hardy; a mod- heavy cropper. Triploid. Fruit: pi \=k October. Large , ripening yellow with a red fJush; flesh white. juicy, melting, arom. Beurre Bedford Tree: Compact, upright, good cropper. Not a good pollinator. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Large , ye ll ow, good flavour. Beurre d'Amanlis Tree: Vigorous, straggling , with a pendulous habit; needs plenty of room . A very hardy tree, cropping well. An old French variety; a triploid. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Pyriform . medium or large sized, yell owish-g reen , russetted; flesh yellowish, smooth, sweet, melting, very jui cy, good aroma, good fla vo ur in warm season. Beurre d'Anjou (Anjou, d'Anjou) Tree: Vigorous, hardy, early to start fruiting and a good cropper. An old French variety. Fruit: pick October. Conical , large, light green ; flesh white , firm , smooth (s lightl y gritty), melting, very j uicy, with a delicate aroma and ri ch flavour. Beurre d'Humboldt Tree : Of moderate vigour, usually a good regular cropper but sometimes biennial. Fruit: pick October. Calabash shaped, medium to large, fawn-yellow with patches of russet and greyish spots ; flesh white, very juicy and sweet, good flavour. Also good for cooking. Beurre de Jonghe Tree: Upright, a IitUe spreading, weak in vigour; a good cropper. An old Belgian pear. Fruit: pick October. Oval, medium sized, pale green fading to pale yellow , covered with patches of dull russet. Flesh cream coloured, smooth, pleasant flavour. Beurre Diel Tree: Vigorous, spreading, hardy, productive. A triploid. Needs a warm location. Fruit: pick October. Oval , large , dull yellow sometimes with a brown flush ; flesh white, sweet , melting, smooth when properly ripe otherwise tends to be coarse. Gd flavour when ripe- a problem in Brita in. Beurre Dumont (Dumont) Tree: Spreading, good cropper; old trees can become biennial. An old Belgian pear. Fruit pick October. Large , conical. greenish-yellow flushed cinnamon -brown; flesh white, very smooth and melting, sweet, juicy, aromatic. excellent flavour. 8eurre Giffard (Giffard) Tree: Moderately vigorous, spreading, productive. Very hardy old French variety. Fruit: pick August - September. Medium size, dull greenish-yellow, dotted and flushed red. Flesh tinged yellow, crisp, tender. juicy, aromatic, distinct refreshing vinous flavour. Beurre Hardy (Hardy) Tree: Vigorous , upright, slow to come into bearing , quite hardy. A regular heavy cropper in a warm position . Not a good pollinator as it sometimes sheds its pollen before the flowers open . Scarlet autumn co lours. An old French variety. Fruit: pick mid-September to October. just before it readily parts from the tree . Turbinate , large, yellowish-green, heavily patched with bronze russet and an occasional red flush. Flesh white or pinkish, smooth , juicy, sweet, aromatic, good flavour with hints of rosewater. Beurre Superfin Tree: Moderately vigorous, spread ing , and a moderate to good cropper. An old French pear. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Round to conical, medium sized, yellow with russet patches and a slightly rough skin ; flesh pale yellow, sweet, very smooth texture, delicate aroma , excellent flavour. Should be eaten when the skin is still fairly firm because it begins to ripen at the core. Also good for bottling and canning.

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Bristol Cross Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright at first but spreading with age. A very heavy cropper, freely spurring. Not a good pollinator as pollen is infertile. Good in wet areas. Not directly compa tible with Quince rootstocks. raised in the UK (Avon) in 1920. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Calabasse shaped , medium to large, greenish-yellow' with some golden russet. Flesh white , usually smooth but sometimes a little coarse textured, juicy, swee t, melting, slight aroma, moderate to good flavour. Calebasse Bose (Beurre Bose) Tree: Large , upright, straggling tree; very reliable and productive cropper. Fruit: pick October. Ca labasse shape, medium to la rge, dark yellow with brownish russetted skin; flesh white, tender, aromatic, juicy, smooth , good flavour. Also good for cooking and drying. Clapp's Favourite Tree: Vigorous, upright, hardy, very prolific cropper. From the USA. Fruit: pick August - September. Long ish oval , medium to large, pale yellow with red flush and streaks, smooth skinned; flesh pale yellow , smooth (sometimes a little coarse), crisp, sweet, slightly sub-acid, very juicy, fair flavour. Also good for canning . Concorde (Ma/Ung Concorde) Tree: Moderately vigorous , upright, precocious, very hea vy cropper. A recent British introduction: Doyenne du Com ice x Conference. Part self-fertile. Fruit: pick October. Medium to large, similar to Conference in appearance - light green turning to pale yellow as they ripen ; flesh melting, sweet, juicy, good quality and flavour. Conference Tree : Moderately vigorous, upright at first but spreading with age , fairly compact, we ll spurring, hardy. Regular, reliable and heavy cropper which comes into bearing at an early age. Bred in the UK (Berks), introduced in 1894. More susceptible than most to wind damage. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Calabash shaped, medium to large, dull green turning to greenish yellOW, with some gOlden-brown russet. Flesh creamy white with a pinkish tinge , sweet, very juicy, smooth texture, thin skin, melting pleasant flavour. May set fruit without pollination wh ich are often mis-shaped. Also quite good for cann ing and bottling. Doctor Jules Guyot (Erdelyi Mezes) Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright at first becoming slightly spreading, well spurred. Very heavy cropping, sometimes tending to bear biennially. Precocious , self-fertile. Fruit pick mid August - mid September. Oval-pyriform , medium to small , skin a little rough , pale yellow with faint flush and russet dots or patches; flesh white, smooth, fair flavour. Doyenne d'Ete (Doyenne de Juillet) Tree : Of weak growth, a small upright tree but a heavy and regular cropper. Fruit: pick mid July - mid August. Small, conical, pale yellOW with a brownish-red flush; flesh white, smooth , swee t, very juicy, quite good flavour. Doyenne du Cornice (Cornice) Tree: Vigorous, upright, spreading with age. Needs a warm location for good cropping, which is then regular and moderate. An old French variety; su lphur-shy. Fruit: pick October, in several batches, leaving as late as possible. Turbinate to oval-pyriform, large, pale yellow, with a sl ight red flush & fine russet around sta lk & eye. Flesh white, smooth , juicy, v.sweet, melting, rich flavour; thick skin. Also good for bottling and canning. Duchesse d'Angouleme Tree: Vigorous, upright. hardy. Cropping very good . Fruit: pick late October. Very large, round, yellowish-green with dots and patches of brown-red russet; flesh almost white, very tender , sweet, juicy, aromatic, good flavour and quality. Durondeau Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright, compact , very hardy, a regular and heavy cropper. Autumn foliage is crimson. An old Belgian pear, part self-ferti le and quite hardy. Fruit pick late September - late October (leave as long as possible). Long conical, quite large, yellow with a red flush; flesh white, sweet, juicy, melting , sub-acid and refreshing, good flavour and quality; skin medium to thick. Can set fruits of good flavour without po llination .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 23

Easter Beurre (Bergamotte d'Pentacote, Beurre Easter) Tree: Vigorous , a moderate cropper. Li kes a warm site. Fruit pick October. Pyriform, medium size, yellowish-green with patches of russet ; flesh white, tender, aromatic, juicy, sweet. melting, with an unusual musk flavour. Emile d'Heyst (Beurre d'Esperen) Tree: Weak to moderate growth, making a spreading, pendulous semi-dwarfing tree. Hardy and heavy cropping; attractive autumn colour . An old Belgian variety. Fru it: ,pick late September - October. Oval, small , pale yellow with much russetting , skin a little rough; flesh white , smooth, v.juicy, v.sweet , melting , sub-acid , good rose-water fla vour. Fertility Tree : Moderately vigorous , upright at first , then tending to spread. Makes a pyramidal tree . Cropping extremely heavy - may need thinning. An old English va riety . Fruit: pick mid -late September. Round to conical, small. pale yellow covered with russet , rough skinned; flesh white or greenish-white, juicy, fair to poor flavour. Liable to storage rots . Fin du Dixneuvieme Siecle (Santa Claus, Soeur Gregoire) Tree : Vigorous, upright. Cropping moderate. Leaves turn claret red in Autumn. An old French pear, needs a warm site. Fruit: pick October. Roundish-conical, ve ry large , dull brownish-red , covered in russet ; flesh creamy wh ite, smooth to gritty, sweet, melting , exce llent flavour. Fondante d'Automne (Belle Lucrative) Tree : Small, spreading , semi-dwarfing habit. Hardy; cropping reliable and good to heavy. Will not pollinate Louise Bonne, Seckel or Williams ' BC. Foliage red in Autumn. Fruit: pick September (while still green). Short, roundish, smooth , green with patches of brown russet. ripening yellow; flesh white, melting, juicy, sweet, excellent musky flavour. Forelle (Trout Pear) Tree : Vigorous (though rather dwarfed on Quince), spreading , cropping moderate. Fruit: pick October. Short pyriform, medium size, greenish-yellow with brilliant scarlet flush and many dots, skin smooth; flesh white, smooth. sweet, delicate aromatic flavour. Glou Marceau (Beurre d'Arenberg, Beurre de Hardenpont) Tree : Moderate to vigorous growth, compact , spreading , needs a warm location . Crops regularly and heavily and sometimes needs thinning . Fruit: pick October-November (over a long period , needing a number of pickings). Ovalpyriform, medium to large , greenish-yellow ripening to yellow in store , smooth skinned; flesh white, smooth, me lting, very sweet. rich excellent flavour . Glow Red Williams Tree : A sport of Williams' Be . Leaves , shoots and fruits all have considerable red colouring, making it more resistant to fungus diseases. Fruit: pick late August - early September. Crimson skinned . more disease-resistant than Williams '. Gorham Tree : Moderately vigorous , upright and well spurred . Hardy, moderate to good cropper. Raised in the USA in 1910: Williams' BC x Josephine de Malines . Fruit: pick late August - early September. Conical-pyriform, small to medium, greenish-yellow with russet, smooth skinned; flesh white, tender, juicy, sweet, good musky flavour. Good for canning and bottling (retains white colour). Harrow Delight Tree : Hardy, productive. A recent Canadian introduction showing impressive fireblight resistance. A cross involving Williams ' BC. Frui t: pick August. Pyriform , medium sized , yellow with a red flush ; flesh smooth . juicy, good quality and flavour. Harvest Queen Tree: Productive, hardy. A recent Canadian introduction showing impressive fireblight resistance. A cross involving Williams' BC. Fru it: pick August. Medium size; flesh good quality.

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Hessle Tree : Vigorous , upright, spreading with age: very hardy , and cropping is excellent. Originated in Yorkshire (N.England). Fruit: pick October. Round to conical, small, pale yellowish-brown with ru sset dots, fairly smooth skin; flesh pale yellow, juicy, a littl e sweet, pleasant. Good for cooking also. Huyshe's Bergamot (Bergamotte d'Esperen, Bergamotte Esperen) I.mg: Upright, spreading, part se lf-fertile, a prolific cropper in a good location. Likes a warm position - not suitab le for wet or cold areas. An old Belgian variety. Fruit pick October. Round to conical, medium sized , greenish yellow with dark russet patches. Flesh pale yell ow, very smooth, soft, aromatic, excellent flavour in a good season. A good keeper. Improved Fertility Tree: Moderately vigorous , upright at first but spreading with age. Hardy and cropping very heaVily. A sport of Fertility, part serf-fertile (a tetraploid). Fruit pick mid-late September. Round to con ical, small, yellow, heavil y russetted; flesh white to greenish -white , firm , coarse, ju icy, sweet. fair flavour. Needs thinning , otherwise fruits are too small. Jargonelle (Bloodgood, English Jargonelle, Epargne) Tree: Moderately vigorous, straggling, with long spreading branches: heavy cropping . Will tolerate low light levels . A tip bearer and triploid. Not very compatible with Quince rootstocks. Fruit: pick early August. Long conical, medium sized, greenish-yellow with a slight flush ; flesh pale yellow, sweet, very tender and juicy, good slightly musky flavour. Jeanne d'Arc Tree: Weak, upright habit; early to start cropping, which is regular. An old French variety. Fruit: pick late October (as late as possible). Pyriform , medium sized , lemon yellow when ripe , skin fairly smooth; flesh white, smooth although a little coarse around the core , very juicy, sweet sub-acid, flavour strong and sligh tly aromatic. Josephine de Malines Tree: Weeping , moderate growth (very small on Quince) , very reliable , hardy and heavy cropping. A tip bearer which likes a warm location. Fruit: pick October (as late as possible). Short conical, small to medium, pale green and yellow with russet around stalk; flesh pinkish at centre , very smooth, melting , sweet, aromatic, fine flavour. Laxton's Early Market Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright. Raised in the UK (Beds): Marie-Louise x Doyenne d'Etat Fruit: pick mid-late July. Conic or short pyriform, small to medium , yellow with extensive dull red flush and stripes; flesh white, soft, smooth , juicy, sweet, slightly sub-acid. Laxton's foremost Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright, good cropper. Raised in the UK (beds): Fruit: pick mid-late Septembe r. Conic, medium to large, yellow with occasional faint red flush and stripes , comp letely russetted; flesh wh ite , soft, coarse, very juicy, sweet, fine flavour. Laxton's Satisfaction Tree: Compact, upright, cropping good. Raised in the UK (beds). Fruit: pick October. Large , bright yellow with russet patches and a red flush ; flesh white, tender, juicy, sweet, excellent fla vou r. Laxton's Superb Tree: Vigorous, an excellent cropper. Highly susceptible to fireblight and no longer grown. Fruit: pick early-mid August (over several pickings) . Medium sized, ye ll ow flushed red; flesh juicy, good flavour. Laxton's Victor Tree: Raised in the UK (beds). Fruit: pick October.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 25

Legipont (Fondante de Charneu) Tree: Medium to strong vigour , crops well and regularly. An old Belgian pear. Fruit: pick late September. Long pyriform, medium size , green shaded with pale yellow and covered with large roundish grey spots, sometimes slightly flushed red; flesh white, smooth, juicy, sweet , sub-acid , aromatic, good flavour. Also good for canning and bottling. Can bear crops without pollination. Louise Bonne of Jersey Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright, spreading with age. Hardy and an excellent regu lar cropper. Will not pollinate Fondante d'Automne. Not very compatib ly with Quince. Fruit: pick m id-late September. Pyriform, medium sized, yellowish-green with red flush and spots; flesh wh ite, smooth, melting, sweet, slightly sub-acid , aromatic, good flavour. Marguerite Marillat Tree: Vigorous , ve ry upright with stout shoots. Cropping exceptionally good , borne on small upright branches. Not very compatible with Quince . A poor pollinator, but partly self-fertile. Fruit: pick September. Long calebasse (irregular), very large, golden yellow with brilliant red flush and slight russet, skin a littl e rough; flesh pa le yellow, very juicy, fair flavour. Marie-Louise (Marie-Louise De/court) Tree: Moderate to weak vig our, spreading, stragg ling , hardy; cropping good but slow to start. Not very compatible with quince. Fruit pick October. Long ova l, med i um size , pa le green to yel low with patches of russet, skin smooth; flesh white, a little coarse, juicy, flavour distinctive and good. Merton Pride Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright, hardy, freely spurrin g, regu lar and light to good cropper (but sometimes bie nnial). Not compatible with Quince. Raised in the UK: Williams' BC x Glou Morceau . Not a good pollinator. Fruit: pick early-mid September. Conical to pyriform. large, golden yellow with brown russet; flesh melting , smooth , juicy, fine texture, excellent flavour. Merton Star Tree: Of weak growth and sparse branches but which spur freely. Cropping quite good. Fruit: pick early-mid September. Conica l to pyriform , medium size , greenish yellow with patches of golden-brown russet; flesh creamy white, smooth , firm, juicy, good flavour. Nouveau Poiteau Tree: Fruit: pick October. Oval-pyriform, large, pale greenish -ye ll ow almost comp letely covered with russet and a slight red flush; flesh sweet, very melting and rich flavour. Olivier de Serres Tree: Of weak growth, making a small dwarfish , spreading tree. Cropping irregular. Needs a warm sheltered position. An old French variety. Fruit: pick late October. Round , small to medium in size , olive green with a rough fawn russet; flesh wh ite , half melting, smooth, juicy, with a good bri sk musk flavour. Onward Tree: Moderately vigorous , upright but spreading with age , well spurred. Cropping regular and good. Raised in 1948 in the UK (Surrey): Laxton's Superb x Doyenne du Cornice. Fruit: pick early-mid September. Short conical to bergamot, med-Iarge, pale ye ll ow green, patches of brown russet and pink ish red flush; flesh creamy white, smooth , soft , juicy, sweet, exc. flavour. Packham's Triumph Tree: Of weak to moderate vigour, compact, upright, moderately spreading, spurs freely. Crops heavily and regu larly but has a tendency to drop the crop. Needs a warm sheltered position. Not compatible with Qu in ce . Raised in Australia (NSW) about 1896: probably Uvedale's St Germain x Williams' Be. Requi res only low win ter chilling. Fruit: pick late September - October (leave as late as possible). Conical-pyriform, medium size, bright yellow with russet mottling and sometimes a faint orange flush; flesh white, smooth , juicy, sweet, flavour good if properly ripened.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Passe Crassane Tree: Of weak to moderate vigour, compact and bushy , well spurred, hardy; cropping fair. Needs a warm position and ample water during the growing season. Has a tendency to flower for a second period, hence very susceptible to fireblight. An old French variety. . Fruit: pick late October (as late as possible). Round oval (uneven), large, dull pale greenishyellow flushed slightly orange when ripe, with spots of russet and patches of fawn around the stem, sk in rough; flesh white, smooth, very juicy, flavour very good - sub-acid with slight aniseed hint. Pitmaston Duchess Tree : Very vigorous, upright but spreading with age makes an open tree ; cropping good to "heaVy. A trip loid from the UK (Worcs) around 1865: Ouchesse d'Angouleme x Glou Morceau. Fruit: pick mid-late September. Pyriform, very large (often averaging 500g/1 Ib or more each), pale yellow with brown russet and a slight reddish flush, skin slightly rough but thin; flesh creamy white, smooth, very juicy, slightly sub-acid, excellent flavour. A good dual purpose variety, also suited to aU culinary uses including bottling and canning. Precoce de Trevoux Tree : Low to moderate growth, cropping regular and very good. Starts bearing early. Fruit pick mid-late August. Pyriform or conical, sma ll to medium, yellow speck led with greenish dots and streaked light red; flesh white, smooth, juicy, sweet, slightly sub-aCid. Roosevelt Tree: Vigorous growth, compact, upright; cropping very good. A Fren ch variety. Fruit: pick October. Oval, very large, golden yellow flushed red with conspicuous dots, skin SmOoth; flesh white, juicy, melting, aromatic, sweet, flavour quite good to good. Seckel (Seck/e) Tree: Of weak growth, slender , upright, compact. Cropping fairly reliable, moderate to good. Needs a warm position and best on pear rootstock. From the USA; part self-fertile. Fruit: pick October. Round, oval, small, dark brownish-red with white dots, skin rough; flesh yellow, tender, smooth , juicy, v.sweet & rich, exc aromatic sp icy flav. Gd for cooking, canning. Souvenir du Congres Tree : Moderately vigorous, upright, spreading, well spurred; cropping good , part self-fertile . Not compatib le with Quince. An old French variety. Fruit: pick September. Calabasse shape, large , bright yellow with red flush and streaks of cinnamon russet; flesh yellowish, smooth, very sweet, juicy, musky flavour. Thompson's Tree: Moderately vigorous, upright, cropping fair to good (irregular), hardy. Leaves turn red in Autumn. Not compatible with Quince. Best in a warm location. Fruit; pick late September - October. Oval pyriform, quite large, pale golden yellow with russet, skin rough; flesh white , smooth, sweet, juicy, buttery, excellent flavour. Triomphe de Vienne Tree : Of low vigour, hardy, cropping heavy and very reliable. An old French variety. Fruit: pick late August - mid September. Pyriform-oval , small to medium, yellow with a re d flush and russet patches, skin smooth; flesh white, v.smooth, sweet, v.juicy , good flavour. Williams' Bon Chretien (Bartlett) Tree: Moderately vigorou s, quite spreading, quite hardy, well spurred and a good cropper. Prone to forming water shoots at the inside of the tree. Not v.compat. with Quince rootstocks. Fru it: pick mid-late August. Pyriform, medium to large, pale green turning to golden-yellow with patches of russet and numerous russet dots and red streaks on the sunny side , skin smooth; flesh white, very smooth , sweet, juicy, slightly su b-acid , with a good strong musky flavour. Good for bottling and canning , and grown commercially on a large scale. Winter Nelis Tree: Of weak to moderate growth (good on pear rl s) ; hardy and a regular, fairly gd cropper. Fruit: pick October. Round-conical, small, dull greenish-yellow covered with dark brown russe t: skin rough; flesh greenish-white, smooth, translucent, very sweet and juicy with a delicate perfume and outstanding rich flavour.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 27

d

References
Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Di splayed. Cassell, 1989. Facciola, S: Cornucopia. 1990 . HDRA Advisory Note: Pear tree pest and disease management. Newsl etter 129,1992. Hills, L 0 : The Good Fruit Guide, HDRA , 1984. MAnF Technical Bulletin 26: Flowering Periods of Tree and Bush Fruits. HMSQ, 1973. MAFF Bulletin 133: Apples and Pears. HMSQ, 1958. MAFF Bulletin 208: Pears. HMSO, 1973. MAFF leaflet 571: Fireblight of Apple and Pear. HMSO , 1984. Moore, J N & 8allin9ton , J R: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops , Vol. 2. ISHS , 1990.

RHS: RHS Dictionary of Gardening . 1992.
Phillips , 0 H & Burdekin , 0 A: Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan, 1992. Schaffer, 8 & Andersen, P C: Handbook of Environmental Physiology of Fruit Crops, V 1. eRG Press , 1994. Simmons, A: Simmons Manual of Fruit. David & Charles, 1978. Whea ly, K & Demuth,S; Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Pub li cations, 1993 .

Suppliers
For home-propagators, 8rogdale can supply grafting wood of several hundred varieties. Otherwise, there are a good range of varieties available in the UK from the following nurseries:

J C All grove Ltd, The Nursery, Middle Green, Langley, Bucks. Tel: 01753-520155.
Brogdale Horticultural Trust, Brogdale,Farm, 8rogdale Road, Faversham, Kent, ME13 8XZ Chris Bowers & Sons, Whispering Trees Nursery, Wimbotsham, Norfolk, PE34 80B. Tel: 01366-388752. Deacon's Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight, P038 3HW. Tel : 01983 -840750. Keepers Nursery, 446 Wateringbury Rd, East Mailing, Kent, ME19 6JJ. Tel: 01622-813008. R V Roger Ltd , The Nurseries, Pickering, N Yorks, Y018 7HG. Tel: 01751 -472226. Scotts Nurseries (Merriott) ltd , Merriott, Somerset, TA16 5PL . Tel: 01469-72306. Thornhayes Nursery, St Andrews Wood, Dulford , Cu ll ompton, Devon , EX15 2DF. Tel: 01884246746.

J Tweedie Fruit Trees , Maryfield Road Nursery, Maryfield, Nr Terreg les, Dumfries, DG2 9TH.
Tel: 01387-720880.

Perry and Asian pears will be covered in Agroforestry News, Vol 5 No 1 (October 96).

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Mycorrhizas
Introduction
Mycorrhizas are specialised structures which develop where certain fungi co lonise the tissues of fine roots. The fungi help in the mineral nutrition of the plant in return for carbohyd rates and other substances such as vitamin s. Th is mutually beneficial relationship is ca lled symbiotic or a symbiosis . It has become evident over the last 20 years than most woody species, and many perennials and annuals as well (eg. cerea ls, grasses, clovers). not only form mycrorrhizal relationships wit h various species of fungi , but sometimes depend on them for healthy growth and survival. Some orchids and pines, for example, cannot grow normally without specific mycorrhizal fungi. In the symbiosis, the fungal threads (hyphae) permeate the soil more intimately than plants roots and take up nutrients and water which they then transfer to the plant ; their ma in action is to improve mineral nutrient uptake, particularly of phosphorus but also of boron , copper, nitrogen, potassium, selenium, sulphur and zinc. The mycorrhizal association can also reduce drought and temperature stress , increase root longevity, improve nitrogen fixation (in legume s and other N-fixing plants) and provide protection from some pathogens (eg pathogenic fungi) . The hyphae can also directly transfer nitrogen and phosphorus from a plant rich in the mineral to one poor in it, thus forming a route for nitrogen-fixers and dynamic accumulators to directly aid other plants. Growth of plants wit h mycorrhizae in ideal conditions can be 4-5 times a much as Si milar plants without. Mycorrhizas tolerate a wide range of soils types and pH , but they are much reduced by soil disturbance, bare soils , and by excess nitrogen (hence many modern agricultural practices are detrimental). The turnover of hyphae is very rapid , thus they can respond more Quickly to cha nges in soil conditions than roots . In a healthy ecosystem, mycrorrhizal mats are formed of many species, covering virtually the whole of the topsoil volume and linking with many species of plants . The rate of mineral soil weathering is accelerated by a healthy mycorrhizal commun ity. There are 4 main groups of mycorrhizas found on the roots of woody plants, each associated with certain families of plant; a fifth is associated with the Orchidaceae (orchids) . The 4 main groups concerned with woody species are:

Group A (Ectomycorrhizas)
Plant hosts: Family Aceraceae Betulaceae Genus Acer Alnus Betula Carpinus Corylus Castanea Common name Maples Alders Birches Hornbeams Hazels Chestnuts

Fagaceae

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 29

Family Fagaceae Juglanaceae Pinaceae

Genus Fagus Quercus Carya Juglans Abies Cedrus Larix Picea Pinus Pseudotsuga Tsuga Populus Salix
TiUa

Common name Beeches Oaks Hickories, Pecan Walnuts Firs Cedars Larches Spruces Pines Douglas fir Hemlocks Poplars Willows Limes Strawberry trees Manzanitas Eucalyptus

Salicaceae Tiliaceae Ericaceae Myrtaceae

Arbutus Arctostaphylos Eucalyptus

These are formed by many of the common forest mushroom species , mainly in the Basidiomycetes family [ego species of Agaricus, Agrocybe, Amanita, Boletus, Cantharellus, Chroogomphus, Coprinus, Cortinarius, Gomphidius, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Inocybe, Laccaria, Lactarius, Leccinium, Phofiota, Pisolithus, Russula, Scleroderma, Suiflus, Trich%maJ, but also by a few Ascomycetes [eg o species of Tuber (truffles)]. Some are found mainly with young plants and are called 'early stage fungi ' • eg o Thelephora spp. while others occur only with fairly mature trees (,late stage fungi ' ) . eg o Amanita, Russula, Trich%ma . Most fungi are not host·specific, with a few exceptions such as Chroogomphus, Gomphidius, Leccinium, and Suillus (eg. SuiJIus grevillii which is only found on larch and S.lakei with Douglas fir.) . Where fungi are host·specific, it is usually to a whole genus , not a single species. Pisolithus tinctorius is a superior species which colonises the roots of most conifers and hardwoods under a broad range of grow!ng conditions

Epidermis Fungal sheath Epidermis

Fungal sheath

Ectomycorrhizal root ('''p.od f,~ M;lIec)
Page 30
AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Host receptivity (ie the number of fungi a plant species can form associations with) varies widely; for example, alders (Alnus spp) have relatively few associates , whereas Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga) has perhaps 2,000. Typical woodland trees may be associating with 10-20 mycorrhizal species. Fungus ' preferences for host are indicated by the typical locations they are found in; ego Amanita citrina with beech. These mycorrhizas can be seen with the naked eye or a magnifying glass, because the fungus forms a sheath around the root tip, suppresses root hair formation , and usually alters the growth of short roots , encouraging many more short roots than would otherwise be the case. The root tips can be seen covered in white, and many fungal threads or strands can be seen around the root. Young plants in the nursery are commonly found with fruiting bodies of Laccaria proxima, L.laccata and Thelephora terrestris. Early stage fungi like these can improve the growth of young plants and reduce fatalities from root diseases .

Group B (Ectendomycorrhizas)
Plant hosts: Family Betulaceae Genus Common name Alders Birches Hornbeams Hazels

Alnus Betula Carpinus Cory/us Castanea Fagus Quercus

Fagaceae

Chestnuts Beeches Oaks Firs Cedars Larches Spruces Pines Douglas fir Hemlocks Poplars Willows

Pinaceae

Abies Cedrus Larix Picea Pinus Pseudotsuga Tsuga Populus Salix

Salicaceae

These appear to be adapted to high -stress or high-nutrient situations , and are particularly common in nurseries, especially with pines. They are formed mainly with species of Discomycetes (cup fungi, with fruiting bodies cup or saucer shaped). The structures are similar to those of group A, and can be seen similarly easily.

Group C (Endomycorrhizas)
Plant hosts: Family Betulaceae Genus Common name Alders

Alnus

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 31

-~

~

-

-~-

-

-----Genus Cupressus Juniperus

.

-

-----~

Family
Cupressaceae Taxodiaceae

Common name

Cypresses Junipers
Redwood Poplars Willows

Sequioa
Populus Salix

Salicaceae

+ most other hardwoods excepting those listed for A & B.

These mycorrhizas form several different structures, but those with woody plants are usually known as VA (or AM) mycorrhiza. Here , the fungi involved belong to the Zygomycetes [ego G/omus sppj, a group which do not form obvious fruiting bodies but spread by soil-borne spores and physical contact (and thus are not well adapted for widespread dissemination). These mycorrhizas are not easily visible as they do not form sheaths, nor do they suppress root hairs; instead , they penetrate the root and grow between and within cells through the root cortex. There is little fungus-host specificity and Glomus species (for example) form mycorrhizas with nearly all species mentioned. Group C mycorrhizas are extremely good at utilising insoluble sources of phosphorus, for example rock phosphate.

Group 0 (Ericoid mycorrhizas)
Plant hosts: Family Ericaceae Genus Arbutus Arctostaphylos Gal/una Gaultheria Oxydendrum Rhododendron Vaccinium Common name Strawberry trees Manzanitas Heathers Sourwood Rhododendron Blueberries, Cranberries

These are formed by, amongst others. the fungi Hymenoscyphus ericae & Oidiodendron griseum. A few members of the Ericaceae also readily form mycorrhizas of group A type, notably Arbutus and Arctostaphylos.

Mycorrhizas in nurseries
The benefits of mycorrhizas in nurseries are substantia l, including reduced loss of plants from root diseases, better stress tolerance (eg. from drought), better growth and increased rooting percentage of cuttings, a higher success with layering and possibly also better germination of difficult-to-start seeds. To maximise the beneficial conditions for mycarrhizas to form, it is important to: 1. Keep soil aeration high 2. Reduce or (better still) cease the use of fungicides 3. Do not overfeed plants with inorganic fertiliser. 4. Reduce handling of stock (which is detrimental to Group C especially) and preferably raise container-grown plants.

Page 32

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Most Group A fungi in particular produce vast quantities of airborne spores which are circu lating in the air, especially in the common fru iting seasons (summer & autumn). In time, these are likely to land and inoculate seed beds and even container-grown plants. Further to the above, there has been great interest in recent years in the possibilities of active inoculation of young plant roots with relevant mycorrhizal fungi species . This procedure is likely to greatly increase the chances of mycorrhizas forming on nursery plants, and increase their health and growth not only in the nursery but also after planting out. Inoculation is usually via spores or vegetative mycelium , which can either be introduced into seedbeds or potting composts, or mixed to form a slurry into which plant roots are dipped or which is watered onto seed beds or containers , drenching them well [this last procedure may not be as effective, since UV light has adverse effects on spores). This procedure is now becom ing common in parts of North America, notably with pine seedbeds and Piso/ithus tinctoria (Group A); and Douglas fir nursery beds with Rhizopogon vinicofor (Group A). One way of inoculating young plants is to gather sufficient (a handful or so) mycorrhizal roots from an established plant, mix these with water and liquidise , then use this mix either as a root dip or use water it thoroughly straight onto the seed bed or containers. In theory, spores of some fungi can be collected by gathering their fruiting bodies (mushrooms) at maturity; however, this may be time consuming and the spores need to be utilised quickly as they do not store well. Mycorrhizal root dip inoculants are starting to become commercia ll y available, and as far as we know, the Agroforestry Research Trust is the first to use these in Britain. From spring 1996, all our nursery stock (both for our own use and for sale) has been inoculated with a mixture of spores of Entrephosphora columbiana, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus ctarum, & other Glomus species [all group C) plus Pisolithus tinctoria [group A).

Mycorrhizas in gardens
Mycorrhizas shou ld form by themselves given time, from the huge number of spores circulating in the atmosphere. To speed up new populations (for example, where few woody plants have been grown before) , the best method is to remove a few handfuls of soil from beneath nearby similar species (only to a depth of a few cm/a couple of inches) and spread this around each new plant.

References
Aldhous, J R & Mason, W L: Forest Nursery Practice. Fe Bulletin 111, HMSO, 1994. Kiflham , K: Soil Ecology. Camb rid ge University Pre ss, 1994. Macdonald, B: Practical Plant propagation for Nursery Growers. Batsford , 1990. Miller, 0 0: Mycorrhizae of Nut Trees. In NNGA 77th Annua l Report, 1986. Read , 0 J et al: Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems. CAB International, 1992. Troeh , F R & Thompson, L M: Soils and Soil Fertility. Oxford University Press, 1993.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 33

Book Reviews
Cherries: Crop Physiology, Production and Uses
A D Webster & N E Looney (Editors)
CAB International. 1995; 513 pp; £85.00 ISBIl 0-85198-936-5.

This large volume is probably the most comprehensive text written on the subject of sweet and sou r cherries. Cherries, especially sweet cherries , remain a very popular fruit crop and they are grown commercially in over 40 countries of the world. In the last 25 yea rs major advances have been made with new varieties being bred with improved fruit size, better disease resistance and more reliable fruit set. New dwarfing rootstocks are also being introduced , which will revolutionise cultivation and make protection from bird damage Quite feasible.

This book provides a comprehensive review of all these topics and all aspects of the botany, production and use of sweet and sour cherries, making it a definitive reference work for fruit growers. It is divided into five main sections. The Introduction covers the taxonomy of sweet and sour cherries (plus short descriptions of other cherry species cultivated for fruits) , a brief history of their cultivatio n, and statistics about world -wide distribution and production. ' Plant Materials' covers sweet and sour cherry cultivars (with good descriptions of all the main varieties in the world, in clud in g many unknown in the UK), and rootstocks. 'Crop Physiology and Husbandry' includes the propagation of cherries, orchard selection (including climatic requirements), planning and establishment, flowering and pollination , nutrient and water requirements, pruning and training. 'Crop Protection' covers orcha rd floor vegetation management (includ ing the use of mulches and green manures) and cherry diseases, pests and disorders (contro l measures described include chemical, biological and behavioural controls). 'Harvesting, Handling and Utilisation' covers harvesting, handling and methods of processing fruit including canning, freezing , drying, preserves, jui ces and wines/ liqueurs.

Mushrooms: The Art of Cultivation
Brig. Harmander Singh (Retd.) .
Sterling Publishers Private Limited , 1991 ; 120 pp; 9.00 ; distributed by Cardiff Academic Press ISBN 81-207-13 16-8 This useful small book is written and published in India, with the aim to enable mushrooms to be grown with the least investment and with whatever materials are conveniently to hand; this aim makes it an excellent text for folk in temperate climates to approach mushroom cultivation in a low cost and low-tech way, es pecially as the book concentrates on the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). An overview described the three main operations in mushroom cultivation: composting , spawning and casing. Shelf and tray growing systems are then described (with useful tips such as using discarded app le boxes, packing cases etc.) as well as the system of growing in large polythene bags (the advantage of which is that they are discarded after a crop, making hygiene easier). Buildings and layouts are covered for the more commercially-scaled venture. The three main operation s are then covered in detail. Composting, the most important stage, in volved stacking and turning a straw-manure mix; at the correct temperature this is placed in trays or beds. Spawning is then undertaken, and the mixture tamped down. Two to three weeks later, the compost is covered ('cased ' ) with special sterilised soil (a peat-chalk mixture is used in the UK; alternative

Page 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

soil.sand mixes are given here) and kept warm. In a further two to three weeks , cropping begins and continues for 6·8 weeks. Other topics covered include crop management, cropping, pests and diseases (unfortunately, only chemica l control measures are mentioned), and hygiene (of vital importance, especially for the organic grower). The cultivation of three other species is briefly des cribed: Agaricus bitorquis, Pleurotus osfreatus (the Oyster mushroom) and Volvarea volvacea (grown on straw). which are equally suited to temperate areas . A selection of mushroom recipes end the book .

How To Make A Forest Garden
Patrick Whitefield
Permanent Publications, 1996; 192 pp; £14.95 ISBN 1-85623-008-2 This long·awaited book is a welcome addition to the practical information available to prospective forest gardeners. It is a step·by·step guide to creating a forest garden, going into more detail and assuming less expertise than Robert Hart's seminal Forest Gardening. The first two chapters discuss the reasons why one might want to grow a forest garden, and gives an overview of what a forest garden consists of. It's good to see here a discussion of true food yields · ie inputs compared with outputs, as well as the oft-forgotten fact that food is produced in small areas (gardens) at much higher productivity than on a farm scale. It is also good to see a section on the commercial possibilities: these tend, though . to be rather simpler agroforestry systems, like aJley crops of vegetables between lines of dwarf fruit trees. Proper emphasis is made . though , of the fact that forest gardens are suited first and foremost as home gardens. because the diversity which is desirable makes harvesting a single product slower and therefore commercia ll y more expensive . The next two chapters look at the principles of forest garden design: looking at the piece of land and the needs of its stewa rds . light and shade , concepts for different layouts, access, plant spacing (especially of trees and shrubs) and interactions (Patrick is somewhat doubtful about the positive benefits of aromatic herbs on other plants), succession and the stages of planting. taking account and advantage of microclimates, and soils. The use of nitrogen·fixing plants and dynamiC accumulators is also covered, though I'd like to have seen a few more species mentioned here; and there is an omission in describing the ways other plants can benefit from nitrogen· fixers • that of regular root turnover in the N-fixing plant, which is estimated to add as much nitrogen to the soil as the leaf litter itself. Pest control rightly concentrates on slugs which are ca n certainly be a problem in the early stages of a forest garden; the control measures suggested are to encourage frogs or keep ducks. The next chapter covers preparation. planting and maintenance. A good review of mulches (includ ing using clearance mulches prior to planting) is followed by a section on planting. Proper emphasis is given on planting enough low plants to make an effective ground cover quickly, otherwise " .. the forest garden can become a source of endless work rather than the low-maintenance garden it was intended to be." Maintenance covers feeding (via mulches of compost etc. and liquid manures), a general attitude to pests and diseases, and how to approach the maintenance of self-seeding annual plants and perennials. The next four chapters concentrate on choosing plants for the garden. which are restricted to those with edible products. This starts with a general discussion of climate, soil and other effects ; sho rt lists are given of plants for coastal sites, frosty sites and chalky and poorly drained soils. An excellent section describes how to choose fruit varieties, and includes a list

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

Page 35

on trees covers seven 'obvious' ones and about a dozen others. A little more informatio about what to look for in choosing varieties of these tree crops may have been useful. Th chapter on shrubs (inc luding climbers) covers nine 'o bvious ' ones and over a dozen others more would ha ve been nice. The chapter on vegetables describes over 60 an nual an perennial ed ible plants, plus a short section on mushrooms. These usually (but not always include reco mmended planting distances which will form a reasonable ground cover.

Fi,n ally, there is a ve ry useful chapter which follows the actual design process for a real-lif e*ample, where all the information in the book is brought together to make a garden design. li s t of further reading and suppliers of plants and seeds completes th e book. Eight larg colour plates and many black & white photographs and line drawings are also included.

This book will hopefully encourage mainstream and other gardeners, wary at present to star planting trees and shrubs in their food garden s, to do just that. Every practica Permaculturalist and budding or existing forest gardener should find it excellent reading.

How To Make A Forest Garden is available from the A.R. T. for £17.20 including postage & packing in the UK (Ee/Europe £18.70, elsewhere worldwide £21.00 including air ma postage.)

Edible Mushrooms & Other Fungi
Michael Jordan
Blandford (Cassell), 1995; 128 pp; £9.99 ISBN 0-7137-2586-9

At last, a book de voted to the edible fungi hunter! Edible Mushrooms & Other Fungi contain~ details on over 90 species of edible fungi found in Britain and across Europe. A page i devoted to each mushroom , with details of where to find them and at what tim e of year detailed notes on identification , culinary advice often with a recipe , and a good quality colou photograph. The introdu ction briefly covers the history of mushroom use in Europe identification, and has a sensible discussion on the dangers of poisonous species. A fina chapter covers preparation and cooking in more detail. The book should prove valuable te anyone interested in hunting for edibl e fungi.

Food and Feed from Legumes and Oilseeds
E Nwokolo & J Smartt (Eds)
Chapman & Hall , 1996;419 pp; £59.00 ISBN 0-412-45930-2

The first half of this book argues the need to increase co nsu mpti on of pulses in the developing world, and goes on to detail many of the annual legum es suited mainly to tropica climates, though lupins, faba beans , runner beans, peanuts and soybeans are included. Ea ct has a chapter devoted to it which includes agronom y and botani cal notes , utilisation nutritional composition, and anti nutritional factors (ie substances, often poisonous, whict need processing or removal to ensure palatability). The second part of the book looks at oj crops , again mostly tropical but including sunflower. Neither the legume or oil crops sectiom include any information about tree or shrub crops. The book promotes high-tech solutions te overcome nutritional defi Ciencies and genetic engineering techniques to improve thE production and quality of food plants . Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No '

Black walnut (1): Silviculture
The black or American walnut. Juglans nigra, is one of the more neglected members of the walnut family, yet it is fast growing , bears edib le nuts of good quality, and produces an excellent timber of decorative quality that is much in demand, and will be increasingly so as unsustainab le supplies of tropical hardwoods run out. The first in the series about this fine tree concentrates on its cultivation for silviculture, already popular in North America and mainland (particularly Eastern) Europe.

Description
Juglans nigra is a large rounded tree, growing eventually to a height of 50 m and spread of 25 m in Eastern North Ame ri ca, where it is native ; but about half this size in Britain. It has a tall dark brown trunk with deeply furrowed bark. Young branches are downy .

Leaves are compound, 30-60 cm (1-2 tt) long, with 15-23 ovate leaflets each 6-12 cm (2.5-5~) long ; they are dark green, somewhat downy beneath but shiny above, and often have a very sma ll or absent termina l leaf - a good identifier of the species. The foliage is abundant, more so than the common wa lnut (J.regia). Black walnuts forms mycorrhi zal associations with various species of fungi, notably Glomus species. Seedlings which have been inoculated with such fungi show increased growth.

Siting
Black walnuts need a site which is not susceptible to late spring frosts ; good light is also necessary. An ideal would be mid-slope on a sheltered South or so uth-west aspect. Soil requirements are fairly exacting: moderately fertife, deep, well drained, of medium texture and near neutral pH (6 to 7). Very sandy and clayey soils are un suitable, though growth is good on chalk and limestone where there is at least 60 cm (2 tt) depth of soi l. Because they are deep rooting, trees are very drought resistant once estab li shed. • Warm summers are needed for the tree to th ri ve, and at present only the Southern half of Britain is really suitable unless the site is very favourable; however, with global warm in g, Northern England may be suitable within 10-20 years .

Planting & establishment
Seedling trees are the usual planting stock used for forestry (often undercut a year before planting to encourage a fibrous root system), althou gh there are a sma ll number of clones selected and propagated in North America. These may be useful for a small area, but represent a dangerously small genetic va ri ability for a forestry planting ; a min imu m mixture of 10-25 clones has been mooted as being sustainable in a forestry planting, and this number simply are not available at presen t. One cheaper option is to use a named selection with good timber form, or seedlings from it. The seedli ng s will be va ri able, of course, but a larger proportion will be of good form than trees from a random seed source. If

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

the parent was also late-leafing then most of the seedlings will inherit this trait which can b of great value in avoiding late frost damage . 'Fonthill ' is a selection made for good timbe form and both grafted trees and seedlings from this are available in North America 'Patterson ' and ' Putney' are also of good form : 'Purdue No l' is another which show exceptional timber form but also gives heavy yield s of nuts. If possible , plant out container-grown plants wh ich are not rootbound: bare-rooted transplan suffer a lot of stress on transplanting . Late Autumn is the best planting time. To establish stand , several optio n s are available: plant individual trees at 3-4 m (10 - 13 tt) spacin [equivalent to 625-1100 trees/Ha or 250-444 trees/acre) : or plant in small groups of 4-6 tree at 12-15 m (40-50 tt) spacing [equiva lent to 180-420 trees/Ha or 72-180 trees/acre): or plan in rows , 3-4 m between trees in rows with the rows 12- 15 m apart [equivalent to 170-28 tre es/Ha or 68-112 trees/acre). These l atter two planting schemes allow for wide spaces o alleys between trees , where intercropping can take place for several yea rs (see be low Another important facto r to consider is nut production : at close spacing, this is likely to b much suppressed , wh ile at the larger spacing there is good potential for fruiti ng. If nu production is a factor, then dual-purpose cultivars may need to be planted. The long-term aim is to finally obtain 40-88 trees/Ha [1 6-35 trees/acre), well spaced at 11 -1 m (50 ft) apart or so . Hence the close-spaced planting will require several gradual thinnings whereas the group planting will require just one th inning only a few years after planting t leave the best tree of each group. Direct seed in g of wa lnuts is another possibility. To protect from predator damage, they wi need to be protected with tree shelters which are driven in about 5 cm (2ft) to the soil. Prior t this, the seed, preferably pregerminated with the root emerging in spring, is buried about 2 mm (r) deep. Growth in this system is reportedly excellent and there is no transplantin shock. Good weed control around young trees up to the age of abo ut 10 yea rs is essent ial , especiall if moisture is going to be limiting . Grasses seem to be the most detrimental herbage in thi respect. A diameter of at least 1 m (3 ft) needs to be kept weed free , and using blac polythene mulch mats is probably the best way of achieving this. Many foresters would us herbicides but we do not advocate the use of chemicals .)

r

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No

Intercropping
The intercrop should be small or slow growing, because the walnuts will need full overhead fight and ample side light. Suitable intercrops CQuid be cereals (winter cereals may be better, since most of their growth occurs while the walnuts are dormant) , grasses or forage for livestock (only if the walnuts were well protected), cutting hay, vegetables/market garden crops, Christmas trees etc. Sweet corn has been successfully intercropped in the USA. There is some evidence that if the intercrop is covering the soil well in the spring, then bud burst is delayed in the walnuts (presumably because the soil is slower to warm up); this may be an advantage in helping to avoid late spring frosts . Intercrops can be planted for 10-15 years after planting , depending on the alley width. Eventually the shading will reduce the viability for most intercrops unless they are shadetolerant. Various intercropping trials have been undertaken with nitrogen-fixing woody species in North America. The legume Black locust (Robinia pseudo acacia) will rapidly overtake and suppress walnut growth; but it could be interplanted and coppiced for polewood, firewood etc. It stimu lated growth of the black waln ut. Three actinorhizal nitrogen-fixers have also been tried, alder (Alnus glutinosa), autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbelfata) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). All three stimulated growth of black walnut trees (i ncreasing both height and stem diameter), but alder will presumably also overgrow the walnuts. Interplanting with Elaeagnus shrubs may have other significant benefits, for examp le increased shelter and decreased competition from grasses. The Elaeagnus eventually get shaded out, wh ile the alders eventually die out from jug lone allelopathy. Herbaceous nitrogen fixers also benefit the walnut trees, for example vetches and clovers. Interplanting with Hairy vetch (Vicia vil/osa) increased diameter and height growth better than crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and Lespedeza cuneata. One point to note is that black walnut has allelopathic effects on some other plants - ie suppresses their growth via the chemical Juglone. which is found in leaves and roots. This chemica l is rapidly degraded by soil bacteria, but nevertheless has detrimental effects (probably via root interactions) on apples and white pines in particular.

Pruning
Black wa lnuts don't have a ve ry strong central axis, and to ensure a sing le straight stem, formative pruning is necessary - for example to correct a forked leader. A clean, straight bole of at least 1.5-3 m (5-10 tt), preferably more (if possible, to 6 m/20 ft by the use of long pruning saws). is essential to ma ximise the value of the timber. Side branches of the bottom 2-3+ m (7-10+ ft) should be cut close to the stem with secateurs or a pruning saw before they become too thick (under 5 cm, 2~ in diameter). Pruning of large branches should be undertaken either in March, or in July or August , since cutting between these leads to excessive sap weeping. At anyone time, never prune higher than the lower 50% of the stem, or more than 33% of the crown, otherwise growth will be greatly reduced. Start pruning when trees are over 3 m (10 ft) tall.

Growth and thinning

Black walnut grows well in Britain, reaching about m high in 10 years. It has no significant pest or disease problems , and is less susceptible than the com mon walnut (J.regia) to honey funQ us (Armillaria mellea). The

a

only possible problem is with deer browsing on young trees; if these are numerous nearby then extra protection may be necessary. Rabbits also browse on winter shoots but trees are easily protected. For timber , black walnuts should be open grown, ie always with good side light to encourage well-developed crowns and ensure m aximum radial growth of the stem. For group plantings, a single thinning shou ld suffice a few years after planting when the best tree is clear. For individual plantings , thinning should begin well before any crown competition or canopy closure begins - the first thinning u sually within 10-15 years; a total of 5 thinnings may be necessary, roug hly once every 10-15 years. Final crop trees should be selected on the basis of vigour and stem quality (good straight length , free of scars and large knots, straight pattern of bark). For an initial planting at 3 x 3 m (10 x 10 tt) ( 1111 trees/Ha or 445 trees/acre), the thinning regime (based on North American experience) should be as follows (dbh = diameter at breast height):Takes place when dbh is: 8.6 em (3.4") 14.0 em (5.5") 21.1 em (8.3") 30.2 em (11.9") 42.4 em (16.7") No trees to remove No trees to leave

Thinning 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

508 trees/Ha (204 trees/acre) 603 trees/Ha (241 tr/acre) 268 trees/Ha (107 trees/acre) 335 trees/Ha (134 tr/acre) 147 trees/Ha (59 trees/acre) 188 trees/Ha (75 trIac) 83 trees/Ha (33 trees/acre) 105 trees/Ha (42 trees/acre) 45 trees/Ha (18 trees/acre) 60 trees/Ha (24 trees/acre)

Note that in this scenario, tree diameter is just large enough for the butts to be saleable for veneer at the time of the 4th thinning. In good conditions, the annual increment of stems can reach 1 cm (0.4 -) per year. On good sites, a stem diameter of 30 cm (1 tt) (the minimum required for saleable butts) is reached in about 40 years, but the diameter and value continue to increase. Hence rotation periods are flexible based on a minimum range of about 40-80 years.

Timber uses
The wood is a rich dark brown to purplish-black (with lighter sapwood), coarse and mostly straight grained, quite heavy. strong. very durable (resisting fungal and insect attack). heavy and hard . It dries rather slowly, is easy to work with hand or machine tools . holds nails and screws well. and polishes to a high finish giving a satiny surface. Good quality black walnut commands very high prices and is mostly used for slicing veneer for decorative purposes (cabinet work); other uses include rifle butts and high class joinery, plus uses in aircraft and shipbuilding , musical instruments , clock cases, carving and plywood manufacture. Some of the most attractive wood comes from the root crown area from which fine burr walnut veneers are obtained.

Cultivation of black walnut for nut production will be covered in Agroforestry News, Vol. 5 No.

1.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 4 No 4

;;,<w.-.f.lrestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture I ·,..:luce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing fool [;laterials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees i pa~tures pro'/iding shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garde ,'},stem; incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and groun layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agmtorestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust fOt times" year in October, January, April. and July. SubsGription rates are:

.',,ig 'Ocr year in Biitain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged)
f7::" per year overseas (please remit in Sterling)
i::-J. per year foc institutions .
.L,

list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, availabl 011 request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per cop iacil.lding postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable t ' Agrof0Testry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestf'j Research Trus' 46 r''.Inters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK.

Agl'oforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No . 1007440), with III oiJjcct to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, an agrotorestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklet! Agroforestty News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donation and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which include various practical research projects.

_

.

~

_-:::o>_ _ _
m

_ _ _ .. " . ,.-

-r

Agroforestry News

I
Volume 5 Number 1 October 1996

;

:0

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 5 Number 1

October 1996

Contents
2 3 8 14 20 24 News Black walnut (2): Uses Plants and Climate Change in Britain Forest Gardening: Climbers Hardy Citrus and citrange Book reviews: Review of Potential Effects of Climate
Change in the U.K. / Tree-Crop Interactions / Cultivated Plants of the World / Pruning & Training Fruit Trees / How To Identify Edible Mushrooms / No-Tillage Seeding / Forest Gardening / The Permaculture Plot

28 36

Perry Pears Asian Pears

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested ca refully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misu se of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT. U.K.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 1

News
Open days
OUf two open days this year went well, with about 15 people turning up on each occasion. The first in June was a warm sunny day, whilst the September day was typical Devon autumn weather - non-stop drizzly rain and a gale force wind . It should be interesting for people to see the forest garden and trials site as they mature and more gets planted; In future years we'll probably ha ve one open day per year in early autumn.

Hillier Arboretum
For those who haven 't heard of it, the Hillier- Arboretum , near Ramsey in Hampshire, is about 180 acres of mainly trees. shrubs and perennials , all labelled (some 42 ,000 species in all one of the largest in the world). It's a good place to visit to view unusual fruiting species etc., although there isn 't a public index to locate specific plants. In September some notable highlights were Japanese Raisin trees (Hovenia dulcis) flowering well (the flower stalks starting to swell to form the edible 'fruits'); Pepper trees (Zanthoxylum spp) laden with their spicy black fruits; numerous hawthorns (Crataegus spp) bearing fruits, including the deliciou s C.arnoldiana; Plum yews (Cepha/otaxus spp) fruiting well in both sun and shade ; Kiwi fruits climbing 12m (40 tt) into trees (with plenty of fruits 10m/30 tt up!); rare 'Nutmeg ' trees (Torreya spp) freely bearing their edible nuts; and a range of bamboos. The arboretum is open all year except over Christmas and entry is £4 . More details from: The Sir Harold Hillier Gardens & Arboretum, Jermyns Lane, Nr Ram sey, Hants, S051 OQA. Tel: 01794 368787.

Additions to 96/7 Plant List
The following are now available and didn't quite make it into the catalogue:Genista tinctoria £4.00 30-50 cm (12-20ft) Juniperus virginiana £3.50 10-20 cm (4_8") Ribes alpinum £3.50 10-15 cm (4-6") Pinus coulteri £3.50 10-20 cm (4-8") Zanthaxylum piperitum £5.0015-25 em (6-10") Pinus pumila £4.00 10- 15 em (4-6") Zizyphus jujube £4.00 15-20 em (6-8") Citrus x tatipes: Anather cald-hardy citrus, this is a hybrid from Asia which bears fruits edible raw ar cooked. Seems hardy to about -5 ar _1O o needs shelter indoors over the winter. £5.00,20-30 em (8-12").

e-

Prunella vulgaris : Self heal. A native perennial plant , growing in most soils as long as they ft are not tao dry. It grows to about 15 cm (6 ) high and makes a good ground cover in sun or part shade. The leaves are edible (need washing to remove bitterness) and have many medicinal effects. Bees and butterflies like the plant. Very hardy. £3.00, Perennial.
S~rbus latifolia: Service Tree of Fountainbleau. A small to medium sized tree from France , growing to 14 m (45 tt) high (4 min 10 years). Hardy to _20 °C , wind tolerant , grows in most soils and in sun or part shade. The fruits (15 mm across), which ripen in October, are edible (usually after frosts or bletting) , with a delicious flavour. This Sorbus is immune to fireblight disease. £4.00, 15-20 em (6-8").

Vaccinium vitis-idaea: Cowberry, Mountain cranberry. An evergreen prostrate ericaceous shrub from Europe, growing 25 cm (10") high and spreading widely. Likes sun or part shade _ and an acid soil; hardy to _20°C. The fruits, ripening in August-October , are edible, used like c ranberries ; plants are self-fertile, pollinated by bees . The leaves are medicinal and the plant makes a good ground cover. £4.00 , Trailing.

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

New index to Agroforestry News
A new index is now available , covering Volumes 1-4. This is now a whole booklet on its own , hence it is for sale separately for £3.00 including postage (£2.60 without postage if you're using the catalogue order form) from the A.R.T. at Dartington.

Black walnut (2): uses
Introduction
The black walnut, Juglans nigra, is native to Eastern North America (hence its alternative common names of Virginian walnut . American walnut, Eastern black walnut) , and has been cultivated for a long time in Europe, where it is now naturalised.

Natural range of the black walnut, Juglans nigra

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 3

The black walnut is a large , fast growing , deciduous tree , growing up to 50 m (160 ft) high in its native habitat, though in Britain rarely more than half that. It is pyramidal when young , becoming spreading and round crowned with age though usually with a long trunk. It has brownish-black bark, deeply furrowed into diamond-shaped ridges , and downy young branches (an easy way to tell it apart from the Common or English walnut, Juglans regia). Leaves are compound, 30-60 cm (1-2 ft) long with 15-23 leaflets each about 6-12 cm (2Y-:-5 ") long ; they are fragrant when rubbed. The leaflets are a glossy dark green above and downy beneath; the terminal leaflet is often small or absent - another good identifying feature. The leaf stalk is 1-6 cm (Ya-2 Ya" ) long, often broadened at the base. Leaves turn a bright yellowishgold in autumn. Male catkins are 5-10 cm (2_4 ") long , developing from the leafaxils of the previous year's growth. Female flowers occur in terminal spikes of 2-5 small green flowers borne on the current year's shoots. Flowering takes place in Mayor early June in Britain, over a period of about 10 days . The flowers mature at different times on the tree (the females usually at peak receptivity about 4 days before the males are at peak pollen shed), so that self-fertility is usually limited. Flowering and fruiting of seedling trees begins at about 12-15 years of age. Pollination is via the wind . Fruits are borne singly or in pairs , round , 4-5 cm (2 -) wide, with a thick rough hull (husk) enclosing a single nut which is irregularly and longitudinally furrowed , with rough edges. The husks turn from green to yellowish-green when ripe , and usually drop intact with the nut inside. The nuts are 25-40 mm (1-1Ya") across (larger in some cultivars), thick-shelled and enclose an edible kernel. Fruiting often tends to biennial, with heavy crops every other year. The root system typically consists of a deep taproots which mat penetrate more than 2 m (7 tt), with long lateral roots and feeder roots that normally concentrate at a depth of 10-20 em (4-8 "). The tree is winter hardy to zone 4 or 5 (ie where average minimum winter temperatures reach -21 to _29 °C). It casts quite a dark shade.

Uses
The unripe fruits are pickled in vinegar (husk and all) - a distinctly acquired taste.

Walnut, kernel halves and shell print from a 'Thomas' black walnut, real size.
Page 4 AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

The nut kernels are of course ed ible - don't believe any books that say otherwise , or that say the nuts are inferior in ffavour to standard 'English' walnuts (J.regia ). The kernels of the black walnut have a fuller , richer, more robust flavour than English walnuts , which is retained on baking , hence many of the traditional Ame rican recipes using it are for baked foods including cakes , pies , breads etc. ; ice cream is another traditional use. The kernels are high in polyunsaturated fats , protein and carbohydrates, plus Vitamins A, B , C, and linoleic acid [20 .5g Protein , 59,3g fats, 14 .8g carbohydrates , 0.22 mg thiamine, 0 .1 1 mg riboflavin , 0.7 mg niacin per 1~Og]. They do not store well for longer than a fe w months. The only drawback is that black walnuts are one of the hardest nuts to crack , and many conventional nut crackers will not cope; several specialised crackers/extractors have been designed and are available in North America. There is now evidence that eating walnuts gives protection from heart disease. The oil expressed from the kernels is sweet and edible, used raw or cooked ; it does not keep for very long. The sap of the tree is edible, tapped in the same way as maple sap; it can be concentrated to make a syrup, or used to make wine, beer etc. The ground shells left over from removing kernels are used as an excellent abrasive (very hard, light, non-toxic, doesn't pit or scar) on stone , metals and plastics , and also as the gritty agent in some soap and dental cleansers (they are even used by NASA to clean the exterior surfaces of the space shuttle!); they are also used in paints, glue, wood cements and as a filler in dynamite. The husks (hulls) left over from husking machines are a valuable resource as a pasture fertiliser. They are high in nitrogen and phosphorus , and although they contain anti-germinant chemicals which can be detrimental to annual crops , perennial grasses and clovers thrive with a husk mulch ; earthworm populations are also stimulated . Each Kg of husked walnuts yields about 2 Kg of husks, hence large quantities of husks can soon be generated . The husks do not compost well (they are too heavy and a pile becomes anaerobic) and are best applied fresh to pasture. Recommendations from organic farmers in North America who use husks successfully are to apply at 10-15 tons per acre (25-38 tons/Ha , or 2.5-3.8 Kg/m2); a drawback about using it fresh in autumn is that husk breakdown may not be complete when winter temperatures stop grass growth , and leaching of the nutrients may then occur. However, spreading fermenting husks can result in chemical imbalance problems in the topsoil. Growth stimulation of the grasses begins within a short time of application - weeks rather than months. The bark, husks and leaves have aU been used in traditional medicine. All these parts contain jug lone , which is a chemical known to be antlhaemorrhagic (used to stop bleeding) and fungicidal/vermifugal (the leaves & husks are used against skin fungi like athletes foot and parasites like ringworm). An extract from the heartwood is used in treating equine laminitis. Fast dyes are obtained from the from husks, leaves , and bark. The husks readily stain the skin with a persistent brown stain , and have long been used to dye wood , hair, wool , linen and cotton. The bark and fresh green husks dye yellowiSh-brown with an alum mordant; the dye brown with an alum mordant; the dried husks dye golden brown (alum mordant) , dark brass (chrome mordant), coffee (cooper mordant), camel (tin mordant), charcoal grey (iron mordant) and light brown (no mordant). In the past the black walnut has been widely used as a rootstock for the common walnut, Juglans regia, but this is no longer recommended because of 'blackline disease' - a viral disease which causes a delayed failure of the graft union when the rootstock is a different species of walnut. The black walnut is highly valued as a timber tree in many areas , including North America (where it is native) and Austria , France, Germany, Hungary, Romania and (former) Yugoslavia in Europe; it is seen as a high-quality replacement for diminishing tropical hardwoods. American studies comparing the costs and returns of black walnut and Douglas fir plantations show the walnut to be about 7 times as profitable over an 80*year rotation .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 5

The timber is coarse and mostly straight grained, a rich dark brown to purplish-black with light sapwood, strong, tough , extremely durable, heavy and hard. It is easy to work and resistant to fungi and insect pests. It is valued for high quality cabinet work, joinery , shipbuilding, musical instruments, veneers, gunstocks, plywood; it also makes excellent fuel.

Agroforestry uses
The leaves of black walnuts contain a substance, jug lone, which has allelopathic (ie negative) effects ' on many other plants, including apples ; this occurs beneath and near the walnut canop/ where leachate from rain falling on leaves, leaf litter, and walnut root exudates can affect other plants . In practice, plants in alleys or gaps between walnuts are unlikely to be affected for some years - basically until the walnut roots and intercrop roots start to meet and mingle, which may be 10 or more years for plants in the centre of wide alleys. Juglone is rapidly degraded in the soil by bacteria, so that root-root contact is more likely to cause negative effects than juglone from leaf litter or leachate. Black walnuts can be intercropped with fenced pasture, for cutting hay, market gardening crops, arable crops, Christmas trees, nurse trees/short-rotation tree crops, or Nitrogen-fixing shrubs. Fenced pasture in alleys could be used for sheep grazing, although the cost of fencing is likely to be too high in most cases. Horticultural crops under consideration for intercropping in the U.S. include vegetables, soft fruit, bare-rooted nursery stock and flower bulbs. Crops can be grown for 9-15 years before shading effects become large. Several arable crops have been intercropped with black walnuts, including sweet corn, soya beans and wheat. The advantage of winter wheat is that it grows during the walnuts' dormant season. The alleys used for the arable crop must be set to a convenient width for tractor cUltivations etc; and these alleys must be slowly reduced in width year-by-year, as shading and juglone effects gradually increase. A grass and intercrop-free strip each side of the walnuts must be maintained , which needs to be between 1m/3 ft for winter wheat and 2m (6-7 tt) for spring-sown intercrops. With rows of black walnuts planted 12 m (40 tt) apart, arable crops can be grown for about 9-15 years before shading becomes a problem. Douglas fir grown as Christmas trees have been successfully intercropped in Oregon: the black walnuts planted at 4.5 m (15 ft) spacing , with the firs at 1.5 m (5 ft) spacing between . The firs are harvested by 7 years after planting - longer than this and they start to show signs of juglone growth-inhibition. The firs also act 'as a nurse crop to the walnuts and encourage stra ighter growth. Apart from Christmas trees, other nurse trees can be interplanted to aid the early growth of the walnuts and force straighter growth. Some of the Nitrogen-fixing trees can achieve this , ego common alder (Alnus g/utinosa) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia ), but care must be taken over species choice so that the walnuts are not out-competed too quickly, and that when the intercrop is removed , the stumps remaining are not susceptible to honey fungus (Armillaria mellea). Alder is recommended in N.America, which is removed after 12·15 years (by which time is being affected by juglone) for firewood. There is plentiful evidence from North America that interplanting black walnut plantations with Alders or Elaeagnus improves the growth of the walnuts substantially (20-50%+ improvements in diameter and height) . Elaeagnus umbel/ala has performed particularly well in this respect , and is recommended as shrub interplant; E.angustifolia and Caragana arborescens also succeed but are not so vigorous in British conditions. When using this species it should be remembered that it is faster growing than the walnuts, so either plant 4-5 m (13-16 ft) away from walnut plants , or plant after the walnuts have established and are already above head height.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

~

-----

---~-

------=----

--=-

Seed propagation
There are on average about 90 seeds p er Kg (41 seeds/lb) (range: 24 to 220

seeds fKg ; 11-100 seeds/lb) - seed s from
large-fruited culti vars towards the lower end of the range. Seeds require stratification for about 16 weeks before

sowing: mix with moist sand or com pos t
and keep cold (in a fridge, for example); keep an eye out for roots starting to

emerge in the spring.
Seeds shou ld be sown in deep containers (eg. 'Rootrain ers') or seed beds and covered with 25-50 mm (1_2H) of media.

Predation from mice can be a bad problem, especially with outside seed beds ; these should be protected , and deep containers should be kept off the ground . Sowing in seed beds is best at a density of 160 seeds/m2 , to aim for a seed lin g density of 80 seedlings/m 2 . In commercial nurseries using outdoor seed beds, mechanical root pruning at a depth of 20-25 cm (8-10 ~ ) is often carried out to encourage more lateral roots , but this is difficult on a small scale.
Germination occurs within a 3-5 weeks . The average germination rate is about 50% , and seed lin gs grow rapidly to a height of 30-60 cm (1-2 ft) in the first year. The cu lti vars ' Beck ', ' Fonthill' , 'Minnesota Native ', 'Myers ' (=' Elmer Myers '), 'Patterson ', 'Putney ' and 'Thomas ' are noted for their vigour and st raight form ; seed from these is likely to produce a higher percentage of timber trees of good form than unnamed seedlings . Late leafing is also highly heritable; from the above list, 'Myers ' and 'Thomas' are very late leafing.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants databa se, 1996. Beineke, W F: Corrective Pruning of Black Walnut for Timber Form . Cooperative Extension Service Purdue University. Chenoweth, Bob: Black Walnut. Sagamo re Publishing, 1995. Duke, James A: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press , 1989. Evans , J: Si lvicu lture of Broadleaved Wood land . Forestry Commission Bulletin 62 ; HMSO , 1984. Ga rrett, H E etc: Walnut Agroforestry. MU Guide G5020, University of Missouri-Columbia. Ga rrett, H E & Jones, J E: Black Walnut Agrofo restry as a Land-use Alternat ive. NNGA Annu al Report 84:47· 58 (1993). Jaynes, Richard A (Ed): Nut Tree Culture in North America. NNGA, 1979. Merwin, Miles: Intercropping Black Walnut in Oregon's Willamette Valley. The Temperate Agroforester, Volume 4 Number 1 (January 1996). Phillips , D H & Burdekin , D A: Diseases of Forest and Ornam ental Trees. Macmillan , 1992. Reed, C A & Davidson, J: The Improved Nut Trees of North America. Devin-Adair, 1954. Salati n, J F: Walnuts in Organic Farming. Wal nu t Counci l Bulletin , Vol um e 20 Number 3

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Plants and climate change in Britain
I ntrod uction
This article and the conclusions drawn from it are based on the recent DOE publication (*) , which defines a scenario based on the latest Met Office climate models looking forward to 2050, assuming moderate world economic (GNP) growth and assuming that no major global policies of reducing major greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and methane) are enactdd. Such policies are being mooted and even promoted by some of the industrialised nations (e9 Britain) which have started to understand the dramatic changes which climate change is likely to force in many areas of life; but even so , many of the so~called 'developing' nations seem to have no intention of holding back their rapid industrialisation - in their view, calls for emissions controls equate to the industrial nations keeping hold of their economic advantages. Global policies in these areas may take effect in the long-term , but even jf emission of greenhouse gases were stabilised now, global warming would continue for several decades due to the long-term cause and effects cycle. It should also be noted that, although they have now started to do so, the Met Office models used here have not taken into account various positive feedback mechanisms which Gaia theory has predicted and verified. These feedbacks may well cause the rate of global warming to increase faster than predicted. Gaia theory also suggests that continued stress on the self-regulated climatic system may cause it, at some unknown stage, to suddenly jump to a new steady state. If such a jump happened in reality it would have catastrophic effects. Global warming is now inevitable and the price to pay may be dear. There is mounting evidence that global climate is changing as a result of human acti vities. It is now accepted by the world 's leading scientists that the global warming of the last 100 years is unlikely to be entirely due to natural causes. The 1985-1994 decade, both globally and for the UK, has been about 0.2 °C warmer than the average of the 1961-1990 period; during this decade alone the average global C02 concentration has risen by about 5%. Average global temperatures will be about O.9°C warmer by 2020 and 1.6 °C warmer by 2050. If greenhouse gas emissions are still not reduced, warming will continue at 0.2 to 0.3 °C per decade. Because it is so difficult to relate to figures such as 'an average rise of 0.2 °C' - after all , a fifth of one degree seems a tiny amount on paper - I will emphasise what this means in geographical and botanical terms. The general changes in climate predicted for the UK include: Average temperature rises of about 0.2 to 0.3°C per decade, with a slower rate of increase in winters compared with summers, and in the Northwest of the UK compared with the Southeast. This equates to a southward climate shift of about 65 Km (40 miles ) per decade, or an altitude shift of 50 m (150 ft) downwards per decade. Extremely warm (hot) seasons and years will occur with increasing frequency. Annual rainfall will increase by about 2% per decade, mostly in the winter. Average wind speeds wit I increase, notably in winter and with greatest increases in the South of the UK. Average sea level will rise by about 7 cm (21.1: ") per decade, more in the South and East. Note that this rise is predicted to continue for several centuries after greenhouse gas emissions are stabilised.

• • •

Some effects of these changes will be: • An increase in soil droughtiness (especially in the South of the UK) and soil erosion. A northward shift of natural habitats, wildlife species and farming zones by 200-300 Km (125190 miles) by 2020 and by 350-500 Km (220-310 miles) by 2050. Insects and ephemeral weeds will shift northwards readily; larger plants with greater difficulty.

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

1961-1990
average
Scale 1:10 ,000 ,000 (A grid square is 50 Km [80 miles] square.) The map shows Britain and N.France with climate bands marked in different shades. The maps for 2020 and 2050 show the movement of these bands Northwards.

Currently the frequency of a 1995-type droughty summer is 1 year in 90. Th e frequency of a very mi ld winter (eg 1988/9) is 1 ye ar in 30. In the next decade, the following changes are expected:

A temperature increase of
O.s oC, equivalent to a shift Southwards of 130 Km (80 miles , 2% grid squa res ) or an altitude reduction of 100 m (330 ft) . The frequency of a 1990type sum m er in c reases to 1 year in 25. In the NW UK, summer and winter rainfall increases by 2-3%. In the SE UK, summe r rainfall decreases by 2-3%.

A few niche species disappear, eg o hart's tong ue fern. Overall UK timber productivity increases by 3%.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

• • • •

An increase in insect species due to Northward migration from continental Europe, including new pest specie s. A small decrease in plant species due to loss of Northern and montane types. A decrease in annual crop yields in the Southeast of the UK. Increased opportunities for annual and perennial crops in the North and West. A significant increase in timber yields, especially in the North.

Implications for conservation
The current strategy is to protect areas of conservation value, often in isolated sites. In the future, the species distribution will change with the climate, and many existing reserves may become less valuable as species die out. For species to spread Northwards they will require corridors which may be difficult through existing farmland etc. One important consequence is to the choice of provenance (ie where the parents are located) of seeds for the planting of native species and wildlife areas. In the last decade it has become standard practice to prefer seed of local origin for growing native trees. In the near future, though, this cannot be justified. Climate change will occur too rapidly for species to adapt in an evolutionary sense, or for large-seeded species to move Northwards fast enough to stay in their climatic-evolutionary zone. An oak tree planted in the Midlands, for example, will be adapted best for the climate of Southern England in 2020 and Northern France in 2050. We simply don't know how long global warming will continue, so it seems only prudent to use a mixture of seed from a variety of sources, including local but also more Southerly and Continental sources.

Implications for agriculture
Production of arable and other field crops may shift Northwards and Eastwards due to limited water availability in summer and higher temperatures. The use of winter green manures will become even more important due to increasing winter rainfall. Grassland productivity in the North and West will be sustained by warmer winter temperatures, but the wetter winters may reduce any advantage by making grassland too wet to graze without poaching. Adverse soil effects and increased incidence , of pests, weeds and diseases may reduce or negate any yield increases due to climate change. Increasing sea levels increase risk of coastal flooding; it isn't wise to acquire low-lying land in the near future! Warmer and drier summers will increase opportunities for cultivating new crops including perennial biomass crops, ego Miscanlhus.

Implications for forestry
The majority of UK commercial forests use introduced conifer species on short rotations; these can, at least, be replaced relatively quickly with other species or species from other origins, which are better adapted. Yields of these species are expected to increase in Central and Northern UK by about 25% by 2050. In Southern UK, lower rainfall and increased droughtiness will reduce general productivity and drive sensitive species (eg Beech) from marginal sites. Urban trees will be particularly stressed. Increased droughtiness may increase insect pest damage and the fire hazard. The same implications for provenance of planted young seeds apply as to Conservation plantings (see above). Using a range of seed provenances from zones up to 400 miles Southwards would be advantageous, and at each thinning of the forest stand, the less adapted trees are more likel y to be removed.

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Summer 2020
Expected changes compared with present include: Temperatures are 0.6 to 1°C warmer:

Scotland & Ireland a.soc, equivalent to a 160 Km (100 miles, 3 grid squares) shift Southwards.
Midlands , N.E ng land, Wales a.BoC, equ ivalent to a 210 Km (130 mi les, 4 grid squares) shift Southwards. SE & SW England 1"e, equivalent to a 260 Km (160 miles , 5 grid squares) shift Southwards. The frequency of a 1995type summer increases to 1 year in 10.

In Southern England, summer rainfall decreases by 5% more drought prone.
In Wale s & Central England, winter rainfa ll increases by 5%, summer rainfall remains

the same.
In Northern England , Scotland & Ireland , summer and winter rainfall increases by 4% - mo re flood prone.

Disappearance of ptarmigan, mountain hare. • Expansion of range of most butterflies and moths. Increase in overall UK timber productivity of 7%.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Implications for Tree crops & Agroforestry
he scenario of climate changes which will occur in Britain make the whole area of tree crops and agroforestry even more important. Increasing winter rainfall will make winter soil cover vital to avoid leaching and soil erosion losses ; increasing summer droughts will mean annual crops are increasingly reliant on artificial irrigation , and that perennial . shrub and tree crops which require litUe or no irrigation make even more sense. Increasing wind speeds and number of storms will make hedges, windbreaks and shelterbelts even more important to protect other crops. Increasing temperatures, summer maximums and winter minimums, will generally increase the range of perennial. shrub and tree crops which can be cultivated. Warm winters may cause problems (in terms of early bud break) for species which require quite a lot of winter chilling (some apples. for example). Most shrub and perennial crops persist for 15-30 years, so the climate for the second half of their life may be significantly different; it may be worth planting some species suited to the climate in 2020 right now (with shelter). and certainly will be within the next 10 years. As for tree crops, many are very long-lived (Perry Pears, for example, live for 2-300 years), and most live for 50-100 years at least. The case for planting more Southerly species now is strong, even though they may not be entirely happy for a couple of decades. This is doubly so for slow-to-crop species and those on vigorous rootstocks which may take a decade to start cropping. Such species will of course need shelter when planted now so they don't suffer too much before the climate has warmed. As to what to plant, I would recommend a mix of species suited to the climate in 2020 and in 2050, if they are likely to survive , in addition to those suited to the present climate . Look on it as an insurance policy for an uncertain future! The climate shifts indicated in the 3 accompanying maps are summed up below (E-W changes across the country remain similar): Location climate Area at present to which climate at location will be similar in 2020 Area at present to which at location will be similar in

2050
Central-Southern Scotland Northern Scotland England Central Scotland Northern England Southern Scotland N .Midlands-N.England Northern England Midlands N. Wales & Northern Midlands France (Normandy-Paris) S.Wales & S.Midlands Cornwall -N.France (Le Havre-ReiI (Brittany-Orleans) Southern England N.France (Brittany-Orleans) S. Jreland-N. Midla nds Northern Ireland Southern England Southern Ireland Southern Scotland-North. N.Wales & N.Midlands S.WaJes & S.Midlands Southern England Southern England Northern S) Northern France

Central France (Nantes-Tours) S.I reland-C. Midlands N. France (Le Havre-Reims)

Many crops of borderline viability in Britain will become quite viable (sometimes commercially) from the Midlands Southwards. including Kiwis (Actinidia spp.), Pawpaws (Asimina trifoba), Hickories (Carya spp.), Chestnuts (Castanea spp.). Hardy Citrus & hybrids. Che (Cudrania Iricuspidata) . Kaki persimmons (Diospyros kaki), Figs (Ficus carica), Honey locust (G/edilsia triacanthos) . Walnuts (Juglans spp.), Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) , Almonds (Prunus dulcis) , Peaches (Prunus persica), Oriental plums (Prunus sa/icina) , many Pears (Pyrus communis) , Grapes (Vilis spp.), Pepper trees (Zanthoxylum spp.) , Jujube (Ziziphus jujube).

Summer 2050

Expected changes compared with present include: Temperatures increased by

'.2 to 1.8"C:
Scotland & Ireland 1.2 C , equivalent to a 310 Km (190 miles, 6 grid squares) shift Southwards. N .England & N.wales 1.4°C, equivalent to a 360 Km (225 miles, 7 grid squares) shift Southwards. Midlands & SW England 1.S"C, equivalent to a 415 Km (250 miles, 8 grid squares) shift Southwards. SE England 1.8°C, equ ivalent to a 470 Km (290 miles, 9Yz grid squares) shift Southwards.
G

Frequency of a 1995-type summer increases to 1 year in 3, and a 197B-type summer (hottest on reco rd) to 1 yr in 5. Frequency of a 1988/9-type very m ild winter increases to 1 year in 4, & the cha nce of a very cold winter is almost zero.

• •

The number of frosts red uces by about 50%. Rainfall changes:
In Scotland, winter rain fall increases by 5% and summer rainfall by 9%. In N.England & N.lreland , summer rainfall increases by 5% and winter rainfall by 9%. In Central England, Wales & S .lreland, summer rainfall is unchanged . winter rainfall increases by 9-10%. In the Southern England , summer rainfall decreases by 78% , winter rainfall increases by 10% (total unchanged).

More intense rainfall.

sto rm s

&

Hi gher windspeeds more Qa les

- 30%

AGROFORES TR Y NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 29

Forest Gardening: Climbers
Introduction
Climbers - that is plants wh ich climb by clinging or spiralling around other plants or structures (as opposed to scramblers like many roses which grow through other plants) are mostfy woodland edge plants, which can be incorporated into a forest garden in several ways:

8y 1.

planting

near

the

canopy

edge

of

established trees and tra ining into the canopy • By planting and training against a wall By planting and training along a trellis of some

kind
• By planting by a temporary structure (eg. a pyramid of canes)

By training over a pergola or canopy trellis

Training into established trees
It is important to remember that some of the most useful climber species, like grapes and kiwi fruits, are usually very vigorous plants. When these are trained into established trees , they will, if allowed, quickly climb to heights of 10-15 m (30-50 ft), and when they fruit, most of the fruit will be borne high up at the extremities of the tree canopy, where it is not easily accessible. If the established tree is smaller - say 6 m (20 ft) high - then a vigorous climber will quickly bush out at the top of the tree canopy and seriously reduce the amount of light reaching the tree leaves, and hence seriously reduce a fruit crop if it is a fruit tree. Schisandra chinen sis There is the option of pruning a climber which is climbing through a tree, but this is likely to be very difficult, as is trying to train a climber to follow the framework branches of a tree , to make its own framework: most climbers will stubbornly resist growing towards the inside of a tree. Because of these drawbacks, this method of introducing climbers into the garden is only recommended in the following circumstances: • • Where the climber is not vigorous (or is annual/perennial) and the established tree is small, and may be a fruiting species. Where the climber is vigorous and the established tree is not a fruiting species, and can be a small or large tree. Suitable trees may be native or forest trees along an edge of the garden. I have seen kiwi fruits (Actinidia de/iciosa) c limbing high into ash (Fraxinus spp) and Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) trees in Eng lan d, laden with fruit.

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Actinidia polygama In either case , the climber must be located where it will get some sun as a young plant to enable it to grow into the canopy . This can be achieved either by planting on the sunny South edge of an established tree, or by planting when the tree is still young , temporarily supporting the young growth with canes/poles (and possibly pruning it back hard each year) until the tree is large enough to cope with the climber.

Planting on walls
A tried and tested method of growing climbers. Species may cling (eg. Virginia creeper) or may need wires for support (eg. Kiwi fruits) . Vigorous species will need regular pruning throughout the summer to keep them under control. Problems to watch out for include shoots growing between slates/tiles at the top of the wall - in no time the shoots will crack and damage the slates . .Most fruiting climbers will require a wall with some Southerly aspect to ripen their fruit well , though a few , like hops, will grow on a North wall. An added benefit of the wall is that extra protection (nets or fleece) is easy to add against severe weather , frosts or pests . Watering may also be more important for wall -trained plants , especially if there is a roof overhang above them .

6

Planting on trellises
Trellises will need to be located in a sunny lo catio n, probably a clearing, within the garden; immediately to the North of a vegetable patch is a good location. Otherwise , culture is not too dissimilar from growing on walls. Pruning will need to be regular over the summer. Horizontal trellises (ie T·shaped) are favoured in Japan for growing Kiwi fruits, whereas vertical trellises are the standard method of culture for vines in many parts of the world. Posts used for tre lli ses should be as durabl e as possible: oak posts are used in Britain for grape '.(ine trellises and can be expected to la st 30 or more years.

'.

'If II

flffll/IIIII

Vertical trellis

Horizontal (T) trellis

Using temporary structures
These are really only suitable for annual and perenn ial climb ers. Longer·lived climbers can be very difficult to disentangle from poles when they need replacing after a couple of years, and then they will need very secure tying to a new structure. Canes and poles can easily be constru cted into pyramids , tied at the top, as is very co mmon for growing climbing peas and beans.

Using pergolas or canopy trellises
These can be considered an extension of horizontal trellises to make a complete structure to train the framework of the climber over in two dimensions. Popular in Japan for fruit culture, it isn 't often used elsewhere except for grape vines to provide shade in summer. In a forest garden, probably on ly suitable if a pergola is located next to a house.
Partn~ocilssus quinquefolia

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

i

Climber species
These are divided into annual/perennial and longer-lived species. For each there is a description , plus columns indicating vigour and shade tolerance (good = best tolerance {tolerates substantial shade), fair (tolerates part shade), poor = worst tolerance (needs sun)).

Annuals & Perennials
Amphicarpaea bracteata - Hog peanut. Short perennial climber from North America, growing 1.5 m (5 tt) high. Likes a moist soil and full '" or part shade; hardy to -15°C. Bears edible underground seeds, sweet and delicious raw with a bean flavour. A legume, fixing Nitrogen. The related species AEdgeworlhii and Apitcheri can be used similarly. Apios americana - Ground nut. Another perennial from N.America, growing 1-3 m (3-10 tt) high. Likes sun or part shade and a moist soil; very hardy. A nitrogen-fixing legume which forms edible tubers with a delicious sweet potato flavour. The related species Afortunei and Apriceana can be used similarly. Galium aparine - Cleavers, Goosegrass. Likely to be growing wild in most gardens, the familiar climbing annual plant (reaching 1.5-2 m, 5-7 tt high) can be used in several ways: the seeds are roasted to make a coffee, and the young leaves and stems can be cooked as a vegetable. Humulus lupulus - Hop. A vigorous perennial climber, reaching 6m (20 tt) high each year. Likes a moist soil and sun or part shade. The flowers are used in brewing beer; the young shoots and leaves makes a good cooked vegetable; many other uses. Ipomoea tricolor - Morning glory. This common ornamental annual is very good at attracting beneficial insects. Can reach 4 m (13 tt) high, but needs a sunny site . Lathyrus spp - Sweet pea family. These annuals and perennials are all Nitrogen-fixing legumes, but they should not be considered from a food paint of view as most seeds contain a toxic amino acid. The more vigorous perennial species of use as green manure plants include L/atifofius (2-3m/6-10 tt), L.odoratus (the sweet pea; 23m/6-10 ft) and L.sy/ves/ris (2m/6 ttl . Passiflora incarnata - Maypop . A perennial climber from N.America, of the Passion flower family. It likes a well drained, acid soil and sun or part shade; can grow to 5m (16 tt) each year. It bears nice edible fruits and edible leaves said to be delicious raw or cooked. Phaseolus coccineus - Runner bean . The familiar garden vegetable, a Nitrogen fixer bearing edible seed pods. More shade-tolerant and ...vigorous than the French bean, climb ing to 4m (13 tt) into trees.
Vigour Medium Shade tol Good

Medium

Fair

Vigorous

Fair

Vigorous

Fair

Medium

Poor

Medium

Low; L.sylvestris - fair

Medium

Fair

Vigorous

Fair

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Species

Vigour Medium

Shade tol Low

Phaseo/us vulgaris - Climbing French bean . Also very familiar, this Nitrogen-fixer with edible seeds and pods needs a sunnier site than the above and only grows about 2.5m (8 tt) high. Tropaeo/um spp - Nasturtiums. Cli mb ing annuals, all with edib le leaves (peppery), flowers, and so m eti m es seeds (T.majus & T.minus - very~ hot!) and tubers (T.tuberosum). They are also very good at attracting hoverflies (aphid predators) and bees. May grow 3m (10 tt) high into trees. Vicia spp - Vetches. Some of these legumes are perennia l cl imbers like V.gigantea (1-5 m/3-16 tt) and V.sylvatica (2m/6 tt). They are useful for the ir nitrogen input and accumu late other minerals too.

Vigorous

Fair

Medium

Fair

Shrub climbers
Actinidia spp - Kiwi frui ts. A large fam ily of strong climbing (twining) shrubs, all from Ch ina and Japan. They grow from 4m/13 tt (A.kolomikta) to 15m/50 ft (A.chinensisldeliciosa) , right up into trees, cropping we ll but near the top of them. They lea f out early, thus need a sheltered position in Britain, and do quite we ll in a forest garden with protection from nearby tree canopies. They like a moist but well drained soil, and most like sun or part shade. All species bear nice ed ible fruits, but only if ma le and female plants are both present. T he sap is used to make a glue. Akebia spp - Chocolate vines. A.quinata and A.trifo/iata are semievergreen climbers from Japan, needing a warm site , and producing seed pods containing an edib le, sweet pulp. Their leaves are used for teas and the branches for basketry. They climb well into trees, A.quinata reaching 10m (32 tt) and A.trifo/iata 9m (30 ft) high. Hardy to -20°C or more; two seedlings are needed for fruit - not self-fertile. Good in most soils. Celastrus spp - Bittersweets. Several of these vigorous hardy climbers bea r edib le young leaves & shoots ; including C.flagel/aris (Sm/27 It), C.orbicula/us (12m/40 It) and C.scandens (7m/23 It) . They are all easy to grow in most soils. Clematis spp. Several of these vigoro u s climbers have supposedly edible young leaves and shoots (though there is some doubt about their safety), including C.apiifo/ia (5m/16 ft, leaves used for tea) , C.flammula (5m/16 tt) and C.terniflora (5m/16 ft) and the native C.vitalba (Trave ll er's joy; 10m +/32 ft+; stems used for basketry). Easy to grow in most soi ls. Hedera spp - Ivies. The ivies are very vigorous climbers , all with flexible stems which can be used for baske try. Our native ivy, H.he/ix, is like ly to turn up in any forest garden; it can grow to 30m ( 100 tt) high, is a valuable wildlife plant, and its leaves and fruits can be used as a soap source. Hydrangea spp. Two species are climbing forms and bear leaves which are edibl e raw or cooked with a cucumber flavour; they also have sweet edible sap. H.anomala can grow to 12m (40 tt) and H.petio/aris to 20 m (70 tt) high into trees . Easy to grow in any moist soil.
Vigorous Fair; A.kolomikt a - good

Vigorous

Fair

Vigorous

Fair-good

Vigorous

Fair; C.vitalba good

V.vigorous Good

Vigorous

Fair

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Species Lonicera spp ~ Honeysuckles. The stems of many species are useful in basketry, like the native L.periclymenum, growing 4m (13 ft) high. Easy to cultivate. ,Qarthenocissus spp. A group of very vigorous climbers from N.America and Asia. They are good bee plants, the branches are used for basketry, the sap is edible and they make excellent facade covers and insulation. They include P.quinquefolia (Virginia creeper; (0 30m/100 ft; also has edible fruits) and P.tricuspidata (Boston ivy; to 20m/70 ft) which will grow high into trees but may become invasive. Very easy to grow. Passiflora caerulea ~ Blue passion flower . The hardiest sh rubby member of the passion flower family , this becomes perennial where winter temperatures fall below about ~12°C, but is evergreen in mild areas. A common ornamental from S.America, growing to 3m (10 ft) high, and needing a sheltered sunny site, it readily produces masses of fruits, each containing a small amount of edible pulp and seeds (and lots of air). Bees love the flowers too. Pueraria lobata ~ Kudzu vine. A vigorous Asiatic climber. which may be perennial where summers aren't hot enough to ripen its wood. Regarded as a weed in the Southern U.S. , it is highly valued in Asia for its numerous uses: edible starchy cooked roots, edible young cooked leaves. edible seeds (sprouted or roasted for coffee), a va luable fibre from the stems, an im al fodder etc; highly valued in Chinese medicine. Also a Nitrogen~fixer. Can grow 15m+ (50 ft+) into trees and become invasive in warm climates; likes a moist, acid soi l and full sun. Schisandra chinensis ~ Magnolia vine. An Asiatic climber growing to 7m (23 ft) or more in height, liking a partl y shaded position. The fruits (formed when male & female plants are both present) are edib le (sma ll but with a good sweet~acid flavour), and the young leaves are cooked as a vegetable. This plant is highly valued in Chinese medicine with the fruit, leaves and bark all used. Easily grown in most soils. Vilis spp ~ Vines. A large family of vigorous climbers which will grow high into trees. Most species bear edible fruits, the quality of which varies greatly, and make a good facade cover. The grape vine, V.vinifera, is the species most likely to be planted in the forest garden ; this can grow 35m ( 100 ft+) high into trees but will bear most of its fruit near the top! As well as the fine edible fruits, the leaves are edible cooked, the sap is edible, and the oil from seeds is edible (when refined) and used indu strially for paints and soaps. No garden sho uld be without one, but it is important to choose a good outdoor va ri ety; the hardy wine~making varieties do better outside than dessert va rieties . ..Wisteria spp. A small group of climbers from Asia and America, fast growing and long-li ved, the fragrant flowers have led to their widespread ornamental use. They are nitrogen-fixing species, growing 8-1 2 m (26-40 ft) high; they like a well -drained , moist soil and full sun or light shade, preferring a sunny S/SW wall. The seeds and pods of all are probab ly toxic. However, the flowers are eaten raw or cooked from W.floribunda, W.frutescens and W.sinensis, and most species can furnish a fibre and cloth from the bark.

Vigour Vigorous

Shade tor Good

V.vigorous Good

Vigorous

Poor

Vigorous

Fair

Moderate

Fair~good

V.vigorous Fair

Vigorous

Poor

1

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Hardy Citrus and Citrange
By 'hardy', this article is limited in scope to those species and varieties which are hardy in zone 8 (ie hardy down to average winter minimum temperatures of betw een -7 and -12°C). Most of the well known Citrus species , like the oranges , grapefruit, lemons etc are only hardy to zon,e 9 (-1 to _6°C) and have little hope of surviving outdoors in temperate climates where frosts tare common; however, occasionally , hardier varieties of these tender species do exist. As hardy as the hardiest Citrus are the Kumquats (Fortunella spp); these will be treated in a later article. Hardiness is a complicated subject, and the cold hardiness of a variety or species is determined by Duration of cold - shorter periods are less damaging. Position of fruit - fruit is more prone to frost damage than foliage (it is damaged by temperatures of -2 to _3°C) and fruit well-covered by foliage is more protected from cold. Proximity of buildings/walls considerably improves survival prospects. Good air drainage is vital so that cold air will drain away from the Citrus plants. • The rootstock used. The best rootstock to promote cold-hardiness is the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata). If buying grafted plants, check which rootstock is used. Young succulent growth and blossoms are the most tender, making late spring frosts most damaging.

Cultivation
Even the hardiest species and varieties need an average winter minimum temperature of 5°C, which limits their outdoor cultivation in Britain to Southern Eng land (S. of a LondonBristol line) and favoured Western coastal regions. Their cultivation range can be extended by growing inside (or growing in large tubs and bringing inside in winter) a cold greenhouse, conservatory, or twin-walled poly tunnel. Outdoor cultivation requires a favoured position, preferably near a warm wall , and even then in severe winter weather plants will benefit from extra protection such as a fleece covering . protection from cold winter/spring winds is essential. Growth of Citrus plants ceases b,elow 12°C (54 ° F). Spring planting is preferable, into fairly fertile 'and well -drained soil. Citrus roots are relatively shallow and trees will benefit from a permanent mulch beneath, but make sure this is kept away from the tree bark. Container grown plants should be given a lime-free compost, but plants should be potted up only into a slightly larger pot several times, rather than being put straight into a large pot ; even large trees need no more than a 30 cm (12 ") pot. Plants indoors will still require good ventilation, even on sunny winter days,; they also need careful watering, regularly during the growing season but rarely in winter. Pests including aphids , whitefly , brown scale , and small caterpillars, may build up on plants inside but are rarely a problem outside. Citrus are quite heavy feeders; container-grown plants should be treated much like tomatoes during the summer months , and given plenty of high-potash feed (eg. seaweed extract, comfrey fertiliser etc). Outside plants will also benefit from comfrey mulches or feeding as well as compost or manure. Pruning of outdoor plants is normally unnecessary in temperate climates , where growth will not be excessive. In cases of frost damage, wait at least six months to be sure of the extent of damaged areas (dieback may continue during this period); then cut out damaged and dead wood . Watch out for the vicious thorns which most Citrus bear! With indoor plants , pinch out growing tips of shoots growing where they are unwanted

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

rather than cutting out shoots , as Citrus store their food mostly in their leaves and stems (rather then roots) over the win ter period. Fragrant flowers form on new growth in late win ter and spring (though lemons, including ' Meyer', flower continuous ly). A small percentage actually set fruit and there is a drop of immature fru it much like the 'June drop' experienced with deciduous fruit trees . Pollination occurs via insects and occasionally the wind; some varieties are self-fertile. The developing fruits may go dormant over the winter and then continue to develop to maturity the following year; with most varieties/species, the fruits hang well on the tree when ripe and can be cut off when required . Ripeness is indicated more by a slight loss of skin sh ine than a colour change. Some varieties, like ' Meyer', may ripen their fruit from early winter onwards in the same year. Fruiting usually begins by 3-5 years of age.

)

)

sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata) - Citrange The citranges are hybrids of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and the hardy or trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifofiata). They are evergreen or semi-evergreen , strong growing shrubs up to 6-7m high , sp reading and with th orny branches and leaves with 1-3 large leaflets. Large white fragrant flowers , up to 6 cm across, are followed by round fruits , 5-6 cm across (more for some cultivars), ora nge or yellow in colour. The fruit rind is thin but tightly adherent. The fru it pulp is usually sour and sometimes bitter, but is suitable for using as a lemon substitute and for making into jams/marmalade etc. Sometimes used as a dwarfing rootstock for Citrus species . Breeds true from seed. 'Carrizo' - Vigorous, upright, productive and hardy. Fruits light orange ; flesh light yellow, juicy, very acid, somewhat bitter, numerous seeds. Early maturing. resistant to Citrus nematodes. 'C-32' - vigo rous, less dense than Troyer but quite resistant to Citrus nematodes. Used as a rootstock. 'C-35' - moderately vigorous , less dense than Troyer but quite resistant to Citrus nematodes. Used as a rootstock . 'Morton' - produces very good quality fruits, close to Navel oranges in size , colour and flavour; up to 10 cm (3 across , quite sweet, can be eaten fresh or used like other citrange fruits for preserves , jam etc. 'Rusk' - a vigorous , tall, hardy, dense -growing , productive selection. Fruits are deep orange with a reddish flush ; the flesh is ora ng e-yellow, very juicy, sprightly acid , not bitter with few seeds; early ripening. 'Savage' - Fruits are yell ow, 6-7 cm across, fragrant, acid. The tree is often sem i-deciduous, indicating possible extra cold -hardiness . 'Spaneet' - Fruits are deep orange, nearly seedless , very juicy. 'Troyer'- Moderately vigorous, upright, productive and hardy. Fruits light orange , small ; fles h light ye llow , juicy, very acid , somewhat bitter, numerous seeds. Early maturing. Used as a rootstock (primarily with oranges), it induces good quality fruits. Other hybrid species between Citrus and Poncirus which have good poss ibilities, though little work has been done on them to date, are Cit ran derins (P.trifoliata x C.reticulata) , Citremons (P.trifoliata x C. lim on) and Citradias (P.trifo liata x C.aurantiada) Citrus ichangensis - Ichang lemon, (chang Papeda. One of the hardiest Citrus species, this looks quite healthy through the winter without any protection other than a sheltered site. It is a sma ll tree , growing up to 10 m (33 tt) high in its native habi tat (Mountains of SW China), but probably less than half that height in cultivation in temperate climes. It has long thin thorns, narrow leaves and white flowers followed by lemonshaped fruits, 7-10 cm (3_4") long. The fruit pulp is so ur but flavourful and conta ins large seeds. Sometimes used as a Citru s rootstock or interstock (the latter with satsumas induces early bearing and heavy cropping) . Citrus ichangensis var. microcarpus - Small fruited (chang papeda. This natural variety of the above is even hardier, fruiting we ll high in the mountains of Yunnan in Chi na . It crows to 3-5 m hieh and bears smaller oblone ve ll ow fruits . 3-4 cm across.
ft )

x Citronc;rus webber; (Citrus

Species and cultivars

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 21

Citrus junos . Ichandarin , Yuzu ('Xiangcheng ' in China). A spiny shrub , growing 2·5 m (6-16 ft) high , very hardy and unscathed by winter weather in SW England , this relatively unknown species has very good potential. It bears rounded fruits , 5·7 cm in diameter with a rough bumpy peel, greenish when ripe . The pulp is very acid , somewhat bitter with a lemon·lime flavour and contains plump seeds ; it has a pleasant , fresh aroma. The oil from the peel contains some 2% aldehydes and is used much lime lemon peel. It is cultivated in Central China and Japan , the fruits being used as substitutes for lemons and limes, and as a raw material for vinegar. It is also excellent for making preserves. Notable for being able to be propagated by softwood cuttings under mist in mid-late summer. Sometimes used as a Phytophthora·tolerant Citrus rootstock ; it is the principal rootstock used in Japan for oranges and satsumas. 'Hanayu ' . medium sized fruits (6-8 cm) with pleasant lime flavour. 'Shangjuan' - very large fruits, bright yellow, very juicy; a very good lemon substitute. 'Sudachi' - Light orange, seedy flesh with good acid mandarin-time flavour. Fast growing, not as cold hardy as some varieties. 'Yuko' - Easily peeled fruits with a mild mandarin flavour. Not as cold hardy as some. Citrus x latipes This is a hybrid from Asia, bearing edible acid fruits. Not much known about this one , it seems of borderline hardiness (zone 8/9) and will need indoor protection over winter in Britain. Citrus limon 'Snow' - lemon. Most lemons are only hardy in zone 9; this variety is likely to be hardy into zone 8, as it is commonly grown at high elevations in Japan where it may be covered in snow during the winter. Makes a medium shrub up to 3 m (10 ft) high; yellow fruits can be very large and are very juicy and flavourful. Citrus meyeri 'Meyer' (Meyer's lemon) flowers and fruits

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

r

Citrus meye,; 'Meyer' - Meyer lemon. Previously included with the lemons (Citrus limon) but now considered a separate species. The Meyer lemon is just about hardy into zone 8, and is a dense medium to farge shrub with short-stalked, large dark green leaves and few thorns. Clusters of fragrant white flowers are followed by freel y-prod uced medium sized yellowish-orange fruits, rounder than most lemons , th in-skinned , flesh tangy, juicy, not too acid , very lemon-like in flavour and usage. The fruits are usually well covered by follage. The fragrant leaves makes a nice tea.

Citrus pseudolimon - Galgal. Hill lemon, Kumaon lemon This relatively unknown species may be the hardiest of all Citrus, growing as it does high up in the submountainous region of NW India where snow is not un common . It grows under very demanding conditio ns, often planted in rocky and poor land , becoming a vigorous upright tree up to 6m (20 ft) high. Large flowers in Spring are followed by large yellow fruits with a medium thick adherent rind. The flesh is pale ye ll ow, coarse, moderately juicy and very sour, with large seeds. It is a popu lar home-garden plant in NW India, used as a lemon substitute and commercially for making pickles and lemon squash.

Citrus reticu/ata (C.nobi/is de/iciosa) - Mandarin. Most mandari ns are onl y hardy to zone 9; the varieties below are hardier. Mandarins make shrubs or small trees; fruits are easi ly peeled, flattish-round, orange, with a sweet and aromatic fruit pulp and small seeds. Even these selections will only succeed in the mildest regions. 'Ch inotto' - reputed to be hardy to _8 c C. A dense dwarf tree, thornless , self-fertile, bearing tight clusters of medium size, juicy, tangy fruit. Sometimes included in the sour oranges (C.aurantium), it orig in ated in Italy where it is prized for making preserves . 'Cleopatra' is often used as a cold-hardy rootstock (it produces large trees with small fruit) and is adapted to a wide range of soils; hardy to -10°C. 'Gua ngjiu ' is a Chinese selection, hardy to - 10°C. ' Satsuma' is of borderline hardiness between zones 8 & 9. It forms an open, tough tree and bears excellent seedless fruits with a mild sweet flavour. 'Silver Hill' is another hardy variety; slow growing with a weeping habit, it bears medium-large fruit, orange-red in colour. Citrus sp - Khasi papeda A hardy species from the hills of NE India, reputedly as hardy as the Ichang lemon . It bears large, 7-10 cm (3_4H) fruits resembling grapefruit in appearance; the flesh is white, juicy, seedy, with a spicy flavour and a peppery tang; eaten like grapefruits in India . This may be the same as C.pseudolimon. Citrus hybrid 'US 119' This selection is a hybrid of grapefruit, trifoliate orange and orange , and has survived temperatures of _12 C in North America with little injury. Fruits are low acid, sweet, very firm.
D

Suppliers
A.R.T. We supply Citrus junas, Citrus x talipes, Citrus meyeri 'Meyer' as well as Citrange
cuftivars.
The Citrus Centre, Marehill Nursery, West Mare Lane, Marehill, Pulborough , W Sussex, RH20 2EA. Tel: 01798-872786. Supply a huge range of species and varieties. Four Counties Nursery, Todenham , Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucs, GL56 9PN. Tel: 01608-

650522.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 23

Book Reviews
Review of the Potential Effects of Climate Change in the United Kingdom
UK Glimate Change Impacts Review Group (DOE)
HMSO, 1996: 247 pp (PB): £28.00 ISBN 0-11-7532908 This important review looks at the likely effects in many areas of li fe of the clim ate changes which are expected to occur in Britain over the next 50·60 years. The report opens with the conclusions and summa ry: this discusses the changing climate of the UK, looking in particular at the 20205 and the 20505 ; the likely effects of the changing climate are then listed , and recommendations for policies and research are given. Specific conclusions in each of the 16 main areas of life (see below) which the report covers are then listed. The chapter on Changing Climate and Sea Level looks at the likely climate changes in more detail, briefly explaining the climate models which have been used (a nd referring to others which provide different results), and includes many maps showing temperature , rainfall, so lar radiation, windspeed and other changes in the UK and Ireland expected in the 2020s and 2050s compared with the 1961-1990 averages. The main chapters of the report look in detail at the likely effects of climate change on 15 main areas of life: Soils; Flora, Fauna and Landscape ; Agriculture , Horticulture & Aquaculture; Forestry; Water Resources; Energy; Minerals extraction; Manufacturing, Retailing and Service industries; Construction ; Transport ; Insurance; Health ; Recreation and tourism ; Coastal regions . The chapters related to land use witl be of most interest to Agroforestry News readers ; many changes are likely to occur which favour perennial and tree cro ps although this is not explicitly noted in the report. Climate change is treated all too often in the media as a 'here today - gone tomorrow' news item with sensationalist headlines. This report makes it clear that all aspects of our lives will be affected, some positively and others neg. a tively, from climate changes now regarded as inevitable . I who leheartedly recommend this report as essential reading for everyone concerned with the uncertain future we are creating for ou rse lves.

Tree-Crop Interactions: A Physiological Approach
Chin KOng & P A Huxley (Eds)
CAB Inlernalional, 1996: 416pp (PB): £25.00 . ISBN 0-85198-987-X. This book tackles the tricky area of how the principles of crop physiology can be applied to the understanding of tree-crop interactions in agroforestry systems, an area in which the lack of good solid evidence has inhibited the implementation of agroforestry techniques by many farmers. This book consists of a series of papers looking at different aspects of tree-crop interactions , most of which propose models of physiological behaviour of trees and crops when grown together. There is now ample evidence to show that the overall (biomass) productivity of an agroforestry system is generally greater than that of an annual system , due to a mixture of improved capture of growth resources (light, water) and improved soil fertility . Competition has a negative effect in this context , but there is evidence of increased total (combined) productivity when more than one species is used.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Other evidence clearly shows that agroforestry systems lead to improved soil fertility , soil conservation and nutrient cycling , and microclimate improvements. Whereas trees planted at wide spaci ngs may take many years to slowly impro ve soil fertility, the use o f Nitrogen-fixing trees in alley cropping can lead to subs tantial fertility increases within 2-3 years. Although agroforestry systems are not a universal panacea (alley cropp ing systems, for examp le, have failed in some arid areas because of excess water stress on the intercrops) , it is clear from this book that the advantages over annual crops in terms of soil fertility, productivity and sustainability are already well demonstrated.

Cultivated Climbers.
Don Ellison

Plants

of

the

World:

Trees,

Shrubs,

Flora Pub li cations. 1995 (Dist by B T Batsford); 598 pp (HB); £65.00. ISBN 1·876060·00·X This is basically a pictorial dictionary of an extremely wide selection of trees , shrubs and climbe rs from all over the world . It is organised in Latin name order, with a short description of each genus, then for each species covered in the genus there is a colour photograph of an identifying feature (usually the flower, sometimes leaves or fruits) and a brief (one sentence) description. The majority of the species selected are ornamental from temperate and tropical areas, though many fruiting species are included too. In all , some 7,000 species are included whi ch must make this one of the most comprehensive pictoria l plant dictionaries ever produced.

Pruning and Training Fruit Trees
Warren Somerville
Inkata Press, 1996 (Dist by Butterworth Heinemann) ; 144 pp (PB); £16 .50. ISBN 0·7506·8931-5. Availab le from: Customer Services Department , Heinemann Publishers Oxford , P Box 382, Halley Court, Jordan Hill , Oxford , OX2 8RU. Tel: 01865-314301, Fax: 01865-314029.

a

This fine book is based on the philosophy that the orchardist should understand how a tree grows and how it reacts to pruning in order to be a good pruner. It begins by discussing fruit tree basics - stocks, scions, chill requirement and flower bud development. Pruning equipme nt is then covered , followed by a splendid chapter on apical dominance: this describes the growth behaviour of trees , the effects of pruning , and how apical dominance ca n be used to manage the tree. The reasons for pruning are discussed (tree training , fruiling control , crop management and fruit quality, pest and disease control), and the general practice of prun ing is covered well with 15 general 'rules' to follow. The substantial chapter on Training systems begins with a discussion of tree density and yiel ds; then there are descriptions of all the common training systems used both commerciall y and on a garden scale. These include the vase (or bush), central leader syste ms , palmette systems (fans and espaliers), cordons, the Bouche-Thomas hedge , trellis systems and canopy trellis systems. Each system is clearly described and illustrated with photographs and line drawings illustrating the underlying principles. A final brief chapter lists rootstock types with brief descriptions for the main tree fruit species. This is the only place in the book where its Australian orig ins are obvious , with some of the common European stocks not mentioned since they are unknown or unsuitable there; it is a minor drawback. For an overall explana ti on and description of pruning and training fruit trees, this book is highly recommended.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 25

rl -

.......SR§

How To Identify Edible Mushrooms
Patrick Harding, Tony Lyon & Gill Tomblin
HarperCollins, 1996; 192 pp ( PB); £9 ,99, ISBN 0-00-219984-X This is possibly the best edible mushroom identification book to date , covering all of the edible ?:pecies (over 50) likely to be encountered in Britain. Brief introductory sections cover the expected subjects of edibility, poisoning, cooking and preserving of fungi , identification notes and a key . The main section of the book is divided into six , by habitat (grassland , broad-leaved woodland , coniferous woodland) and by type (edible or poisonous) , so the search for identification can immediately be narrowed down . For each species there is a good description (including key features , habitat description , frequency , season , cap and stem features) , accompanied by very good quality drawings of the fungus at different ages and a sectional view showing the likely dimensions. Also included are cooking and eating notes , a calendar showing the months and frequencies it is likely to be found (very good). But most useful is the list of 'Iookalikes ' - a list of 2-5 species with which it may be confused : these are accompanied by drawings and descriptions (and references to entries in the book if they appear elsewhere). Thus similar looking mushrooms can all be compared and the differences easily noted . For this reason alone , this book sh ould become a bible for edible fungus hunters and is highly recommended even just for fungus identification .

No-Tillage Seeding: Science and Practice
C J Baker, K E Saxton & W R Ritchie
CAB International, 1996; 272 pp (HB) ; £49,95 , ISBN 0-85199-103-3 The principle of no-tillage seeding has been around for three decades or more and it is generally agreed that such practice has a host of soil benefits, primarily vastly reducing soil erosion and sustaining soil fertility_ The problem has been that the technology to achieve successful no-tillage seeding leading to successful crops just hasn't been available for farmers to take up - indeed most of the attempts have ended in failure . A major aim of this book is to show how the risks with no-tillage seeding can be reduced by focusing on the needs of the plants which determine the requirements for a no-tillage seed-drill. They have deSigned their own No-tillage drills, for example the inverted T-slot drill which makes a slot for the seed to be sown in. They assume that growing crops by No-tillage methods must require the use of molluscicides , pesticides , herbicides etc.

,

I

The initial chapter looks at the 'Why' and 'What' of No-tillage, and includes lists of the advantages and disadvantages of the technique . Next, the risks are discussed, including pests (eg. slugs , which can remain buried in the slots made by drills). diseases , and physical stresses. The actual shape of the slot made for seeding and its effects on the soil are then covered . The authors conclude that V-slots (usually created with discs) , which have been the most common design in N-tillage drill to date , are unsuited to the technique and do not create a favourable environment for seeds . Instead , they recommend an inverted T-shaped slot , made by a vertical shank with sub-surface wings which are horizontal in the sideways plane but inclined downwards towards the front tip; or better, their own-designed ~ Cross Slot driW, which consists of a vertical disc to cut into the soil and winged side blades which cut horizontally at seeding depth by partially lifting the soil and allowing seed to be directed on either side.

and correctly designed slot drills can achieve this. An inverted T-drill is also very suited to drilling into dry soils (the slot traps moisture) and wet soils (the slot improves the oxygen environmen t and encourages earthwo rm activity). The role of No-tittage drilling in pasture renewal and renovation is thoroughly discussed., along with drill design and management of No-tillage systems. Despite the authors being very much in the "chemical farming~ camp, the principles and drill designs presented in this book will be of great use to all those involved in sustainable cropping of annual crops.

Forest Gardening
Robert A de J Hart
Green Earth Books, 1996; 212 pp (PB); £10.95. ISBN 1·90032 2·02·1 This is a revised and updated edition Robert Hart' s classic book which should be on the shelf of all interested in agroforestry and forest gardening . Robert , more than anyone , stimulated interest in forest gardening and small -scale temperate agroforestry at a time when it was assumed it was only applicable to tropical climates. More than a manual of forest gardening, Robert describes the journey leading him to learn of agroforestry techniques and start his forest garden on Wenlock Edge , and describes that project in detail with information about the design , unusual species used and maintenance. Other chapters cover general agroforestry techniques and wide issues: water use (irrigation and conservation methods), energy from biomass, the value of rural crafts integrated with land use, how agroforestry can playa major part in tackling the problems of poverty and hunger in the third wor1d , and a philosophy and ethic of living 'green'. Revised species lists for temperate and tropical forest gardens are now more detailed, and extended are the lists of further reading , recommended suppliers and places to visi t.

The Permaculture Plot
Simon Pratt (Compiler)
Permanent Publications, 1996; 144 pp ( PB); £4 .95. ISBN 1·85623·010·4. Ava ilable for £5.50 (UK)! £6.50 (Europe)/ £7.00 (World) including air mail postage from : Permanent Publications, Hyden House Ltd , Little Hyden lane , Clanfield , Hants , P08 ORU. The latest edition of The Perm acu lture Plot contains details of 86 Permaculture-influenced projects in Britain - that's a 50% increase since the last edition ( 1994), proof if needed that Permaculture ideas really are having an impact. Projects are ordered within geographical reg ions and contain a description , often accompanied with drawings or photographs, and details of contacts and visiting arrangeme nts ; most can be visited by arrangement. Most of the projects described are gardens, but included are sma llholdings , large-scale farms , and even advanced reed-bed sewage systems. This is an essential guide for anyone wanting to visit rural or urban sites where Permaculture is being implemented and people are working towards sustainable lifestyles and ecological living.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 27

@-

-tetE -£

=

Perry Pears
Introduction and history

Perry ·pears have been bred from Pyrus communis and P.niva[is, two pear species indigenous to cehtra[ Europe. These wild pears have long been cultivated for perry production - for at least 16 centuries. Perry pears were certainly being cultivated in Britain 900 years ago , on the estates of the Norman Barons after their invasion of the country.

In England, the cultivation of perry pears has , until very recently, been restricted to Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire, where perry has always been a popular drink. The reasons for this concentration of growing are many: a suitable climate (sufficient rainfall to maintain trees in a grass sward , sufficient sun to ripen the fruit), a long orcharding tradition, soils which support long-lived pear trees but often not apples , the close availability of mill·stones from the Forest of Dean for the milling of fruit , and the smallholding tradition which led to the planting of perry pears rather than apples because perry needs no blending of juice from different varieties as cider usually does. In addition, most perry varieties, if the pomace (milled fruit & juice) is macerated (allowed to stand between milling and pressing), can be made into a mild bitter-sharp perry similar in character to the cider popular in this region.

Perry farms in the 18th & 19th centuries used trees spaced widely at 18-20 m (60·66 ft) apart lie about 10-12 trees per acre or 25-30 trees per Hectare), with arable crops (usually cereals) grown as an intercrop for many years , reducing gradually to alleys between the rows, and eventually the whole field was grassed down, but sometimes not until 50 years after planting. Other intercrops often used on smaller farms were apple and plum trees. Thus perry pear cultivation formed part of a long-lived and sustainable agroforestry system.

Description
Perry pears are exceptionally long-lived for fruit trees , often reaching an age of 2-300 years. They also grow into often massive trees ; 20 m (70 ft) high and in spread. Perry pear fruits differ from eating and culinary pears in mainly being astringent (ie bitter) to varying degrees. This makes the fruits suitable only for perry production - though there are exceptions and several varieties have been used as multi-purpose.

Perry pears need a sunny and warm summer to ripen well, and until now have only achieved this in Britain in a warmer than average summer; however, with global warming they should ripen considerably better. This reliance on good summers has been reflected in wide variation in vintage quality from year to year. This variation in quality has led to varying opinions of perry over the ages, but the variation is due to other factors as well: the use of inferior seedling trees, the use of dessert pear varieties (usually giving weak or flavourless perry), and generally casual methods of producing the drink. It is now appreciated that to make good perries, special vintage varieties are necessary and the operation demands considerable knowledge, skill and attention. Another use to which some perry varieties are put is ornamental. Some bear large flowers with a strong aroma and are very striking at blossom time : Barland is an example. Perry trees are thus sometimes found as park specimens or avenues . Logs from mature perry pear trees may have a considerable value as timber, which has a fine grain and uniform texture , turns well, and is good for carving and veneers; it has long been used for furniture making.

Paqe 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Orchard layout & management
pollination
Few jf any of the perry pear varieties are self-fertile, and cross-pollination is essential for good crops . The flowering group is noted in the table below; cross-pollination takes place with in the same group or the adjacent group.

Tree size and spacing
Perry pears are nearly always grown on seedling perry rootstocks (p.communis). These are usually allowed to form large standard trees which are rarely pruned. Quince rootstocks are genera lly incompatible with perry varieties; a Beurre Hardy interstem needs to be used and this leads to slightly quicker bearing, but trees will need staking and they will be much shorter-lived. To complicate matters , perry pear varieties differ widely in the dimensions of canopy spread at maturity, from 6 m (20 ft) spread [ego 'Thorn'} to 18 m (60 tt) spread [ego 'Moorcroft'). The average spread is noted in the table below. To allow for maximum density at maturity, planting shou ld be at a spacing sli ghtly more (10-20% more) than the likely spread of the trees (ie 5.59 m for small spread, 9-13 m for medium spread, 13-20 m for large spread). For widespreading varieties, this gives plenty of opportunities for intercropping of cereals, vegetables, soft fruit and even other tree fruit (see above). Bush perry trees can also be used to interplant between standard trees. These are usually also on seedling rootstocks, but are trained with a 1 m (3 tt) trunk. This can be an important practice when early financial viability is needed in commercial situations. Only some varieties crop early (sometimes after 3-4 years) in this system, while others may take 10 years or more. Variety precocity in bush cultivation is noted in the table below.

Diseases & pests
A remarkable fact about perry pears is that many of the varieties still recommended for use today were highly popular 300 years ago. This seems to be due mainly to the high degree of resistance of the perry pear to the diseases pear scab and canker and the way in which this resista nce is maintained as the variety ages. More recently, fireblight has become a serious problem, though, especially with the later-flowering varieties. Th e large size of perry pear trees means than very littl e can be done to combat fireblight attacks; susceptible varieties should not be planted, and to reduce susceptibility, trees should not be pruned, fertilised or irrigated and no hawthorn hedges nearby should be allowed to flower. Perry pears are als o resistant to insect pests, on ly pear midge having a significant detrimental effect (contro ll ed in the past by runn ing pigs and poultry beneath the trees). The only other sign ificant pest is the bullfinch. [See 'Pears' in Agroforestry News, Vol 4 No 4 for details of pest controll

Harvesting and yields
Mature trees, planted at wide-enough spacing to enable all-around light penetration, frequently yield crops of one ton (1000 Kg, 2200 Ib), whi le records of two tons per tree in success ive years are not unknown. Average yields of 10-20 tons per acre {25-50 tons/Hal are ce rtainly possible. It must be remembered that most trees on seedling stocks are slow to start fruiting - often 10 years from planting. Those which are precocious as bush trees are noted in the table below; these may also start fruiting at an earlier age as full grown standards. Some trees require shaking to loosen all their fruits at once for mechanical harvest - their

€R

¥

7357

e

E

Perry production

Some fruits store well for a month or more after falling from the tree, and late varieties in this category may enable milling to continue into January of the following year in a good harvest season. This longer period of time before fruit breakdown commences is of great importance to present-day commercial growers. to allow for the harvest and transport of fruits to the factory. Hence most of the recommended varieties for commercia l growers show this trait (the exceQtion being Moorcroft , for the exceptional quality of its fruit). The fruits of other va rieties rot soon after they have fallen from the tree, hence much of the fruit needs to be milled immediately after harvesting . This means that the fruit is often milled. pressed and the juice fermented as single varieties. Even after fermentation , little blending has historically been practised, for the perries of some varieties will not mix successfully (2 clear perries when blended may produce an opaque unpalatable product). Fortunately, most perries do not need blending to give a palatable drink, and the individual varieties show a fine range of flavours to suit different palates. The composition of the juice obtained from perry pear fruit is influenced by the various effects of environment, climate, cultural conditions and age of tree. The descriptions below are an average , based on samples from mature trees; juice samples from young trees often differ considerably and these are described where known. The tannins in the juice of some varieties are rapidly precipitated, particularly in the presence of solid particles of pear tissue. The tannin content of the juice therefore depends on the conditions of milling and pressing, and on the length of time the juice has stood; the state of maturity of the fruit can also have a marked effect on tannin content of the juice . The fermentation process itself is very quick. It is worth noting that over 50% of the varieties described here give perries of medium acidity and low-medium tannin (contrasting with the present emphasis in cider apple varieties of bittersweet varieties with low acidity and mediumhigh tannin).

Recommended perry pear varieties
These are mostly varieties which yield well , are fairly disease free , and whose fruit stores for a reasonable time for the milling to be carried out. Primary varieties are listed in bold. Supplementary varieties, not so suited to larg scale cultivation, a~e also lis~e.d ; the~e are often susceptible to scab and dieback Harvest season vanety milling period Harvest season September variety milling period 1 week 1 week Late October Brandy Brown Bess Green Horse Chaceley Green Flakey Bark 1 month 1 month 3 weeks 3 weeks 3 weeks

Hellens Early Judge Amphlett Moorcroft Thorn Taynton Squash

2 days 1 week 2 days
November month month

Butt

over over

Early October Blakeney Red 1 week Hendre Huffcap 2 weeks Newbridge 1 week Winnal's long don 1 week Arlingham Squash Parsonage 1 Gregg's Pit 2 Red Longdon 3 Yellow Huffcap 1

Gin

5 days
week weeks weeks week

Turner's Barn Oldfield month

1 month over

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Cultivars
Many of the perry varieties were selected as seedlings by growers and used only in that locality; thi s localisation in a striking feature of varietal distribution. Other varieties have a more widespread distribution, and are of high vintage quality; these include the Squash pears, Arlingham and Taynton, the Barland pear, and the Horse pears, Green, Red and Huffcap. Other varieties of widespread distribution are general purpose types. Many of the pears grown in the 1600's , though astrin gent, were used for eating and cook ing, and the surplus was sent to the mill (eg. Thorn Pear, Hastings, Brown Bess). Other general purpose varieties like Cannock and Blakeney Red were much planted in the 19th Century . Blakeney Red, now the most popular producing variety, gives a perry of reasonable quality, and the fruit has been long esteemed as one of the best pears for pickling, stewing and canning; large quantities were also used by the dye industry for the production of khaki. A total of about 100-120 perry pear varieties worthy of note exist in the main growing region , cove red by about 200 names: synonyms are numerous and there is some confusion over names. Some names are descriptive, based on place names, while others are humorous (eg. Merrylegs, Oevildrink); others are dialect versions of the original name. Nearly all the cultivars described here are still available from commercial nurseries; many others are still grown. Arlingham Squash (Syn. Squash Pear , Old Squash, Old Taynton Squash) Tree Medium sized with slender upright limbs and a thin open branch system. A good pollen producer. Fruit Turbinate, small, light green sometimes with a red flush; flesh tinged yellow. Rots quickly from the centre after harvest. Vintage Medium acid, low to medium tannin perry; pleasant. full bodied. Barland (Syn. Bosbury Pear, Bareland , 8earland) Tree Large, tall, with a few upright limbs; branches small. Growth moderately vigorous, sturdy. Flowers very large, pollen poor. Fruit Turbinate, small, green or yellow with russet. Falls over a long period. Vintage High acid, medium to high tannin perry; astringent, fruity, average to good quality. Young trees may give perries of low acidity and low tannin. Barnet (Syn. Barn , Brown Thorn, Hedgehog) Tree Medium to large, compact tree with long branches with conspicuous spurs; spreads with cropping. Growth moderately vigorous, stu rd y. Tends to biennia l cropping. Fruit Turbinate, small, green/yellowish-green with orange-red flush and russet. Easily shaken fr tree. Vintage Low acid, low tannin perry; pleasant, light, average quality. Blakeney Red (Syn. Painted Lady, Painted Pear, Circus Pear, Red Pear) Tree Medium-large tree; young trees have numerous upright limbs which later fuse and spread outwards . Growth vigorous and sturdy. Re li able cropper. Fruit Pyriform-turbinate, small to medium , yellow with heavy flush and some russet. Vintage Medium acid , medium tannin perry; pleasant , average quality depending on the fruit cond ition on milling. Brandy Tree Small to medium with spreading limbs. Branches quite stout. Growth vigorous and sturdy. Biennial cropping . Fruit Turbinate, small, pale green or greenish-yellow with a bright red flush and russet. Vi ntage Medium acid , low tannin perry; bland, aromatic, dark colour, average quality. Brown Bess (Syn. Brown Bessie) Tree Medium to large, with several upright limbs . Growth moderately vigorous , fairly sturdy. Poor pollen. Fruit Turbinate, small to medium sized, green or yellowish-green. Can be easily shaken from the tree before it is fully ripe. Originally used as a culinary pear . Vintage Medium acid, low tannin perry; average to good quality.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 31

Butt (Syn. Norton Butt) Tree Medium to large tree with spreading , drooping limbs. Growth moderately vigorous floppy. Often biennial. Fruit Turbinate, small. yellow or greenish-yellow, with some russet; flesh tinged yellow. Lie on the ground for a long time without rotting . Vintage Medium to high acid, medium to high tannin perry; astringent, fruity, average to good qual~ty. The juice is ve ry slow fermenting and tannin is frequently precipitated during storage. Chaceley Green (Syn. Hartpury Green, Chaseley Green) Tree Medium sized tree with a few very large spreading limbs; small branches with a thic growth of twigs. Fruit Round , very small, pale green or greenish-yellow with some russet. Vintage Low acid, low tann in perry ; rather poor quality.

Flakey Bark Tree Medium to large with straggling limbs (patchy off-white in colour). Slightly biennia cropping. Fruit Turbinate or pyriform. small to medium sized, pale green or yellowish-green with russet. Vintage Medium acid , high tannin perry ; very astringent, average quality.

Gin Tree Medium sized with slightly spreading limbs. Branches with heavy conspicuous spu systems. Growth moderately vigorous. sturdy. Cropping often biennial. Fruit Turbinate , small, green with an orange flush and a little russet. Vintage Medium acid, medium tannin perry; average to good quality.

Green Horse (Syn. White Horse , Horse Pear) Tree Large , of characteristic stiff appearance. Numerous large , heavy. upright limbs terminate in small s tiff branches. Growth vigorous, sturdy. Regular cropping. Fruit Oblate, green or yellowish-green with russet. Vintage High acid, low tannin perry; good quality.

Gregg's Pit Tree Large, very vigorous . Usually has a small number of large, long upright limbs carrying small lateral branches. Fruit Turbinate , small to medium sized', pale green with russet and sometimes a slight flush Cracks in some years. Vintage Medium acid, low to medium tannin perry ; astringent, fruity , good quality.

Hellen's early (Syn. Sweet Huffcap) Tree Very vigorous, large. Usually has a few very tall limbs with numerous long . often pendulous branches. Growth vigorous, sturdy. Poor polien. Fruit Tu rb inate, small, greenish-yellow with a flush and russet. Vintage Medium acid, low to medium tannin perry; average quality.

Hendre Huffcap (Syn. Lumberskuli , Yellow Huffcap) Tree Large with a few long upright limbs; smaller branches drooping. well-spurred, susceptible to breakage from heavy crops. Growth vigorous, slightly floppy. Regular cropping . Fruit Elliptical, small, greenish-yellow with a slight orange flush and some russet. Readily shaken from the tree. Vintage Low to medium acid , low tannin perry; pleasant, light, good quality.

Judge AmphleU Tree Medium sized , limbs with numerous branches of dense twiggy growth. Growth moderately vigoro us , sturdy. Regular cropping. Fruit Pyriform . small. yellow or greenish-yellow with russet. Vinta ge Medium acid. low tannin perry ; pleasant, light. average quality.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

IOri9

Moorcroft (Syn. Malvern Pear, Malvern Hills , Stinking Bishop) Tree Large with a few long rather upright limbs which break easily. Growth moderately VlQOrous, slightly floppy and brittle. Fruit Turbinate, sma ll to medium sized, yellow or yellowish green with russet. Ripen over a period and are difficult to shake off. Vintage Medium acid, medium tannin perry; astringent, quality good to excellent.

Newbridge (Syn. White Moorcroft) Tree Very large, with several very upright limbs. Smaller branches are sparse and brittle. GrOwth vig orous , floppy. Flowers ornamental; poor pollen . Fruit Turbinate, small , greenish yellow or yellow with russet. Vintage Low acid, low tannin perry; average quality. Oldfield (Syn. Oilville , OleviJJe, Offield, Awrel, Hawfield) Tree Sma ll to medium sized. Growth moderately vigorous, slightly floppy . FrUit Round, very small, green or yellow with russet. Vintage Medium to high acid , medium tannin perry ; average to good quality. Parsonage Tree Large , spreading, with numerous large limbs and pendulous branches. Die-back from canker is often severe, but extension growth is very strong . Growth vigorous , floppy. Buds burst exceptionally early, often in early March . Large flowers, poor pollen. An irregular cropper. Fruit Turbinate or pyriform , small. pale green with russet. Vintage Medium acid, low tannin perry. Red Longdon (Syn. Red Long ley, Red Longn ey , Brockle, Brockhill, Cider Pear) Tree Medium sized, upright, with long limbs and branches tapering into twiggy growth. Often much die-back from canker resulting in a thin head . Growth moderately vigorous, fairly sturdy. Regular cropping. Fruit Turbinate or pyriform, small to medium sized, green or greenish-yellow with a strong reddish flush and russet. Vintage Medium acid, low tannin perry; pleasant, light. fruity, good quality. Red Pear (Syn. Sack, Black Horse, Red Horse, Aylton red, Blunt Red) Tree Medium sized. Thi ck spur systems. Growth weak, floppy. Biennial cropping. Fruit Turbinate, small, yellow or greenish yellow with a heavy red flush and russet. Vintage Low acid , low tannin perry; ave ra ge quality. Taynton Squash Tree Medium to large , with limbs spread from cropping. Branches of thin twiggy wood, often pendulous. Growth moderately vigorous, fairly sturdy. Usually biennial cropp ing . Fruit Oblate or turbinate , very small to small, greenish yellow with rus set and sometimes a slight flush. Vintage Medium acid, medium tannin perry; average quality. Thorn Tree Sma ll , of stiff upright compact habit with stout lim bs and branches bearing conspicuous spu r systems. Growth moderately vigorous, stu rd y. Fruit Pyriform, small, yellow with russet and occasionally an orange flush . Vintage Medium acid , low tannin perry; average to good quality. Turner's Barn (Syn. Longstalk, Barn) Tree Small to medium sized, with numerous upright limbs. Branches are stout , twiggy, wide sprea ding giving a dense rounded head. Leaves usually fall before the fruit. Fruit Oblate, very small, green or greenish-yellow with an orange-red flu sh. Vinta ge Medium acid, low tannin perry; pleasant, average quality.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 33

Winnal's Longdon (Syn. Longdon. Longlands) Tree Medium to large with a sturdy upright limb system, abundantly furnished with sma branches . Growth vigorous, sturdy. Fruit Pyriform, small to medium sized, greenish yellow or yellow with a heavy red flush an russet. Vintage Medium to high acid, low tannin perry; good quality.

*

a

?G

=z

Yell 9w Huffcap (Syn. Chandos Huffcap, Black Huffcap, Brown Huffcap, Green Huffcap, King Arms, Yellow Longdon, Yellow LongJands ) Tree large , with large spreading limbs and numerous small twiggy branches carrying sma spurs. Growth moderately vigorous, floppy. Often biennial cropping. Fruit Elliptical, small, green , yellow or yellowish black , with russet. Must be shaken off befor it is ripe or it may rot on the tree. Vintage Medium to high acid, low tannin perry; fruity, full flavoured , good to excellent quality.

Key to cultivar table

Flowering: The flowering period has been divided into four, Early (E), Mid (M), Late (L) an Very late (VL). A 'i ' denotes which group the cultivar belongs within. Cross pollination w occur with varieties in the same or an adjacent group (provided neither variety is a triploid see below). Triploid ('trip'): Varieties marked 'tr' in this column have infertile pollen and are probab triploids. Such varieties should be discounted as pollinators.

Branch crotch angle ('crotch'): Most va rieties have either wide crotch angles ('W') or narro crotch angles ('N'). This may influence variety choice, especially where there is any degree o exposure: wide crotch angles are less liable to breakage in strong winds. Tree spread ('spread'): Indicates the approximate spread of a mature tree: Small - 4.5-7.5 m (15-25 It) Medium; 7.5-11 m (25-35 tt) (35-55 tt)

Large; 11-17 m

Bush precocity ('bush prec'): Indicates the precocity (ie quickness of bearing) of trees o seedling rootstocks trained as bushes. 'good' 3-5 years, 'fair' 6-8 years, 'poor' 1 years+.

=

=

Harvest time: Indicates average harvest time of fruit between September and November. Eac month is divided into 4 quarters, with . ~ ' denoting harvest in that quarter.

Milling time (milling): Indicates the time (i n days or weeks) within which fruit must be milled otherwise it will start to rot. This time varies widely, from immediate milling required (' Imm ') t 10 weeks or more.

Cropping: Indicates the average heaviness of cropping. Some varieties are biennial - se variety descriptions for details.

Scab: Indicates resistance or susceptibility to pear scab. Most varieties are generally resistan unless shown otherwise. VR = very resistant , R = resistant , SS = slightly susceptible, S susceptible, VS = very susceptible.

Canker: Indicates resistance or susceptibility to pear canker. Most varieties are generall resistant un le ss shown otherwise. VR = very resistant , R = resistant, SS = slightl susceptible, S = susceptible, VS = very susceptible.

Fireblight ('fbt'): Indicates resistance or susceptibility to fire blight. There is very little information on perry pear susceptibility, but in general the later the flowering , the morE susceptible the variety is likely to be (infection is usually via flowers in hot weather).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No

iiJ

Perry pear table

• " " •
~ ~

Ir N large N large N small W large

!


!!

II

"

small

! !

N

large

Ir W large W small Ir W large N ediu large poor ..
~~

!
§

"
!

W small N N small N small N N large large .. . . ... . 1 wk 3 wks heavy R

Thorn Turner's Barn Winnal's Longdon Yellow Huffcap

;


;

• "

v.hea vy R

poor . .. . !a§ . - • .
poor··· · 2§~ ·

1 wk 1 wk

heavy i R
v.heavy R

Suppliers
Deacon's Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight. P038 3HW. Tel: 01983-840750. Mount Pleasant Trees, Rockhampton. Berkeley, Gloucs, GL13 9DU. Tel: 01454-260348 . Scotts Nurseries (Merriott) ltd, Merriott, Somerset, TA16 5PL. Tel: 01469-72306. Thornhayes Nursery, St Andrews Wood, Dulford, Cullompton, Devon, EX15 20F. Tel: 01884-

246746 .

References
Luckwill, L C & Pollard. A: Perry Pears. University of Bristol, 1963. MAFF Leaflet 571: Fireblight of Apple and Pear. 1984.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 35

Asian pears
Introd uction
Asian pears, also known as Nashi (the Japanese for pear) , Oriental pears , Chinese pears and Japanese pears, are derived from the Asiatic species Pyrus pyrifo/ia and P.ussuriensis. Japa;,ese cultivars are selections of P.pyrifolia , while Chinese cultivars are hybrids between these two species. They make quite decorative trees, with attractive white blossom, glossy green foliage and striking red autumn co louring; they can be very long lived (2·300 years). P.pyrifolia is indigenous to Central and Western China.

P. ussuriensis is native to North·eastern China and Eastern Siberia. and is particularly hardy, but bears small and unpa latable fruits . This species is resistant to fireb light, and many of the hybrid Chinese cultivars show moderate resistance.
Until the last couple of decades, Asian pears were generally restricted to Japan and China, where they have been cultivated and grown commercially since ancient times ; over 3000 cultivars are grown in China at present. They were introduced into the American west during the gold rush by Chinese miners who brought seeds with them . More recently, production is spreading world-wide, notably in Australasia, Western North America, Central America and Southern Europe. Fruits of Asian pears are rather different to European pears. They are smooth and the shape is normally round (typical apple shape). The flavour is more delicate , and the texture crisper and juicier, but less melting than European pears. Some of the older cultivars have rather gritty flesh , though newer cultivars are grit-free. The fruits are widely used in salads in China and Japan. Another distinctive feature of Asian pears is that the fruits mature on the tree and do not require ripening after harvest like European pears.

Tree requirements
Asia n pears require less winter chilling . than European pears , hence the current interest in their cultivation in warm temperate and subtropical regions in the world. They require a warm, but not a long, summer to properly ripen their fruit. In Britain, achieving good fruit ripening can be difficult; in poor summers the fruits may remain small (5-6 cm, 2~) and bland in taste. However, the climate in New Zealand is proving excellent, and with climate wa rmin g Britain shou ld prove good within a short time.

Cultivation
Cultivation is generally similar to that of European pears . Seedling rootstocks are usually used, including Asian pear seedlings, P.betuUfolia, P.cafferyana and (favoured in Japan) P.pyrifofia (See ' Pear Rootstocks ' in Agroforestry News , Vol 4 No 3 for characteristics of these rootstocks). Growth on these rootstocks ca n be vigorous, but trees tend to com mence fruiting at quite an early age. Asian pears are generally incompatible with Quince rootstocks , unless an interstock (usua lly of Beurre Hardy) is used. Other dwarfing stocks often used in N.America are OHxF 97 and OHxF 333. Where these is used, trees are much smaller, typically 50-60% of the height and spread with seedling stocks, and very productive ; there is good potential for high density plantings using this combination. Horizontal trellis systems (ie overhead pergola systems) are widely used in Japan (designed to support the crop during summer typhoon winds) and give excellent results , but require much more labour in their upkeep and more capital to plant up. Planting in these systems is at 7.5-9 m (24-30 ft).

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

.

/

A 'Shinko' fruit

Orchard spacing, using the vigorous rootstocks above, should probably be at 5··8 m (16-26 tt) apart. Trees grown as central leaders (ie vertical axis trees) commonly reach a height and spread of 4 m (13 tt) in 5 years and can then be maintained at this size with regular pruning. This is the recommended method of cultivation, as it utilises the natural form of the tree to a large extent.[see 'Pears' in Agroforestry News, Vol 4 No 4 for details of pruning]. Asian pears require similar nutrients to European pears. [see 'Pears' in Agroforestry News, Vol 4 No 4 for details]. See the same article for details of pests and diseases, which are the same as for European pears. Flowering occurs at the same time as with European pears (which are suitable as pollinators). Asian pears are only partially self-fertile. and a mixture of cultivars is advisable to achieve adequate production . Without good pollination, few seeds develop and fruits are small and misshapen. As with other pears, wet and cold weather at flowering time can adversely affect pollination. Relative flowering dates, where known, are shown in the table below. The five main cultivars are mostly all cross compatible, apart from the exceptions listed in the cult ivar descriptions. It is best to allow the standard of one polleniser to nine of the main cultivar, for example by planting a polleniser every third position in every third row. In trellis systems and hedgerows, pollinisers should be planted in each row, as bees tend to fly up and down the rows rather than across them. Fruit is borne mostly on two-year and older wood, with some on one-year laterals. A heavy fruit set may require thinning to encourage fruit size, reducing fruits to one per cluster in May, about a month after flowering, with a further thinning if necessary a month later. The ripening fruits turn mostly from brown-russet to golden-russet, but some Chinese cultivars turn from green to a paler greenish-yellow. Ripening of the earliest cultivars commences in late midsummer, continuing through to early autumn for the latest. Fruits ripen on the tree and can be eaten immediately on picking. If possible, fruits should not be picked immediately after heavy rain (when soluble solids and sweetness decrease) but 2-5 days later. Immature fruit , once harvested, will not ripen properly and tend to have poor flavour and texture . Fruit yields of the heavy cropping varieties reach 40-50 tons/Ha, similar to or slightly greater than yields from Eurooean cultivars: laroe trees can each vield and averaae of 180 Ka (400 Ib) oer vear.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 37

=

Fruits are very delicate and mark easily, showing fri ction marks and bruising damage. The will keep for about 2 weeks at normal room temperature, but later·maturing cultivars can b stored for up to 5 months at -1 to DoC (30· 32 ° F).

Cultivars

There are numerous cultivars in Japan and China, a number of which (mainly Japanese) hav made their way into cultivation in other parts of the world. The most widely plante cOr(1mercial varieties are now Hosui, Kosui, Nijisseiki, Shinseiki and ShinsuL Most of th Chinese cultivars have 'U' at the end of the name (eg. Tsu U , Ya U).

Chojura Tree: vigoro us, spreading, with a somewhat drooping habit; a precocious, reliab le cropper. Fruit: moderately large, flattish , russet·brown , thick skin; flesh very sweet, juicy, gritty aromatic flavour· sometimes strong. Skin is slightly astringent.

Hosui Tree: very vigorous , weeping, densely branched, lateral fruiting. Fruit: large, round (often uneven), sweet, russetted . less susceptible to skin damage than many cultivars, golden brown at maturity; flesh tender, very juicy, sweet, refreshing Susceptible to watery core if over·mature.

Kikusui Tree: vigorous, spreading and slightly drooping; early bearing. Fruit: medium to large, greenish·yellow, smooth and tender skinned ; flesh sweet, juicy, crisp acid, good quality. Skin slightly bitter.

Kosui Tree: vigorous, pyramidal shape. The second highest rated Japanese commercial cultivar. No pollen compatible with Shinsui. Fruit: medium sized, flattish, ye ll owish-green with golden·brown russet, very tender skinned flesh tender, very juicy and sweet. Needs several pickings. Kumoi Tree: pOllen-steri le. Fruit: medium sized, russet·brown , thick

~k inned ;

fair flavour, poor quality.

Niitaka Tree: very upright. Probably a triploid - poor pollen. Fru it: large, greenish with brown russet; flesh mild, sweet. crisp, juicy, average flavour.

Nijisseiki (Syn. 'Twentieth Century', '20th Century') Tree: very vigorous; fruit borne on spurs. The mos t popular commercial cultivar grown in Japan. Fruit: round, regular , small to medium sized, turning yellow at maturity; flesh crisp, coarse free of grit. very juicy, very mild flavour. Shinko Tree: precocious and regular bearer. Susceptible to codling moth. Fruit: medium sized, golden russet-brown . thick skinned; flesh crisp, sweet, rich - good flavou and texture .

Shinseiki ('New Century') Tree: moderately vigoro us and spreading, ve ry precocious. Fruit: medium sized, greenish-yellow, smooth. very tender skinned; flesh coarse, juicy, mile flavoured· average quality. Hangs well on the tree.

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No

Shinsui Tree: Vigorous, upright, open and sparsely branched. Should not be pruned heavily as there ir"8few fruit-bearing shoots. Not pollen compatible with Kosui. Fruit: small to medium sized, russet-brown, flattish-round ; flesh crisp , slightly gritty, very juic y, very good sweet-acid flavour. Borne on lateral shoots. Tsu li Tree: large, vigorous. FriJit medium to large, pyriform, light greenish-yellow, thick glossy skin ; flesh tinged yellow , sweet-acid , crisp , mild flavour. Va Li Tree : large, upright, very vigorous, dense. Good autumn leaf colouring. Fruit: pyriform, large, smooth, light greenish-yellow: flesh crisp, moderately sweet, aromatic.

Suppliers
Only 5 cuftivars are currently available in the UK and Ireland - Chojura , Kumoi , Nijisseiki , Shinseiki and Shinsui. These are available from the nurseries below. North America is rather better served, with many nurseries supp lying about 50 cultivars in total (see Whealy for suppliers). Chris Bowers & Sons, Whispering Trees Nurseries, Wimbotsham , Norfolk, PE34 80B . Tel :

01366-388752.
Deacon's Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight, P038 3HW. Tel : 01983 -840750 . Keepers Nursery, 446 Wateringbury Rd, East Mailing, Kent. ME19 6JJ. Tel: 01622-813008. Orchardstown Nurseries, 4 miles out. Cork ro ad, Waterford , IRELAND.

Key to Asian pear information table
Diseases: the first 5 columns list known disease resistance or susceptibility. Codes used in these columns are: R = resistant fblt = fireblight rust = pear rust SR = slightly resistant S = susceptible MS = moderately susceptible

The diseases and pests represented in these co lumn s are (see above for more detail s ): scab

= pear scab

bios

= blossom

blight

mild

= mildew

Ripening : the average times of ripening in Britain are noted . Each month from July to October has been divided into 3 (early, mid, late). and ripening in any of these is marked with ', '. Cropping: the 'crops ' column indicates the average cropping record for the cultivar. Storage: the 'store' co lumn indicates how well the fruits store in co ld storage. Thinning requirement: the 'req thin' column notes whether fruit thinning is necessary ('yes') , preferable ('pref') or unnecessary ('no') to achieve reasonable sized fruits . Flowering: the last set of columns (A-G) indicate the spread of flowering from first flowering to last flowering; these correspond exactly with the dates listed for European pear cultivars in Agro forestry News Vol 4 No 4. The spread of flowering is marked with 'I '. When choosing cultivars with compatible flowering times (whether Asian or European pears) , try to choose them with a good overlap of flowering . Each of these columns represents about 5 days, and they co rrespond with the relative date of flowering (as above) as follows (with the average date in S.England represented in brackets):

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Page 39

A
B

=day 1-6 (April 8-13) =day 7-12 (April 14-19)

0
E

=day 18-22 (April 25-29) =day 23-27 (April 30 -May 4)

G = day 33-37 (May 10-14)

C = day 13-17 (Apri l 20-24) F = day 28-32 (May 5-9)
.. --------. diseases ---.---.flowering .--. . ripening --.--

fblt
Chojura Hosui Kikusui Kosui Kumoi Niitaka Nijisseiki Shinko Shinseiki Shinsui

Iseal'bios mlldl rusl July Aug 5e~~
5 R 5 5 5 5 5

M5 5

I. .. _.1 . ~ .. ~ ,v , ,heavy I mod I' .. ••• . . . heavy good
~~L '
. ,

o r

req crops store
thin

~
M5 5

S

S
5

S

~
5

S ),
1

... .

lI'fllI
· . .

· I · H~ '
§~ .

Icb! IFb

v.heavy

== -

good

I. , : _
5 5 5

good ... !, UH. heav y
~iOI"

J: Im
..

I mod

poor pref

. . §II .

· ...
Iv.90od

~I

R S
M5 :

I" .. . . ~:na ~ .
S
5R M MR

S
S5 5

S
S !

Tsu Li Ya Li

1":[ .~!~~~ heaVy

~ ~: ~=

heavy heavy

I
I

good
good mod mod

yes

· . ~!i5 · . t:3;.

.. u ·
. ;~

l . gliogohd

...

good

I good

· n .. ·
if'" · ...

References
Moore, J N & Ballington, J R: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops, V2. ISHS. 1990. Reich, L: Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley, 1991. RHS: RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit . Berry and Nut In vento ry. Seed Saver Publications, 1993. White, Arran G: Nashi: Asian Pear in New Zealand. DSIR Publishing, 1990.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 1

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture/ horticulture td produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. lt can range from planting trees ir pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garde~ systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and grounq layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust foUl times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions.

A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3 .50 per copy induding postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: AgroforestlY Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington; Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK.

Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets,; Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

Volume 5 Number 2

January 1997

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 5 Number 2

January 1997

Contents
2 7 15 23 31 40 Ash: Fraxinus excelsior Black walnut (3): Cultivation for nuts Forest gardening: root & bulb crops The kaki persimmon: Diospyros kaki Cherries (1): Description of species Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust . Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops . Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Ed itorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust , 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 1

Ash: Fraxinus excelsior
Introduction
The ash (Common ash, European ash) is one of our best-known native trees , but its native range i ~ extensive, covering most of Europe and Northe rn Asia and growing up to 450 m altitudet in Britain. It was regarded w ith superstitious reverence by most of the early European races and features highly in Scandinavian and Celtic myths .

Description
The ash is a large deciduous tree growing up to 30-40 m (100-1 35 ft) high and 20 m (70 ft) in spread with a rounded crown in later years.

Winter shoots are very distinctive , with hard black buds in opposite pairs on smooth greyish-green twigs, and three buds at the tips . The bark is smooth and grey-green for 30 years, then darkening and developing into a network of sha ll ow fissures. Leaves open in late Mayor even early June, and fall in October. The leaves are compound, 20-35 cm (a_14M) long, with 7-13 (usually about 9) oval leaflets each 5-12 cm (2-5") long and 25 mm (1") wide, dark green above and lighter beneath , with toothed edges and pointed tips. The canopy is relative ly thin and this, together with the short season in leaf allows many understorey plants to thrive. The fallen leaves are high in phosphorus. The flo wers, borne on one year-old wood, open in April and May, before the leaves, appearing like green tassels, and are wind po llinated. Individual trees can be male, female, or carry both sexes of flowers ; in addition, trees can change sex from year to year. Individual trees are not normally self-fertile, though. Trees may take 15-20 years from seed until they flower, and double that until heavy seed crops are borne. Seed production declines after about 80 years. The seeds are borne within dense c lu ster's of winged keys (botanically called samaras; 'keys ' comes from their resemblance to keys used in medieval locks) and ripen from Septembe r onwards, dropping slowly over the winter. Keys are 25-50 mm (1_2M) long and 6-8 mm (X,H) wide, ripening from green to dull brown and each key holds one ova l seed at its base. There are often several years (3 - 5) between heavy seed crops. The ash is very hardy - to zo ne 3 (-30°C). Trees can live for 200-300 years. Numerous ornamental cultivars have been selected, for an unusual form (eg . 'Spectabilis' - pyramidal, 'Nana ' - shrubby) or unusual foliage.

Uses
There are severa l edible uses for parts of the ash tree: The young keys (im mature seeds plus wings, still green) are pickled and used as a condiment. An old English and Siberian tradition. They are quite peppery, somewhat aromatic, but also bitter. The bitterness may be 'Fraxin' (see below) and implies that usage should be moderate. While there are no records of ripe seeds (removed from wings) being eaten, these are similarly peppery and bitter, and might be usable as a pepper substitute (I have had no ill-effects from testing them!)

Page 2

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

.

~

' .

.... -........

The young leaves have been used as a tea adulterant. An edible manna (gum from bark exudati ons) might occa sionally be produced in warm climate s - ne ver in Britain. This report may have confused the common ash with the Manna ash (Fraxinu s omus). According to Chiej, an edible oil similar to sunflower oil is obtained from the seed. Medicinal uses include: Young leaves, gathered in June and dried, are cathartic , diaphoretic, diuretic, laxati ve and purgative. Used as an infusion. Sometimes used for arthritis, cystitis , rheumatism and constipation . Mild and reliable purgati ve with no side-effects. • The bark, peeled off in spring and dried, is antiperiodic, astringent and a bitter tonic. Used as a decoction , internally for fevers and sometimes externally in compresses applied to cuts and sores . Bark from both the trunk and roots can be used, and contains the bitter glucoside 'Fraxin'. • The young keys (seeds and wings) are carminative . The leaves and bark are used in s ome proprietary medicines for intra ctable constipation and in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. • A green dye is obtained by using the leaves. • The bark is a source of tannins . The content is only about 4%, but it has been used for tanning nets.

The tree is very wind-tolerant and can be used in shelterbelts , although it is in leaf for quite a short season. Although wind-pollinated , ash is still a bee plant, used as a source of pollen in April-May. • Wildlife value - numerous insect species are associated with the tree . Bullfinches feed heavily on the ripe seeds , in preference to bud s of fruit trees. • In Britain , ash is one of the most promising species to use in silvopastoral agroforestry systems (ie pasture plus widely-spaced trees). The relatively light canopy, allowing a large proportion of light through , and the short season when the tree is in leaf, means that grasses can continue to grow well beneath he trees for many years . The wood was formerly valued as a fuel for drying fish , particularly herring s . • The sap is reported to be insecticidal against weevils (Phyllobius ob/ongus). The leaves have been recommended in many parts of Europe as an excellent cattle fodder , sometimes used in times of grass shortage; there are contradictory reports of it being poisonous to ruminants (Cooper), and it affecting the flavour of the milk from lactating cows. Ash is a valuable timber tree , grown commercially in much of Europe and the former USSR. The he artwood is cream to pale tan , the sapwood lighter but equally useful. In some logs, a dark brown-black heartwood is found which is strong and sound and sold as 'olive ash'. The wood is tough , highly pliable , not brittle, extremely supple and hard , very strong , long-fibred and straight-grained . The large vessels at the start of each annual ring appear as large pores on cross-cut surfaces and long streaks on surfaces cut lengthwise. The timber dries quite quickly with care, to a density of 510-830 Kg/m J (710 kg/m J at 15% moisture). The tough, heavy , dense timber is fairly resistant to splitting and has good steam bending properties , and with medium resistance to crushing and shock loads; it is not durable. It works well with a moderate blunting effect on tools , stains easily, and can be brought to an excellent smooth finish.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 3

E
It coppices well and makes a good fuelwood tree on this basis ; it burns , green or dry, with little smoke and leaves ashes which are very high in potash (it is still more efficient to burn it after drying). It was widely grown as a 5-6 year coppice crop in Staffordshire for the manufacture of crates for packing earthenware.

Young shoots are frequently used for basketry, especially for the handles of carrying baskets. The wood is used for fuel, heavy-duty handles (axes , hammers , spades) , construction, furniture (notably chairs) and cabinetmaking, aircraft, shipbuilding, veneers, plywood, agricultural implements, ladders, hop poles, oars and tillers , horse-drawn carriages, caravan frames, walking sticks and sports goods including hockey sticks , bats , racquets, gymnasium equipment, cricket stumps, snooker cues ; and formerly for wheels , cart shafts , wagons , skis , crates, lances , spears , javelins and bows.

Silviculture
Siting & planting
Ash is tolerant of most moist soils including acid and alkaline soils apart from shallow soils over chalk. It prefers a deep loamy soil which is not too drought-prone. It is very tolerant of seasonal waterlogging. Full light is essential for all but very young trees, as ash becomes very intolerant of shade after about 7 years and will often die without enough light. Ash is quite tolerant of air pollution , and very tolerant of exposure , including maritime exposure. It is very resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp .) The young foliage is very susceptible to frost damage, although leafing out is so late that damage is usually avoided; however, very frost susceptible sites should be avoided. Current recommendations for planting ash are to plant at a spacing of 2 m (6 ttl. ie 2500 trees/Ha to ensure quality timber trees. Ash is one of the few species which shows very good growth increases when treeshelters are used . Ash trees grown at densities like this rarely need formative pruning.

Growth & thinning
Growth is fast. about 50 cm -1 m (1Y1 - 3 tt) per year for the first 10 years ; fast growth continues for a further 40 years or so. After about 100 years , upward growth ceases but spreading growth continues. Ash is renown as a heavy feeder with a dense root system . On shallow soils in particular this can greatly affect the growth of other nearby and understorey plants; on deep soils this isn't so marked. The ash is more often grown in mixtures than in pure plantations; it grows well with cherry (Prunus avium), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), oak (Quercus spp) and beech (Fagus sy/vatica). In Denmark, ash are grown in beech stands and are felled after 70 years , leaving the beech to grow on for a further 30-40 years . Mean yield classes in Britain range from 4 to 7 m J/Ha/year with a maximum of about 10-12 m J/Ha/year on rich soil where growth is vigorous. Rotations of about 65-75 years are presently most valuable. AU thinnings should be heavy, with the aim of keeping the crowns entirely free; the trees should be at their final spacing by the age of 30-35, when there should remain 120-150 stems/Ha at an average spacing of 8.2-

f

9.2 m). Thinnings should be frequent with the aim of to perpetuate a live crown diameter at least onethird the height of the tree. High quality veneer/sports grade ash is normally 30-45 em in diameter.

There are few pests or diseases of savastanol) may badly damage trees jf immune from grey squirrel damage, but decay fungi associated with older trees is

significance. A bacterial canker (Pseudomonas they are grown on unsuitable sites . Ash is almost is readily browsed by rabbits and deer. One of the the beef steak fungus (Fistulina hepatica).

Ash coppices very well and can be treated thus on rotations of 5-25 years for several hundred years. Coppice shoots may grow 1.5-2 m (5-6 ft) in their first and second years (but note that after coppicing, sprouting on some ash stools is delayed until the second spring).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2 .

Page 5

Propagation
Ash is nearly always propagated by seed, There are between 8600 and 16000 seeds/Kg, with the average count 12900/Kg (3900-7300 seeds/lb , average 5900Ilb). The average germination rate is about 60%, hence the average number of seeds which will germinate is laDO/Kg (3550/Ib). The ripe seeds require periods of warm and cold stratification before they will germinate; 2-3 months of warm followed by 2-3 months of cold is necessary. Outdoor stratification started too late in the autumn may miss the warm period, and then most seeds wil l wait a further year before germinating. If possible seeds should be colJected when just ripe but still green (eg. in early September) and sown or stratified immediately. 2 Recommendations to achieve the standard 190 seedlings/m in a seed bed (ie at 7.5 cm, 3~ 2 spacing) are to sow at the rate of 77g/m2 (ie 1 Kg of seed per 13 m ). This assumes the average yield of seedlings to be 2500 per Kg of seed. Seedlings put up two pale green oval seed leaves, then two simple undivided pointed oval leaves, then two compound leaves with 3 leaflets; and only then the typical compound leaves. One year seedlings grow to 10-25 cm (4-10~) high. Ornamental cultivars are usually propagated by chip budding in summer.

Agroforestry uses
Forest gardens: ash is probably not valuable enough to intentionally plant in a forest garden, but if present in the garden or on the boundary , then management can be adapted to take account of it. The leaves rot quickly after falling and are high in phosphorus, so will substantially aid nutrient cycling in the system. The relatively light canopy will allow substantial underplanting. One drawback will be that ash self-seeds freely , and this could become a problem in heavy seed crop years; a regular spring/summer routine of rogueing out ash seedlings will need to be adopted. Silvopastoral systems: several experiments are taking place in the UK using ash at various spacings within pasture which is grazed by sheep. Controls of no trees in pasture, and trees at forestry spacing (2 x 2 m) are being grown along with trials of trees at 5 x 5 m (400/Ha) and 10 x 10 m (100/Ha) in pasture. All pasture trials were given similar nitrogen applications. The trials were planted in 1987-8 , and ongoing results in 1995 showed that the growth of sheep (ie Kg produced) had not decreased in the pasture with trees compared with the plain pasture, no had the carrying capacity changed Points of note were that trees had to be well protected, as they and their posts were often used as rubbing posts; sheep often used to lie at the bases of the trees , hence compaction was increased there and grass production reduced ; and that the widely-spaced trees need much more formative ' pruning to achieve a single straight bole than closely planted trees.

Selected references
Aldhous, J & Mason , W: Forest Nursery Practice. Forestry Commission Bulletin 111, HMSO, 1994. Chiej, R: The Macdonald Encylopedia of Medicinal Plants . Macdonald, 1984 Cooper, M & Johnson , A: Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSQ,1984. Grainge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. John Wiley, 1988. Grieve, M: A Modern Herbal. Penguin, 1980. Johnson, C P: The Useful Plants of Great Britain. William Kent, 1862. Kerr, G & Evans, J: Growing Broadleaves for Timber. Forestry Commission Handbook 9, HMSQ, 1993. Launert, E: The Hamlyn Guide to Edible & Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn , 1981. Lincoln , W: World Woods in Colour. Stobart, 1986 .

i

Black walnut (3) Cultivation for nuts
I ntrod uction
Growing black walnuts for nuts requires different conditions than growing for timber: the aim is to create a spreading tree wit h a round ed crown, maximising the crown (and thus the frui ting) area , whereas growing bla ck walnut timber requires close·spaced trees to force them into straight growth. A compromise is feasible to achieve both , and severa l black walnut agrofo restry syste ms are based on wider spacing with pruning to achieve strai ghte r stems (see Agroforestry News, Vol 5 No 1 for more details). Seedling trees require a growing seaso n of about 150 days and an average summer temperature of 16.5"C (62" F). Over its natural range , annual rainfall varies from 30-130 em (ave rage 90 em), and annual temperatures range from 7_ 19°C (average 11 °C). These conditions are all easily achievable in the UK, apart from the average summer temperature required: this latter is just about achieved in an average summer i n the South East, but in warm summers is achieved in more Western and Northern areas. If, in addition , cultivars are chose n which are more suited to our cooler summers, nut production shou ld be feasible in much of England and Wales.

Siting & planting
Sit ing req uirem ents for nut production are si mil ar to those fo r timber production: a shelte red su nny site which is not susceptible to late spring frosts. An ideal wou ld be mid-slope on a sh eltered South or south-west aspect. Soil requirements are fairly exacting: moderately fertile , deep , well drained , of medium texture and near neutral pH (6 to 7). Very sandy and clayey soils are unsuitable, though growth is good on chalk and limestone where there is at least 60 em (2 ft) depth of soil. Because they are deep rooting , trees are very drought resi stant once establis hed . Planting should be at a spacing of 8-15 m (26 -50 ft) apart. Although trees can grow into huge wide-spreading spec imens with crowns 15 m (50 ft) across , trees planted at closer spacings will not be at risk from crowing for many years (e g. 40 years at 8 m spacing) and pruning can always be carried out if necessary; wider spacings leave a lot of ground between trees , which ca n be used for other cro ps not susceptible to ju glone poisoning (not apples or white pin es) . Weed control is esse nti al for 2-4 yea rs, competition from grasses being the most co mmon ca use of young walnut deaths. Mulching is best with org anic materials or plastic. Weed co ntrol to a radius of 2.5 m (8 tt) is desi ra ble in the long term and can result in double the yield of nuts compa red with trees given no weed co ntrol.

Flowering & pollination
Black wa lnuts bea r male and female flowers on the same tree, but they usually mature at different times , with the female flo wers most often preceed ing the males by bout 5 day s. Because of this, self-pollination is unlikely and trees/cultivars shou ld be assumed not to be se lf-fertil e. Male fl owe rs deve lop from leaf axi ls towards the ends of the previous year's branches ; female flowe rs orig in ate from terminal buds on the cu rrent year's shoot and appear before the leaves are fully expanded in spring . Depending on the climate and selection , the flowers appear between mid -April and mid-June in North America, up to 2 weeks later in the UK. Although black wa lnuts wi ll cross-pollinate with Persian/ English wa lnut s, they tend to flower some 2-3 weeks later hence pollination is unlikely except with very early flowering black walnuts and late flo we ring Persian waln uts.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Flowering occurs over a period of about 10 days. The late flowering cultivars shou ld flower mid to late June in the UK. It is wise to choose two or more cultivars which will cross pollinate (see flowering in table for more information).

Ongoing maintenance
Pruning is generall y unnecessary, although a little formation pruning may be desirable to form a tree of particular shape. Like most fruiting trees, the main nutrient requirements are for nitrogen and potassium. Too much feeding, though, can make the tree susceptible to fungal diseases. If possible, mulch with manures or compost, and use nitrogen-fixing plants and potassium accumulators like comfrey nearby to top up levels of nutrients.

Harvesting
Black wa ln uts are often irregular bearers, fruiting bie nnially or in between annual and biennial cropping. Nuts from black walnuts have very hard, dark brown or black shells with irregular grooves and ridges; the kernels are stronger flavou red than Persian (English) walnuts. Young grafted trees usually start to bear with in 2-3 years of planting . Typical yields are about 8 Kg (18 Ib) of nuts (around 350 nuts) per year for 15 year old trees, rising to a maximum at 50-60 years, when yields can reach 100 Kg (220 Ib) or more; 20 year-old plantations can yie ld 2 tonnes/acre. Trees are long-lived and can continue to crop for 90 years or more. Before harvest, it is prudent to cut/graze the grass or ground cover beneath the trees, and to gather and burn prematurely fa llen nuts , as these are quite likely to be insect-infested . The nuts usually reach fu ll size in late August and ripen in late September or October; they drop, usually within the green fleshy husks, short ly before the leaves fall, usua lly in October. At this stage, they are also quite easi ly shaken from the tree. Ripeness is indicated by the softness of the husk. After harvest, the husks must be removed within a few days and the nuts washed, as the husks darken rapidly and can affect the kerne l colour and flavour. Handling the green husks can leave stains on hands and clothes which are very difficult to remove - wear gloves! The husks can be loosened by 'stomping' with fe;et, by using a cement mixer with a brick or two in, or by driving over nuts in a vehicle. During washing, the bad nuts can be separated out as they will float - all good nuts wi ll sink. If nuts are to be stored, they must then be dried - in dry climates this can be achieved by storing in a well-ventilated building in thin layers and turning regularly; in damper clim es like the UK, artificial heat in the form of blown warm air will be necessary: air heated to between 30-40°C (86- 104°F) is blown through thin layers of nuts until weight reduction within a small sample has stabilised. Storage of dried nuts is best with whole nuts, rather than kernels only. Low temperatures near zero are preferable , with low humidity; keep nuts separate from other foods as the kernels can take up odours from other strong-smelling foodstuffs. Dry nuts can be stored for up to a year, but eventually they wil l turn rancid . Before shelling or cracking nuts, they should be soaked in water overnight to moisten them and strengthen the kernels, otherwise the shells shatter badly and kernels may break in the cracking process. There are several specially-designed hand and mechanica l crackers in North America to cope with black walnuts, though a carefully controlled hammer can do the job! The ordinary type of nut cracker will not cope, though, and will probably itself break rather than the nut crack, so beware.

Diseases and pests
These are in the most part common with those found on Persian/ English walnuts (Jug/ans regia). Black wa lnuts are resistant to deep bark canker and rarely troubled by butternut canker or walnut blight. The most serious disease is walnut leaf blotch. Walnut leaf blotch/Anthracnose (Gnomonia /eplcstyla) : black walnuts are slightly more susceptible than most Persian walnuts to this disease, which is considered a serious threat to commercial growers in some seasons in North America. It is widespread in North America and Europe. T he fungus causes brown blotches on leaves; it can cause defoliation and infection of the developing fruit which then drops ; less severe infections can reduce kernel weights or darken the kernels. The disease appears in late May-early June, favoured by wet weather. The spo res of this disease overwinter on dead leaves. One control , if attacks are always bad, is to collect fallen leaves and compost at high temperatures or burn. In wet seasons when infection is bad, copper-based sprays such as Bordeaux mixtu re give effective control. Most cultivars are resista nt when young and several continue to be resistant when older; it may be wise to choose a resistant cu ltivar. There is some evidence that lack of nitrogen increases susceptib ili ty. The insect pests of significance in North America are wal nut husk flies (Rhagoletis spp), which feed on the green husk of nuts , producing a sta ining and off-flavouring of the kernel; Curc ulios (Conotrachelus retentus) which feed on young leaves and husks - control by co ll ecting and destroying prematurely fallen nuts; and fall webworms (Hyphantria cunea, moth larvae which feed on foliage). Cod ling moth damage of any significance has not been reported, but is presumab ly possib le as they can attack developing nuts of Persian walnuts. As to wildl ife pests, the fleshy and strong-smelling husks deter squirrels and other pests from eating the nuts; but once the nuts are de -husked (whether naturally or manually) , squirrels are extremely fond of the nuts and will take them to bury for the winter if allowed.

Cultivars
Over 100 named cu ltiva rs have bee n selected and are sti ll grown in North America. The best known are 'Thomas' (New York state); 'Cornell' & 'Snyder' (Northern areas); 'Wiard' (Michigan); 'C ochrane' & 'Huber' (Minnesota); 'Elmer Myers' , 'Sparrow & 'Stambaugh ' (Southern USA): 'O hio' in Centra l USA. Many have been selected fo r their cracking quality, including the so-called peanut types which are single-lobed sports which have only harf a nut which ca n be extracted who le (eg. 'Slaettner', 'Thorp ', 'Worthi ngton ' ). Cu ltivars differ in hardiness, response to climatic conditions, resistance to diseases and suscep tibility to insect damage. There is considerable variatio n in nut quality, flowering and leafing dates, precocity (age of bea ri ng) and growth rate . Most bear their fruits at the tips of branches, although some selections which fruit on lateral buds have been reported. 'Myers' and 'Victoria' are repo rted to be partly self-fertile . Because of the large shell , the actua l percentage of the nut which forms the kerne l is relatively low - 30% is good (36% is the most recorded, 27% the average). Although using grafted cultivars is the most reliable method of prod ucing nuts , seedlings from good cultiva rs tend to reproduce the qualities of the parent tree both in tree and nut characteristics. Hence seed ling trees are still of value and may be desirable on cost terms, for example. Shell thickness and structure are the most important factors affecting the kernel percentage and nut crackability; the highest quality nuts have a thin outer shell with no internal convolutions intruding into
the

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 33

kernel. Also the inner shell partition between the two nut halves should be very thin to allow easy remo val of the kernel pieces. The cultivars rated most highly on a range of attributes by American nut growers include 'Emma K', 'Hay' , 'Myers ', 'Ohio', 'Rowher', 'Sparrow' and the ' Sparks' selections. Selections recommended for the UK, which ripen their nuts with the least accumulated heat units (ie hours over 10°C) are 'Beck', ' Bowser', 'Davidson' , ' Emma K ', 'Hare ' , 'Krause' , 'Myers ', 'Ohio' , 'Pfister' and 'Sparks 127'. Cultivar synonyms Boser = ... Bowser Boellner = Stark Kwik-Krop Elmer Myers = Myers

Emma Kay = Emma K Kwik-Krop = Stark Kwik-Krop

Key to cultivar tables
Origin: Indicates whether the origin is from the North (N) , Central (C) or Southern (S) part of the range in North America; also given is the state of origin. Most cultivars are seed ling selections from these areas. Leafing: Indicates whether leafing out in spring is early , late etc. Not much information available, but late leafing usually means late flowering and this may be wise in the UK whe re late spring frosts can be a problem. Flwg: Indicates relative time of flowering. The total range varies by about a month from early May to early June, with flowering occuring over a 7-10 day period. If known , the flowering time for male (M) and female (F) flowers are given , ego ml ,fe = Male late, female early (thus self-pollination very unlikely); mm,fm = male and female both mid-flowering . Good pollination is likely between cultivars when the distinct M/F flowering periods are the same. Ripening: Indicates the season of ripening - early , mid , late etc. There isn 't a large span between early and late - about 5 weeks. Precocity: Indicates how quickly the cultivar starts to bear. Very good means 2-3 years, Good 3-5 years after planting. Tree characteristics: Lists any other relevant characteristics . Vig = vigorous , Mod = moderate, reg = regular cropper, hvy = heavy cropper , upr = upright, spr = spreading, lat brg = lateral bearing. Pests/Dis: Lists known resistances/susceptibilities. S (ant) = susceptible to anthracnose , r (ant) = resistant to anthracnose , vr (ant) = very resistant to anthracnose, s (hm) = susceptible to husk maggots. Nut size: Very large = 40-50 nuts/Kg, Large = 50-60 nuts/Kg, Medium = 60-70 nuts/kg , Small ; 70-80 nits/Kg. Shell: Indicates relative thickness and any other characteristics. Cracking: Indicates cracking quality or 'crackability'. Very good is best , meaning that on cracking, most of the kernels come out in halves or quarters . See above for further discussion. Kernel %: Indicates percentage kernel fill of nut. Very high = 32-38 %1, High = 27-32%, Moderate = 22-27% , Poor/Low = 18-22%. Kernel colour: Indicates relative
shad in~

of kerne l

(1i~ht .

dark etc).

--~~-

-

~

--

-~

--

---

---

---

---

-

----

---

Cultivar PestslDis Baker's Ohio 8aum #25 Beck Bicentennial Bowser Burns Burton Clermont Cornell Cranz Davidson Drake Edras EI-Tom Emma K Evans Farrington Fonthill Football II Grundy Hain Hare Harney Hay Homeland Krause Lamb Majestic Mintle Monterey Myers Ogden Ohio Patterson Peanut Pfister Pinecrest Putney Ridgeway Rowher Sauber Schreiber Snyder Sol Sparks t27 Sparks 129 Sparks 147 Sparrow Sta bler Stambaugh Stark KWik- Kr Ten Eyck

Origin

Leafing

Flwg Ripening Precocity

Tree characteristics

: S (Miss) S (Kentuck) N (Mich) early N (New Yk) . N (Ohio) rid-late N (Ontario) . . S (Kentuck I N (Ohio) v.late N (New Yk) . N (Penn) id-Iate N (Iowa) early

I

J
mm ,fm
mUm mid early good good good
Vlg,

annual bearer

I

I

I

biennial, mod bearer s (ant) vi'g ,str,reg,hvy crp ,lat brg r (ant) vigorous, hardy vigorous, hvy bearer r (hm) upright heavy regular bearer vigorous,upright lateral bearing,reg br lateral bearing, reg brg heavy bearer spreading, hvy beare vigorous, straight regular heavy bearer vig,upr,hvy brg,str lateral bearing some nuts sing le-Iobectl easily propagated

I

mm,fl me,fm

late early late early

good

r (ant) r (ant)

good N (Iowa)

I
r (ant)

I . S (Kentuck
C (MO)
N (Iowa)

N (Illinois) late ml.fm me,f[ mid ml ,fm ml,fm

good

I early

good

early N (Michign) N (Illinois) mid S (Kentuck) mid C (Virginia) early N (Iowa) N (Michign N (Iowa) N (Penn) N (Iowa) late S (Kentuck1ely-mid N (Ohio) ely-mid N (Iowa) I N (Ohio) mid (Nebrask mid N (Penn) N (New Yk) N (Illinois) mid N (Ohio) N (Indiana) N (New Yk) N (Indiana) late

r (ant)

me ,tm

early late

good ml ,fI mm,fm ml,fm mm,fe me,fl

I

late

I

I .

good good good

early ea rly early

v.vig, good pollinator r (ant) vigorous,upright rel iable bearer uts store well, hvy brr . easi ly propagated . r (ant) vig, str, mod bearer moderate bearer . mod biennial bearer [<ant),S(hm) vig, str, hardy . some nuts single lobeH r (ant) lateral beaing ,vig.str easily propagated vigorous, straight heavy bearer r (ant)

mUm heavy bearer vigorous, productive Vlg , hvy rehable bearer lateral beanng very good cropper good good good
~dy,

early ml,fm

I early
I
. early

r (ant) r (ant)

1

N (1IhnOls) C (Maryld ) N (1Ihno ls) P . N (New J)

I

mid-late mm,fm me,tl mid mm.fm me ,fe

I

I

I ,;te

I

hvy ann brg,lat brg vr (ant) i ome nuts single lobed vs(hm) s (ant) moderate bearer vlg,hardY,hvy cropper very good productive

I

I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 31

Origin Leafing flwg Ripening Precocity Tree characteristics Cultivar PestslDis Thomas I N (Penn) v. late ml ,fI I mid very good vig , str, mod bearer s(a nt),r(hm) Thomas Myers S (M iss) . early good regular heavy bearer r (ant) Thorp . mid mm,fI late most nuts single lobed hard husk r (hm) Todd N (Ohio) rid-late mm,fm Vande rsloot N (Penn). good h1 e avy annual bearer,upr r (ant) good r igorous, good beare~ vr (ant) Victoria ~ (Kentuck . late mid-late vig,hdY,nuts store well Weschke N (Wlscon) early Wiard N (Mlchlgn) poor t)usk thick;light croppe~r

I

I

I
I

I

I

I

Nuts of black walnut cultivars
(a) Shell prints (full size)
~toh

Ohi~
~

~

/'~-

I
L

.J

i

,
........

P

"

~

Pinecrest (b) Nuts (60% full size) EmmaK Ohio

Stambaugh Sparrow

Snyder Vandersloot

.,
~

Thomas

Hare seedling

Myers

Stabler

Thomas x-sec

&

Cultivar
Saker's Ohio

Nut size
medium medium

medium Bicentennia l medium-large very thin J medium Bowser , small thin Burns thick Burton I medium
Clermont Cornell

Baum #25 Beck

I

I

Shell thin thin quite thin

Cracking very good good excellent

Kernel % Kernel colour flavour very high low good very high very good

I

high high
very high very high high li ght·m edium light

good
very good

good
fair,hard good good

Cranz
Davidson

medium-Iarg medium mall-mediu medium large

very thin

excellent

high
very good good

Drake Edras EI -Tom
Emma K Evans Farrington Fonthill FootballlJ Grundy

good
very high

medium
very large

thin thin
quite thick

high
very good good very high very high

light
excellent

large
medium very large

high
very high

light

mild, good good

large
large thin smooth thin

good

high high high high high

Hain

Hare
Harney

good
good

Hay
Homeland Krause Lamb Majestic very large quite large small large medium large medium large good very good fair very thin thick very good very good moderate moderate very good good excellent excellent good good

high
moderate

Mintle
Monterey

high
very high moderate moderate

Myers Ogden
Ohio

Patterson Peanut
Pfister

Pinecrest
Putney

large very large
very large

good

high high
very high

Ridgeway
Rowher

good
very good

Sauber Schreiber

medium large
I"edlum-Iarg~

high

Snyder

~~~rkS 127
Sparks 129

e~I~X~I~rg1
lIery large

quite thin

good good
good

very high moderate moderate

medium

light

good good good

high
ve ry high

Sparks 147 rough Sparrow medium very thin Stabler medium very thin Stambaugh fTledlum.,arg l Sta rk KWlk·Krdp large Ten Eyck small quite thin Thomas redlum.,argj quite thin

high
very good very good very good good moderate

li ght

excellent good

high high

good
kight
mild good

I

quite good poor·moderate

I

I

light

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 13

Cultivar Nut size Cracking Kernel % Kernel colour Flavour Shell Thomas Myers very large medium thick' good good Thorp high ,irregulan good Todd large smooth Vandersloot very large quite thick moderate good good Victoria very large quite thin moderate poor good Weschcke light quite good thin good Wiard small-medium quite thin good good

I I

I

.

I

, Propagation of cultivars

Like other walnuts, black walnuts are difficult to propagate vegetatively . Budding or grafting is used, but temperatures of around 2rC (80°F) are necessary for callusing to occur and the graft to succeed. Some options are to use a hot grafting pipe (See Agroforestry News, Vol 3 No 1); greenwood tip grafting (See Agroforestry News, Vol 3 No 4); and budding in late June/early July. Established trees can be top-worked outside, but again the problem (in the UK) may be low temperatures. Early summer budding or greenwood grafting have the best chance of success. See the previous black walnut article for details of seed propagation.

Suppliers
In the UK, the only suppliers at present are Nutwood (grafted cultivars) and the A.R.T. (named seedlings) . In addition, there are numerous American suppliers , a few of which are listed here. A.R.T., 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, T096JT. Nutwood Nurseries, School Farm, Onneley, Crewe, Cheshire, CW3 90J. Grimo Nut Nursery, RR3 Lakeshore Road, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Los 1JO, CANADA. Louis Gerardi Nursery, Garden Center & Gift Shop, 1700 E.Highway 50, O'Fallon, IL 62269, USA. Nebraska Nut Growers Association, Bill Gustafson, 122 Mussehl Hall-U of NE, Lincoln, NE 68583-0716, USA. Nolin River Nut Tree Nursery, 797 Port Wooden Rd, Upton, KY 42784, USA. 5t Lawrence Nurseries , RR 5, Box 324. Potsdam , NY 13676 , USA.

References
Cecich, R: Flowering - What we do and mostly don't know. Proceedings of the Fourth Black Walnut Symposium, 1989. Chenoweth, Bob: Black Walnut. Sagamore Publishing , 1995. Duke, J: CRC Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press, 1989. Facciola, S: Cornucopia . 1990. Jaynes, Richard A (Ed): Nut Tree Culture in North America. NNGA. 1979. Moore, J & Balington Jr, J: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS, 1990. Northern Nut Growers Association: 44th-85th Annual Reports. NNGA. 1953-1994. Reed, C & Davidson, J: The Improved Nut Trees of North America. Devin-Adair, 1954. Riotte , L: The Complete Guide to Growing Nuts. Taylor Pub Co, 1993. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

Forest gardening: root & bulb crops
Introduction
Forest gardens are usually designed to minimise soil disturbance, by having ground cover plants and/or mulches over most of the soil area . Root or tuber crops wh ich need substantial digging are best placed either in the sunny vegetable garden , or perhaps a designated digging garden within a clearing in the forest garden. Scattering such crops around the forest garden is likely to lead to considerable work in weed control , as well as causing root damage to woody species nearby. Some forest gardeners favour specially-constructed mounds (rather like extra-deep beds) within the forest garden for growing root crops , which certa inly makes their culti vation and harvesting easier, although the plants don 't get well integrated with the rest of the garden species . Some roots can quite easily be lifted by inserting a fork nearby and gently rocking it while pulling on the stalk or root. Removing conical roots like this causes little disturbance to other plants , and species in this category , if they can tolerate some shade , are much more suited to the forest garden. Bulbs similarly fall into two categories , easily and hard to remove without disturbing the soil. Bulbs which are formed deep down may be 30 cm (1 ft) deep and impossible to remove without serious excavation . Others may be formed very near the surface or even half above the surface ; these , if shade tolerant, are best suited as forest garden crops . Seed production from most perennial roots and bulbs is likely to decrease as the shade conditions increase , hence don 't expect plants to continue to reproduce in very shady sites . It may be necessary to restock the garden with young bulbs or seedlings from time to time to maintain plant numbers. This is even more true with annual or biennial plants. Most plants with long conical roots are excellent dynamic accumulators , the roots 'mining ' minerals deep in the soil and subsalt , and storing these in the lea ves and roots.

Species with edible uses
The species described here all have roots or rhizomes with edible uses , and are relatively well known and pleasant items to eat; there are numerous other species with edible ro ots , used onl y at time s of famine, which aren 't very desirable. Many other specie s, not included here , can also be grown for their medicinal uses (where this co incides with edible uses , they are mentioned below), or other uses such as dyes etc. Trees and shrubs are not included; some , like Berberis spp ., have useful roots for medicinal uses, dyeing etc. but it would be difficult to harvest without severe damage to the plant in question and others nearby. Most of the common garden root crops have originated and been selected and bred in light, sunny conditions , and will not succeed in shady situations ; they are not listed here, but of course still have a valuable place in a sunny vegetable garden either separate from the forest garden or within a sunny clearing.

(1) Edible roots/bulbs for deep shade
These species are mostly woodland plants , and hence ideall y suited to the shadie r areas of a forest garden . Allium species. A .triquetum (three·cornered leek) and A.ursinum (ram sons , wild garlic) are two European members of the onion family which tolerate deep shade. They both bear small edible bulbs , however these are often quite deep and not easily harvested with minimum di sturbance . Also edible are the leaves (mild leek fla vour for A.triquetum , garlic flavour for A.ursinum) and flowers . A .ursinum has similar medicinal used to garlic. Both species are about 30 cm (1 ft) high and make good ground covers under trees. A.triquetum is only hardy in the milder parts of the UK. Angelica sylvestris. Wi/d/Wood/and angelica. Perennial to 2 m (6 ttl high which likes a deep moist soil. The roots are edible when cooked , much like ordinary angelica. Also edible are the leaves, stems, and young shoots, with an aromatic, bitter taste; the stems can be candied . The seeds are used as a
fl::lvnllrinn Th", rnnt!':

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 2S

roots and seeds are also used medicinally, being antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic. emmenagogue. expectorant. stimulant. stomachic . and tonic. Also a bee plant. Aralia species. Spikenards. A number of Asian and American perennials which like a sheltered, shady location . A.continentalis (Manchurian spikenard), A.cordata (Udo, Japane se asparagus; to 3 m (10 ft) high) , Anudicaufis (Wild sarsaparilla; to 40 cm ( 16")high) , A.racemosa (American spikenard; to 3 m (10 tt) high) and A.schmidtii (Sakhalin spikenard) have edible roots , cooked like scorzonera; they also have edible shoots with a lemony or liquoricE! flavour ; the roots of Acordata are used in China as a ginseng substitu te , being ca rminative , febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic and tonic; those of A .nudicaulis and A.racemosa were used as a substitute for sarsaparilla , being alterative, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral and stimulant. Asarum species. Wild gingers. Evergreen, low-growing perennials which like a moist acid soils and part or full shade. Several species have had their roots used as a spice (a ginger substitute), including A .canadense (American wild ginger), Acaudatum (Long-tailed wild ginger), A.dilatatum and A .refle xu m. The roots are used medicinally, being carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, irritant, stimulant and tonic. However, use with caution , since several species in the genus, including A.europeum , are known to contain strong toxic irritants. All species make good, if slow spreading, ground cover, even in very shady positions. Cardamine species. Toothwort, Bittercress. Sma ll perennials , about 30 cm (1 ft) high which like a moist soil. Several have edible peppery roots , much like horseradish , including C.bulbosa (Bittercress) and C.flexuosa (Wavy bittercress), which also have edible lea ves & shoots; and C.laciniata (Cut-leaved toothwort), C.maxima and C.yesoensis. Cryptotaenia japonica. Mitsuba, Japanese parsley. Japanese perennial which likes a moist shady position under trees . Commonly cultivated as a vegetable in Japan and (increasingly) Europe. The roots are edible, raw or cooked, but the plant is more often grown for its edible leaves and stems, raw or cooked. The seeds are also used as a condiment. Dentaria diphylla . (Ca rdamine d.) Crinkleroot, Pepper root. Perennial from North America, growing 30 cm (1 ft) high, which likes a moist shady position. It has edible roots, raw or cooked, with a crisp texture and pungent peppery taste . The roots were also used in traditional North American Indian medicine. Houttuynia cordata. Tsi. A low creeping evergreen perennial , often used ornamentally for ground cover, which likes a moist or wet boggy soil and to lerate s deep shade . The cooked roots are edible, as are the leaves raw or cooked, with an aromatic, orangy flavour. The whole plant is medicinal, being antibacterial, antiphlogistic, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative and ophthalmic. Also makes a reasonable ground cover plant. Medeola virginica. Indian cucumber root. North American perennial, liking a moist acid so il and a shady site; grows to 60 cm (2 ft) high. It has an edible root, raw or cooked, which is crisp and tender with a cucumber aroma cordata and flavour. The root is also used medicinally, being diuretic and hydragogue.

Houttuynia

Panax ginseng . Ginseng. A widely cultivated Asian perennial to 80 cm (2% tt) high, which likes a rich moist acid soil in shade. A tea and a candy are made from the roots , which are better known as oriental ginseng , having a long history of medicinal usage. Root is adaptogen , alterative, carminative , demulcent, emetic, expectorant, stimulant and tonic. Used in sim ilar ways are P.japonicus (Japanese ginseng), P.pseudo-gingseng, P .quinquefolius (American !:IinsenQ) and P.trifotius.

leaves are edible, raw or cooked; and the whole plant is medicinal, being astringent and cytostatic. Used as a ground cover plant; also attracts bees. Sparganium erectum. Branched bur reed. A wetland Eurasian perennial , growing to 1.5 m (5 ft) high in muddy ground or water up to 30 cm (1 ft) deep. The roots and stem bases are edible, cooked , with a sweetish taste . A good species for erosion control and water purification; the seeds are attractive to water fowl and are edible, though small. S.americanum, S.antipodium and S.eurycarpum can be used in the same ways. Streptopus amplexifolius. Wild cucumber. North American perennial to 1 m (3 ft) high , which likes a moist light soil and shade. The roots are edible, raw or cooked , as are the young shoots; both have a cucum ber flavour. Symphytum species. Comfreys. Vigorous. deep-rooted, Eurasian perennials , growing 30-100 cm (1-3 tt) high . S.x uplandicum is a hybrid which does not spread by seed; the others (S.caucasicum, S.grandiflorum , S.officinale , S.orientale , S.tuberosum) do and can be invasive. All excellent perennial accumulators which tolerate considerable shade. The roots can be roasted to make a coffee. The plants can be very deep rooted, but it is si mple to cut off the top section of the root to harvest, whence the lower section will re-grow . The young leaves are also edible ; the whole plant is a valuable medicinal herb (being anodyne, mildly as tringent, demulcent, emollient. expectorant, haem astatic, refrigerant, vulnerary), bees love the flowers. they make great ground cover plants , fodder plants, and compost materials.

(2) Edible roots/bulbs for partial shade
These plants either prefer partial shade, or prefer sun but tolerate some shade. They are suited to the areas in the garden between trees , where some sun still reaches the ground. Adenophora species . Ladybel/s. A .lilifolia, A.periskiifolia and A.verticillata are Asian perennia ls wh ich like a neutral or alkaline soil and sun or light shade. Grow to 50-100 cm (1Y23 ft) high. All are fleshy-rooted , the roots being sweet and edible raw or cooked with a good flavour. A.lilifolia is much hardier than the other two species. Allium species. The following perennial onion family species tolerate part shade and have edible bulbs (though often small and not easy to harvest). as well as edib le leaves: A.angulosum (Mouse garlic), A.atropurpureum, A.canadense (Wi ld garlic), A.carinatum (Keeled garlic - very small bulbs), A.cernuum (Nodding leek), A.moly (Golden garlic), A.monanthum, A.neapolitanum (Daffodil garlic), A.pendulinum , A.schoenoprasum (Chives; bulbs small, used as spring onions. var. larger bulbs), A.senescens (Ballhead onion), rotundum has A.sphaerocephalum (Round-headed garlic), A.suaveolens, A.tricoccum (Wild leek; biennia l; a mild sweet leek flavour). Amphicarpaea species. Hog peanuts. North American and Asian perennial scramblers/climbers, growing about 1.5 m (5 ft) high, liking a moist soil and some shade. A.bracteata, A.edgeworthii and A.pitcheri can all be used in the same ways. Two types of flowers are produced, one from the leafaxils (which mostly abo rt) , and another from threadlike stems near the roots: these latter bury themselves into the soil in a similar manner to peanuts. These underground seeds are edible, raw Amphicarpaea or cooked, with a delicious pea-peanut flavour. The few above-ground bracteata seeds are also edible (cooked). The fleshy roots of A.bracteata are also apparently edible and nutritious. All species are nitrogen-fixing legumes. Angelica species. Mostly perennials, which like a moist site and form large flowering plants , 2-4 m (6- 12 ft) high . The following species tolerate partial shade and have edible cooked or pickled roots as well as edible stems and leaves: A.archangelica (Angelica ; Biennial, with numerous medicinal uses , being antispa smodic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic), A.atropurpurea (P urple/Giant angelica), A.g lauca, and A.keiskei. Angelica species are also good bee plants . Anthriscus cerefolium. Chervil. The familiar biennial European herb, growing 70 cm (2Y2 ft)

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 17

i
high in any any soil and likes some shade. As well as edible leaves and stems , it has edible roots. The upper parts are used medicinally, being digestive , diu retic, expecto rant , and stimulant. Apios americana (A.tuberosa). American groundnut, Bog potato. A climbing/scrambling North American perennial leguminous plant, which tolerates light shade and acid soils. It grows as a low vine to about 1 m high . It produces tubers on long thin roots , harvested in the autumn , which are usually cooked and taste very good, like sweet potatoes. They take 2-3 years to become a sizeable crop, when up to 12 tubers per plant are produced. The seeds are also edible, eaten like peas. A useful nitrogenfixer, which is attractive to bees and forms a good soil-binding root layer. A.fortunei (Asian) and A.priceana (produces one large tuber) have similar uses. Apium graveolens rapaceum. Celeriac. Biennial , a variety of celery with large roundish roots. Tolerates part shade. These are eaten raw or cooked like most garden root vegetables . The leaves and seeds are edible , while all parts are medicinal just like ordinary celery (being aperient, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, nervine, stimulant and tonic. Arctium species. A.lap pa (Great burdock) and A.min us (burdock) are large European biennials, growing to 2 m (6 ft) high, liking a moist shady site. They have large thick fleshy roots , which are edible , raw (young) or more commonly cooked or roasted as a coffee substitute. The young leaves and stalks are also edible , raw or cooked , and the plant is used medicinally (being antibacterial, antifungal and carminative). They are also bees plants and good mineral accumulators. Armoracia rusticana. Horseradish. A persistent European perennial plant, growing up to 1 m (3 tt) high, which grows in most soils . The roots are edible , usually grated to make horseradish sauce , with a pungent mustard-like flavour. The young leaves are edible and have a milder peppery flavour. Also used medicinally, being antiseptic, aperient, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient and stimulant. Can be used as a ground cover plant - very difficult to remove once you 've got it. Arctium minus Asphodeline lutea. Asphodel, King's spear. Southern European perennial to 1 m (3 tt) high , may be grown as an annual in co ld areas .. Has edible roots - roasted like potatoes, with a good nutty flavour. The flowers and cooked young shoots are also edible. Asphodelus aestivus. Asphodel. A Mediterranean perennial , growing to 1 m (3 tt) high; only hardy in mild areas. It has edible starchy tubers - cooked (acrid raw) . Also edible are the c ooked flowering stalks and seeds . The roots were formerly used medicinally. Beta vulgaris crassa. Beetroot. The familiar garden root vegetable is , despite originating as a shore plant, tolerant of light shade. A Eurasian biennial , it likes a well-drained moist soil. The roots, round or cylindrical , are easily harvested from the soil surface . Also edib le are the leaves , cooked as a vegetable. Brassica juncea megarrhiza. Root mustard. Annual Asian brassica , liking a neutral rich soil and sun or light Shade . It has edible peppery roots , usually sliced and made into pickles. Like the species, it has edible peppery leaves, flowers and seeds. A good bee plant. Brassica napus napobrassicae (S.napo-brassica). Swede , Rutabaga . Biennial brassica , common in the vegetable garden, liking a neutral rich soi l and sun or light shade. The large roots are eaten , usually cooked , in the winter. The leaves ca n also be eaten cooked. A good bee plant. The roots are sometimes used for animal fodder . Brassica rapa . Turnip . Biennial brassica , common in the vegetable garden , liking a neutral rich soil and sun or light shade. The large roots are eaten in winter , usually cooked. The leaves, flowers and seeds can also be eaten raw or cooked . The roots are sometimes used for animal fodder . B .rapa rapifera , the stubble turnip , can be used similarly though the taste is rather coarser ; it is a good green manure crop.

neutral to alkaline soil , growing 60 cm (2 tt) high. The roots are edible , raw or cooked, with a sweet chestnut flavour. The seeds are used as a cumin substitute. Calochortus pulchellus. A perennial bulb from North America, growing 30 cm ( 1 tt) high , liking a we ll drained soil. The bulbs are small (walnut sized), but easily harvested; they are edible, raw or cooked. Severa l other American and Asian species can be used sim ilarl y, including C.barbatus, C.clavatus, C.elegans, C.gunnisonii, C.luteus, C.macrocarpus, C.nuttallii, C.tolmiei , and C.uniflorus. Camassia species. C.leichtlinii (Wild hyacinth), C.quamash (Quamash) and C.scilloides are North American perennial bulbs, growing to 80 cm (2Y2 tt) high, liking a moist site in sun or part shade. Their bulbs are edible, raw or cooked, and are excellent baked with a delicious sweet chestnut flavour. They are also bee plants. Campanula species. Several biennial and perennial campanulas have edible roots (raw or cooked), though all are likely to be quite small. They also have edible leaves, raw or cooked, and are loved by bees. These include C.edulis (Perennial), C.medium (Canterbury Bells ; Biennial), C.persicifolia (Peach bells; Perennial; also a ground cover plant), C.rapuneuloides (Creeping bell fl ower; Perennial; also a ground cover plant) and C.rapunculus (Rampion; Biennial ; wet acid soils). Capsella bursa-pastoris. Shepherd's purse. Eurasian annual weed, Camassia quamash growing to 60em (2 tt) high in most soils. The fresh or dried root is used as a ginger substitute. Also edible are the peppery leaves, raw or cooked. The whole plant is used medicinally, being antiscorbutic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue , haemostatic, hypotensive, oxytoxic, stimulant and vulnerary. A good mineral accumulating plant. Chaerophyllum bulbosum. Turnip-rooted chervil. European biennial relative of chervil , liking an acid moist soil, growing to 1 m (3 ft) high . It has an edible root , cooked, with an aromatic, floury , sweet taste. The leaves and young tops are also edible , raw or cooked. C.tuberosum can be used similarly. Cichorium intybus. Chicory. A deep-rooted , tough European perennial , liking a neutral to alkaline soil and sun or light shade, growing to 1 m (3 tt) high . The roots can be eaten raw in salads or roasted to make a coffee substitute (a component of 'Barleycup' , 'Caro' etc.) The plants can be very deep rooted. but it is simple to cut off the top section of the root to harvest, whence the lower section will re-grow . The young leaves, shoots and flowers can also be eaten cooked. The roots and leaves are used medicinally (being cho lag og ue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hypoglaecemic, laxative and tonic) , the tops furnish dyes and the flowers are much loved by bees; a good mineral accumulator. Cirsium species. This/es. Perennials, often weeds in pasture or hedges. Seve ral have edible roots of varying quality. Two of the more palatable thistles include C.brevistylum and C.oleraceum (Cabbage thistle) . These have edible roots , once peeled and cooked (the latter has been used as a table vegetab le). Claytonia virginica. Spring beauty. A low growing North American perennial, liking a moi st site in sun or shade. The starchy roots are edible , raw or cooked, with a pleasant nutty flavour. Also edib le are the leaves and flowering stems, raw or cooked. Bees like the flowers. Codonopsis ussuriensis. Asian perennial liking a well-drained soil. The roots are edible, raw or cooked, with a fair flavour. Conopodium majus. Pignut, French earth chestnut. European perennial otten found in hedges and wood margins , growing to 30 cm (1 tt) high. Bears edible tubers, raw or cooked, with a nice nutty fla vour. The tubers are quite sma ll and deep, so hard to harvest. Crambe maritima. Seaka/e. European perennial , liking a well drained soil and sun or part shade, growing to 80 cm (2% tt) high . Known by gardeners for its edib le you ng leaves and shoots , and blanched shoots ; Also edible are the thick , fleshy, starchy, sweet roots, when cooked. Can be used as a ground cover plant. The roots

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 19

of C.cordifolia (Colewort), C.orientalis and C.tatarica (Tatarian sea kale) can be used similarly. Fritillaria camschatcensis. Kamchatka lily, Chocolate lily. American-Asian perennial bulb , liking a well drained soil and sun or light shade. The bulbs are starchy and edible , raw, c ooked or dried ; tastes like chestnuts when cooked . The bu lbs of F.affinis, F.atropurpurea , F.pudica (Yellow fritillary) , F.thunbergii , and F.verticillata can be used similarly. Glycyrrhiza species. Liquorice. Deep-rooted perennial legumes , which like a moist soil and sun or partiakl shade. G.echinata (Wild liquorice) and G.glabra (Liquorice) are we ll known as sources ~ of liquorice. This confection , flavouring and sweetener is obtained from the roots , which are also used medicinally (being alterative, antispasmodic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxati ve, pectoral and tonic) , and as sources of chemicals for fire extinguishers. Very good mineral accumulators , and good ground cover plants which also fix nitrogen. G.lepidota, G.malensi s and G.uralensis can be used similarly. Hemerocallis species. Oaylilies. Several of these ornamental Eurasian perennials, which like a moist soil in sun or part shade, have edible roots , raw or cooked with a mild radish flavour. Also edible are the young leaves and shoots (cooked) and the flowers (raw or cooked) . They also make good ground c over plants. Species usable th is way include H.altissima , H.aurantiaca , He.citrina , H.coreana , H.dumortieri, H.forrestii , H.fulva (Tawny daylily) , H.lilioasphodelus (Yellow daylily) , H .minor (G ra ssleaf daylily), H.multiflora and H .plicata. Humulus lupulus. Hop. A European climbing perennial , reaching up to 6 m (20 tt) as it scrambles through shrubs and trees . The fleshy rhizomes are edible , as are the cooked young shoots and leaves (used as a vegetable) ; the female flowers are used to brew beer. The stems gi ve a hemp-like fibre , used to make paper etc. Laserpitium species. Laserworts. European perennials. L.latifolium and L.siler have edible roots , used as a condiment as were the seeds by the romans . Hemerocallis fulva Lathyrus species. Two European perennials of the sweet pea family have good edible roots , L.linifoliu s montanu s (bitter vetch) and L.tuberosus (earthnut pea, earth chestnut) . The roots are boiled or roasted and have a delicious sweet potato flavour. The seeds should be regarded as not edible . The plants are scrambling perennials, liking a well drained soil in sun or part shade; they box are nitrogen-fixing legumes, and bee plants. Lepidium latifolium. Dittander. European perennial , liking a moist so il and sun or light shade; has an edible root - pungently hot, used as a horserad is h substitute . The young leaves are also edible , raw or cooked , in small quantities - very hot. The seeds can also be used as a co ndiment. The plant is used medicinally, being antiscorbutic, depurative and stomachic. levisticum officlnale. Lovage . A we ll-kn own large perennial European herb , growing to 2 m (7 ft) high . As well as its edible leaves, stem s and seeds , the roots are also edible , used as a vegetable or flavouring (grated). The plant al so ha s several medi cinal uses (being antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative , diaph oretic , digestive, diuretic, mildly expectorant and stimulant), and is good for attracting benefi cial in sects. lilium species. Lilies. Perennial bulbs. Many Lilium species have edib le s tarch-rich bulbs , cooked and used as a vegetab le , often being sweet and mucilaginous or mealy with a mild flavour. T hese include L.amabile (Friendly lily) , L.auratum (Golden-rayed lily) , L.brownii (Hong Kong lily), L.bulbiferum (Orange lily) , L.callosum , L.canad ense (Meadow lily), L.candidum (Madonna lily), L.columbianum (Oregon Illy) , L.da vidii , L.distichum , L.formosanum, L.hansonii , L.henryi , L.japonicum (Bamboo lily) , L.kelleyanum , L.lancifolium (Tiger lily) , L.leichtlinii , L.longiflorum (White trumpet lil y), L.maculatum , L.martagon (Turk 's cap lily) , L.medeoloides, L.monanthum , L.nanum , L.nepalense (Nepal lily) , L.nobilissimum , L.pardalinum (Panther lily), L.phi ladelphicum (Wood lily), L.rubelium , L.sarQentiae (SarQent

lily) L.speciosum (Japanese lily), L.superbum (Swamp lily), L.tsingtauense, and L.wallichianum. Liriope graminifolia (L.spicata). Creeping liriope. Asian evergreen perennial, growing 30 cm (1 ft) high, liking a well drained soil and sun or part shade . It has edible roots - candied , used medicinally (being aphrodisiac, pectoral , stimulant). A good evergreen, drought-tolerant ground cover plant. L.muscari (Big blue linope) has similar uses; L.minor and L.spicata may also. lunaria annua . Money plant, Honesty. European biennial, growing up to 1 m (3 ft) high, liking a moist so il and part or full shade . The roots are ed ible, before fl owering , with a pungent coffee peppery fla vou r. The seeds are also edible and have been roasted to substitute . lycopus uniflorus (L.virginicus). Slender bugleweed. North American perennial , growing 80 cm (2Y:t tt) high, liking a moist or wet site. It has an edible root - raw or cooked; the crisp white tubers are boiled for a short time, when they are sa id to be similar to Chinese artichokes (Stachys affini s). Also used medicinally, being antitussive and seda tive. Muscari comosum. Tassel hyacinth, Tassel grape hyacinth. A perennial Eu ropean bulb growing 40 cm (16 ") tall, liking a welldrained site in sun or part shade. The bulbs are edi ble when cooked, with a slightly bitter taste; often cooked and preserved in oi l as a reli sh in Mediterranean countries. Myrrhis odorata. Sweet cicely. Familiar perennial Europ ean herb, growing about 60 cm (2 tt) high, growing in most soils. It has an iseed-flavoured leaves and seeds; the roots are also edible, with a similar flavour, and young roots can be cooked as a vegetab le. All parts have medicinal uses (being aromatic, carminative, expectorant, stomachic), and it is a bee plant. lycopus uniflorus Osmorhiza specie s. North American perennials, growing about 1 m (3 ft) hi gh, liking a moist site in shade. Several have edible roots, raw or cooked, with an aniseed flavour. Many also have edible cooked leaves/stems with a simifar flavour. Species with edible roots include O.aristata (a lso edible leaves), O. chilensis, O. claytonii (Woolly sweet cicily ; also edible leaf stalks), O .l ongistylis (Anise root; also edible leaves, shoots, seeds). Osmorhiza obtusa. North American perennial, growing about 1 m (3 ft) high , liking a moist site in shade. Has ed ible roots, raw or cooked, with a parsnip/an ise fl avour. It also has edible seeds, used for fl avou ring . O. occ identalis (Western sweet cicely) can be used simi larly, the roots having a sweet liquorice/anise flavour. Oxa lis triangularis. Perennial with ed ible roots, raw or cooked , up to 5 cm long and 15 mm wide, crisp, juicy, sweet mild flavour. Also edib le (in moderation) are the leaves and flowers. Past inaca sativa. Parsnip. The well -k nown Eurasian biennial root vegetable , which is more shade-tolerant than many of the common root vegetab les found in gardens. Apart from the exce llent edible roots, the lea ves and young shoots are edible cooked, and the seeds can be used as a cond iment, similar to dill. Also a bee plant at flo wering. Petroselinum crispum tuberosum. Hamburg parsley. European biennial large-rooted variety of parsley, often grown in vegetable garden s. Likes a moist soi l and sun or light shade. It has edible fleshy roots , raw or cooked , with a nutty celery/pars ley flavour. Also has the same uses as ord inary parsley: ed ible leaves, medicinal uses (being antidandruff, antispasmodic, aperient, carminative , digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, galactofuge, stomach ic and tonic), a good mineral accumulato r and beneficial insect attractant. Phragmites australis. Common reed. A vigorous perennial found in shallow water and wet soils; grows to 3 m ( 10 ft) high or more. Reeds have edible roots , usually cooked - sweet , starchy. Also edible are the young


shoots and seeds. Reeds are excellent water purifiers and erosion controllers , the stems are used for thatching. Raphanus sativus. Radish. Familiar Eurasian annual or biennial garden root crop, which is somewhat shade-tolerant, liking a moist soil and low-growing until it flowers , when it can reach 2 m (6 tt) high. The roots, rounded or conical , are edible with a peppery flavour. Also edible are the young leaves , young flower clusters , seeds and young seedpods. Used as a green manure and cover crop; bees like the flowers. Saussurea castus. Costus . A perennial from Kashmir, liking a well drained soil and sun or li ght shatle. The aromatic root is somet ime s used as a spice , with a characteristic penetrating odour. Long used in Chinese medicine, being one of the ir 50 fundamental herbs; the roots are anodyne, antibacterial, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge. Schoenoplectus species. Bulrushes. Large growing marsh or water perennial plants wh ich tolerate light shad e. S.lacustris (Scirpus acutus ; Great bu lru sh ; to 4 m (13 ft) high} and S.vatldus (Scirpus validus; Great American bulrush; to 2.5 m (10 tt) high) species have edible , starchy , roots , usually cooked; they can be ground into a flour and mixed with other cerea ls. They also have edible stem bases and young shoots, raw or cooked. They are exce llent wa ter purifiers and eros ion controllers, the leaves are used for basketry, matting and thatching , dyes are obtained from the stalks, and the seeds are relished by water fowl. Scirpus species. Marsh and water plants from America, Asia and Europe. Tolerate light shade only. Several species have edible, starchy, roots , usually cooked; they can be ground into a flour and mixed with other cereals. These include S .affinis , S.americanus, S.fiuviatilis , S.lacustris, S.microcarpus, S.nevadensis (Nevada rush), S.paludosus (Marsh rush) , and S.subterminali s . Scorzonera hispanica. Scorzonera. The familiar European garden root vegetable, which is a perennial, growing to 1 m (3 tt) high in flower. Likes Schoenoplectus a well -drained soil. The root usually eaten (cooked) with in the first two years of acutus growth . The roots can also be roasted to make a coffee substitute . Also edib le are the young leaves & shoots and flower buds. Stachys affinis. Chinese artichoke . Chinese perennial growing 50 cm (20 high , with small edible tubers - raw or cooked, with a mild nutty flavour; tubers are 5-8 cm by 2 cm. Can be used as a ground cove r; sometimes cultivated as an annual crop . Of similar use are S.hyssopifolia and S.palustris (Marsh woundwort). Sympholoma graveolens. Perennial from Western Asia , growing to 15 cm (6 ") high . Has edib le roots, raw or cooked, with a sweet carrot-like flavour. Taraxacum officinale. Dandelion. The familiar garden 'weed' , likely to be there whether you want it or not. A perennial growing to 50 cm (20 high in any soil. Grows well in shady situations, but does not flower so well there , hence unlikely to be a big weed problem in a forest garden . Another good accumulator, bee plant and beneficial insect attractant. The leaves and flowers are of course edib le (if somewhat bitter), and the roots are edible cooked, though are best roasted as a coffee substitute . The plants often grow with forked roots , but it is simple to cut off the top section of the root to harvest, whence the lower section will regrow. Taraxacum japonicum also has roots used to make a coffee substitute , and edible leaves . Tragapogon porrifolius. Salsify. The familiar European biennial root crop , growing up to 1 m (3 ftl high in flower , and tolerating part shade . As well as edible roots , the young shoots and flowers are edible. Wasabia japonica. Wasabi, Japanese horseradish . Japanese perennial, growing to 40 cm (16 -) high. Has edible roots , used as a horseradish substitute (but subtler), a popular condiment in Japan. Also has edible leaves , stalks and flowers, cooked and made into a pickle. May not be reliably hard y in cold areas.
M ) ft )

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

5 e The kaki persimmon: Diospyros kaki

Introduction
The kaki persimmon , also known as the Japanese, Chinese or Oriental persimmon , is a major fruit crop in as diverse localities as Japan , China , Korea, Western North America , Italy and Israel (where it is called the Sharon fruit). Though the tree is almost unknown in Britain, and then usually only for its spectacu lar autumn co lour, fruits are borne in most summers in the South of England and with careful choice there is good potential for success in growing suitab le cultivars for fruit (and even more as the climate warms up). Persimmons have long been cultivated in China and Japan and there are many examples there of long-lived grafted trees up to 600 years old forming huge gnarled specimens. China currently produces some 730,000 tonnes, Japan 300,000 tonnes, Korea 65,000 tonnes , and Italy 70,000 tonnes of persimmon fruits per annum. In recent decades, comme rcial plantations have been made in New Zealand, South America and Australia .

Description
Kaki persimmons are deciduous large shrubs or small trees, originally native to China but cultivated for man y centuries in Japan. Trees in Britain normally grow erect to a height of about 6m (20 ft) (but may reach twice this in warmer climes). with a rounded crown and a network of slender branches. The alternate, oval-elliptic leave s taper at both ends and are strongly veined, glossy dark green above, downy beneath and 6-20 cm (2Y2-S" ) long by 4-9 cm (1Y2-3Yt") wide. Female flowers occur singly, borne from buds near the tips of mature shoots; they have a large, dark green, four-lobed calyx . Male flowers are usually borne from leafaxil s on small weak shoots, occurring in clusters of 2-3. Kaki persimmons are usually dioecious , so male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. Flowering occurs well after the last frosts, usually in June or July, and lasts about 2 weeks. Pollination is carried out by insects. Fruits are round, flat. conical or lobed (often tomato-shaped); yellow, orange or reddish; 5-S cm (2 -3") across. They are borne on short stalks and bear a large (5 cm , 2 ~ ), persistent, 4lobed calyx. The y require a reasonable summer to ripen properly , then ripening in October, November or December. Unripe fruits of the astringent group are exceedingly astringent (like sloes) and pucker the mouth The leaves turn to bright orange-red colours in the autumn, and the plant often used ornamentall y. Most kaki cultivars are cold-ha rd y down to about -1S oC (O ° F) (Zone 6 or 7).

Uses
Persimmon fruits are edible and delicious when fully ripe and free of astringency; nonastringent cultivars can be eaten when still firm and crunchy, astringent cultivars when soft and juicy. Fruits can also be dried, frozen, cooked in fruit recipes (pies, cakes, bread , desserts etc) and made into preserves. They have also been fermented to make a brandy and vinegar. They are particularly high in Vitamin A - the highest of all common fruits: the average nutritional composition (per 1009) is 0.79 protein, O.4g fat , 19.7g carbohydrate , 2710 IU Vitamin A, 11 mg Vitamin C. The peel from ripe fruit has been dried, powdered and used as a sweetener. The seeds from fertilised fruits can be roasted and made into a coffee . The leaves are traditionally pickled with radishes in Japan to improve the flavour of the latter.

The astringent substance in some unripe persimmons (Ieucodelphinidin), called kaki-tannin , is the basis of an industry itself in Japan. It was once widely used (and still is used) to paint clothes and paper, making the materials very durable. It is also used medicinally to reduce high blood pressure , and as a deproteinising agent in the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wi ne). The pulp of unripe fruit is used in the cosmetic industry as the basis for face-packs because of its firf(ling qualities. The fruits (unri pe , ripe and dried) and calyces (collected at flowering) are used in traditional Chinese medicine, both being astringent (fro m the tannin s), expectorant and blood pres su re lowering. The stem bark is also used , being astringent and styptic. Fruits have been found to contain anti tumour compounds. Bees find the flowers attractive, with both honey and bumble bees freely visiting the flowers for nectar and pollen. The bark and unripe fruits , both high in tannins, can be used for tanning. Extracts from the young shoots have been observed to have antifungal effects on several species of Fusarium root and stem rots. Kaki wood is dark brown and very hard, and is an excellent substitute for ebony; it is used for sculpture and craft work, golf club heads and furniture.

,

Rootstocks
Cultivars are normally grown on seedling Diospyros kaki rootstocks. The related D./o/us and D. virginian a have been used, but both can cause incompatibility problems. D./o/us is often used in cooler regions, since astringent cultivars usually form good graft unions and D./o/us is more cold hardy than D.kaki, though it is more susceptible to crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Some kaki cultivars are noted for producing uniform vigorous seedlings (eg. 'Fuyu ') and these are preferred for rootstock propagation . Kaki seedlings produce long slender taproots which are easily broken and pot-grown stock is essential.

Siting
Kaki persimmons are quite adaptable to a range of climatic conditions, and will grow whe re average annual temperatures are between ' 10-22'"C (50-72°F) and grow best between 13D 19°C (55-66° F); astringent culti vars are winter hardy down to temperatures of about -18 C (hardiness is enhanced if growth is not too lush). [As a reference point in Britain , Oxford averages at 10°C, rising up to a degree further south]. C (_20 D F) ; Individual cultivars are sometimes considerably hardier, ego 'Eureka ', hardy to _29 D other cold-hardy cultivars in clude 'Giboshi' , 'Giombo', 'Great Wall ', 'Kyungsun Ban-Sr, 'Niu Nai', ' Peipeng' , 'Saijo' and 'S heng '. The young growth in spring is frost tender , so frosty areas prone to late sp ring and early autumn frosts shou ld be avoided. C (72-78" F) for de velo ping and 13-20°C (55-69"F) for maturing. These The fruit needs 23-26 D limits and the above show that southern Britain is near the limit of persimmon culture. Good shelter is very important as persimmons are very sensitive to wind ; young foliage is easily damaged and fruits are prone to wind rub. In Britain, a sheletered, South-facing situation is essential for fruiting ; a warm wall is also suitable . Good crops have been obtained here on South facing walls. A wide range of soil types is tolerated, although the ideal is a deep, fertile , well-drained soil with a slightly acid pH (6.0-6.5). Good drainage is essential in damper climates like Britain . Key to persimmon cultivar pictures on page 28: top row - 'Fuyu', 'Tamopan', 'Gailey'; bottom row'Triumoh'. 'Tanenashi' .. Hivakume'.

Page 24

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

I

I

Planting
Planting distances vary considerably depending on the vigour of the cultivar , the soil fertility , and the training system being used. It takes trees many years to reach a large size , which may waste a lot of space in an orchard-type planting . Mature trees of moderate vigour on moderately fertile soils may need 25 m 2 each , but such trees are more normally planted at 5.0 2 2 x 2 .5 m or 3.5 x 3.5 m (=12 .5 m ) spacing and either kept from overcrowding by pruning or thinned out to 50% of the original density at some stage. More vigorous trees on more fertile soils may need 16 m 2 and are planted at 5.5 x 3.0 m or 4.0 x 4.0 m. Plants should be at least 1 m (3 ft) high when planted , with a good root system , to establish quickly. Staking is needed for the first 2-3 years.

Pruning
Persimmon trees left to grow freely assume a round-headed shape. Although fruiting will continue in unpruned trees, some formation pruning at least is advisable to create a strong tree capable of bearing crops. Trees are usually trained to a modified central leader system or a vase system, though other systems are sometimes used, including trellis and espalier sys tems. Persimmon wood easily splits and it is important to train main limbs with a wide crotch angle. Modified central leader: The aim is to achieve a pyramid-shaped tree with well -spaced lateral branches at an angle of 30-40° to the horizontal. After planting, trees are cut back to 70 cm, promoting strong growth from which 3-4 limbs are selected as main branches. For the next 2-4 years, vigorous shoots are pinched out and the central leader is cut back to en courage a good framework . When the central leader has reached 3-4 m high it is cut back to an outward growing branch. Laterals may need to be tied down to attain wide crotch angles. Vase (bush; open-centre): Produces spreading trees. Young trees are cut back to 70 cm after planting and from the shoots that arise , 3 are selected (at an angle of about 50 ° to horizontal) to form the main branches and the remainder pruned off. Pruning is then similar to that for bush apple trees. Pruning of both young and mature trees need only be quite light. Because fruiting takes place at the tips of the previous season 's growth, these shoots should not be cut back. Ught pruning to promote an annual renewal of fruiling branches is desirable ; this also minimises the biennial habit which many persimmons can develop. Note that heavy fruiting often results in the death of fruiting twigs which self-prune the following season. Pruning should allow good light penetration into the canopy

Irrigation & feeding
Mature persimmon trees usually have one main , short growth flush in spring when soil water is not usually in short supply , hence irrigation is rarely needed . Young trees may benefit from watering, especially the year after they are planted , if the summer is very dry. Persimmons are rather lighter feeders than many tree crops, requiring about half the nutrient inputs of apples, for example. Recommendations in New Zealand are to supply 50g N, 25g P and 40g K per tree in the first year , rising gradually to 300g N , 175g P and 300g K at 10 years. These could be supplied by , for example , manure starting at 8 Kg rising to 50 Kg per tree . Early spring is the best time for application, ready to fuel the spurt of growth which takes place after bud burst. In practice , on a ferlile soil few additions may be necessary and it is better to under-feed than over-feed .

Flowering
Flowers are only borne from the terminal and 2-3 buds on well-matured shoots (hence these shoots must not be cut back heavily in winter). Two to four flowers are normally formed on each reproductive shoot, which open about 6 weeks after the leaves. Kaki persimmons, like other persimmons, are usually dioecious - ie . form male and female flowers on separate plants, although occasionally monoecious plants (bearing both male and female flowers)
I'u "'f"'ttr f.1I1'tc:.t I'tf thD m::>in f"'"lti\l::>rc:. hg::>r I'tnhl f""m::>l.<> fII'tIM<>rc:

I

The female flowers (especially of astringent cultivars) can set fruit without pollination (ie parthenocarpically, without seeds) • useful if seedless fruit are desired . With non-astringent cultivars in particular , though, pollination can be desirable to reduce natural fruit drop and impro ve fruit quality (size , shape , colour). Where pollination is required , cultivars which produce abundant male flowers should be planted (although many other cultivars produce some male flowers , the numbers will vary and may be very small). Re commended pollinators are Akagaki, Gailey, Omiya Wase and Zenjimaru; there should be One pollinator for each 6·8 plants of. the main culti var. Pollinati6 n is carried out by insects ; honey and bumble bees visit the flowers freely for nectar and pollen.

Thinning & growth
There are usually 3 periods of fruit dropping , though fruit drop is much reduced when fruits are pollinated . Manual fruit thinning may also be needed to achieve a good fruit size and co lour. Commercial growers often thin to one or two fruits per bearing shoot ; the fruit furthest from the shoot tip tends to develop into th e largest fruit. Young trees normall y grow 3· 5 m (10-16 ft) in the first 10 years.

Harvesting & yields
Persimmons yield about a third that of apples, ie 9·18 Kg (20·40 Ib) per tree when young , rising to 15·60 Kg (33·130 Ib) per tree at maturity. Fruiting starts about 3·5 years after planting, and full cropping is rea ched after 8·15 years . Biennial cropping is very common , especially with late·maturing cultivars. In Britain , fruits will take until mid or late autumn to ripen (usua ll y Oclober or November) ; the fruits can be harvested after leaf fall if necessary. Frosts will in fact aid the ripening process and remo ve the astringency from fruits (s ee below), but after frosting the fruits must be eaten very quickly. Harvest should take place when fruits are well·deve loped and of the characteristic colour (orange or red) for the cultivar (may take some trial and error for new growers! ); fruit of astringent cultivars is inedible at harvest unless frosted. The best way to harvest is to clip the fruit stems with secateurs , leaving the calyx attached. Most cuJtivars ripen their fruit over a period and two or three picks are usua lly required. Fruits can be stored for 2·6 months if placed in sealed plastic bags in a fridge near to O°C. At room temperatures , non·astringent fruits have a shelf·life of 10·30 days; packing fruits in pine needles extends shelf life longer than other materials. Astringent fruits have a shorter shelf· life once the astringenc y is removed - 7-14 days . Astringency caused by tannins in the fruit can be removed in several ways: Allow to over·ripen: astringency disappears when fruits are allowed to over-ripen, becoming very soft. Pollen-Constant (PC) cultivars are preferred for this eventuality. Ethylene softens the fruit very quickly, hence on a small scale placing apples with persimmons in a plastic bag rapidly softens the fruits are removes astringency. Drying : a traditional use in Japan , and especially suited to astringent cultivars. A combination of artificial dryers (at 35 °C) and sun drying is used there, but only the former is su itable in damper climes. Whole fruits are peeled and skewered on bamboo spears to dry, the drying fruits occasionally being kneaded for 40-120 seconds to accelerate drying and prevent them becoming hard and woody; they make an attractive white product when sugars crystallise on the surface of the fruiL Freezing: another traditional method, ve ry easy in these days of freezers. The fruits become ve ry soft after freezing and are most suitable for using as pulp rather than eating from the hand.

Page 2fJ

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Alcohol treatment: Alcohol vapour accelerates ripening· one traditional method in Japan was to sto re fruits in empty sake casks. Fruits can be sprayed/sp rinkle d with any stro ng spirit and sealed in plastic bags for 1·2 weeks to ripen. Cooking: astringency is accentuated by cooking, but can be removed by the addition of half a teaspoon of baking soda per cup of pulp.

Pests & diseases
Although a wide range of pests and diseases are noted in Japan , very few of these exist in Western Europe. Two minor diseases which may occur here are grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) caus ing discoloured patches on leaves, and bacterial blast (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae). A probable pest is birds attacking fruits, particularly with late maturing cultivars which may be virtually leafless at maturity, exposing the highly colou red fruit.

Propagation
Rootstocks are raised from seed (Kaki seed is not dormant but requires heat to germinate) and grown for 1-2 seasons. Cleft or whip grafting with two·bud scions is ofte n used , carried out in March·May when the stocks are well in leaf: warm conditions and enclosing grafts in plastic bags encourage rapid callusing. Chip budding in March·April, as the stocks are coming into leaf. is also successful , as is green grafting in August-September. Top working onto established trees using cleft, side or whip grafts in May·June gives good results. Recent results show that root cutting from young trees regenerate quickly and may be a suitab le method for producing ungrafted cultivar selections.

Cultivars
Kaki cultivars are divided into four groups, depending on whether fruits are astringent or nonastringent, and on their response to pollination:

Astringent Non-astringent Better adapted to cooler regions. Better adapted to warmer regions. With these, tannins which cause With these, the tannins either disappear after astringency in the flesh decrease as pollination (PV) or are completely absent (PC) the ~omes edible. but only if t e climate is warm enough.

~

Poll. Constant (PC) Fruits are not affected by pollination.

Potl.Variant (PV) Poll.Constant (PC) Poll. variant (PV) Flesh around seeds Mature fruits are edible Tannins disappear if is darker when when still firm. Fruits over 4-5 seeds form pollination occurs. are not affected by (and fruits are then pollination ed ible when firm) , otherwise partly astringent.

Cultivar information
Over 1000 cultivars have been selected in Japan and 800 in China ; most of the cultivars used elsewhe re in the world have been imported from Japan.

I

Favoured cultivars for recent commercial plantings outside Japan are: 'Fuyu ', 'Hachiya' and ' Hana Fuyu' in the U .S .A .; 'Aizu Mishirazu' , 'Amankaki' , 'Fuyu' , 'Hana Fuyu ' , 'Izu ', 'Hiratanenashi ' , 'Kaki Tipo' and ' Suruga ' in Italy; and 'Triumph ' in Israel. Older cultivars used in S.Europe include 'Costata ' , 'Lycoperiscum' and 'Mazelii' in Italy and 'Sahutii' & 'Wiesneri' in France. In Britain , the cultivars with the best potential are the astringent group which are also early ripening. Considering that unnamed varieties frequently produce fruit in the South of England , these cultivars should do rather better and produce fruit in most summers in the South of the country: Giboshi Kyungsun Ban-Si Sugita Wase Tone Was8 Great Wall Saijo Tanennashi Hiratanenashi San Pedro Tecumseh Only astringent cultivars are recommended for drying (non-astringent fruits become tough) , in particular 'Hachiya', 'Sa ijo ' and 'S heng '. Fruit of kaki persimmon eultivars

!(/ \\j
//./'~.'~

I
i

il

\/ i L •

/f/

_ /

;(
Key to cultivar tables
Poll: PC ::; Pollen constant, PV ::; Pollen variable (see above for explanation). Size: average fruit size: v.lge ::; very large (240g) ; vi-I::; very large to large (230g); IIlge ::; large (200-220g); m -I medium to large (200g); mimed medium (180g); s-m small to medium (180g) ; s/sm = small (120-1 60g). Shape: fruit shape: cleo ::; conica l; f::; flat; irr ::; irregular, olob ::; obl ong , q ::; quadrangular; r ::; round. Flesh : Diff to RA ::; difficult to remove astringency. Quality: fruit quality indication: exc ::; excellent, v.good ::; very good, good , fair, poor.

=

=

=

Paoe 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Tree: vig = vigorous, mod = moderate vigour, weak = weak vigour; u = upright, s = spreading; Iy = low yielding, hc = heavy cropping; rp = requires po llination to fruit (nb most cultivars do not); bi = tendency to crop biennially. Ripening : the range from very early to very late spans about 40 days; in Britain only the very early and early ripening cultivars are likely to have a chance of ripening. In the cultivar tables be low, those cultivars which produce plentifu l male flowers and can thus be relied upon as pollinators are underlined. (a) Astringent cultivars (most suited to cooler conditions, ego Britain) Cultivar Poll Size Shape Skin colour Flesh Quality Tree Ripening

PC m-I IOb- d orange (diff to RA) fair vig,hc I v.late Atago PC?lm ed c -q sa lmon-yellow ligh t yellow v.good l i9,u,hC Costata I hc dark Oai Oai Maru PC?med rnd glossy, bloomy orange-red deep red PC m-I rnd Eureka exc l Vi9,hC I late thin good hC,bi yellow PC Ige c Giombo PC s f-q orange-red yell ow v.good u,hc v.early Great Wall orange-red yellow-orange exc ig,u,ly mid-late PC Ige obglossy Hachiya Hiratanenashi PC m-I f-r tough,glossy orange-red ye ll ow-orange exc v.vig,u earlymid orange-red Homestead PC? s-m c v.good he 1 orange-red orange-red exe mod,u ,he midPC? s r-ob thin Honan Red late orange orange good vig,u,rd early Kyungsun BaniSi PC m-I Lycopersicum PC . m-I f-r orange-red orange Mazelii PC? Ige yell ow fair Niu Nai PC Ige Okame PC? Ige r-ob good orange yellow-orange fair Iweak,s Peiping PC s-m rnd PC? m-I c godeln-orange Sahutii orange V.gOOd vig, he early Sa ijo PC s-m obdeep orange San Pedro PC? ob exc weak early yellow-orange PC m-I f-q Sheng exc Iweak,sl mId Sugita Wase PC m-I f-r tough,glossy orange-red ye ll ow-orange exe v vlg,u v early orange-red light orange good Tamopan PC .Ig q thick he Imld-Iate orange-red yellow Tanenashi PC Ige r-c tough good mOd'S'hr early yellow Tecumseh PC Is-m q good u,he early PC m-I f-r tough,glossy orange-red yellow-o range exc v vlg,u v early Tone Wase late Triumph PC I late Tsurugaki PC? c v late irr Tsuru Margha~iPC? orange-red exe weak,he Wieseneri PC?I m c Pc?( -m ob-q Yemon

I

I

I
I I I

I

l

v I

I

I

Aizu Mishiraz Gail ey Giboshi Lantern Yamagaki

PV m-I PV s PV s-m pv?1 PV s

rnd r-co co co

yellow-orange fair Ilw eak.s orange v.da rk, seedy poor mod dark brown exc r eak,hc early poo r dark fair

I

I

-

-

----

~-~---

9
Skin co lou r Flesh Qua lity Tree Ripening

(b) Non-astringent cultivars (most suited to warmer/Mediterranean conditions) Cultivar Choco late Fuyu Gosho Hana p'uyu Hana Gosho Hiyakume Ichikikei Jiro Izu Jiro mid Kawabata Maekawa Jiro Matsumoto Poll Size Shape

' PC s-m ob
PC PC PC PC PC? Ige sm Ige Ige Ige

bright red dark brown exe vig,he late vig, bi mid-late f-r tough,glossy orange-red [yellOW-Orange exc r-co orange-red exc I Iy r-ob ye ll ow-orangedk yellw-orangegood mod early-mid rnd yellow-orange l good late rnd yellow-orange(jark crnnamon goodmod,u ,hc mid

I

I

I

I

PC I-vi flat glossy,bloom y orange-yellowl v.goodL weak I v early I PC m-I flat orange-red pale orange med k,ly,q~ v early I PC I-vi fl at bloomy , ellow-cnm so exc weak, u earlyPC? Ige yellow PC J-vl fl at glossy , bloomy orange-yellow 1 ge flat tough,glossy med rnd Ige f-r m obIge orange-red orange-yellow brt orange- red yellow-orange exc v goodweak q:=! v early . ,

I.

Wase Fuyu PC O'gosho PC Okugosho PC Suruga PC Twentieth Century IPC Youhou PC

I

light yellow

exe fai r good exe

vig early-mid mid mod v.early v.late mod he mod vig s, rq vig,s mid

yellow-orangeora nge, spotte, fair -gd red -orange deep orange good poor fair orange-red seedy fair poor

Akagaki Kaki Tipo

PV PV

s

v.ea rly v.early v.ea rl y late early

Nishimura wasePr-1 f-r Omiya Wase PV s Shoga tsu PV ed Zen jim aru PV s

I

I

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants database, 1996. Brown, D: The RHS Encyclopedia of Herbs & their Uses . Dorling Kinders ley, 1995. Collins, Ret al: Th e World Trade in Persimmons. WANATCA Yea rbook 1994. Duke, J A & Ayensu, E: Medicinal Plants of China. Reference Publications, 1985 . Facciola, S: Cornucopia. 1991. Rivista di Frutticoltura, No 2, 1987: Le kaki. Grain ge, M & Ahmed, S: Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties . Wiley , 1988. Kitagawa , H & Glucina , P G: Persimmon Culture in New Zealand. New Zealand DSIR, 1984. Krussmann , G: Manual of Cultivated Broad- Leaved Trees & Shru bs. Batsford , 1984. Re ich , L: Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley, 1991. Ryugo, K: Fruit Culture. John Wi ley, 1988. Wang . Z: Persimmon Production in China. NNGA An nual Report 85: 154-155, 1994. Westwood, M N: T emperate-Zone Pomofogy. Timber Press, 1993. Whealy, K & Demuth, S: Fruit. Berry and Nut In ventory. Seed Saver Publi cations, 1993.

Page 10

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Cherries (1 ) Description of species
Introduction
There are a large number of useful cherry species which form the majo ri ty of species within the Prunus genus. Of the usefu l species, many have edible fruits, though few are as sweet as the fruits from cultivars of Prunus av;um, the sweet cherry. The species list below contains informa tion on all known useful cherry species; note that the 'sa nd cherries', P.besseyi and p.pumila, are closer to the plum family and have been included in the article on minor plum species in Agroforestry News. Vol 4 No 2. Most cherri es like a well-drained light soil and sun or part shade. Flowering can be very early to quite late, hence some care may need to be taken not to expose flowering trees to late frosts if fruit are wanted. Flowering and fruiting is always better in a sunny position. Cherry species vary from la rge trees of 18 m (60 tt) to small prostrate shrubs, only 50 cm (18") high, and a species can be chosen for almost any position. A small number of cultivars bred for fru it quality of the minor cherry species are still available in North America, although most of the hardy selections from breeding programmes 80-100 years ago have been fast. Where available, these cultivars are mentioned in the text below. Cu ltivars of the sweet cherry (P.avium), duke cherry (P. x gondounil) and sour cherry (P.ce rasus) are not included below, as they will be treated with greater detail in a later article. Apart from these three, the species with the best potential for fruiting and quality fruits in Britain are P.canescens. P.dawyckensis, PJruticosa, P.humilis, P.serotina, P.tomentosa and P.virginiana. All fruits contain a sing le seed. The seeds (kernels) of many species can be edible; however, most, if not all members of the Prunus genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour; it is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten , and similarly references to edible leaves should be treated with great caution. All plum species are insect-pollinated, and although only those known definitely to attract bees have been listed as bee plants , in all likelihood all will attract bees. The leaves and fruits of all species can be used for dyeing . The leaves give shades of green; the fruits generally give green to dark grey.

General propagation methods
Seed: The easiest method of propagation is by seed. Seeds require 2 - 4 months co ld stratification ; if in doubt, give 4 months, or if possible sow in the autumn. To cold stratify, mix with moist sand or peat and keep in a fridge, or leave outside (protected from rodents). Seeds can sometimes wait a further year before germinating. Cuttings:Cuttings of ha lf-ripe wood with a heel in July-August under glass. Softwood cuttings can be taken from strong ly growing plan ts in spring to early summer under glass. Root cuttings in winter can be taken from suckering species. Layering in spring. Division: For suckering species, division of suckers can be undertaken in the winter.

Prunus alabamensis USA A tree where native, to 10m (32 ft) high . White flowers in May-June are followed by 1 cm thick , round fruits . eventually nearly black . Hardy to zone 7 (_15 °C . ) • Edible fruits - raw or cooked; the flesh is thin and sour. Edible seed. Prunus apetala Japan A bushy shrub or small tree to 5 m (16 ft)high. White flowers in May are followed by nearly round black fruits , 8 mm across. Hardy to zone 6 (-20°C.) Edible fruits - raw or cooked. Prunus avium Europe, W.Asia Bird cherry, Sweet cherry, Wild cherry, Gean, Mazzard Vigorous trees growing to 18 m (60 tt) high , occasionally more, with a pyramidal upright form. White flower in April-May are followed by blackish-red or yellow fruits, ripening in July-August. Fruit buds are mainly on spurs . Wild sweet cherries can bear fruit w ith varying colours , shapes, tastes and sizes and are sometimes small and bitter. Hardy to zone 3 (-31 " C.) Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Many cultivars have been selected and bred. • Edib le gum exudation from trun k. • The fruit stalks and fruit are used medicinally. The stalks are diuretic and anti-uricaemic. Bee plant: source of nectar and pollen for honey and bumble bees in April. • The bark contains varying amounts of tannins, of use for tanning . • Various selections have been made for use as cherry rootstocks (eg 'mazzard '). • An important forestry tree with valuable timber, used for furniture , musical instruments , veneer, inlays, fuel. Prunus bifrons Himalayas A small shrub , only 1-1.5 m (3-5 tt) high , sometimes prostrate, closely related to P.jacquemontii. Pink flowers, appearing with the foliage, are followed by roundish amber-red fruits, 8 mm thick. Hardy to zone 5 (-23 °C.) • Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Prunus buergeriana Japan, Korea A small tree to 9-10 m (30-32 tt) high. White flowers are followed by nearly round , black fruits. Hardy to zone 5 (-23 °C.) • Edible fruits - small, poor quality; so metimes preserved (s alted) and used as a condiment. Twigs and leaves have an insecticidal effect against fruit flies (Drosophila hydei). Prunus campanulata
Taiwan cherry S.Japan,Taiwan
A tree in its habitat to 7-10 m (2332 ft) high , often a large shrub in cultivation . The flowers in April-May are an unusual deep wine-red , appearing before or with the foliage; fruits are red, conical, 11 mm across by 15 mm long. Hardy to zone 8 (-12 " C) - only for mild areas . Edible fruit - raw or cooked. May need • astring ency removing

Page 8

A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

j

~ ---

--

---~

---

----

--

Prunus canescens Greyleaf cherry C & W.China Forms a dense bushy shrub, 1.4-2 m (5-6 ft) high with steeply ascending branches ; light pink flowers in April-May followed by light red , round fruits , 10-12 m. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C.) Fruits are edible with a plea sa nt cherry flavour. Several hybrid selections are being de velo ped as cherry rootstocks, including GM 79. Prunus cerasoides Himalayas A small tree to 10 m (32 tt) high , flowering in April and closely related to P.campanulata. Carm ine flowers are borne well before the leaves in February-March, followed by yellow or red, thin-fleshed fruits. Only hardy to zone 9 (-re.) The variety rubea is a large tree from Bhutan/Burma/Chinallndia with ellip soid red fruits , 15 mm long; majestica is hardy to -1 DOC: in its native habitat, this flowers in November, fruits ripening in Apri l-May. For mild areas only. Edible fruits - acid and astringent, usually cooked or used for brewing. • Edible gum exudation from trunk. Twigs, leaves and kernels are used medicinally in Ayurvedic medicine. • Bark is used for tanning. • The wood is moderately hard , strong , durable . aromatic; used for walking sticks, furniture, tool handles. Prunus cerasus Sour cherry, Pie cherry Europe, W .Asia Trees varying from small and round to large and spreading; most often small . 5-8 m (16-27 tt) high, and suckering. White flo we rs in late April-early May are followed by blackish-red round fruits . Fruits are acid . the flesh varying from almost co lourless through shades of red to nearly black. Hardy to zone 3 (-31°C) and tolerant of bacterial canker. Edible fruits - usually cooked. An important commercial species with numerous cultivars. The dark-fleshed types with red jui ce (var. austera) are classified as morello or griotte, the ligh t fleshed forms (var. caproniana) with colourless juice as amarelle or kentish , and the types with very small, dark, bitter fruit (var. marasca) as Marasca (used to make a distilled liqueur and a speciality jam ). • Fruits are edible . usually cooked, or made into preserves. • Edible gum exudation from the trunk; also used in fabric printing as an adhesive. • Edible oil from the kernel (needs refining before use); also used in perfumery. Edible leaves - used in teas and pickles. Fruit stalks and juice are used medicinally. • Various selections have been made for use as sour and sweet cherry rootstocks. • Bee plant in April-May. • Timber is used for turnery. inlay, musical instruments, furniture . • Can be used in hedges - fairly wind-tolerant. Prunus cerasus var. frutescens Bush sour cherry A population of a dwarf natural variety , with a shrubby habit to 1 m high in dry mountainous areas, higher in cultivation. Fruits with light colourless juice, always sour. A suckering shrub. Same uses as above. Prunus cerasus x P.pensylvanica
Edible fruit. A number of cultivars were bred and released in the early 1900's in the USA. C.China An ornamenta l shrub or small tree , only 2-4 m (6-13 tt) high. Abundant white flowers appear before the leaves, followed by purple-black fruits. Selections are being tested as very dwarfing che rry rootstocks. Prunus corn uta Himalayan bird cherry Himalayas A small tree to 5 m (16 tt) high in cultivation (much taller in its native habitat) . White flowers in late May, after the lea ves emerge, are followed by round , pea-sized (8 mm), purple-brown fruit. Hardy to zone 5 (-23°C.) Edible fruits - raw or cooked; acid. •

Prunus concinna

Prunus dawyckensis Oawyck cherry China A small tree to 5 m (16 ft) or so high, sometimes more , Light pink flowers in April , before the lea ves. are followed by ellipsoid , yellowish-red fruits , 15 mm long , juicy and quite sweet. hardy to zone 6 (-21 " C). • Edible fruit - sweet. • Several hybrid selections are being evaluated as cherry rootstocks, including the clone GM 61/1. Prunu.s dielsiana N.China A shrub or small tree up to 6 m (20 ft)high. White to reddish flowers appear before the leaves in April, and are followed by oval red fruits , 8 mm thick. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C). Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Prunus x eminens
Hybrids between the sour and ground cherries (P.cerasus x P.fruticosa) , often included in lists of 'sour' cherries. Upright shrubs , 1-3 m (3-10 ft) high. Hardy to zone 4 (-25°C). Edible fruit - raw or cooked. In some doubt. • • Several selections are being tested as cherry rootstocks from the Giessen series.

*

Prunus

X

fontanesiana

Hybrids of sweet and St Lucie cherries (Prunus avium x P.maha/eb). Large, fast-growing trees, similar to P.avium, with white flowers in April-May and small numbers of small, deep red-black, somewhat bitter fruits . Hardy to zone 5 (-23°C). • Edible fruit - raw or cooked: somewhat bitter. • Several hybrid selections are being evaluated as cherry rootstocks , including the M x M and OCR clones. Prunus fruticosa Ground cherry, Steppe cherry C & E.Europe, Siberia Generally a spreading, suckering bush 1-1. 3 m (3-4 ft) high with pendulous branches and tough glossy leaves. Whi te flowers in April-May are followed by dark red fruits with doublypointed stones. The fruit can be round, oval, or pear-shaped and 1-3 g in weight; and varies from acidic to sweetly acidic, always having a mild astringency. In cultivation, the shrubs lives for 10-12 years. Extremely hardy, to zone 2/3 (-3 aOC). Used ornamentally as a street tree when grafted high on a standard rootstock. • Edible fruit - usually cooked (harsh , acid raw), with a cherry-like flavour. Of some economic importance in the former USSR, where much selection has taken place to improve fruit size and sweetness; large-fruited selections are sometimes called 'sour cherries' . • Various selections have been made for use as sweet cherry rootstocks , inducing good precocity. Prunus glandulosa Dwarf flowering almond China, Japan A small shrub to 1.5 m (5 ft) high. White to light pink flowers in late April are followed by roundish, dark purple-red fruit s. 1 cm thick , often freely borne , ripening in late September. Notable for being resi stant to plum pox (sharka) virus. Likes a warm sunny position. Edible seed - small. • Edible fruits - usually in preserves or pickles. Prunus X gondouinii Duke cherry, Royal cherry Hybrids between the sour and sweet cherry (P.cerasus x P.avium) . A small or medium sized tree, intermediate between its parents, growing 10-20 m (32 -65 tt) high, flowering in Apri lMay. Hardy to zone 4 (_29°C). Fruits are large, like a heart cherry. generally sour. • Edible fruit - usua ll y cooked as they are sour. A number of cultivars (about 65) have been bred, often included in lists of 'sour' cherries. Cultivars bear fruits varying in quality from sour to sweet. Yields from Duke cherries are low yielding, and only cultivars with early ripening fruit and a high sugar content are usually grown , which receive a premium price at market. Timber - used for turnerv.

Page 64

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Prunus grayana Japanese bird cherry Japan A small tree, 5-7 m (16-23 tt) high in Japan but often smaller in cultivation. White flowers in June are followed by roundish, pointed fruits, becoming black, 8 mm thick, with smooth stones. Hardy to zone 6 (-2 1°C) . Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Eaten young, salted in Japan with salted flower buds. • Edible flower buds - though not recommended seeing as leaves are insecticidal! • Leaves have an in secticidal effect against fruit flies (Drosophila sp.). The timber is hard and used for printing blocks , engraving , turnery , handles, furniture , utensils. Prunus humilis Bunge cherry N.China An upright shrub to 1.5 m (5 tt) high, found on dry sunny mountain slopes. Whitish-pink flowers appear with the foliage on the previous year's wood in April -May, and are followed by nearly round, bright red fruits, 12-15 mm thick . Notable for being moderately resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria spp). Hardy to zone 5 (-23 °C). Edible fruits - somewhat acid and sour, usually cooked. Cultivated in N .Chi na for its fruits. Prunus incana Willow cherry SE .Europe, W.Asia A sma ll open shrub, 1.5-2 m (5-6 tt) high , loose and upright growing . Bright pink flowers , appearing with the foliage in late April, are occasionally followed by round , red , pea-sized (8 mm) fruits. Hardy to zone 6 (-21 °C). • Edible fruit - raw or cooked . Prunus incisa Fuji cherry Japan A round-crowned shrub or sometimes a small tree, to 3-5 m ( 10-16 ft) high or more. White flowers in late March-April are occasionally followed by oval, purple-black fruits, 6-8 mm long. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C), mod. resistant to bacterial canker. Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Can be used for hedging. Selections are used as a dwarfing cherry rootstock. Prunus japonica Flowering almond, Chinese bush cherry C.China, E.Asia A small, finely-branched sh rub , 1-1.5 m (3-5 tt) high. Whitish-pink flowers appear wit h the leaves in April-May, and are occasionally followed by roundish , wine-red fruits , 8-13 mm thick , with doubly-pointed stones Hardy to zo ne 4 (-29°C) but subject to die-back in the UK. Notable for tolerating seasonal flooding . The natural variety nakai is a smaller shrub , only 50 cm high , with large, plum-like fruits up to 5 cm in diameter. • Edib le fruit - usually cooked, variable quality. Those from the nakai variety are sweet with a cherry flavour. Several cultivars were bred & released in the early 1900's in the USA. • Leaves have an insecticidal effect against fruit flies (Drosophila hydei) . The leaves, seed kernels and roots are all used in Chinese medicine. Prunus japonica X P.besseyi Edible fruit. A number of cultivars were bred and released in the early 1900's in the USA. Prunus maackii Amur cherry, Manchurian cherry Korea, Manchuria A broadly conical tree to 10m (32 ft) high with highly ornamental brownish ye ll ow peeling bark. White flowers, on older wood, in April are followed by small, black , round fruits, 5 mm thick. Extremely hardy, to zone 2 (-40°C). Bark & flowers insecticidal against mosquitoes (Aedes punctor) & bed bugs (Cimex fectufarus). Prunus mahaleb St Lucie cherry Europe, W.Asia Upright to spreading, fast growing small trees to 10-12 m (32-40 tt) high , often bushy, found growing wild on gravely, well-drained, infertile soils throughout central Europe and Asia. Grow 5-7 m high in cultivation. White fragrant flowers in May are followed by 6-7 mm black or yellow fruits with red-black astringent flesh, ripening in July. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C), moderately resistant to bacterial canker.

Edible fruit· usually cooked. Edible leaves· used for flavouring. Edible seed kernels· cooked; use with care. • The seeds ha ve been used medicinally as a tonic. • Various selections have been made for use as sour and sweet cherry rootstocks on calcareous droughty soi ls. • The hard, aromatic, brown·veined wood is used for turnery , cabinet making, pipe stems. • Used in forestry in Germany and E.Europe , in reforestation projects and windbreaks. Prunus maximowiczii Miyana cherry N.China, Japan, Korea A sma" , dense·headed tree to about 7 m (23 ft ) high, sometimes more. Creamy·white flowers appear in May, after the foliage , and are followed by smal" roundish reddi sh-black fruits , 5 mm across , which ripen in August. Hardy to zone 5 (-23 C). • Edible fruit· raw or cooked, but very small. • Edible flowers - used in preserves . • The timber is hard, close grained, very heavy; used for furniture , utensils, sculptures. Prunus microcarpa Asia minor A variable species, shrubby to 1-2.5 m (3-8 tt) high , densely branched. Whitish-pink flowers In Apri l are fol lowed by dark red or yellow fruits, 10-12 mm long. Hardy to zone 5 (_23 °C), likes a hot dry location. • Edibl e fruit· raw or cooked. Some doubt about this one. Prunus mugus Tibetan cherry W.China A low compact shrub. 90-180 cm (3-6 tt) high. Pink flowers are followed by dark red fruits. • Selections are being tested as very dwarfing cherry rootstocks . Prunus nipponica Japanese alpine cherry Japan A tall open shrub to 5 m (16 tt) high. White flowers in April-May are followed by round , purple black fruits, 8 mm th ick. Hardy to zone 6 (-21 D C). • Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Prunus padus Bird cherry Europe, Asia A medium sized tree to 15 m (50 ft) high with a dense crown and somewhat nodd ing branches. White fragrant flowers appear in April-May , after the foliage , and are followed by round , pea-sized, black fruits , bitter and acid. Hardy to zone 4 (_29°C). Very tolerant of shade. • Edible fruit - cooked: variable quality, usually bitter. • Young leaves have been eaten cooked, and the bark used in tea (not recommended .) • Edible flowers. • The whole plant is insecticidal against flies , lice and midges ; the bark, shoots and leaves are insectidical against fruit flies (Drosophila sp.). mosquitoes , ticks , and hou e flies (Musca domestica). ~" Bark & shoots have been used medicinally. The bark is diuretic, ~ 'I ~ sedative , a mild pain-killer and \ alleviates fever; it is cut when the tree \ is in flower and dried in the shade. Caution - poisonous. • Bark can be used for dyeing: gives yellowish-brown with alum mordant. • Bee plant: Source of nectar and pollen for honey and bumble bees in May. • Used in forestry for screen plantings and reforestation projects. Timber is used for fumiture , shipbuilding, joinery. The young stems are tough and have been used P.pensyfvanica in the past for cooperage rings.
D

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

- =--"""""

--

Prunus pensylvanica Wild red cherry, Pin cherry Canada, USA A fast-growing large s hrub or small tree varying from 4-12 m ( 13-40 tt) tall. White flowers appear with the foliage in May, and are followed by round , red , 6 mm fruits , ripening Jul ySeptember. Extremely hardy, to zone 2 (-39 '" C.) Edible fruit - cooked: usually sour with thin flesh. • Edible gum exudation from trunk . Inner bark used medicinally. Bee plant in May. Wood is used for turnery. Used in reforestation as a soil stabiliser. especially on burnt land. Prunus prostrata Rock cherry. Mountain cherry Mediterranean , W.Asia A variable , prostrate or small , spreading, gnarled shrub only growing 50-100 em (18-40 ~ ) high , found in the mountains of the Mediterranean region. It bears pink flowers in May which are followed by roundish, black-red fruits, 8-12 mm thick. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C.) Likes a hot dry position. Edible fruits - poor quality. Prunus pseudocerasus Chinese sour cherry. Bastard cherry N.China A variable small tree or shrub 2.5-8 m (8-20 tt) high resembling the sour cherry , P.cerasus . Pinkish-white flowers appear before or with the fol iage in March, and are followed by oval, yellowish-red fruits, 15 mm long and somewhat sweet. ripening early - in June. Hardy to zone 6 (_21 °C). Propagates well from cuttings. Edible fruits - quite sweet. The fruits are of some economic importance in N.China . In Victorian times, plants were ' forced' in pots in glasshouses for early fruit production in Britain. Edible flowers - salted and used in tea. Prunus rufa Himalayan cherry Himalayas A small wide tree to 6-7 m (20-23 tt) high with ornamental bark. White to pale p ' flowers in May are followed by ellipsoid, dark red fleshy fruits. Hardy to zone 8 (-12 °C.) Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Prunus sargentii
Sargent cherry Japan A tall, broad upright tree , 15-18 m (50-60 ft) high, with ornamental reddish bark. The pink flowers appear in April before the leaves, and are followed by oval-oblong, glossy dark red fruits, 1 cm long. Very colourful leaves in autumn. Hardy to zone 5 (23° C.) Edible fruit - raw or cooked. Bee plant: Source of nectar and pollen for honey and bumble bees in March-April. Used in forestry for erosion control. Timber is used for turnery and furniture.

Prunus X schmittii A hybrid of P.avium x P.canescens, intermediate between its parents but nearer P.canescens. A small to. medium tree with a narrow upright habit and ornamental bark.

Prunus serotina Rum cherry, Black cherry, Wild black cherry Canada, USA A large forest tree, growing to 35 m (115 tt) high in its native habitat, rather less in cultivation - small to medium in Britain. White flowers in late May-June are followed by egg-shaped fruits, 8-10 mm thick, dark purple, bitter, ripening in August-September. Hardy to zone 4 (-29°C.) Flowers and fruits well in Britain. Edible fruit - usually cooked: variable, can be sweet or bitter, sometimes with a vinous flavour. Good cooker and made into cider . A number of cultivars were bred and released in the early 1900's in the USA. • The"tshoots are used to make a tea. • A bark extract is used commercially to flavour soft drinks, sweets etc. The root bark and shoots have been used medicinally. • A reddish-purple dye is obtained from the roots with an alum mordant. • Bee plant in May-June. • An important forestry species in Central Europe and North America. The timber is valuable, used for cabinet making, musical and scientific instruments, and joinery. Prunus serrula Birch bark cherry, Tibetan cherry China A vigorous small tree or multistemmed shrub, growing 7-12 m (23-40 ft) high, with highly ornamental glossy older bark. White flowers appear with the foliage in April-May, and are followed by red oval fruits, 6-12 mm long. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C.) • Edible fruit. • Occasionally used as a rootstock. Prunus serrulata Japan, China, Korea Chinese mountain cherry, Japanese mountain cherry, Japanese flowering cherry A shrub or very small tree, reaching 2-3 m (6-10 ft) high , with pure white flo wers opening with the foliage in April-May, follo wed by round, dark reddish-black fruits, 7 mm thick. Hardy to zone 6 (-21°C), moderately resistant to bacterial canker. Many of the ornamental Japanese flowering cherries belong here. Edible fruits (6-8 mm across). Not borne on many ornamental cultivars. • Edible flowers - pickled in salt in Japan. • Bee plant. • Used for erosion control in forestry. • Selections can be used as cherry rootstocks. Prunus speciosa Oshima cherry Japan An open-crowned small tree, to 10-12 m (32-40 ft) high . White flowers appear with the foliage in April. Many of the ornamental Japanese flowering cherries belong here. • Much used in Japan as a rootstock. • Timber is used for furniture and turnery. Prunus ssiori NE.Asia, Japan A small tree to 10 m (32 ft) high (larger in Japan) with a broad crown. White flowers appear before the foliage, and are followed by flattish-round fruits, 1 cm thick, eventually black. Hardy to zone 5 (_23°C.) • Edible fruit - raw or cooked. The wood is heavy, hard , strong, close grained , durable; used for shafts , utensils, engraving. Prunus subhirtella Higan cherry, Rosebud cherry, Spring cherry Japan A large shrub or small forking tree (much larger in Japan). Pinki sh-white flowers appear in April before the leaves , and are followed by oval-rounded fruits, purplish-black , 9 mm long. Hardy to zone 6 (-21 C.) Va lued as an ornamental in Japan. • Edible fruit - raw or cooked: poor quality. Edible flowers - salted and used in tea.
D

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

..
Prunus tomentosa
China, Japan, Himalayas Nanking cherry. Manchu bush cherry, Downy cherry, Korean cherry A dense spreadi ng shrub usually 1-1.5 m (3-5 ft) high (sometimes double) with numerous branches and many suckers. White flowers appear with the foliage in March-April, and are followed by roundish fruits , yellowish pink to dark red, 1 em thick, slightly hairy, varying in weight from 1 to 4.6 g, ripening in July. Well adapted to cold areas - hardy to zone 3 (-31°C.) Susceptible to honey fungus (Armillaria spp), Crown gall, bacterial canker and plum pox. Edible fruit: sweet or sub-acid, juicy. The unripe fruits can be pickled. A number of cultivars were bred and released in the early 1900's in the USA, including 'Baton • Rouge, 'Orilea ', 'Eileen ', 'Monroe', 'O rient' and P.tomentosa 'S late '; there have been many breeding programmes in Russia, and recent Russian releases include good flavoured and large-fruited (15 mm) 'Alisa', 'Cheres hnevaya ', 'Oetskaya', ' Natali' , 'Okeanskaya', 'Smuglyanka' and 'Vostochnaya'. Most seedlings produce tasty fruit. • Used as a windbreak in the severe climates of C.USA. • Occasionally used as a dwarfing peach rootstock, although it induces small fruit size.

Prunus tomentosa x P.besseyi
Extremely hardy hybrids, hardy to zone 3 (-3rC.) • Edible fruit. A number of cultivars were bred and released in the early 1900's in the USA. Occasionally used as a dwarfing peach rootstock .

Prunus virens

USA

A semi-evergreen shrub or small tree. Fruits are purplish-black. Edible fruits - raw or cooked: bittersweet. Prunus virginiana Chokecherry, Virginian bird cherry A suckering shrub or small tree. White flowers appear before the foliage in late May-June, and are followed by round, reddish-purple fruits, 1 cm thick, ripening July-October. Very hardy, to zone 2 (40°C), moderately resistant to bacterial canker. The natural variety demissa is more shrubby, to 1-3 m (3-10 tt) high; melanocarpa bears nearly black, bitter fruits. Fruits moderately well in Britain. Edible fruit - bittersweet: usually cooked. Can be eaten raw if dried. The cultivar 'Johnson ' has larger and sweeter fruits. • Twigs & bark used to make a tea. • Edible kernels - care should be taken. Bark has been used medicinally. Dyes are obtained from the fruit. shoots. and leaves : shoots & leaves

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Page 39

orange with tin , olive green with iron, tan with no mordant; fruits give fading dyes, pinkishtan with alum, olive green with chrome, tan with copper, li ght olive with tin , grey-green with iron, pink-beige with no mordant. The inner bark gives a green dye in spring. Bee plant in May-June. • Used in forestry in the USA for erosion control. • The wood is close-grained, strong, hard, heavy; used for skewers etc. Prunus X yedoensis Tokyo cherry, Yoshino cherry Japan Hybrids of unknown origin , making small to medium rounded trees , 12-15 m (40-50 ft) high . Pinkish-white ffowers in late March-April are followed by round, black , 1 cm fruits. Hardy to zone 6 (-21 °C . ) Edible fruit - raw or cooked. • Good bee plant: Source of nectar and pollen for honey and bumble bees in Aprif. • A selection is under trial as a cherry rootstock . Numerous hybrids have been bred, and are continuing to be bred, selected and tested throughout the world. These include selections of the following crosses: Prunus avium x P.ps eudocerasus The 'Colt' cherry rootstock is of this parentage, resistant to bacterial canker. Prunus canescens x P.avium Includes a Giessen clone. Prunus canescens x P .cerasus Several Giessen clones Prunus cerasus x P.canescens Several Giessen clones. Prunus fruticosa x P.avium Includes some Giessen clones. Prunus fruticosa x P .cerasus Includes 'Oppenheim' and some Giessen c lones. Prunus incisa x P.serrula Includes the 'GM9' rootstock.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust. A.R.T. Useful plants database, 1996. Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Vol 3. John Murray, 1981. Grainge, M & Ahmed , S : Handbook of Plants with Pest-Control Properties. Wiley , 1988 . Krussman, G: Manual of Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford, 1984. Moore , J & Ballington Jr, J: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS , 1990. Parmar, C: An Autumn-blooming wild cherry from the Himalayas . Pomona , Vol xxiv No 3 (Summer 1991). Payne , J et al: Neglected Native Fruit Trees and Shrubs. NNGA 81st Annual Report (1990). Reich , L: Uncommon Fru its Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley , 1991 . Rom , R & Carlson , R: Rootstocks for Fruit Crops . Wiley , 1987. Webster, A & Looney. N: Cherries: Crop Physiology, Production and Uses.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 2

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculture! horticulture to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing toad, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures p,oviding shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self·sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust tour times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 40 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publicatior,s, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

~------------===

Agroforestry News

Volume 5 Number 3 April 1997

c

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)
I'

Volume 5 Number 3

April 1997

Contents
2 News 4 Cherry silviculture 7 Forest Farming of Ginseng 10 Book Reviews: The Pruning Handbook I Mushrooms of
North America in Color I Burcombes, Queenies and Colloggetts I Fruit Breeding

12 21 24 36 39

Cherries (2): Rootstocks Refrigeration and freezing of chestnuts Gooseberries Pigs in the forest A.R.T. Nut trials

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops ; such crops, if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be admin istered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust , 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, Tag 6JT. U.K.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 1

News
No name change
Suggestions for new names for this journal included ' Forest Gardening ' and 'Tree Crops ', but the general consensus about a name change for Agroforestry News from readers seems to be: leave it as it is . Hence for the foreseeable future , it will remain as it is. Thanks to all who wrote in with their comments.

No-dig anti-rabbit netting
Clive Simms, who runs a nursery in Lincolnshire , has written with details of measures he has had to take recently: anti-rabbit "After fourteen years of never seeing a rabbit I was horrified last winter to note clear signs that rabbits were beginning to have nocturnal frolics in the nursery and providing a free pruning service to any plant which took their fancy . The solution was to net the entire area which I proceeded to do without delay. The only problem was an established Leylandii hedge: to do the thing properly I should dig a trench to allow netting to be sunk into the ground and bent outwards to prevent the rabbit burrowing . However, the soil is very heavy clay and full of Leylandii roots so I utilised old cement roof tiles (readily available from roofers during re-tiling work and often free) by fixing the bottom edge of the mesh onto the tile by means of the two nail holes which are moulded into the tile . This allows the rabbit netting to be 'fixed ' to ground level and the tile is then placed so that any rabbit which tries to burrow underneath is sitting on the tile and so can 't burrow. So far it seems to have worked although I suspect I'm only defending myself against the advance guard , whether it would still protect me from the main body of the army should they move this way I don't know! ft Clive's method Devon method

i
Wire tie Roofing tile (flat type ) Another no-dig method (illustrated on the right above) , sometimes used around here in Devon where the ground is stony (shillet is common - a layered slate -like stone) is to bend the netting outwards, but instead of burying it, just lay stone along the outward laid edge. This is soon overgrown with grasses etc and appears to remain fairly rabbit-proof.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

1997 tours of ART projects
These will be a repeat of the successful days we had last year, with a tour around the Trust nursery, Forest garden project , and main trials site with Martin Crawford. This year they will be on Sunday 8th June and Sunday 28th September. Please see enclosed flyer for more details.

Forest gardening root crops revisited
In response to the article in the last issue of Agroforestry News , on root an bulb crops for forest gardens , Andrew Clarke of Gwynedd has written with a couple of suggestions to add to

r

the list of specie s: Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum) This vigorous biennial is worthy of a place in any forest garden, and has self-seeded over a large area on site, producing excellent ground cover at a time when little else is showing. It is virtually evergreen, though did suffer in the recent heavy snow and hard frosts - it wilted badly, but soon recovered fully when the temperature rose. Grows well under the canopy of the fruit trees, both in summer and winter. Has formed a major part of my winter salad greens, the leaves having a celery -like flavour. I have not tried the roots yet. but they are reputed to be quite acceptable, and the seeds ca n be added to salads or ground to produce a condiment with a pungent flavour. [ Alexanders is a member of the Umbellifer family, native to Europe and Asia and brought to Britain by the Romans who used it extensively; it naturalised very quickly, and is now often found along hedges near the sea. It grows 75-120 cm (2Yz -4 ft) high in most soils and is quite ha rdy in Britain. As well as having edible young shoots, leaves, flower buds, stems and roots (all with a celery-like flavour) , it has edible seeds, which are peppery and can be used as a condiment. It is also a good bee plant and has been used for dyeing. 1 Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) A little known perennial from South America which is second only to the potato in economic importance in that region. The foliage is excellent edible, with a sharp lemony taste - good sa lad ings. The tubers are even better, with a sweet/acid flavour and can be used raw or cooked (boiled or baked). Sadly, these do not rea ch a great size in the U.K. due to problems with daylength requirements in these latitudes. I have been selecting the tubers over the last few years, which are typically 35-70 mm long by 10-20 mm wide, and by saving the better specimens hope to produce a strain with a better size one day. It is one of the few useful species which has survived serious encroachment by weeds such as bracken , couch grass, dock and nettie in areas of the site which have been neglected for several years, and does well in both a sun ny or shady location, though prefers the former. [ The lemony flavour of oca leaves comes from oxalic acid - as in sorrel - and is fine in small amounts, but shouldn't be overindulged. Oca is hardier than potatoes, and in sheltered sites the tubers may overwinter successfully, although normally they are harvested in autumn after the foliage is cut down by frosts, and stored indoors overwinter before replanting in spring. It grows to 45 cm (1~ tt) high and likes a light or medium soil - good drainage is important. The tubers only start to form after 21st September, hence the best yields are likely in areas where the first autumn frosts are late. ]

New edition of 'Bamboos '
A comp letely updated and revised edition of Bamboos is now available , which includes sections on cultivation and management, using bamboos for ground cover, hedging , cane production and edible shoot production, and an extensive bamboo directory section which gives details of all species and varieties available in Britain, along with synonyms and common names. Bamboos. 2nd Revised Edition, 1997. AS, 48 pp . Price: £8 .00 plus £1.20 P & P from A.R.T.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 3

Cherry silviculture
Of the two native UK species, only wild cherry (mazzard, gean), Prunus avium, grows to timber size; the bird cherry, P.padus, remains a small tree only really suited for using for firewood . The American or black cherry, P.serotina, is vigorous and attains a reasonable size but is not often used because it is an alternate host to an aph id carrier of a sugar beet virus [though since sugar beet is only cultivated in certain areas, this restriction need not be blank"t.] Wild cherry is a surprising ly under-used tree: it is easy to estab li sh, very productive, has short rotations, it has attractive flowers and a much sought after timber. It also has very good potential in agroforestry.

Silviculture
Wild cherry occurs naturally over most of Europe , from the Mediterranean countries north to southern Scandinavia . It is found throughout Britain and is mainly found as a woodland tree in S & E.England, and in hedgerows and copses in E. Scotland. It is essentially a lowland species, se ldom found above 300 m (1000 ft). Under favourable conditions, wild cherry will reach 20 m (70 ft) in height and 60 cm (2 ft) breast height diameter in 50-60 years. Most that is currently harvested has arisen naturally as a minor component of existing broad-leaved woodland, where they are a va luable addition to the stand. Wild cherries are relatively short lived and best results are achieved when it is grown to merchantable size as fast as possible. Cherry has strong apical dominance fie usually retains a central leading shoot], and relatively weak phototropic tendencies lie does not grow strongly away from shade], usually resulting in the tree developing and retaining a single straight leading shoot. Cherry only coppices well when young and the stump is fairly small; it suckers well after cutting , though.

Siting
For timber production, cherry trees should be used which have been grown from seed obtained from healthy forest trees of good vigour and form. Within a decade or so, superior cultivars raised for their timber form , growth rate and pest/disease resistance should become available as a result of the wo rk being carried out at HRI , East Mailin g, which started in 1988 . These vegetatively propagated forms (some hybrids of wild cherry with P.sargentii for cherry blackfly resistance) are likely to be expensive planting stock but may be worth considering; in time, seed orchards containing such improved varieties may also be established. Similar breeding programmes are being carried out in France, Belgium and Italy. There are of course dangers from planting with too limited a range of genetic material. Cherries should only be planted on fertile, deep, well drained but moist soils, ideally with an acid pH of 5.0-6.5 (although pH 4 to 8 is tolerated) . Deep loams over chalk are also suitable, cherry being reasonably lime-tolerant. Sites which are exposed or prone to waterlogging should be avoided; trees become deformed in exposed situations. Cherries are very droughttolerant, more so than most forest trees; they are also strongly light-demanding (except when very young) which helps to ensure good straight stems. They grow well as part of a mixed stand of broadleaves (combining particularly well with ash, beech , chestnut, oak), but can also be grown in clumps where shelter and fertility are ideal, or even in stands on its own (though these are more susceptible to canker and honey fungus). Because of the earlymaturing nature of cherry compared with other broadleaves, they may have a useful place as an early-maturing component of mixtures. It is often regarded as an ideal species for woodland edges. Because of its straight-growing tendency , stocking levels can be lower than for other broadleaves, because less selection is needed of final crop trees; planting at 3 x 3 m ( 10 x 10 ft) is recommended - ie 1100 trees/ha (436 trees/acre).

Page 4

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Cherry is more toleran t of grass competition after a fe w years than most species ; however, young trees are sensitive to weed competition , and will benefit from weed contro l after planting - indeed , good weed contro l can nearly double ea rly height growth. Use of treeshelters increases initial growth (which can be 80-130 em [32-52 ") per year in shelters ) but trees grow out of the shelte r quickly, hence th is benefit is soon lost. Use of such shelters can also make pruning of low side branches very difficult until the shelter disinteg rates or is removed .

Growth and care
Early growth is rapid , 60 em (2 tt) per yea r on reasonable sites, with heights of 6 m (20 tt) achieved in 10 years. G rowt h continues at a hig h rate and diameter increases of 1 cm per year are achievable. Cherry needs heavy, regular thi nnings to be kept well th inned and given plentiful side light to enha nce both diameter growth and flowering ; crowns should be unimpeded. A fi nal crop of 140-1 60 trees/ha (56-64 trees/acre) (ie at an a verage of 7.9-8.5 m [26-28 ttl apart) is the no rm al aim. Vigo rous , straight trees with fi ne branch ing should be favoured in tending and thinn in g. High prune to 4.5 or even 6 m (15-20 ft) to achieve top quality ste m s in July (to m inim ise infection risk from bacteria l can k er and silver leaf disease), preferably every year, as side shoots shou ld be cut when still small. Cherry is prone to 'sudden death' , often accompanied by rapid butt decay, and only healthy vigorous trees sho uld be retained. Trees sho uld be harvested in 50-80 yea rs, when they are a minimum of 30 cm breast height diameter; past the age of 80 they are genera lly cons idered overmature and are likely to show signs of defects (eg . w indthrow), disease (eg. heart rot) and very slow growth. Such rotations are only a few years longer tha n for most con ifers. Av erage yield c lasses of 6-10 m 3 /Ha/year are achieved on most sites , which is high for a broadleaved species. The aph id Myzus cerasi (che rry black fly) is quite a serious pest, leading to stunted shoots and crown dieback most obvious in May and June; a severe infection in the ea rly years after planting can result in the death of the termina l bud and subsequent fork ing . Another aph id is hosted which ca rries the ba rley yellow dwa rf virus. Che rries are qu ite susceptib le to honey fungus (Armiflaria spp .), and sometimes suffe r from bacteria l canker (Pseudomonas morsprunorum) , particularly in wetter climates. They are rarely damaged by grey squirrels , but de er can be serious pests .

The timber
Cherry has a pa le sapwood and distinct rich reddish-brown heartwood , rarely suffe ring from shake [longitudinal fissuring]. It is an even-textured, straight and fine grained , hard , diffuseporo us wood , not unlike some tropica l ha rdwoods in appearance , and has good strengt h properties (superior to oak) . It is moderate ly durable, of medium density (610-630 Kg/m 3 ) and works we ll. It sometimes has gree n lines or veins which ca n reduce the value somewhat. It dries fairly rapidly with a tendency to warp. The wood nails, glues and stains well and can be brought to an excellent finish.

It is used for tu rn ery (domestic ware, shuttle pins , toys, musical instrument parts) , furn iture and cabinetmaking , venee rs and decorative pa nelling . It is res ista nt to penetration by wood preservatives and thus shou ld not be used in situat ions in contact with the ground. T here is a ready market fo r good quality timber, with demand greatly exceed ing supp ly, which may enlarge as there is less use of tropical ha rdwoods. The wood also makes very good fuel. Veneer grade and prime grade plank ing grade logs free of knots and irregula rities can fetch prices of £700 and £212 per m 3 respectively [1993 prices].

AGROFORESTR Y NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 5

Agroforestry uses
Because of its strongly light-demanding nature , wild cherry has better potential for producin g high quality timber (given the right conditions) in agroforestry systems than many species. It needs less pruning , especially of the formative kind, than say walnuts which are often mooted as potential intercrop trees in silvoarable systems (ie. lines of trees between strips of arable land). Given a position not exposed , and the right soil , then, wild cherry should be suitable for both si lvoarable and silvopastoral (ie. widely spaced trees in pasture) systems. In addition to the valuable timber, trees in such positions will flower and fruit well , though of course the fruits will be increasingly high up and taken mainly by birds . It is probably not worth trying to grow good timber trees from planting named fruiting va ri eties of cherry, as these will put too much energy into flower and fruit production, and rarely produce good timber form. SlIvopastoral experiments using cherry have been made in France, in humid mid-mountainous areas in Auvergne with cattle as the grazing animals . Trees are planted at lOx 10m (33 x 33 ft) spacing (100 stems/ha , 40 stems/acre); cattle grazing demands tall and strengthened shelters - 2.5 m (8 ft) tubes and 2 stakes of 2.3 m (2 m tubes are recommended for sheep grazing). After planting, grazing is at a moderate rate , averaging 1.0 cattle/ha (2.5 cattl e/acre). The results show good growth potential , although problems have been encou ntered with pruning, as branch development out of the tube makes it soon impossible to remove . It may well be better to use netting guards instead of tubes as protection in such situations, for ease of both visibility and to prune off side branches .

Flowering and propagation
Trees start to flower by the age of about 10 years (sometimes as young as 3 years), with good seed cro ps everyone to three years. Flowers are produced from early April to mid May. The fruits ripen in June and July, with natural dispersal (drop) in July and August; they are common ly collected for seed in September. The seed yield is in the range 100-530 seeds per Kg of fruit (45-240 per Ib). Seeds ca n be stored at 1°C, if dried to 11% moisture content, for up to 4!4 years. There are about 5,100 seeds/Kg (range 3,200-6,600) [2320 seeds/lb, range 1450-3000], of which about 75-80% normally germinate . Seeds can be sown immediatel y after collection, or stratified for 20 weeks (2 weeks warm, plus 18 weeks cold) and sown in March or early April. Mice are a particular threat to seed and mfi!asures should be taken to exclude them or con trol them. The recommended sowing density for sowing in seed beds is 167 g of seed per m 2 (equivalent to 870 seeds/m 2 ) [. This wi ll give on average 170 seedlings ; first year growth of seedlings is 10-40 cm (4-6~). If necessary, these can then be lined out for a further year or two before planting in their final positions. Although cuttings can be taken from cherry, they reatly only succeed from yo ung trees . The breeding programmes use both this method and micropropagation.

References
Aaron, J & Richard s, E: British Woodland Produ ce. Stobart Davies, 1990. Aldhous, J & Mason, W: Forest Nursery Practice. Forestry Comm. Bulletin 111 ; HMSO, 1994. Evans, J: Silviculture of Broadleaved Woodland . Forestry Comm. Bu ll etin 62; HMSO, 1984. Gordon , A & Rowe , D: Seed manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. Forestry Commission Bulletin 59; HMSO, 1982. Kerr, G & Evans , J: Growing Broadleaves for Timber. Forestry Commission Handbook 9; HMSO, 1993 . Lincoln , W: World Woods in Colour. Stobart Davies, 1986. Rapey , H et al: Multilocal si lvopa stora l experiment of Auvergne. Agroforestry Forum, V 4 N 3. Russel, K: Progress in wild cherry improvement at HRI , East Mailing . Woodland Heritage News , 2.

Page 6

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Va/ 5 No 3

Forest farming of ginseng
Introduction
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is highly valued as a substttute for Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng) by the Chinese, and the former is harvested both wild and cultivated in the USA and Canada. For several generations of people in the Appalachian mountain region, ~ digging sang" has been an enjoyable and profitable activity. Nearly a[1 of the ginseng harvested in North America is exported to oriental countries for sale: about 1800 tannes (4,000,000 Ib) of cultivated and wild ginseng was exported in 1994. It is also cultivated in France. The price obtained for wild dried roots is much greater than that for cultivated roots. The two are easily distinguishable; wild roots are dark tan in colour, gnarled in appearance, and show many concentric growth rings; cultivated roots are cream coloured, smooth and fat, are often large and heavy, and exhibit few concentric growth rings. The Chinese value wild roots more highly, believing that the slow-growing wild roots, which are harvested at an older age, absorb more curative power from the forest floor. The oriental wholesale buyers have quite an elaborate grading system for the dried roots. In 1995 , wild dried ginseng roots sold in the USA for as much as $470 (£285) per pound (a price which has tripled in the last 10 years), whereas cultivated dried roots sold for as little as $20 (£ 12) per pound (a price which has halved in the last 10 years). },

I

The plant
The Panax species are perennial herbs of the Araliaceae family which flower and bear berries three years after sowing. First year plants bear one palmately compound leaf with five leaflets (each up to 16 cm, 6~ long), two-year old plants bear two and so on, with one compound leaf added each year. Panax quinquefolium, American ginseng, is indigenous to the woods of Quebec and Manitoba in Canada and extends southwards to the Gulf coast. It grows about 30-50 cm (12-20~) high , bears clusters of greenish-yellow flowers from May to August, followed by kidney-shaped red berries each containing 1-3 wrinkled seeds. The mature root is usually forked, ranging from 5-10 cm (2-4") in length and up to 25 mm (1n) in diameter. The pharmacological components and properties of American ginseng are very similar to those of Chinese ginseng (P.ginseng), and are believed to be mainly due to its saponins, though other substances may also be responsible. In Chinese medicine, ginseng is prescribed as a tonic , stimulant and aphrodisiac, used in cases of neurasthenia, dyspepsia, palpitations and asthma, and is incorporated into tonics for amnesia, headaches , convulsions, dysentery and cancer. It enhances the natural resistance and recuperative powers of the body, and has the ability to maintain the body's stamina at a regular level (ie is adaptogen) , increasing the ability to tolerate stress. It is also used in lotions, creams and perfumes by the cosmetics industry. Seeds take 18 months to germinate, needing a winter-summer-winter sequence; it is sensible to sow part- or fully-stratified seed in the autumn, given a year's (6 months cold + 6 months warm) or 18 months stratification, or in the spring after 18 months stratification. Seeds should ideally not be allowed to dry out from harvest to sowing.

Intensive cultivation
About 3,800 acres of ginseng are grown in intense cultivation under artificial shade in Wisconsin. Under intense cultivation, the roots grow very quickly to a harvestable size, and are often harvested after 4 years; yields as high as 2,500 Ib (1140 Kg) of dried root per acre have been reported , though average yields are 1500-2200 Ib per acre (680-1000 Kg per acre). Establishment costs for ginseng beds are extremely high as they need wood lath shade or polypropylene shade cloth; it may cost $20,000$30,000 (£12,000-£18,000) per

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 7

acre. The greatest problem associated with intense ginseng cultivation is disease, including alternaria blight, damping off and phytophthora root rot. Any disease outbreaks severe ly threaten ginseng under intense monoculture cultivation because the plants are so close together and any disease quickly spreads [the same can be said for most monocultures}. This intense pressure forces artificial shade growers to use a frequent fungicide spray schedule to prevent losses.

Forest farming
A forest farming method can be used to grow ginseng without sprays and expensive establishment costs. The prices paid for forest-farmed ginseng are normally the same as those for wild ginseng roots . Although ginseng growing is tricky and risky, with no guaranteed yields, forestfarming ginseng has the potential to provide useful supp lemental income for folk who have patience and perseverance. The first step is site selection. The most favourable temperature and soil moisture conditions are generally associated (in N.America) with North or East facing slopes with at least a 75% shade canopy. The best shade is provided by deep rooted, deciduous trees such as poplars and oaks. Ginseng grows best in a humus-rich , moist acid s oil (of pH 5 to 6) with very good drainage, and successful growth mo st often occurs in sites where herbaceous woodland plants such as Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) , bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) , Solomon' s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) and ferns are growing. If no herbaceous plants are growing on the forest floor , ginseng will probably not grow there. Ideal growing conditions for ginseng are more difficult to find in low-lying regions (of N.America) than they are in the mountains, as the forest floor in most woodland areas is too hot and dry in summer for ginseng to survive. It seems likely that the cooler, moister conditions in the UK may be very much to ginseng 's liking. Stratified ginseng seed (already given 6 months cold plus 6 months warm stratification) is planted in the autumn when the trees lose their leaves. In some locations , clearing of undergrowth will be necessary; if the site is sufficiently shaded , there should not be a great deal of competitive weed growth . If dense patches of other herbaceous plants exist on the site, simply avoid them and disturb the site as liUle as possible.

slope for better air drainage around the plants. Rake the leaves on the forest floor away from the bed right down to the topsoil. Using the hoe, make three narrow fu rrows 13 ~ (33 em) apart along the length of the bed. Plant the ginseng seeds by hand, 3" (7 .5 em) apart in each furrow. About 1 OZ (28 g) or 500 seeds will be needed to plant three furrows at this spacing in a bed of 5 x 50 feet. Cover the seeds with .75" (2 em) of soil and then carefully step down each row to firm the soil around the seeds. Finally, rake r (2.5 em) of leaves back over the soil as a mulch. After a few weeks the site will look comp letely natural again. The stratified seed will germinate the next spring, the young plants appearing with small strawberry-l ike leaflets on a stem about 1" (2.5 cm) tall. Some of the seeds won't germinate, and others will be eaten by rodents. Over the next seven years, the plant population in each bed will be reduced by various natural forces, and the final stand will be a thin, healthy pop ulation of wild ginseng plants . W ith this method, no more work is required after planting until the ginseng roots are dug 6- 10 years later. The ginseng plants are left to the vagaries of nature: weeds will compete with them, insects and rodents may attack certain plants, fungus diseases may infect plants occasionally, and severe weather may have an effect. All of these stressful conditions result in a wild appearance of the roots that are eventually harvested. Harvesting takes place in the autumn. Digging the roots will be somewhat tricky because they often become entwined with the roots of other woodland plants. The harvested roots should be air-dried in the shade, which takes about 6 weeks; alternatively, they can be dried in a special 'cool oven' at 32-35°C for 3 weeks. Care must be taken not to mark the roots and to keep them intact. and the dried roots should be stored in a dry, airy, rodent-proof place until so ld.

Investment and marketing
The planting costs of forest farming a half acre of ginseng are about $800 (£500) for 10 Ib (4.5 Kg ) of stratified seeds, plus 20 days of labour. This area will produce anything from 0 to 200 Ib (90 Kg) of dried roots in 6-10 years. The natural fertility of the planting site will de termine the quantity and quality of the ginseng grown there. The greatest threat to the crop (in N.America) is theft - ginseng hunters sometimes comb the mountains every autumn looking for wild ginseng to dig . It is highly recommended in North America that anyone attempting to grow ginseng this way should keep quiet about the enterprise! There is no problem marketing the dried roots in North America, though prices will obviously vary from year to year - there are many medicinal herb buyers in the Appalachian region and at least one buyer in every town in SW Virginia. The herbs most commonly traded are ginseng, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), lady's slipper (Cardamine pratensis), mayapple (Podophyllum pe/tatum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra). These small buyers sell on to regional brokers who eithe r export the materials to the Orient or sell them directly to pharmaceutical com panies . In the UK, there are a few companies specialising in medicinal and Chinese herbs, who may be the best people to approach as buyers. Given the decreasing wild stocks of some woodland medicinal plants due to over-harvesting, the forest-farming methods described here hold great potential for both sustainable production and a useful income supplement. Many small landowners in the Appalachians are already growing and harvesting plants thi s way.

References
Hankins, Andy: "W ild-Simulated ~ Forest Farming for Ginseng Production . The Temperate Agroforester, Vol 5 No 1. Hornok, L: Cultivation and Processing of Medicinal Plants. Wiley, 1992. Hostettmann. K & Marston, A: Saponjns. Cambrid!=le Unjversitv Press , 1995.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 9

~ Book Reviews ~
The Pruning Handbook
Steve Bradley
The Crowood Press, 1996; 160 pp; £12.99. ISBN ~ -85223-981-6.

This is a clear and easy-ta-read book covering all aspects of pruning both ornamental and productive fruiting plants. Initial chapters cover selection of equipment and basic techniques; subsequent chapters then cover roses , climbing and wall plants, shrubs. hedges , vines, soft fruit. top fruit, trees, and indoor plants.
Each chapter describes both formative and routine pruning of plants, and tables show exactly what pruning is required by a range of popular ornamental plants. Step by step panel s show clearly which branches need to be pruned at which stage. Fruits covered by the book include vines (a who le chapter); brambles, currants, gooseberries and blueberries; app les, pears , plums and figs. With each there is a short description of the fruiting and growing habit, followed by sections on formation pruning after planting new bushes/trees, and routine pruning needed. Forms such as cordons, fans and espa liers are included. The good clear drawings are as informati ve as the description which they accompany and make this a very useful handbook.

Mushrooms of North America in Color
Alan E Bessett +
Syracuse University Press, 1995 [Dist by The Eurospan Group); 172 pp; £14.50 (Pbk) I £35.50 (Hbk) ISBN 0-8156-0323-1 (Pbk) I 0-8156-2666-5 (Hbk) Subtitled 'A Field Guide Compan ion to S~ldom-lliustrated Fungi ', the aim of this guide is to provide an accurate description, a colour photograph , and information on distinctive characteristics of over 70 species of mushrooms not commonly found in current field guides. The book is aimed at amateur and professional mycologists, botanists and ecologists. Each species is illustrated with a very good photograph , and the descriptions are clear and detailed. A brief note on edibility is also given; about a quarter of the species are edible. This will serve as an excellent companion to other field guides, especially in North America, although several species described are also found in Europe and elsewhere.

Burcombes, Queenies and Colloggetts
Virginia Spiers (Illustrations by Mary Martin)
West Brendon, 1996; 84 pp. ISBN 0-9527641-05. This excellent little book tells the story of a few fruit enthusiasts who have spent nearly two decades researching into the distinct apple and cherry varieties of the Tamar valley in Cornwall, and saving as many of the old varieties as they can before they are all lost.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Mary Martin and her sister Virginia Spiers were brought up in the Tamar va lley and the author describes the orchard industry of the valley as she remembers them. Mary then describes how she and her partner James Evans decided to try and save something of the old orchards; they visited dozens of orchards and talked for hours with growers and owners. It became their mission to get the varieties back into healthy propagation. Over the following years they discovered. catalogued and identified nearly 200 apple and 20 cherry varieties. most well adapted to the mild, wet Cornish climate, and including Burcombes, Queenies and Colloggetts. Many of the apples are scab and canker resistant, while the cherries are often resistant to splitting in wet weather. A few varieties of cherry had previously been trialled in Kent, with poor results in that drier climate. Many of their discovered and rediscovered apple varieties are now propagated by local nurseries and are gaining wider favour again, just when they could have been made extinct; to have saved such a valuable gene pool is worthy indeed. Accompanying this fascinating sto ry are Mary Martin's wonderful impressionistic paintings of fru its, fruit trees and orchards in the Tamar valley. At the end of the book, an appendix describes the best varieties in their collection.

Fruit Breeding Volume I: Tree and Tropical Fruits Volume II: Vine and Small Fruits Volume III: Nuts.
Jules Janick & James N Moore
John Wiley & Sons, 1996; 616 pp (Vol I), 477 pp (Vol II), 278 pp (Vol III); £175.00 Vols. I-III. ISBN 0-471-31014-X (Vol I), 0-471-12670-5 (Vol II ), 0-471-12669-1 (Vol III) These three volumes cover every aspect of fruit breeding for the major temperate fruits, including apples, apricots, cherries, citrus, peaches, pears and plums (Vol I); blueberries, cra nberries, lingonberries , brambles, currants, gooseberries, grapes, kiwifruits and strawberri es (Vol II); almonds, chestnuts, hazelnuts, pecans, hickories and walnuts (Vol Ill). Each species alo ng with its the cultivated brief overview is covered very extensively. To begin with, a description of the fruit is given, main uses and world production figures. The origins and early development of species from wild species are traced via early cultivation and breeding; and a of recent breeding progress is given. problems to be overcome. Then pollination is discussed, and the covered, followed by seedling of sports and recent advances in and specific characteristics are

Modern breeding objectives are then discussed, along with the nitty-gritty of fruit breeding is tackled: floral biology and main breeding technique , making controlled crosses, is selection, fruit eva lu ation, and other techniques such as use biotechnology. The genetics of the species are explored, related to their controlling genes .

Breeding for specific characteristics is then covered, which includes breeding strategies and examples of modern breeding programmes aiming to achieve certain characteristics such as vigo ur, co ld-h ard in ess, particular flowering or ripening period, fruit characteristics, disease and pest resistance etc. Rootstock breeding is also mentioned. Finally, an overview of recent breeding achievements and the future prospects are discussed. Though clea rl y aimed at professional fru it breeders (for whom these will become compu lsory reading), these authoritative volumes will also be of immense interest to amateur breeders and fruit enthusiasts throughout the world.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 11

Cherries (2): Rootstocks
Introduction
The primary cherry rootstocks of use in the world are seedlings or clonal seleclions of Prunus avium ('mazzard', 'wil d cherry' or 'gean ') and of Prunus mahafeb (the '8t Lucie ' or 'perfumed ' cherry). Wild mazzard selections were first used for rootstocks by the Greeks and Romans around ~ 330-400 BC . French horticulturalists were the first to use Mahaleb rootstocks in 1768, which proved the best rootstock for most sweet cherries on calcareous droughty soils in France; tried in Britain in the early 1800's, though, it was found that although it dwarfed cherries, it did not adapt well to British soils. In North America both mazzard and mahaleb stocks have been used, with the former generally more popular; also used there, though rarely now, was the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar 'S tockton Morello'. Present day commercial growers in the UK have used the mazzard clone ' F 12/1' for the last 50 years, but 'Co lt' is now gaining commercial acceptance . In France , Italy and Spain , mahaleb seedlings or the clonal selection 'S L 64' are used for gravely, calcareous, droughty soils and mazzard seedlings for heavy soils. German growers use mazzard seedlings and 'F 12/ 1'. In North America, mahaleb stocks are still used for sweet cherries in arid states (Utah, Montana, Colorado , California) with well-drained soils , and for most sour cherries; otherwise, mazzard stocks are mostly used, with a small usage of 'Colt'. Many rootsto ck breeding programmes are under way across the world , and the one common objective is tree size reduction: a large percentage of sweet cherry fruits are hand picked and sold fresh, and costs for picking from trees of 8-10 m (25-33 tt) high are high . Rootstocks which dwarf by 30-50% are the aim. With sour cherries , dwarfing stocks are less essential , as trees rarely grow over 4-5 m (13-16 tt) high ; in many areas, cultivars are grown on their own roots although poo r form and anchorage can be a problem.

Rootstock adaption
Climate: In terms of cold-hardiness, sour cherry is hardier than mahaleb, which in turn is hardier than mazzard. Mahaleb roots die at -15 °C, while mazzard roots die at -10 to -11 °C (NB of course, air temperatures would have to be considerably lower than this). There is evidence that 'Colt' is even less hardy than .this. Soil: An important factor to successful cherry production. P.maha/eb has a poorly-branched, deep, vertical-rooting habit. and adapts best in light. welldrained soils, and is least tolerant of waterlogging. More tolerant of drought and calcareous soits than mazzard or 'Stockton Morello'. Has long been recommended for deep, well-drained, sandy-porous soils. P.avium has a deep root system which is well branched and has a dense mat of highly fibrous roots near the surface. and adapts best to loamy soils, not very tolerant of waterlogging. P.cerasus adapts best to heavy clay soils , being most tolerant to waterlogging. 'Stockton Morello' has been recommended for wet clay soils, but in light soils trees are very dwarfed and poorly anchored. Most sweet cherries on sour cherry stocks are in fact poorly anchored an d wi ll require permanent staking. Training: In most cases, scions on mazzard and mahaleb stocks are not trained or pruned differently: a modified central leader, or a vase shape (open centre) are equally feasible. 'Co lt' is reported to induce scions with wider crotch angles (a benefit as it helps to avoid branch breakage and subsequent canker infection), which is well suited to a modified central le ader system.

Page 12

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Pests and diseases: Rootstock usage in many areas is dependent upon tolerance or resistance to pests and diseases. An example is with bacterial canker: in humid areas of Western Europe and North Western North America, this serious disease is controlled by budding sweet cherry scions high on the resistant 'F 12/1'. Tolerance or susceptibility to the following pests and diseases is shown in the table below: Bacterial canker = Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum and pv. syringae - a serious disease of cherries in humid climates, causing cankers and gum bleed from branches (hence its other name, gummosis). Phytophthora root rot (Phyla spp.) - mahaleb stocks are particularly susceptible, and many losses have occurred in California on soils with poor drainage. Honey fungus = Armilfaria spp (oak root rot) Verticiffium spp. - fungi causing wilt diseases. Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) - worse in light, droughty soils. Root knot (R.k.l nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) can cause root damage. Les ion Nematodes (Pralylenchus spp.) - serious cherry pests in North America , causing root damage. Cherry leaf spot (Coccomyces hiema/is) - fungus sometimes causing severe damage in Europe and America . Prunus stem pitting (PSP) virus Spur cherry virus Rootstock Bact Phyla. Honey Vertic. Crown R.k. lesion cherry PSP spur ch canker spp. fungus spp. gall nemal. nemat. leaf sp virus virus Mazzard stocks T S T S S S T T S Mazzard seedling S T S T S S S Charger T T T T VS T S S T S Mazzard F 12/1 T T T Pontavium, Pontaris sdlg. Mahaleb stocks MS MS MS T S MS Mahafeb seedling T S S S Sour cherry stocks MS T S MS S T S S Sour cherry seedling T T Vladimir MS T MS T S S S Weihroot clones T S Other Prunus species P. canescens S T P.fruticosa T Adara Hybrid stocks T VS Camil (GM 79) MS VS T S Colt MS S T T VS Damil (GM 61/1) T Giessen 154/4 T Giessen 154/5 T Giessen 154/7 VS Giessen 196/13 VS Giessen 196/4 Gisela 1 (G iessen 172/9 ). T T Gisela 10 (Giessen 173/9). T S Gisela 5 (Giessen 148/2). VS S Inmil (GM 9) T T S M x M 2, 14, 39, 97 T MS T T T M x M 60 T Oppenheim VS = very susceptible, S = susceptible, MS = moderately susceptible, T = tolerant or resistant

,i
I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 13

Cherries are affected by considerably more virus diseases than any other stone fruit , which can affect trees in a va ri ety of ways including leaf and fruit discolouration; foliage, fruit and stem deformation; redu ced crop yie lds; reduced vigour (may be advantageous!) ; graft union fa ilure and subsequent death of scion. Some of these viruses can be transmitted by pollen and seed, though clones such as 'Colt' and 'F 12/1' are commercially produced from virus~ free mother plants . It is important to realise that orchard/tree longevity and production can only be gained by purchasing vi rus-free trees (scion and rootstock). The cas.e of 'Stockton Morello ', used as a rootstock in California, is instructive: its dwarfing and pnkocity, seen as an economic benefit, appear to have been virus-induced; the accumulation of these viruses (it was found to be carrying numerous) soon rendered it useless, but now re cently freed of virus, it is very vigo rous and holds little advantage over mazzard. Mahaleb stocks are notedly more susceptible to damage by moles (gophers) than mazzard stocks.

.I.

Tree size and vigour
Rootstock effect on scion vigour is affected by the rootstock seedling source, age , soil and cl im ate effects, virus content, and the scion cultiva r. Hence there are always conflicting results, but in general , 'F 12/1' is more vigorous than mazzard seedling, which is more vigo rous than mahaleb seed ling. In very well drained , droughty soils, though , mahaleb rootstocks are often more vigorous than mazzard stocks. The following table indicates average relative tree height and spread (with mazzard F 12/1 100%) with different rootstocks; and compatibility with sweet and sour cherries:
------ ----~ - ----

Relative height % soil -------------- compatibility with light medium heavy sweet cherries very good very good ve ry good very good

compatibility with sour cherries very good ve ry good very good very good

Mazzard stocks Mazzard seedling n/s 85% 100% Pontavium, Pontaris sdlg 75-85% Charger (F4/13) nls 60-75% Cristimar IA I nls 100% Mazzard F 12/1 Mahaleb stocks 75% n/u Mahaleb seedling 90% SL 405 seedling 85% 60-70% 75-85% n/u SL 64 Sour cherry stocks Sour cherry seedling nlu Ahrensberg 173/1,209/1,473/10 70-80% CAB clones 70-80% Edabriz 15-60% GM 101 85% Montmorency 75-85% Stockton Morello nlu 70-80% Weihroot W 10 90-100% Weihroot W 13 Wei hroot W 14 100% 70% Weihroot W 53 60-70% Weihroot W 72 Weihroot W 158 110% Other Prunus specie s

variable (see below) variable very good very good very good variable variabl e good good very good good good good good good good good very good very good good very very very very very very ve ry very good good good good good good good good

P. canescens P.concinna P. fruticosa

60% 65-75%

variable

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Relative height % •••••••••••••••• soil·············· compatibility with sweet cherries light medium heavy Other Prunus sQecies (cant) P.incisa 25-30% P.mugus 30% P.serrufata poor Adara 80-90% very good H:t:brid stocks Camil (GM 79) 65-75% n/s very good 50- 70% 40-65 % n/s Colt very good n/s Damil (GM 61/1) 50-75% very good n/s Giessen 148f1 90% 70% n/s Giessen 148/8 75% n/s Giessen 148/9 Giessen 154/4 55% Giessen 154/5 25% 45-50% Giessen 154f7 Giessen 172/3 80% Giessen 172/ 7 40% Giessen 173/5 55% 100% n/s Giessen 195/1 Giessen 195/2 100% n/s Giessen 196/13 110% Giessen 196/4 110% n/s variab le Gisela 1 (Giessen 172/9) nls 15-25% Gisela 10 (Giessen 173/9) 70-90% 60-80% n/s Gisela 5 (Giessen 148/2) GM 15 80% 35-60% variable GM 8 Inmil (GM 9) 25-50% n/s very good 40-60% n/s variable M x M 14 MxM2 85% M x M 39 70% variab le M x M 46 70% 80% good M x M 60 variable 70-80% M x M 97 OCR-2 85% OCR-3 105% 65-75% quite good Oppenheim

compatibility with sour cherries

very good

variab le good

good

II
good

n/s - not well suited to these soils; n/u - not used (totally unsuited) in these soils. Budding height may have a dwarfing effect on scion vigour, particularly with mahaleb stocks: budding at 30-80 em high may reduce vigour to a relative height of 30-50%.

Compatibility
Compatibility of scion and rootstock is very good with like species, ie for sweet cherries on mazzard (P.avium) stocks and for sour cherries on sour cherry (P.cerasus) stocks. Incompatibility can occur, though, when sweet cherries are propagated on mahaleb, sour cherry, other Prunus species or hybrid stocks. These symptoms may occur rapidly (indicated by poor bud take) or be delayed for 6-10 years when they may be indicated by precocious flowering, small leaves and fruit , yellowed leaves , st unted growth , early leaf fall , scion or rootstock overgrowth, excessive suckering, excessive early fruiting, and subsequent death at failure of the araft union.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 15


With seedling mahaleb stocks , compatibility is usually good for cherry culti vars Bing , Centennial , Elton, Gold , Hedelfingen. Knight , Lambert , Long Stem Bing , Montmorency , Napoleon and Seneca ; fair for Black Tartarian , Giant and Republican ; and poor for Burbank . Chapman, Eagle Seedling , Early Bu rlat. Early Rivers , Merton Heart, Larian, Van and Williams Favourite. Because of this variability, an intersection of sou r cherry cultivar Montmorency is often used when grafting onto mahaleb stocks, which allows all sweet cherry varieties to be utilised. Scion overgrowth (characterised by bulbous burrs at the union) is quite common and is not always dangerous sign: the union may remain strong and healthy.

a

Flowering, fruiting, yields, hardiness
In general, sweet and sour cherries are more precocious (ie flower sooner) and produce larger crops on mahaleb stocks than on mazzard stocks. There is wide variability , though, with different seed ling sources and different clonal rootstocks. In the tab le below, the yields are describ ed in relative terms, comparing yield per unit volume of tree crown. Scion hardiness also varies with different rootstocks . Injury from co ld in winter seems to be related to delayed maturation of the new scion growth - hence 'Colt', for example , induces scions to stay in leaf rather longer and hence delays wood ripening . precociousness yields Mazzard stocks Mazzard seed ling Pontavium, Pontaris sdlg Cha rger (F 4/13) Mazzard F 12/1 Mahaleb stocks Mahaleb seedling Mahaleb SL 64 Mahaleb/ Montmorency Sour cherry stocks Sour cherry seedling frequent Ahrensberg 173/1 Ahrensberg 209/1,473/10 CAB clones Edabriz GM 101 Montmorency Stockton Morello (1) frequent Siockion Morello (2) Vladimir Weihrool W 10,13 Weihroot W 14 Weihroot W 53,72.158 Other Prunus stocks poo r poor good poor fair-good good good quite high high poor moderate scion cold-hardiness Less hardy suckers frequent

few few few few

high Most hardy quite high Hardy high - very high

high very high poor good high high very high high - very high high very high high moderate high few frequent severa l

good fair very very very very

good good good good

frequent frequent very hardy very hardy very hardy less hardy hardy

P.concinna P.fruticosa P.incisa P.mugus P.subhirtella Adara Hybrid stocks Camil (GM 79) Call

very good poor poor

frequent

poor less hardy poor very high high moderate very hardy less hardy few several

good very good

Page 16

AGROFORESTRY NEWS ValS Na 3

precociousness stocks (cont) fair Damil (GM 61/1) Giessen 148/ 1 very good Giessen 148/8 Giessen 148/9 Giessen 154/4 Giessen 154/5 Giessen 154/7 Giessen 172/3 good Giessen 172/7 good Giessen 173/5 good Giessen 195/1 very good Giessen 195/2 Giessen 196/13 Giessen 196/4 very good Gisela 1 (Giessen 172/9) good Gisela 10 (Giessen 173/9) Gisela 5 (Giessen 148/ 2) GM 15 good GM 8 poor Inmil (GM 9) M x M 14 good M x M 97 good M x M clones good OCR-2 good OCR-3 Oppenheim
H~brid

yields high very high very high high high very high very high high high low high moderate moderate high quite high very high very high moderate very high high high poor high very high high high

scion cold-hardiness hardy

suckers few none none few several few several several several several few few few few few several few few few several several

less hardy less hardy

Most hardy

severa l

(1) - old stock, virus infected; (2) - virus-free The rootstock does not affect the fruit size and ripening date of cherries to any large extent, although flowering and ripening may be a few days earlier on mahaJeb stocks than on mazzard stocks. Rootstocks which induce very large crops tend to induce smaller fruits and delayed maturity.

Rootstock descriptions
1. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaJeb) stocks
Seedling mahaleb: most of the seedlings used in North America originate from seeds obtained from five specific trees, known collectively as 'Mahaleb 900'. Tests for virus-freedom are made regularly. French mahaleb seedlings were in the past usually raised from seed co lle cted randomly ; but a new selection 'SL 405 ' (Sainte Lucie 405) is now being used: this is slightly more tolerant of waterlogging and induces improved fruit size. In Germany, 'A lpruma ' and ' HOtlners Heimann 10' are seedling stocks used in the East and West respectively. SL 64 (Sainte Lucie 64): originating from France in 1954 . Adapts to a wide range of ca lcareous , droughty, or ferti le soils with good drainage; ve ry susceptible to si lverlea f , but resistant to cherry replant disease. Ava ilable virus-free ; propagated from softwood and sem ihardwood cuttings. Scions on SL 64 are compact. precocious and productive. Other mahaleb: a clone 'Dwarf mahaleb ' was selected in California for its extremely compact and bush-like form ; clones from Turkey known as ~ Turkish 6 mahalebs are extremely vigorous and upright.

2. Mazzard (Prunus avium) stocks
Seedling mazzard: used extensively in North America, grown primarily from a certified seed production orchard known as 'New York ' or '570 ' mazzard, which exhibits superior coldhardiness; 'Sayler' is another , and 'OCR l' seedlings from Oregon are still used there . Tests for virus-freedom are made regularly. 'Pontavium' ('Fercahun') and 'Pontaris' ('Fercadeu ' ) were selected by INRA in France and form the basis of the French virus-free seed orchards; both give 60-70% germination after stratific£3tion. Fruiting, yield and vigour of seedlings which are crosses of these are similar to F 12/1. 'Merisier Commun' is an older seedling selection now little used because of poor germination and irregular performance. In Germany, seedling selections originating from the Harz mountains are renowned for their hardiness, and are used in many areas. It is worth noting that it is possible to select genetically dwarf seedlings from fruits of the cultivar ' Merton Favourite' , which may be useful dwarfing stocks, though difficult to propagate.

1 ,

1

I

Charger (F4/13): A recently released stock from England, selected for its resistance to bacterial canker. Easy to propagate by layering or from cuttings. Virus·free available. Cristimar IAI: A dwarfing Romanian selection, possibly a hybrid of mazzard and P.cerasus. F 12/1: originated in England in 1933. Adapts to a wide range of loam to clay-loam soils, and available virus·free (EM LA). Propagated by trench layering, root cuttings, or softwood cuttings under mist. Often used for its resistance to bacterial canker; also moderately resistant to silverleaf. Also much used in Europe to transform morello cherries to more easily manageable tree forms.

3. Sour cherry (P.cerasus) stocks
Seedling sour cherry: not often used, as seedlings are highly variable. One Romanian seedling selection , VG.1 , is used, being less vigorous than mazzard and very productive; also used in Eastern Europe are seedlings of the sour cherry cultivars IIva , Meteor, Mocanesti and Trevnenska. Ahrensberg clones: a serious of promising clones from another German programme. The three most promising stocks induce high to very high yields, but do not dwarf much. CAB clones: Italian selections; CAB 11 E and CAB 6P form strong unions and are propagated by softwood cuttings or meristem culture. Now used in New Zealand. Edabriz (Tabel): A recent French release, r'a ised from sources collected in Iran. Unlike many sour cherry stocks, it shows good compatibility with sweet cherry scions. It is dwarfing, but the scale of dwarfing varies widely with soil and environmental conditions from 15·60% .. Has good anchorage. Best propagated from semi·hardwood cuttings. GM clones: GM 101 and GM 103 are Belgian clones from the Gambloux programme .. Kentish: Also known as 'Kentish Red', 'Kentish Morello' and 'Early Richmond'; an amarelle· type sour cherry. Propagated by layering. Little used today. Montmorency: A sour cherry cultivar, used both as a rootstock and interstock. Shows good anchorage but little dwarfing. Stockton Morello: Also known as 'American Morello', was much used for heavy soils in California. Propagated commercially by root suckers from orchard trees or softwood cuttings. Virus-infected and virus-free clones behave differently - see above. Only a minor stock today. Vladimir: of Russian origin, selected in the USA. it is a semi-dwarfing rootstock which produces poorly anchored sweet cherry trees. Its tolerance to cold wet soils is one of its few merits. Weihroot clones: W 10, W 11 and W 13 are selections made in West Germany. They are propagated clonally by softwood or semi·hardwood cuttings and show tolerance to Phytophthora rots. W 10 induces an open canopy. Incompatible with Sam and some other sweet cherries.

Page 23

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

4. Other Prunus species used for rootstocks
Prunus canescens seedling: tends to reduce fruit size; very sensitive to waterlogging and susceptible to pathogens , ego Phytophthora, associated with them. Prunu5 concinna seedling: under test in Germany. Prunus fruticosa seedling (steppe cherry): though this dwarfing stock is easily raised from seed, compatibility with sweet cherries is very variable and produces many suckers. Prunus incisa seedling: dwarfing stocks, usually with poor anchorage; also poor fruit size. Prunus mugus seedling: very dwarfing, but extremely difficult to propagate vegetatively. Prunus serrulata seedling: generally shows poor compatibility; under test in Belgium. Prunu5 5ubhirtelfa seedling : dwarfs scions, but fruit size often reduced . Under trial in Britain. Adara : a recently released stock , developed in Spain and originating from an open pollinated population of myrobolan (Prunus cerasifera); also used for peaches, nectarines and plums. Tolerant of alkal in e and heavy soils, waterlogging and poor drainage. Very good co mpatibility with sweet and sour cherries (not compatib le with Gil Peck , Larian , Montmorency, Napoleon, Nero 11, Spa lding, Taleguera Brillante)Easily propagated by hardwood cuttings.

5. Hybrid stocks
Camil (GM 79): Shows good compatibility (not compatib le with summit) and is readily propagated by softwood cuttings or meristem culture (available virus-free). Somewhat intolerant of alkaline soils. Recommended planting distance is 4.7-5.8 m (15-19 ft) on this stock. Very well anchored; doesn't need staking. Colt: Hybrid of P.avium and P.pseudocerasus. Resistant to che rry leaf roll virus and Phytophthora root rots. There is come evidence of incompatibility with cuUivars Van and Sam. Appears to tolerate some impeded so il drainage , but does not thrive on droughty soils. Resistant to 'rep lant' disease , where new cherry trees replace older ones in the same location. Very easy to propagate by hardwood cuttings from hard-pruned hedges (shoots form root initials). Scions develop with abundant wide-angles branches. Fruit size is good. Damil (GM 6111): Shows good compatibility and is readily propagated by softwood cuttings under mist or meristem culture (available virus-free) . Somewhat intolerant of alkaline soils. Recommended planting distance is 4.2-5 .2 m (14-17 ft) on this stock. May need staking for the first few years. Giessen clones: a number of hybrids of different species , selected in Germany, many with excellent commercial potential; some now named as Gisela clones. Gisela 1 is extremely dwarfing, requiring fertile soils and perhaps irrigation ; several , including Gisela 1 and Gisela 10 are resistant to waterlogging , and most clones are readily propagated by softwood cuttings (available virus-free) . Giessen 148/1 has performed particularly well in British and American trials. Gisela clones - see Giessen clone s. GM clones (Gambloux clones; Grand Manil): hybrids , bred in Belgium . Several show good dwarfing characteristics, including GM 8 (P.pandora x P.subhirtella) and GM 9 (P.incis a x P.serrula), GM 61/1 (P.dawyckensis) and GM 79 (P.canescans). The latter three have recently been named and released as Inmil , Damil and Camil - for more details see under these names . GM 8 is intolerant of alkaline soils, and is readily propagated by softwood cuttings; it is often poorly anchored . Inmil (GM 9) : Induces a sparse branching habit and erect growth; needs staking and regular pruning . Shows good compatibility (not compatible with Early Rivers) and is readily propagated by softwood cuttings or meristem cultu re (available virus-free) . Somewhat intolerant of alkaline soils. Recommended planting distance is 3.7 m (12 tt) on this stock. Did not perform well in SE England .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

M x M clones (Maxma): hybrids of mazzard and mahaleb (P.avium x P.mahafeb) ; six clones have been se lected in Oregon. More tolerant of bad soil drainage than mahaleb, but most show good drought tolerance . Propagated by softwood cuttings. M x M 14 (Brokforest, Maxma Delbard 14) is popular in France, though it may reduce fruit size. M x M 97 (Brokgrove , Maxma Delbard 97) is sometimes high worked, when it shows more dwarfing influence. OCR clones: OCR 2 and 3 are hybrids from Oregon, giving good productivity. Oppenheim: A West German selection, which appears to be a P.fruticosa x P.cerasus hybrid. Shows gpod anchorage, productivity and compatibility, but not compatible with Sam and Van . Propagation is by softwood or root cuttings, or by micropropagation.

Interstocks
An interstem or interstock is sometimes used , where a short section of a third cherry selection is placed between the rootstock and scion. This may be done to overcome an incompatibility between stock and scion (if the int erstock is compatible with both), or to reduce vigour or improve yields or precocity . With cherries, the use of interstocks is not widespread , as results are often disappointing on using dwarfing interstocks. Mazzards, even genetic dwarfs, have little effect. The sour cherry Montmorency is sometimes used between mazzard or mahaleb rootstocks and sweet cherry scions, and may result in reduced tree vigour and size by 0-30%, but also in reduced fruit size. There is evidence that use of a use of a sour cherry interstem of low vigour, ego North Star (Ita ly, USA), Oblacinska (Yugoslavia) , Reine Hortense! Schattenmorelle! Vladimir! Karoser Weichsel (Germany), improves yields and reduces vigour Using the steppe cherry (Prunus fruticosa) as an interstock has been shown in Poland to reduce sweet cherry vigour and increase yields; indeed, this use of the species is probably more beneficial than using it as a rootstock.

Cherry rootstocks in the UK
The choice of easily-availab le cherry rootstocks is limited in the UK. The main two still used are the mazzard F 12/1, and Co lt. Although both of these show some resistance to bacterial canker, the most threatening disease to cherry growing here, neither is a dwarfing stock and trees will eventually get too large to net or protect from birds. More recently, some commercial fruit nurseries are starting to experiment with interstocks to achieve smaller trees, and have also started to use the dwarfing rootstock Edabriz, which has proved satisfactory in trials at East Mailing . Gisela 1 would also be worth trying; Inmil has been trialled and found highly unsatisfactory at Wisley and East Mailing. Many more of the rootstocks recently bred in various prog rammes are available in continental Europe and in North America; their importation is easy from Europe, but very difficult from North America .

References
Cummins , J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties. HortScience, Vol 26(8), August 1991. Moore , J & Ballington Jr, J: Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS , 1990. Moreno, M etc: Adara, .. HortScience 30 (6): 1316-1317. 1995. Perry, R L: Cherry Rootstocks. In Rootstocks for Fruit Crops , R Rom & R Carlson (Eds) , Wiley, 1987. R: Erste Zwischenergebnisse eines Unterlagenversuchs zu Susskirschen. Stehr, Erwerbsobstbau 38, 122-125 (1996). Webster, A & Looney , N: Cherries. CAB International, 1996.

\. ,. ')

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Refrigeration and freezing of chestnuts
Fresh chestnuts dry out rapidly under room conditions , and should be kept refrigerated or frozen. Fresh nuts will keep for some time at a norma l refrigerator setting of 2-4C, but wi ll keep even better at ac. Use a paper bag for 1-2 days to absorb any condensation and then transfer to a freezer storage bag . If you punch holes in the bag_the nuts will dry out more rapidly - especially if you have a frost-free refrigerator . Without any holes in the plastic bags , the nuts should keep in good condi tion for 3-6 weeks and without any moulding . If you begin to see numerous dark spots or white mould on the broad end of the nuts , wash and scrub them; then air dry on paper until the shells feel fairly dry. Check one or two nuts , by peeling , to be sure there are no dark spots on the kernel and that the kernel is of uniform colour. Also, when opening a plastic bag , check for any shells that may appear wet or for any slightly sour smell. Chestnuts develop sweetness as they lose moisture , and if the nuts are very fresh , you may want to air dry them for 1-2 days before putting in the refrigerator. Be careful not to dry so much that the nuts are no longer plump and lose much or all of their original colour. Fresh chestnuts that are immediately refrigerated will also develop some sweetness as they age but not as rapidly as if also subjected to some previous loss of moisture. If nuts have lost quite a bit of moisture, the shells can be pushed in quite a bit with a thumb , and they may require some special attention for cooking purposes . These can often be reconstituted by soaking for 1-2 days and then cooking as desired. Fresh nuts and those that have been adequate ly re-co nstituted will sink in the water. It is not true that all nuts that float are bad inside : a fresh chestnut that has a bad kernel will float; a fresh chestnut with a good kernel will also float when it has lost a sufficient amount of water. If enough of the water is then replaced, the nut will again sink. Generally speaking , any fresh or nearly fresh chestnut that sinks in water is in good condition for cooking. It is the writer's opinion that the best and eas iest way to keep chestnuts for any length of time is to freeze them. If they are in good condition when frozen , they should easily keep for up to a year . The writer has actually kept fresh chestnuts in a cooler at approximately 0 degrees C for 5 months and then kept them frozen for an additional 12 months. The nuts do not require any treatment before freezing and may be frozen whole. Freezing has the advantage of allowing one to keep nuts for holidays or special occasions and to enjoy them throughout the entire year. The writer uses quart freezer bags and removes all or part of the nuts from a bag as desired. It is very simple and easy to cook frozen chestnuts . A technique used by the writer is as follows: Remove a few of the nu ts from a bag and pl ace in a heavy-duty microwave dish with a heavy or sturdy cover. Cook on high for 15 to 25 seconds, which is enough to soften the nut for puncturing or cutting for further cooking. Remove the nuts from the dish , cut in half, and return to the microwave dish with the cut side down . Add about 3 mm of water . Replace cover and cook on high for 2-3 minutes. As soon as cool enough, insert tip of small knife or very small spoon between inner skin and kernel and pry out the kernel. Th e kernels should now be ready for eating and for incorporation in other prepared dishes or added to dishes that require further cooking. (Note: chestnuts may also be cut in half whi le frozen and then cooked in the microwave, or allowed to defrost at room temperature , then cut in half and cooked for 3-5 mins before removing halve s). Over the years the writer has tried a number of different techniques for keeping chestnuts in a desirable condition for specific lengths of time . One technique was to refrigerate immediately. Another was to air dry a bit (to develop more sweetness) and then refrigerate . For long-term availability, the nuts were frozen immediately after harvest (whole or cut in half); air-dried a bit and then frozen; or frozen after various lengths of refrigeration. Norm C. Higgins, from MNGA News (Michigan Nut Growers Association), Spring 1996.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 21

~

---

-=---=-

- -- - --

~

Gooseberries
Introduction
Gooseberries (Ribas uva-crispa, formerly R.grossularia) are native to Eastern and Central Europe and Western Asia, but probably not to the UK, the earliest record of gooseberry cultivation dating from the 1276 . They are long naturalised here , though. Until comparatively recentl y it was an important soft fruit - in 1929 over 19,000 acres were grown in the UK, but their popularity has steadily de clined, with only 2.500 acres in cultivation by 1975 (producing over 6 ,000 tonnes) , and even less now. It is also a popular fruit in Germany and several parts of the former USSR; the major commercial producing countries (mainly for processing) are Germany and Poland , followed by Belgium. England , France , Holland and Hungary. The American gooseberry, Ribes hirtellum, is also cu ltivated and many cultivars are hybrids of this and the European species. Many are also derived from the natural variety R.uva-crispa rec/inatum , native to Europe, N.Africa and the Caucasus. Gooseberry cultivation in America has been profoundly affected by white pine bli ste r rust. This disease requires both host plants - white pine and a susceptible Ribes species - to survive , and in the early 20th Century, restrictions were placed on growing Ribes as a protective measure. In fact gooseberries are generally relatively resistant to the disease and not very effective agents in its spread. Hence now, regulation vary widely from state to state , with some not restricting Ribes at all and others still banning all Ribes. Commercial production in the U.S. is mostly in Oregon.

Description
The gooseberry is a bush, 60-120 cm (2-4 ft) high (also can be grown as a taller cordon with support), with an upright or spreading/drooping habit. Stems are generally spiny. The leaves are usually 3-lobed (sometimes 5-lobed), midgreen in colour. Inconspicuous reddish-green flowers are .borne in late March or April in S.England, laterally on 1-year-old wood and on short spurs of older wood. Flowers are wind and/or insect pollinated. Floral initiation for the next year starts in late summer. These are followed by smooth or hairy fruits which can be white, yellow, green or reddish; ripening in June, July and August. Fruits of wild plants are sometimes only 1 cm across; however, this rises to 3 cm with many cultivars. Gooseberries are extremely hardy, to -30 °C (zone 3).

Uses
The fruits are delicious raw when fully ripe , and is excellent cooked in pies , tarts etc. Can also be used unripe, cooked and sweetened or bottled. The fruits are still used commercially, for canning, freezing, and fresh fruit for culinary purposes ; the jam industry uses a small quantity and a small area is still devoted to the commercial production of dessert berries. The gooseberry is the first hardy major fruit to yield in the year, and in favoured localities it is possible to pick unripe green fruits by early May ; from then until July, unripe fruit are sent to market, with only a small

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

quantity of ripe fruits marketed afterwards. Despite the tradition in Brita in of using unripe fruit , it must be said that ripe gooseberries are sweet , delicious, and an infinitely preferable fruit to eat. The average composition of gooseberry fruits is (per 100g) : 0.8g protein , 0.2g fat , 9.7g carbohydrate , 290 IU Vitamin A, 33 mg Vitamin C, 18 mg Calcium , 15 mg Phosphorus, 0.5 mg Iron,1 mg Sodium, 155 mg Potassium . In the past, in addition to its value as a soft fruit , the gooseberry was used as a major source of pectin by the confectionery and jam industries (particularly for strawberry jam); other sources of pectin are now used commercially. A slightly acid but very pleasant light wine can be made with the juice from the fruits. The young tender leaves are supposedly edible raw in salads; however, they contain hydrogen cyanide and may be slightly toxic. The tannin-rich leaves are sometimes used medicinally in astringent decoctions to treat dysentery and to app ly as wound dressings. The fruits act as a laxative . The fruit pulp is used cosmetically in face-masks for its cleansing effect on greasy skin . The bushes are used in forestry windbreaks in Eastern Europe as a low shrubby layer.

Cultivation
Gooseberries are happy in the cool summer climate found in the UK, and will live for quite a long time, fruiting well after 20-30 years or more. They are usually grown as open-centred bushes on a short stem, but can also be grown as cordons, fans or even standards. These latter forms all make harvesting the fruit considerably easier. Upright varieties can be planted closer and are most suited to a small garden.

Siting and planting
Shelter is essential, because gooseberries flower very early in the spring , and because the young shoots are quite brittle and susceptible to wind damage. Fruiting is best in a sunny location, but gooseberries are quite shade-tolerant, and can be grown on North-facing walls or fences where there is no direct sunlight at all (note that in these situations , yields will be lower and fruits will be later ripening). A well drained, slightly acid , loamy soil is ideal , but a wide range of soil types is tolerated as long as they are not waterlogged. Very light sandy soils may need their moisture-holding capacity increased with manure or compost. Sites should be chosen which are not susceptible to late spring frosts; gooseberries are slightly more frost-hardy than blackcurrants , but flower earlier. Gooseberries have a high potash requirement, hence interplanting them with comfrey (or having a good supply nearby) , which is cut regularly and used a mulch around them , may be a good idea. Placing bushes in a hot dry position increases the likelihood of mildew. Planting is best done in the autumn. Plant bushes at 1.5-1,8 m (5 -6 ft) apart on fertile soils , or 1.2- 1.5 (4-5 ft) on light soils. Single cordons should be 30 cm 91 ft) apart, with 1.5 m (5 ft) between the rows; double cordons are planted 60 cm (2 ft) apart, allowing one stem per 30 cm (1 tt) run. Give bushes a little more space if interplanting them beneath fruit trees or in a forest garden. After planting, mulch with organic materials if available. Commercial plantations are planted at a wider row spacing to allow tractor access , usually 2.4-2.7 m (8-9 tt) , and 0.9-1.2 m (3-4 ft) apart in rows. Gooseberries are traditionally grown a short stem or leg of 10-15 cm (4_s n), to allow for hand weeding around the spiny bushes. They can also be grown , though , as a stooled bush like a blackcurrant, which may live longer but will be more difficult to pick and weed. Standards are forms grafted onto a long stem (1- 1.2 m, 3-4 tt) of the related R.aureum or R.divaricalum (Worcesterberry). They need very good staking , but then are treated like bushes on a longer stem. Weeds should be kept under control by mulching - gooseberries are shallow rooting and digging or hoeing may damage the roots. Perennial weeds , in particular, will be difficult to eradicate after the bushes are planted.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Pagen

Other possible plants to interplant with gooseberries include poached egg plant (Limnanthes doug/asii), a very good attractor of hoverflies (aphid predators).

Pruning bushes
The aim is to achieve an open-centred , goblet or cup-shaped bush with 6-8 main branches. When cutting back new leading shoots of gooseberries , cut to an appropriate bud according to whether the cultivar is of spreading or upright habit: if spreading , cut to an upward-facing bud ; if upright, cut to an outward-facing bud. On plaQting (in autumn or winter), cut back the leaders by a half, remove any shoots from the main stem below 10 cm (4 "), and cut back any shoots growing inwards and crossing the centre of the bush to 1 bud. Formative pruning in winter should continue for a few years , cutting the new leading shoots back by a half, cutting back laterals to about 8 cm (3") to a bud , and removing weak and inward-growing shoots. Established bushes should be pruned in winter to keep the centre open to allow for good air penetration (especially if the bush is mildew susceptib le) . Weak and inward growing shoots are removed; leading shoots are cut back by a half to three-quarters ; old unproductive branches can be removed , allowing suitably placed vigorous young shoots to replace them ; and laterals not required as replacement branches are cut back to 8 cm (3"). Summer pruning isn't essential, but can be undertaken if mildew or aphids are a particular problem: i n la te June, all latera ls of the current season's growth are shortened to 5 leaves, removing mildew or aphids on the tips of shoots. This may also reduce the risk of young laterals breaking.

Pruning cordons
A horizontal cane is placed for each cordon , fixed to horizontal wires at 60 and 120 cm (2 & 4 ft) above the ground. At planting, the leader is cut back by a half to an outward -fa cing bud , and the laterals to 3 buds. Any side shoots below 10 cm (4 ") on the main stem are cut off cleanly. The cordon is then tied to the cane. Formative winter pruning continues for a few years, until the cordon has reached the required height, usually 1.5-1.8 m (5-6 tt) . The leader is cut back by a quarter to stimulate side shoot production; laterals , previously summer pruned, are cut back to 8 cm (3 ~ ) ; and suckers and low shoots are removed. When the cordon has reached the required height, cut it back to 3 buds. Summer pruning shou ld also be undertaken as below. Estab lished cordons may need laterals cutting back into older wood; otherwise, in winter, remove suckers and low shots, and cut the leader back to 3 buds . Summer pruning continues. Summer pruning , from late June to mid July, consists of pruning all of the current season 's laterals to 5 leaves . The leader is tied to the cane as it grows throughout the summer.

Feeding and watering
Potash is the most critica l mineral needed by gooseberries, which are very susceptible to a deficiency (which appears as a marginal scorching on the lea ves). Conventional recommendations are to apply about 50g of potassium (=60g of potash) per year to an established bush. This quantity would be obtained, for example , from 5-10 Kg of manure or compost, or 2 Kg of seaweed meal. It would also be obtained from 3Ya litres of urine. If comfrey is grown as a potash -accumulating plant, and cut 4-5 times per year to use as a mulch, one plant will provide enough potash for 1 or 2 gooseberry bushes. Nitrogen is also required for continued growth of new shoots, conventional recommendations being to supply 15-20 g per year per established bush. This would be supplied by, for example,S Kg of compost or manure , or 2 litres of urine , or 1 Kg of seaweed meal. The cut leaves from one comfrey plant (as above) would also supply this much nitrogen , as would 2 m 2 of nitrogen-fixing tree (near or above the gooseberry) via leaf fall and root turnover. An excess of nitrogen causes excessive soft growth susceptible to wind damage, and increases susceptibility to mildew.

If plants are mulched , they are not likely to require watering. However, if not, then in dry weathe r irrigation may be necessary for good fruit size and strong growth. Plants grown in forest gardens are not likely to need watering.

Flowering
Gooseberries are se lf-fertile, and are mainly pollinated by insects including bees , usually wild bumble bees because they flower so early ; some wind pollination can also occur. Flowering of an individual bush lasts on average for 17-18 days, with full flowering halfway through this period. The date of full flo wer varies with the cult ivar, over a range of about 3 weeks from early to late April in the UK. The vast majority of cu lti vars in fact fall into the mid-flowering seas on, with the ir peak flowering in the third week of April.

Harvesting and yields
Fruit thinning is sometimes recommended to improve fruit size , but it is doubtful whether it is really worth the effort to my mind. The thinned fruit in late Mayor early June are those rockhard aci d bullet-like objects which bear no resemblance to wonderfully ripe fruit. Any variety of gooseberry can be picked hard and under-ripe for culinary or processing use , or it can be left to ripen. When in the ripe or partially-ripe stage , the fruits of all varieties are very prone to skin splitting , especia ll y following sudden spells of wet or warm weather. If bushes are very heavily lad en , then picking some unripe fruit will help improve fru it size of the remainder. The true colour of the fruit does not develop until it has ripened - for dessert fruit, wait until the co lour changes and the taste is sweet. Changes from green to red are easiest to see , those to lighter green or yellow are more difficult; when ripe , fruits will easily part from the bush and be significantly softer. Bushes yield a little fruit within a year or two of planting, but maximum yields are not usually obtained until about the 5th or 6th year. Well grown mature bushes should yield at least 3Y24 Y2 Kg (8-10 Ib) fruit each year , and a single cordon about Y2-1 Kg (1·2 lb) per year . Commercial plantations can regularly yield 5-6 tannes/acre (12 - 15 tonnes/ Ha). Ripe fruit will not keep for very long, soon going sour. Unripe fruits store well for a week or two.

Pests and diseases
Birds , especially bullfinches , may attack the buds throughout the winter. If attacks are bad , netting will be the only sure method of protection . 'Leveller' is particularly susceptible. Birds may also attack and eat the ripe fruit (esp. th e red varieties); netting may again be needed. Gooseberry sawfly or currantworm (Nematus ribesii , formerly Pteronidea ribesiJ) caterpillars feed on the le aves , reducing them to a skeletal state within a few days , and can have three generations over the summer. The caterpillars are pale green with dark heads and black spots on their bodies , which are up to 4 cm (1.6 -) long . Adults appear in April and May depositing eggs on the underside of lea ves, especia ll y low down in the centre of bushes . Each adult lays 20-30 white eggs per leaf in rows close to the midrib. Look out for the first signs of them from May onwards; with ju st a few bushes, hand-pick and destroy eggs and caterpillars , which otherwise eventually pupate in the soil. The second generation lays its eggs in June , and the third in September. With larger infestations, Derris or Pyrethrum can be applied by spraying in the evening (watch out for their cunning habit of dropping off the bush - put something down under the bush to collect them) . In past times, the poisonous powdered roots of Veratrum species (false hellebores) were used to kill sawfly caterpillars. Interplanting bushes with broad beans is reported to help deter attacks of sawfly. The caterpillars are attacked by various predators, ego birds, beetles, spiders and socia l wasps. Mildew (American gooseberry mildew) (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) is often a problem. This American disease appeared in Europe around 1900. It is a fungal disease affecting leaves, shoots and fruits, producing a white powdery coating . First signs are white powdery patches on the young leaves soon after they unfold in spring , & under favou rable conditions (soft sappy gro'Nth from high Nitrogen levels + high humidity) the disease soon spreads to fruits & shoots. Diseased shoots distort at the tips , & can be
,.."t .... ".

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 25

If fruits are affected, the who le crop may be ruined. Excess nitrogen increases susceptibility , as does a hot dry lo cation . One control is the use of the safer organic fungicides (though these usually contain sulphur, which can adversely affect some varieties); and a dilute washing soda/soft soap mix is reputed to help. Cordon-grown fruit are less susceptible because of better aeration. Better still, grow cultivars which are resistant , of which there are an increasing number from several breeding programmes around the world. Note, though, that there are 14 known races of the disease, with others constantly developing, and that cultivar resistance may reduce over time with sqme varieties. Other minor problems may include magpie moth caterpillars (si milar symptoms to sawfly; pick off or spray with the biological control BT); capsid buds, leaf spot (Pseudopeziza ribis), European gooseberry mildew (Microsphaera grossulariae) and die back caused by grey mould (Botryfis cinerea). Aphids can spread vi ruses , especially the Vein-banding virus causing a pale yellow banding along the main leaf veins; this is thought to reduce vigour and fruit size.

Propagation
Propagation is usually by cuttings. Gooseberries do not take as easily from cuttings as currants; they are taken earlier, in mid to late September, and dipped in hormone rooting powder. The cuttings should be 30 em (12") long after preparation, with all their buds left intact, taken from strong healthy shoots of the summer's growth. The unripe shoot tip is cut off just above a bud , and the base trimmed just below a bud; leaves above-ground leaves intact. In outdoor beds, placing them through holes in a black plastic mulch considerably increases the take. Place the cuttings vertical, and with 15 cm (6") out of the ground to allow for a good stem or leg at the base. The rooted cuttings can be transplanted after a year or preferably two. Cuttings can also be taken of half-ripe wood, in July and August. They should be 10-15 cm (46") long, preferably with a heel, and will need warm sheltered conditions to strike. Gooseberries can be stem layered , though this isn't good for producing plants on a single stem. Mound layering (stooping) is used for commercial propagation (notably in Germany and N.America), as it gives more reliab[e results than cuttings. Seed propagation was the common method used by the Northern gooseberry club members, and is still a useful breeding method. Seeds require 3-4 months of cold stratification before sowing.

Agroforestry use
Gooseberries are very shade tolerant and are very suitable for growing as part of the understorey in a forest garden; growing stooled bushes may also be more appropriate in such a garden, where the bushes can be allowed to 'wander'. Intercropping by growing under fruit trees is a traditional technique (one of the few agroforestry techniques used for a long time in the UK), using apple or plum trees above the gooseberries; as the trees mature, the gooseberry yield naturally falis, but the bushes will continue to yield even in the shade of established plums or apples provided the soil is reasonably good and that weed competition is not severe. 'Whinham's Industry' has often been used under trees; one of the few cultivars known to dislike such a position is 'Careless'.

Cultivars
Other species apart from Ribes uva-crispa have been used to breed gooseberry cultivars, including the native American gooseberry R.hirtellum, and worcesterberry, R.divaricatum, wh ich are sources of mildew resistance; and the species R.leptanthum, R.missouriense, R.oxycanthoides, R.sanguineum and R.watsonianum. The European species is genera[ly considered superior in both fruit size and flavour; American hybrids can tolerate more of a continental climate (cold winters, hot summers) than the European. The yellow-fruited varieties are valued the most highly for eating as dessert fruits.

Page 26

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

In the last century there were hundreds of varieties of gooseberries listed, and a great interest in them particularly in the Mid lands and North of the UK where gardeners competed in gooseberry clubs to produce new varieties which bo re prize-win ning large individual fruits. As a consequence, over 110 cultivars are still commercially available in the UK - a huge selection for a bush fruit species; and the National Fruit Collection at Brogda le hold s over 150 cultivars. Virus infection is relatively unimportant in gooseberries, hence there is little advantage in purchasing 'ce rtified' plants, and home-propagated plants from cuttings are a good source of new planting material. The main cultivars available in the UK are described below; an extensive table follows . Black Velvet: A worcesterberry-gooseberry cross, very vigorous, upright, very resistant to mildew. Fruits are small-medium size, dark reddish-black, oval, and of very good flavour. Heavy cropping. Captivator: Late season, late flowering. Moderately vigorous, spreading habit; almost thornless; cropping moderate. Fruits medium to large, pear-shaped, sweet, dark red. Resistant to mildew and leaf spot. Tolerant of hot summers. Careless: Early-mid season, mid flowering. Moderately vigorous, upright then spreading, crops well. Fruit smoo th , large, oval, green (lightening on ripening), flavour fair to good. This is the variety usually used for pick-your-own enterprises. Sulphu r-shy. Not good under trees. Susc. to mildew. Early Sulphur: Early season; ea rly flowering. Vigorous, upright then spreading bush, cropping well. Fruits medium sized, golden yellow, roundish-oblong, hairy; flavour quite good; ripen over a long period. Sulphur-shy. Golden Drop: Early to mid season, mid flowering. Compact, upright bush. Fruits greenishyellow, small to medium, round, very good flavour; thin skinned. Susceptible to mildew. Greenfinch: Mid season. Vigorous, upright, crops well; a recent release, resistant to mildew and leaf spot. Fruits green, fair flavour. Howard's Lancer: Late season, late flowering. Vigorous, upright then spreading; heavy cropping. Fruits medium sized, smooth, roundish-oval, pale greenish-yellow, thin skinned, transparent, very good flavour . Susceptibl e to mildew. Invicta: Mid season. Vigorous, spreading, thorny; crops heavily, fruit green, medium sized, good flavour. One of the recent mildew-resistant releases. Jubilee: A virus-tested selection of 'Ca reless ', cropping more heavily. Keepsake: Mid season , mid flowering, often picked early for cooking. Vigorous, spreading bush, very heavy cropping. Susceptible to frost damage and mildew. Fruit medium to large, oval, green (lightening when ripeni ng), slightly hairy, very good flavour. Lancashire Lad: Mid to late season, mid flowering. Moderately vigorous, upright then spreading, good cropper, some mildew resistance, needs good soil. Fruit large, oval, deep red, hairy, fair flavour. Langley Gage: Mid season, early flowering. Vigorous, upright; cropping good. fruits large, roundish-oval, few hairs, silvery white, transparent , excellent flavour. Shows some resistance to mildew. Sulphur-shy. Leveller: Mid season, mid flowering. Moderately vigorous and spreading, wea k on poor soils; needs good drainage. Cropping very good . Fruits very large, yellowish-green, oval, smooth, good flavour. Sulphur-shy. Very susceptible to mildew. Lord Derby: Late season, late flowering. Small, pendulous habit, cropping moderate. Fruits very large, dark red almost black, round, smooth, fair to good flavour. May Duke: Early season, early flowering. Mod. vig., upright, good cropper. Fruits medium to large, deep red, smooth, sli ghtly downy, roundish-oblong, fair to good flavour; picked green for cooking. Pax: Early season . Bearing few thorns, this is a very recent mi ldew-resistant release . Fruits are round, dark red, of excellent flavour. Whinham's Industry: Mid season, mid flowering. Very vigorous, upright, heavy cropper; tolerant of poor soils but very mildew-susceptible. Fruits med iu m to large, ova l, dark red, hairy. very good flavour.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 27

I!iiliiiii

--¥

Cultivar descriptor lists and synonyms
Cultivars susceptible to winter bullfinch damage: Crown Bob Cultivars susceptible to leaf spot: Clark , Crown Bob, Fredonia Cultivars resistant to leaf spot: Captivator, Greenfinch , Lepaa Red , Oregon Champion , Remark:'l, Spinefree, Whitesmith.

Sulphul~shy cultivars (leaves may be damaged by sulphur fungicide sprays): Bedford
Yellow, Careless , Early Sulphur, Langley Gage , Leveller. Extremely hardy cultivars: Downing , Houghton, Poorman , Sylvia; Scandinavian cultivars like Annelii, Hamamekii, Hankkijan Herkku, Hankkijas Delikatess, Hinnonmaki GoldlRed , Lepaa Red, Matkakoski, Pe ll ervo, Sunderbyn 11; and Russian cultivars eg Malahit, Manzherok, Oroktoi, Pjatiletka , Plodorodnyj, Rekord, Russkij, Smena. Keepsake is noted as being frostsusceptible. Cultivars tolerant of hot summers: Captivator, Glendale, Josselyn , Oregon Champion , Pixwell, Poorman , Welcome . Cultivars whose fruits hang well/ ripen over a long period: Early Sulphur, Honings Fruheste, Jumbo, Pitmaston Green Gage. Synonyms of common cultivars: Aston Red = Warrington Berry's Early Kent = Keepsake Golden Ball = Early Sulphur Hino Red = Hinnomakii Red Hino Yellow = Hinomakii Gold Hoening's Earliest = Honings Fruheste Lancer = Howard 's Lancer

Red Warrington = Warrington Silvia = Sylvia Sir George Browse = Cousen's Seedling Yellow Lion = Early Sulphur Yellow Rough = Early Sulphur

Key to cultivar table
Flowering: divided into three , E (early), M (mid) , L (late). These correspond to the following average dates of full flowering in the southern half of the UK: E = 2nd Week of April, M = 3rd week of April, L = 4th Week of April. Ripening : divided into five , corresponding in the southern half of the UK to the following approximate dates: E (early) mid June-early July ML (mid-late) late July EM (early-mid) late June-mid July L (late) late July to mid August M (mid) = mid July - late July

=

=

=

=

Vigour: vigorous , moderate. weak etc. Most cultivars are vigorous. Habit: spreading , upright. compact etc. Thorns: comment on the number of thorns - none , few, many. Mildew: indicates resistance or susceptibility to American gooseberry mildew, the most important gooseberry disease. VS = very susceptible , S = susceptible, SS = slightly susceptible , SR = slightly resistant, R = resistant , VR = very re sistant. Suppl: indicates current commercial suppliers of plants in the UK. The well-known dozen or so common varieties are available from most of the good fruit nurseries. The following specialise in large numbers of unusual varietie s; the number refers to that used in the cultivar tables.

Page 28

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

I

F

;;

;

J

1. R V Roger Ltd, The Nurseries , Whitby Road , Pickering . North Yorks , Y018 7HG . Tel : 0175 1·72226. Supply some 40 varieties. 2. J Tweedie Fruit Trees , Maryfield Road Nursery, Maryfield, Near Terregles , Dumfries , OG2 9TH. Supply over 80 varieties. 3. Oeacons Nursery, Godshill, Isle of Wight. P038 3HW. Tel: 01983-840750. Not a huge range, but includes some hard-la-find Scandinavian varieties. 4. RHN Ltd, Rougham Hall Nurseries, Ipswich Road , Rougham, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, IP30 9LZ. Tel: 01359-270577. RHN Hold the National Collection of gooseberries. In North America , one nursery specialises in gooseberries and is listed below; for other so urces consult Whealy & Demuth. A I Eppler Ltd, POBox 16513 , Seattle, WA 98116-0513 , USA. Tel: 206-932-2211. Cropping: indicates average size of annual fruit crop (heavy, moderate, poor etc). Reg regu lar cropper. Flavour: exce llent, good, fair , poor etc. of fruit. Size : large, medium , small etc. of fruit. Colour: indicates fruit colour when ripe , which usually differs from the unripe colour (which is usually green). Shape/other: indicates fruit shape. Also comments on other attributes , such as ski n thin or thick . Hairs: indicates extent of hairs on the fruit. Yes = fruits are hairy; some = moderately hairy; few few hairs; no no hairs (smooth).

=

=

References
Baker, H : The Fruit Garden Displayed. Cassell , 1991 . Bush Fruits. MAFF Bulletin 4, HMSQ, 1977. Catalogue of Cultivars in the United Kingdom National Fruit Collection. Brogdale Horticultural Trust , 1994. Chiej, R: The Macdonald En cylopedia of Medicinal Plants. Macdonald , 1984 . Cui pan, G: Pests, Diseases and Common Problems . Hamlyn, 1995. Elphinstone, M & Langley, J: The Holistic Gardener. Thorsons, 1987. Faccio la, S: Cornucopia. 1990. Flowerdew, B: Bob Flowerdew's Complete Book of Companion Gardening. Kyle Cathie, 1993. Flowering Periods of Tree and Bush fruits. MAFF Technical Bulletin 26, HMSQ, 1973. Hills, L: The Good Fruit Guide. HDRA, 1984 . Janick, J & Moore, J N: Fruit Breeding. Wiley, 1996. Krussmann, G: Manual of Broad-Leaved Trees and Shrubs. Batsford , 1984. Reich, L: Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley, 1991. Simmons, A: Simmons Manual of Fruit. Da vid & Charles, 1978. Westwood , M N: Temperate-Zone Pomology. Timber Press, 1993 . Whea ly. K & Demuth, S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inventory. Seed Saver Publications, 1993.

Classified advert
Cool Temperate nursery has stocks of containerised fruit trees (inc. Morus kagayamae), soft fruits , cobnuts, nitrogen-fixers (inc. nodulated Caragana) and herbs for summer planting. Collection only from our Peak District nursery. Send SAE for list to: Dept AN , Cool Temperate, Newhouse Farm, Kniveton , Ashbourne, Derbyshire, DE61JL. Phone/Fax 01335347067. We're also taking advance orders for bare-root plants for winter delivery.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 29

Cultivar Abundance Achilles Admiral Beatty Ajax Anne lii Antagonist Australia Beauty Bedford Red Bedford Yellow Beech Tree Nestling Be ll ona Black Seedling Black Velvet Blucher Bobby British Oak Broom Girl Brown's Red Canada 0 -273 Captivator Careless Carrie Catherina Champagne Red Champagne Yellow Champion Chatatuqua Clark Clayton Coiners Colossal Como Conquering Hero Cook's Eagle Cousen's Seedling Criterion Crown Bob Dan's Mistake Downing Dr Wooley Drill Early Green Hairy Early Sulphur Edith Cavell Emerald Fascination Firbob

Flowering E M L E

Ripening
EM M ML L

I II

;1

Vigour

Habit spreading

III
I iii

Thorns few

Mildew Suppl

IR

I 2:4
1,2 4 3 4 1,4 4 1,2 2,4 2,4 1,4 4 1,4 4 4 1,2,4 4

I

IR

~11l
I

II

II II
I Ii II

I

I I II
I

I
weak

upright sulphur· shy 1 spreading

II Ii
w.vigorous moderate 'IV.vigorous

I
I I

upright upright spreading

VR

I
I iii

I I

iii

II

iii

moderate moderate moderate

spreading spreading

few few few

R R 2 ,3,4 5 1,2,3 55
3,4 2 4

Ii
Ii I I

I

I

Ii I Ii I

I

compact moderate

I
vigorous

upright dense spreading

5R 5R R R
1,4 4 4

II

II
I Ii Ii I I Ii I

vigorous vigorous vigorous vigorous vigorous

spreading spreading upright spreading spreading

I Ii I iii II

4 . 2,4 2 1many I . 1,2,4 . 5R 1,2,4 1,2,4

R

Ii
I

!II II I
II

I

vigorous vigorous

spreading

I

I 2:4
4 1,2,3 2,4 4 4 1,2,4

prt-sp;eadingl

lilll

II

11

Page 30

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3


cultivar Cropping Flavour heavy

Size

Colour purple-red deep red green

Shape/other Hairs tough skins elliptic

Abundance
Ach ill es Admiral Beatty Ajax Anne lii Antagonist Australia Beauty Bedford Red Bedford Yellow Beech Tree Nestling Bellona Black Seedling Black Velvet Blucher

I
heavy

good

I small

very large very large large

few

I good, reg
average poor
heavy very good good

dark ~;~mson
creamy white gold-yellow light crimson

I
no
some

good
good ckd

Bobby
British Oak Broom Girl Canada 0-273 Captivator Care less Carrie Catherina Cham pagne Red Champagne Yellow Champion Chatatuqua Clark Cla yton Coiners Colossal Como Conquering Hero Cook's Eagle Cousen 's Seedling Criterion Crown Bob Dan's Mistake Downing Dr Wooley Drill Early Green Hairy Early Sulph ur Edith Cavell Emerald Fascination Firbob

green dark red very good dark red-black oval dark crimson I good ~uite good dark crimson oval good gOld-yellow large heavy very good very large yellow-green oval lighl good small-med coppery red pear shape moderate good med-Iarge dark red pear shape good fair milky green large oval good small deep maroon good very good large yellow-orange oval

poor heavy

large very large large medium medium small med-Iarge large small-med very large very large

red
gold-yellow

round-oval

yes

red

no
some

no no

red good reg
heavy heavy good ckd (:Juite good very good heavy good fair-good excellent very good good good good fair fair

good
good good

very large large very large medium medium very large large medium very large large large medium very large small

yellow deep yellow silvery green

red
dark crimson no green-yellow pale green oval green pale green long ova l few reenish-whit pale yellow oval some yellow-green oval no bright crimsonoblong ,thin skin yes pale red round-oval yes green

red

reg

good very good Quite good medium golden yellow round-oblong ery large golden-yellow good sma ll olive green large ellowish-Whltj good large deep yellow

:~,: f::"~;:::l

"". ""

no yes yes

no

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Cultivar Flixtonia Forester Forever Amber Fredonia Freedom Gabrori Green Gautrey's Earliest Gelbe Triumphb eere Gem Gipsy Queen Glendale Glenton Green Globe Yellow Gold Ball Golda Golden Drop Goudbal Greenfinch Green Gem Green Hansa Green Ocean Green Overall Green Walnut Gretna Green GrOne Flaschenbeere GrOne Kugel Guido Gunner Guy's Seedling Hamamekii Heart of Oak Hebburn Prolific Hedgehog Hero of the Nile Highlander High Sheriff Hinnonmaki Gold Hinnonmaki Red Honings Fruheste Houghton Howard's Lancer Hue and Cry Ingall's Prolific Red Invicta Ironmonger Jolly Angler Josselyn Jubilee

Flowering E E M l

Ripening
EM M ML L

Vigour

Habit

Thorns Mildew S uppl 2,4 4

I

I

fl

I I

II
II I l'i

I II Ii II

vigorous

open

many

R 1,2,4 4

moderate vigorous

I

4 2,4 upright R 2,4 4 3 2,4 2 1,2,4 1,2,4 4 4 2,4 4 4 1,2,4 1,2,4 4 R 1,2,4 2 2,4 1,2,4 4 2,4 3 3 4 1,2,3 4 4 3 2 4

Iii Ii
Ii

I

I
compact upright upright upright easy propagd spreading

R S R S R

i1

I I I
I Ii Ii Ii I II II

i1

I


I

I II I I
Ii II I

vigorous vigorous vigorous vigorous vigo rous compact

vigorous

I

spreading

II I


Ii Ii

iii
Ii Ii Ii Ii I

II

•• • •
I I

I I

upright spreading moderate I sp reading weak compact ,sprd vigo rou s vigorous vigorous upr, th·en spr spreading vigorous

SR R R S

!

I

I

vigorous

spreading

Many VR

II

!Ii

Ii

vigorous moderate

spread ing sp reading

R

Page 32

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

E
cultivar Flixtonia Forester Forever Amber Fredonia Freedom Gabron Green Gautrey's Earliest Gerbe Triumphbeere Gem Gipsy Queen Glendale Glenton Green Globe Yellow Gold Ball

Cropping Flavour

Size

"'"

Colour

Shape/other Hairs

poor

good medium large good good very large good ckd large

red crimson
yellow

dark red
greenish-whit~

round-oval

I

no

green

Go lda
Golden Drop Goudbal Greenfinch Green Gem Green Hansa Green Ocean Green Overall Green Walnut Gretna Green Grune Flaschenbeere Grune Kugel Guido Gunner Guy's Seedling Hamamekii Heart of Oak Hebburn Prolific Hedgehog Hero of the Nile Highlander High Sheriff Hinnonmaki Gold Hinnonmaki Red Honings Fruheste Houghton Howard's Lancer Hue and Cry Ingall's Prolific Red lnvicta lronmonger Jolly Angler Josselyn Jubilee

dark crimson yellow sweet small pale yellow good good medium pale yellow-grn round -oblong few good round f" rk red-purple very good medium pale green yes good large green-yellow heavy yellow good medium excellent large ye llow v.good small-med green-yellow r Und. th.n skin excellent large yellow good fair green . good good medium yelloWIsh-green round very good large green good very good medium greenish-whit round no medium dark green round -oval good good few fair-good good large dark green oval, thin skin no dark green good ckd large very large light green large white-green very large dark crimson yes very good very good v.la rge olive green round-oval yes good small dark golden red heavy large sea green green heavy whitis h-green very good small good ckd large yellow-wh ite ve ry good medium crimson good good medium golden yellow oblong yes very goodmedium-Ig yellow-green round-oval few good very good medium dark red good very good medium golden yeliOWr und.hangS wellyes small dark red round . very good good heavy very good medium yellow-green round-oval no good ckd large green-yellow very large dark crimson heavy good medium green red reg medium yellow-green good very good medium pale red round-oval heavy fair-good large green-yellow

heavy

I medium

I

I

Cultivar Jumbo Keen's Seedling Keepsake King of Trumps Lady Haughton Lancashire Lad Langley Gage Langley Green Lauffener Gelbe Laxton's Amber Leader Lepaa Red Leveller Lily of the Valley London Lord Audley Lord Derby Macheraugh's Seedling Major Hibbert Manzherok Marigold Marmorierte Goldkugel May Duke Mertensis Mitre Mountain Nailer Napoleon Ie Grand Oregon Champion Oroktoi Orus 8

Flowering E M" L E 1 1

EM M

Ripening ML L Vigour

II II liI I
1'1

II

I

Habit upright spreading

Thorns Mildew suppl

Ii li!

I

I., ,

!ii

vigorous Imoderate

I • I 2:4

I I I

III
Ii I III I I Ii

I I

Ii I


I

moderate upr, then sprd vigorous upright

1

Il moderate
v.vlgorous

Ii

I
iii I

IlmOd~rate
weak

moderate

compact spreading spreading spreading spreading

II [II

I I
III I Ii II

VS 1 1,2,4 . 11 ,2,4 . 4 SR 1,2,4 SR ' 1,2,4 4 4 2,4 4 VR V S 1,2,3 4 1,2,4 4 1,2,4 1 4 R 4 1,3,4 4 2,4 R 4

II III .1
1

Imoderate
moderate

spreading upright spreading, ope upright low, compact dense

II

vigorous

I : I I
I III
II Ii

I: moderate
1

weak

SR R

Pax
Perry Peru Pilot Pitmaston Green Gage Pixwell Plunder Poorman Primrose Queen of Hearts Queen of Trumps Quercitorum Rearguard Red Champagne Red Orleans Remarka Resistenta

few few

R

2 2 1,2,4 4 1,4

m

Ii!

I
I
11111

I

I

vigorous

;

!ii

I
I

III vigorous II weak II . I
vigorous

spreading spreading upright spreading spreading

few few

R R

r · vig~rOuS

I I
Ii II I

1,4 1,2 ,4 4 upright R R R

I I I

Ii

I
I !II

Page 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

,
cultivar Cropping Flavour Size Colour Shape/other Hairs Jumbo Keen's Seedling Keepsake King of Trumps Lady Haughton Lancashire Lad Langley Gage Langley Green Lauffener Gelbe Laxton's Amber Leader Lepaa Red Leveller Lily of the Valley London Lord Audley Lord Derby Macheraugh's Seedling Manzherok Marigold Marmorierte Goldkugel May Duke Mertensis Mitre Mountain Nailer Napoleon Ie Grand Oregon Champion Oroktoi Orus 8 Pax Perry Peru Pilot Pitmaston Green Gage Pixwell Plunder Poorman Primrose Queen of Hearts Queen of Trumps Quercito rum Rearguard Red Champagne Red Orleans Remarka Resistenta v.heavy heavy good good heavy
~uite

good good very good good very good moderate

very good large I green-yellow sweet medium cnmson oval very good Imed-Iarge whitish-green oval . large greeniSh-whitj good large pale yellow fair large dark red oval excellent med-Iarge pale yell ow round-oval medium pale green large bright yellow small dark golden good very good med-Iarge olive green I round-oval medium dark red good large yellow-green oval good large yellow-white good very large dark red oval large dark crimson fair-good very large dark red round

I yes

some no

few

some few no no no

I I

yell ow

very good large greenish-whit good large green-yellow good fair-good med-Iarge dark red round -oblong some medium sea green heavu large ~ale green-white ~uite good excellent oval few medium brownish-purple poor good oblong few good ckd medium yellow-white fair good med-Iarge scarlet round yes ed-large green-yellow round-oval good good

I

heavy

very good excellent poor

excellent good good excellent very good good good good excellent reg good ckd very good good good

dark red round purple-red tough skins yellow large bright yellow ova l pointed small yellow-green oval ,hangs wei deep red tough skins I v ery small large green-white med-Iarge wine red round-oval white medium white large greenish-whit small very large greenish-whit small dark red red large red medium green

yes no

no

.

I

.

round

some

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 35

e
Cultivar
Reverta Riese von Kothen Rifleman Risulfa Roaring Lion Robustenta Rokula Rosebery Rushwick Seedling Scotch Red Rough
Scottish Chieftain Shiner Silvia

d
Flowering E M L E

Ripening
EM M ML L

Vigour

Habit
upright

Thorns

Mildew Suppl

lli

In
I
I

iii lli

l' .
I !!l Ii

I

I R
4 2,4

I mOd~rate

I
upright

R R R
4 4 2 2,4 4 4 2,4 4 2,4 1,4 2,4 4 1 1,2,4 1 4 2,4 4 1 2,4 1,4 1,2 1,2,4

Ivigorous

spreading
upright

Ii I I 11

!II

Ii II I !Ii
weak
spreading spreading

Snowdrop
Speedwell

Ii
III

Spinefree

Stockwell Sultan Juror Su rprise
Suter Johnny Sylvia

I

III I
II II I II

I
vigorous vigorou s spreading spreading

none

R

I II

spreading
spreading

few

S

Talfourd Telegraph
Thatcher

I

The Leader Tom Joiner Trumpeter
Victoria

I
Ii

iii

moderate

I

I
!Ii

I II .vigorous
vigoro us

Warrington Weisse Ne ck artal Welcome Whinham's Indu stry White Eagle White Lion Whitesmith Woodpecker Yellow Champagne

spreading
spreadi ng upright

=1

Ii

few VS
1,2,3 1,4 1,2,4 1,2,3 1,2 1,2,4

il
I

II I

I

I

I

:v.vlgorous vigorous vigorous vigorous

spreading spreading pr.then sprdg spreading

SR

I

. Pigs In the forest
Kate de Selincourt
An experiment in a Forest Enterprise plantation in North Yorkshire demonstrated how pigs can benefit from the shelter and forage of a woodland environment - and they may even enhance the commercial va lue of the timber as well. though final results have not been worked out.

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Cultivar Reverta Riese von Kothen Rifleman Risulfa Roaring Lion Robustenta Rokula Rosebery Rushwick Seedling Scotch Red Rough Sco ttish Chieftain Shiner Silvia Snowdrop Speedwell Spinefree Stockwe ll Sultan Juror Surprise Suter Johnny Sylvia Talfourd Telegraph Thatcher The Leader Tom Joiner Trumpeter Victo ria Warrington Weisse Neckartal Welcome Whin ham's Industry White Eagle White Lion Whitesmith Woodpecker Yellow Champagne (Pigs in the Forest cont.)

Cropping Flavour poor heavy good heavy excellent fair

Size

Colour

Shape/other Hairs

good good ckd Iexcellent very good fair-good good excellent good ckd fair

good heavy

I

very good

very good good

heavy good ckd heavy good heavy good heavy hea vy fair-good 90'Od very good good good Ivery 9 00d very good

large very large white-green med-Iarge light crimson val; diff to large very large dark crimson oblong whitish-green small large small dark green large whitish-green small dark crimson medium ,golden-yellow large round-oval pale green medium silvery-green large whitish-green large light crimson oval small red thick skins large pale green long green large light green oval-oblong green medium silvery-green round large light red very large white-green very large olive green large yellow medium green large green-yellow very large pale red angular small-med light red round-oval yellow red jmed:large large dark red oval med-Iarge whitish-green oval very large whitish-green oblong med-Iarge cream round-oval dull green very large small yellow

I

p J

yes no

I I

no

yes

no no no

no no no few

I

yes no some few

The experiment came about when pig breeder Ian Moles was looking for land on which to run some sows, and found that conventional arable land in the area was scarce and the rent was high. There is a lot of commercial forestry in North Yorkshire and, since pigs are forest animals, Moles decided to approach the owners, Forest Enterprise, to see if he could rent some woodland: 'To put the two things together seemed like a good idea, as the woodland was underused and it seemed like a nice natural habitat for the pigs," Moles commented. Because forest land does not usually house any secondary commercial activities it does not normally attract any rent at all, so the Commission was able to rent out the land at about one quarter the rate for conventional farmland.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Page 37

?
450 sows were housed in a coniferous plantation, mainly Corsican and Scots pines, with some Japanese larch. The sows had plenty of space, equivalent to 4-5 animals per acre (conventional open field pigs are kept at around twice this density). The forest was on a light, sandy soil: essential, says Moles, to avoid the waterlogged mudbath pigs can so quickly create in clay. The low stocking density meant the sows were kept busy tackling brambles and other groundlevel scrub , and did not damage the trees - apart that is from the Japane se larch which seemed to have a flavour irresistible to the sows, and these particular trees were ring-barked . Moles estimated that they pigs derived around 10% of their fodder from the woodland range , compared to around 5% when on pasture, where there is really on ly grass and the odd beetle. According to Moles' colJeague at Forest Enterprise, Colin Olsson, the sows did very well in the forest conditions , with extra roughage in the diet and shelter from extreme weather conditions contributing to healthy litters of fast-fattening piglets. Pigs not only dislike cold winds, like most stock , they are also prone to sunburn , so the shade was helpful. However Moles did warn that on very hot, close days the still cond itions in the forest meant it was sometimes hotter there than in the open - and they did still need a mud wallow for cooling the blood. Running pigs in forest plantation is not a straightforwa rd transition for conventional pig operations, because access to the arks under the trees (for delivering food and bedding, and for checking on the yo ung animals) is more awkward than in an open field. "We had not anticipated how difficult it would be to manage the pigs in the woodland," Moles admits . Sadly, it proved so difficult to confine lively young weaners in the forest that they were fattened on conventional range , so there was no "forest-reared" pork and bacon to samp le. In the end Moles concluded that woodland range was suitable for dry and pregnant sows, which need less day-to-day attention, but for sows and their litters , accessibility problems made the wood land range less practicable. Because forests are home to ot her large mammals, there were problems with electric fencing going down, pre sumably knocked over by deer, which may then have let in faxes: there were higher losses from litt ers than usually seen in open fields - though this was made up for by the higher survival rate of those not taken. It is also necessary to provide more fencing per animal as the stocking density was lower. The increased difficulties of access meant. that this form of pig rearing used around 50% more labour than usual, which more or less balanced out the savings on rent. Although there was therefore no special commercial advantage on this particular operation , there are clearly possible advantages from a rural development and rural emp loyment perspective. The main unanswered question is the effect on the timber. A final evaluation will be made this year, five years after the start of the experiment. In theory the grazing by the sows could well prove advantageous to the forestry enterprise as well , as the pigs were removing competing vegetatio n and improving access for forestry staff. However, pigs can also make land impossibly muddy: hopefully the soil in this experiment was sandy enough not to suffer compaction.

News (continued)
Currants and Gooseberries : Production and Culture
This new publication covers all aspects of growing bla ckcurrants, red and whitecurrants , and gooseberries. It is based on the articles which have appeared in Agroforestry News, but w ith updates and more extensive cultivar lists and descriptions. Includes details of siting , culture , propagation and Ag roforestry usage . Currants and Gooseberries. 1st Edition, 1997 . A5, 48 pp. Price: £8 .00 plus £1.20 P & P from the A.R.T.

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

-~

~~~~-

-

_.T-

~~

--=----~::__~-~

-

-

~

-

----~

A.R.T. nut trials
Introd uction
There are various nut trials in progress on our main trial site in Dartington which was acquired in autumn 1995. There are two main variety trials, of chestnuts and wa lnuts , plus various seed ling selection trials, and other miscelJaneous nut species. All are obviously at a very young stage at present.

Chestnut variety trial
These cultiva rs comprise a selection of mostfy French chest nut varieties, both ind igenous C.sativa varieties and hybrids of the Japanese chestnut, C.crenata, with the sweet chestnut. These have been chosen (from those commercially available) as the varieties most likely to grow and crop well in our maritime climate; they are mostly from the W & SW of France. To date the varieties planted are: Indigenous Vari ety Origin/Where cultivated Hybrid Variety Bouche de Betizac Bournette Maraval Maridonne Marigoule Marlhac Marsol Precoce Migoule Vignols Where cultivated W .France W.France C/W.France W.France W/SE.France W.France C/W.France W/SE.France W/C.France

Belle Epine Dordogne,SW France Doree de Lyon Dordogne Laguepie limousin,Tarn-et-G. Marron Comballe Ardeche,Lozere Marron de Goujounac Dordogne,Lot,Lot et G Numbo USA Atlantic Pyrenees Rousse de Nay Cantar ,Dordogne, Lot Verdale

Good pollinators include Belle Epine, Marron de Goujounac, Rousse de Nay and Verdale. The first of these is well known as an excellent pollinator for most varieties , and for this reason , 8 trees of this variety are scattered throughout the trial ; two trees are planted of each of the other varieties. Trees are planted at a spacing of 8 m (26 ft). They will be pruned to a pyramid shape. After a few years, half of the trial will be interplanted with nitrogen -fixing Elaeagnus shrub species. The long term aims are to measure tree health and production, comparing between varieties and also between the interplanted/non interplanted areas. There is space for a further 6 varieties to be added to the trial.

Walnut variety trial
These cultivars comprise Juglans regia selections from France, Germany and North America . Late leafing out is one of the important (perhap s critical) factors in choosing cultivars for the UK, and where known , varieties are chosen which are late leafing . Two trees are planted of each variety, at a spacing of 8 m (26 ft). As with the chestnut trial, after a few years, half of the trial will be interplanted with nitrogen-fixing Elaeagnus shrub species. The long term aims are to measure tree health and production , comparing between varieties and also between the interplanted/non interplanled areas . There is space for a further 8 varieties 10 be added to the trial. Variety Origin Germany Germany Germany Where cultivated at present Germany Germany Germany

26
120 139

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Variety Broadview Buccaneer Chandler Cobles #2 Corne du Perigord Fernette Fernor Franquette Hartley Marbot Mayette Meylanaise Parisienne Plovdivski Proslavski

Origin

Where cultivated at present

Poland via Canada (BC) UK, Europe, N.America Europe UK, Europe USA (Ca lifornia) USA N.America N.America France France France - recent INRA introduction France France - recent INRA introduction France France UK, France , N.America France, N.America USA France France France France , N.America France France, N.America France France Europe E.Europe Europe E.Europe

Seedling selection trials
These consist of a number of trees planted which have been grown from seed of known parentage, for growing on and evaluation and possible select ion of superior trees for further propagation. There are 5 such trials: • Seedlings of 'Layeroka' chestnut, a hybrid of the Chinese and European chestnuts bred in Canada (BC) and grown commercially there ; resistant to chestnut blight , good timber quality and nut production. Seedlings of 'Petoka' hazelnut, a hybrid bred in Canada (BC) with an extremely large nut. Seedlings of 'Brock' heartnut (Juglans ai/antifolia cordiformis) , a selection grown in Canada with medium-sized, easily c racked nuts. Seedlings of named Carpathian walnuts (eg . of 'Broadview'), a race known to perform well in the UK. Seedlings of sweet-fruited holm oaks (Quercus i/ex) from South Devon.

• • •

Miscellaneous species
• • • Gingko : selections of Gingko biloba . Monkey puzzle: Araucaria araucana trees. Nut pines : currently only the stone pine, Pinus pinea , but more will be added . Oaks for sweet acorns: including ballota oaks (Quercus ilex baffa/a), emory oak ( Q.emoryi) , burgambel oak (Q.macrocarpa x gambelii), Schuettes oak (Q.x schuette/) , ooti oak (Q.macrocarpa x muhlenbergi x robur).

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 3

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturei he>rticultul'e to produce a diverse, productive and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in paslure5 providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground lay~rs in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroflll'estry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year ill Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged)
£22 per J'~ar overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per ye<lr for institutions.

A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, avail2.bie on request tor 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including lJostage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to 'Agrolorestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Darlington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No. 1007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

Agroforestry News

]

_

n. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Volume 5 Number 4

July 1997

------------------

--

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 5 Number 4

July 1997

Contents
2 3 14 19 32 39 40 News Edible acorns from oaks Sour cherries Sweet and Duke cherries Forest gardening: Fungi Book reviews:
Essential Oil Crops I Fungi and Environmental Change

Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed , and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common format. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops , if unknown to the reader, should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species. The editor, authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, T09 6JT. U.K.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 1

News
EFRC Research
The Elm Farm Research Centre is an international research , advisory and educational organisation, based in Berkshire (UK). aiming to bring about a greater uptake of organic farming. They carry out farm-scale practical research both at their farm in Berkshire and at othe~sites both private and government owned. One of their research projects, partly government-funded through MAFF, is investigating stockless farming - ie. rotations of arable crops , grass andlo r green manure crops, without the use of animal manures. They are finding increasing evidence that such stockless systems are both feasible and economically profitable: gross profit margins can be as good as either a mixed (ie animals + arable) organic or a conventional all-arable system. Wheat yields from their stockless systems in 1996 varied from 5-10 tonnes/ hectare (2-4 tonnes!acre) and on the government-funded site , the organic unit has consistently outperformed the conventional system run alongside it for comparison. Their recommended initial approach is to use a red clover! grass! green manure mixture to build up nitrogen supply and improve soil structure; the main rotation is then 4-7 years long, with legumes forming between 25-50% of the rotation. These results may have implications for temperate agroforestry systems which utilises nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs to intercrop with an arable crop. Since it is becoming clearer that such trees and shrubs fix and make available to other plants similar amounts of nitrogen as annual or perennial N-fixers, it follows that , if the design of the system is such that the nitrogen fixed is available to the whole area of the arable crop, then such cropping may be sustainable on a long term basis with 25-50% of the total area devoted to N-fixing trees and shrubs. The same would apply to other tree crops - which broadly agrees with our recommendations of using 33% of the area for N-fixers , and 66% for the main tree crop (apples, nuts etc). Source: EFRC Bulletin No 30, July 1997.

Cropping pine needles
Gathering pine needles (often called 'pine straw') began decades ago in North Carolina (USA), for use in mulching and landscaping - originally for mulch to control erosion on hillsides, but more recently for landscaping around trees and shrubs as they are long lasting and fine looking. An indirect benefit has been that forest fires are far less damaging where the needles had been gathered (trees don't burn as fast or as hot). Several NC producers now design a whole system around growing pines for harvesting pine needles, using the pitch or longleaf pine (Pinus pa/ustris) . Trees are planted at specific distances apart, undergrowth is controlled, and needles are raked into rows prior to baling using a hay-baler. Production is well under way within 8 years (when the trees are 5-6 m ! 1720 ft high), and 70-120 bales of needles per acre are produced , worth about $250-480, with needle production expected to be sustained many decades. There are arguments about the environmental drawbacks and benefits of this system; keeping the undergrowth controlled may disadvantage some wildlife species: some landowners have planted the pines as windbreaks or for erosion control, and squirrel numbers are significantly lower where this system is practised.
-4=

== '

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

¥

Edible acorns from oaks
Introd uction
First, to dispel a myth: all oaks bear acorns which are edible . Most speci es of oak (of which there are many) produce acorns which are high in tannins , making them bitter and astringent when raw , hence they need processing to remove these potent ially harmful substances. Removal of tannins is , however, extremely easy , taking no more time and effort than it takes to sprout seeds , and the resultant acorn meal resembles that from other nuts in oiliness and fla vour. There is a long history of human cultures using acorns as a food source , often as a staple crop. Early Greek writers referred to the acorn as a wholesome food . The most recent peoples to use acorns as a major food source were the native North American Indians, who used them widely well into this century . They are still a regular item of commerce in a few countries , notably Korea.

Harvesting
The first acorns to fall in early autumn are usually bad - either empty or ea ten by weevils - so it is important to allow these to fall before starting harvesting. The easiest method is to just spread sheets or small-weave nets on the ground beneath the trees, wh ich are emptied every few days. Where there is little undergrowth or in urban areas where there is concrete beneath the trees, the acorns can just be picked off the ground if it clean. In heavy mast years (normally every 2-3 years) , when a very large crop of ac orns is produced by most species , there may be so many acorns produced that it is relatively safe to allow them to lie for weeks or months below the trees , harvesting a few at a time . If some are still there in the spring , they can still be harvested, even if they are sprouting (as long as the seed kernel hasn 't turned green and the sprout is under 5 cm , 2" long). It is a good idea to store harvested acorns for two weeks before using , to allow them to ripen fully and thus minimise the tannin content. Acorns can be stored in reasonably good condition for a period of up to 6 months, by providing a cool, moist, rodent and squirrel-proof sto re, where the acorns can be piled in layers up to 15 cm (6 thick . The layers should be turned regularly to prevent mould growth.
ft )

Yields vary widely from species to species and year to year, many spe cie s be ing alternate bearing . They can reach 3 tonnes/acre (7% tonnes! Ha) , with individual trees yielding up to 90 Kg (200 Ib - a.garryana) , 300 Kg (660 Ib - a.ilex) or 900 Kg (2000 Ib - a .lobata) .

Shelling
After harvesting, the acorns need to be shelled and the kernels ground. The best way of shelling is to cut the acorns in half (lengthwise) with a sharp knife and use the point of the knife to prise out each half of the kernel. This method does not take long to prepare enough kernels to use in a meal. If the acorns are sprouting , the shell will have split and can be pulled apart, and the sprout itself should be discarded . Another method which ma y work with some species is to soak the acorn s in water overnight , causing the shell to split open , when the shall c an be removed by hand . Any mouldy kernels should be discarded at this point.

Removing the tannins
Most species of oaks produce acorns with moderate to high leve ls of tannins which must be leached out before they can be eaten ; a few species , and occas iona l isolated trees of others, can produce sweet acorns with low enough tannin levels that they can be used whole directly in cooking etc. The tannins wh ich cause the bitterness in most acorns are tannic acid , gallic acid and pyrogallol. The concentration of these is 1Yz to 3 times higher in green (immature) acorns than in mature, ripe acorns . The procedure to measure tannins is complex and expensive, which is probably the main reason why more work has not been done on ta nnin conteQt of acorns for different species. The tannin content varies within a species too: some ranges found are: Q.a/ba (0.41-2.54%); Q.rubra (3.72-4.47%); and Q.ve/utina (3.29-6.13%). Traditionally, acorns were ground with a pestle and mortar. An easier and quicker method is to use a food blender: put the acorns into the blender with 3 times their volume of water (ie 3 cu ps of wate r per 1 cup of acorns) and blend them until they are finely ground. Tradition al methods of leaching the ground acorn meal indude placing them in a sack in constant running water (may take 2-3 hours), or by pouring hot water over the meal in a st rainer. A simpler (though longer) method , is to allow the ground meal to soak in cold water for about a week, changing the water daily. For small amounts of meal, use large jars (e g. coffee jars) : the ground meal will settle to the bottom and the water above it will darken to brown as the tann ins leach into it. To change the water, just pour off the old water (take care not to pour out the meal!) and refill with clean water. The water will get visibly dearer each day, and after a week the meal can be used . The whole process should take place in a cool or cold room, or in a refrigerator if this is easier. Larger quantities of aco rn s can be leached in bowls or buckets, again in a cool or cold place.

Utilisation
The leached acorn meal needs cooking either on its own or in a recipe. In the latter case , just strain the meal from the la st soak water, and add it to the recipe (see below for some su ggestions) . In the former case, simmer the leached meal in water for about 15 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent burning ; allow to cool, then freeze to separate the water from the cooked meal; thaw when ready to use, and squeeze remaining water from the cooked meal in a strainer. The cooked acorn meal made thus is excellent to use as a nut butter in sandwiches or used to make a dip with sour cream or yoghurt. Instead of cooking imm ed iatel y, the leached acorn meal can be dri ed and stored for later use as above. Spread the meal thinly in trays and dry in a warm room , stirring regularl y to prevent the grains from sticking together and forming 'acorn rocks'. Sweet acorns, with low tannin levels, can be used who le or in halves straight into reci pes , eg adding to bread etc.

Table 1. Nutritional composition of acorns
Water % Q.lobata Q.robur Q.velutina Protein Fat Fibre

%
5.7 7.9

%

%

Carbo hy- Tannins Kcall drate % % 100 9

18.6
4.6 3.4

13.9

3.6
13.6

65 67.8 8.6

41.8

353 4.51

Page 38

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Acorns provide a complete vegetable protein and are high in carbohydrates. They conta in 16 amino acids , appreciable amounts of Vitamins A and C , and significant quantities of ca lcium, magnesium , phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. They are particularly good used in biscuits, breads and pies. Acorn beverages have been made, notably coffee substitutes by roasting and grinding: the quality depends on the acorn and the technique· Q.muehlenbergii was valued for this purpose in the U.S. and Q.robur has been used in Europe . In Turkey , 'racahout ', a spiced acorn drink like hot chocolate. was traditionalJy made from acorns of Q.ilex well into this century. Acorn oil can be extracted by boiling or pressing and is comparab le in quality to olive oil: it has been used in North Africa (especially from Q.ilex bal/ota) and North America (especialJy from Q.virginiana) as a cooki ng oil. Some species contain up to 30% oil , comparable to the best olive va rieties.

Table 2. CompOSition/characteristics of acorn oil
a.alba a.glauca Q.ilex Q.incana Q.palustris Q.rubra Olive oil

Specific gravity (25 ° C) (15 ° C)
Refractive ind ex (25 ° C) Sapo nification value Oleic acids 48 Palmatic acids 10 40 Linoleic acids

0.9062 1.4660 185.13 55.25 10.65 32.50 1.4701 189.05 57.05 12.40 30.50

0.9086 1.4576 192.20 82.00 17.10

0.9081 1.4647 193.20

0.918 1.4679 (40 ° C) 189.7 84.4 6.9 2.3

195.30 48 10 40

Brief recipe suggestions: Bread: Use 2 parts flour to 1 part leached acorn meal and make as normal. Species with 'sweet' acorns (ie not very tannic) can have kernel wholes or halves added to bread before baking. Biscuits: Substitute leached, cooked acorn meal for butter on a 1·1 basis. Soups: add some leached meal at the same time as chopped roots etc to make a hearty soup.

Oak cultivation
Most species take at least 15 years before they start to fruit, sometimes up to 25 years, thoug h there are exceptions: Q.robur usually starts well before this, and some individuals flower at 3·5 years old. Flowering occurs in the spring and the acorns mature after either 6 or 18 months depending on the species. Pollination is via the wind, and hybridisation is common. All oaks like warm summers; warm dry summers tend to favour heavy crops of acorns: these occur at irregular intervalS of 1·5 years depending on the species. In general, oaks prefer a medium or heavy soil , often a deep fertile loam , and tolerate a range of pH from moderately acid to moderately alkaline. Most species prefer a moist so il, and tolerate moderate side shade and exposure. Many species develop deep tap roots and are droughHesistant when established, but good acorn production requires reasonably fertile soil and sufficient water. Among the oak family are species which tolerate extreme aridity, salinity , alkalinity, flooding , and severe heat and cold . Oaks form numerous mycorrhizal association with fungi which ca n significantly aid their nutrition and health. Oaks have long been intercropped with cereals and grassland in Europe and North America , although they usually form wide·spreadi ng rounded trees which are not compatible with long· term alley-cropping.

Oaks are generally hard to propagate by any ot her means than seed. Fresh seed in autumn should be sown immediately in a cold frame. co ld greenhouse etc. making sure that rodents cannot get at the seed. Dormancy varies between species , some seeds are not dormant, others need up to 4 months of cold, but sowing in autumn is good practice for all species. Trees should be planted out in their final locations before they are too large. Side grafting of sucker shoots onto seedlings of closely related species is sometimes carried out to propagate selections. A very few selections have been made of trees with improved quality.;fruits , though these are only marginally better; one is Q.macrocarpa ' Ashworth'.

Oak and tanoak species
Included in this article are the tanoaks or tanbark oaks - Lithocarpus species, which were formerly included in Quercus, and which are very closely related to the oaks. American oaks can be divided into two groups: white oaks and black (or red) oaks. White oaks mature their acorns in their first year and have leaves with rounded lobes, without pointed tips ; in black oaks , acorns take 2 years to develop, and leaves have bristles or painted tips. Acorns of the white oak group and often sweeter and less tannic (range: 0.7-2 .1% tannins) than those of the black oak group (rang e: 6.7-8.8%,), but species of both groups have been highly regarded as food sources , and there is considerable variation between individual trees of each species . Acorns of the black oak group are generally higher in fats than those of the white oak group.

Recommended species for use in Britain
Oaks from the continental eastern USA, China and Japan do not grow or fruit so we ll in Britain and can suffer autumn frost damage from unripened shoots; of these the best is Q.rubra and some of the other red oaks. Q.alba only does well in the dry SE . of England. The Mediterranean oaks , however, thrive in Britain 's climate, growing faster here than in their native areas . With increasingly warm summers , all species of oak will fruit belter and the lists below may expand within a few decades. Low-tannin species: Q.agrifolia, Q.i1ex, Q.ilex ballota, Q.itheburensis macro/epis, Q.kelloggii; and possibly Q. douglasii, Q.dumosa, Q.gramuntia (a confused species - may be part of Q.i1ex), Q.lobata and Q. vacciniifolia. Medium to high-tannin species: Lithocarpus densiflorus, Q.cerris. O.coccifera , Q.frainetto, Q.fruticosa, Q.x hispanica, Q . x kewensis, Q.libani, Q.pa/ustris, O.petraea, Q.phillyreioides, O.robur, O.rubra , O.suber, Q.wislizenii; and possibly O.alnifolia, O.engelmannii, O.garryana, O.haas, Q.pubescens, Q.pyrenaica, O.trojana.

Recommended species for specific situations
For poor soil : Q.i1icifolia, Q./aevis, O.x libanerris. Q.marylandica , Q.prinoides For very alkaline soil: Q.ellipsoidalis, Q.cerris, O.frainetto, Q.ilex, Q.macrocarpa x robur, Q.muehlenbergi. For very acid soil: Q.marylandica, O.petraea. Drought tolerant: Q.douglasii, Q.alba, Q.aucheri, Q.castaneifolia , Q.chrysoJepis, Q.gambelii, O.gambelii, O.itheburensis, Q.leucotrichophora, Q.macrocarpa x turbinella, O.macrocarpa, Q.marylandica , Q.prinoides, Q.pubescens, Q.pungens, Q.robur x /obata , Q.rubra, Q.suber, Q.velutina, Q.virginiana.

Page 36

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Q.agrifo lia Q.c hrysolcpis

Q.dumosa

Q.frainetti

Q.garryana

Q.robur

Q. rubra O.s uber
O.wislizeni Lithocarous

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 7

For wet soils: Q.bicolor, Q.ellipsoidalis, Q.lyrata, Q.michauxii, Q.nuttalli, Q.petraea, O.philfyreoides, O.robur. Tolerant of saline soils: O. virginiana. Tolerant of maritime exposure: O.aucheri, O.ilex. Precocious species (fruiting soo n in life): O.acutissima Gobbler strain (5~8 years), Q.cerris (5~8 years). O,variabilis.

Key to the Oak species tables
Table 3:
Ev: E = evergreen, SE = semi -evergreen. Blank = deciduous. G: 1 = acorns mature the same year as flowering. 2 = acorns mature in two years. Hd: Indicates hardiness zone.

Table 4:
UK: Indicates likely cropping va lu e in the UK. A = crops well, B = crops well in hot summers, C = crops only occasionally. 0 = rarely crops. Crop : Indicates heaviness of cropping . Gd = good , VG = very good, Mod moderate. Mast: Indicates number of years between heavy mast (cropping) yea rs. Len : Indicates normal length of acorns in mm . Width: Indicates normal width of acorns in mm. Tannin : Indicates average tannin content of acorns. VL = very low, L = low, M = moderate, H = high. Flav: Indicates any comments about the flavour (after leaching). QS = quite sweet , S = sweet. Oil : H indicates species with acorns rich in oii.

A. Species with low-tannin acorns: Table 3
Species Quercus agrifolia

a .alba
Q.arizonica Q.aucheri Q.x bebbiana Q.bicolo r Q.chysolepis Q.douglasii Q.dumosa Q.emoryi Q.gambelii Q.gramuntia Q.ilex Q.ilex ballota Q.itheburensis

Common names Ev G California li ve oak, .Coast live oak [1 White oak, Stave oak, Quebec oak 1 1 Arizona white oak SE 1 Boz pirnal oak E 2 Bebbs oak Swamp white oak, White oak 1

IE

Canyon li ve oak, Canyon! Maul 01kEi 2 Blue oak, Iron oak 1 California scrub oak, Scrub oak SE 1 Em ory oak, Western black oak 1 Gambel oak, Shin oak 1 Holly leaved gramont oak E Holm oak. Holly oak E Ballota oak E 1 SE 2 Israeli oak SE 2 Q.itheburensis macroler: is Vallonea oak, Camata Q.kelloggii California black oak, Kellogg oak 21 187 Shrub or tree, 5-25 m Valley oak , California white oak Q.lobata Shrub or tree 1

I

Hd Habit (in cultivation) 8 Large shrub 4 Large tree 7 Shrub or small tree 8 Large shrub to 5 m 4 Large tree 4 Large tree 7 Large shrub-medium tree 7+ Shrub or tree 8 Shrub to 4 m 7 Small tree 4 Shrub or small tree to 8 m 8 Small tree 7 Large tree 7 7 Small tree 7 Small tree

Page 8

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Synonyms used in the table below: Q.ilheburensis macrolepis (syn. Q.aegilops); Lithocarpus corneus (syn. Q.comea); Lithocarpus glaber (Syn. Q.glabra). Hybrids are: Q. x bebbiana = Q.alba x macrocarpa, Q.x schuettes = Q.macrocarpa x bicolor.

References
Agroforestry Research Trust: Useful Plants database, 1997. Asmus, K: Oaks with Edible Acorns. NNGA 80th Annual Report (1989): 114-115. Asmus, K: Sweet Acorn Oaks. Pomona Vol. xxix NO.4 ( 1996): 61-63. Bainbridge, 0: The Oaks. NNGA 82nd Annual Report (1991): 185-191. Basden, K & Dalvi, R Determination of Total Phenolics in Acorns from Different Species of Oak. Veti narary & Human Toxicology, 29 (4): 305-6. Bean, W J: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Vol. 3. John Murray, 1976. Howes, F: Nuts. Faber & Faber. Jaynes, R: Nut Tree Culture in North America. NNGA, 1979. Krussmann, G: Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees & Shrubs. Batsford, 1984. Ocean, S: Aco rn s and Eat 'em. Ocean-Hose, 1995. Oikos Tree Crops: Tree catalogues , 1991-1996. Paterson, R: Use of Trees by Livestock: Quercus. NRI, 1993. Reighart, G: Min or Nuts of the Past , Present , and Future . NNGA 80th Annual Report (1989) : 20-22. Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. Sa unders , C: Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover. Sholto Dougla s, J & Hart R: Forest Farming. IT Pubs, 1985. USDA Agriculture Handbook 450: Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. USDA, 1974 .

A. Species with low-tannin acorns: Table 4
Acorn Species Origin UK Crop Mast Len B 20-35 auercus agrifolia J California a.alba Eastern USA 0 Irr 4-9 10-30 SW. USA, NW . Mexico 0 20-25 Q.arizonica a.aucheri SW Turkey , Greek islands to 20 a.x bebbiana 0 Gd Ea stern USA 3-5 20-30 a.bicolor Northeastern N .America 0 Q.chysolepis I SW USA, NW Mexico 25-35 a.douglasii California 2-3 20-35 a.dumosa ) California 20-30 I Southwestern USA, Mexic 0 15-20 a.emoryi Q.gambeli; 15-20 Southwestern USA 0 a.gramuntia S.France a.Hex I Mediterranean B Gd 15-30 a.ilex baliota N . Africa, S. Spain B Fair 20-50 Syria, Israel /Pale stine 25-50 Q.itheburensis a.itheburensis macrolepis SE.ltaly, Balkans, Greer , T rkC a.kelloggii IWestern USA B 2-3 25-30 a.lobata California 2-3 30-55 Width TanninFlav Oil 10-15 L H L to 15 VL 15-25 L 15-30 L 10-1 5 8-10 L-M 12-15 L 10-15 L L 20-30 L 25-50 20-30 L 12-20 L

I
Is IH Is Is S I

I

!

as I H IH S I L

I

I~

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 9

Species

Common names

Ev G Hd

Habit (in cultivation)

Q.lyrata x virginiana 1 Comptons oak 1I Q.macrocarpa Burr oak, Mossy cup oak, Blue 1 3 Large tree Q.macrocarpa x gambelii Bur Gambel oa

oar

I

Small tree x muehl x robur Ooti oak Mongolian oak Q.mongolica Chinkapin oak, Yellow chestnut oak Q.muehlenbergii Dwarf chinkapin oak, Chinkapin o~k Q.prinoides
Q.ma~roc.

I

Medium tree

3 Large tree Large tree 4 Suckering shrub or 5
1 4 1 5 2 6

tree to 4m O.prinus a.X schuettes O.stellata Q.vacciniifolia Q.virginiana

Chestnut oak , Basket oak. Rock Schuettes oak Post oak, Iron oak Huckleberry oak live oak, Virginia live oak

olk
E

5 Large tree Large tree Small to medium tree Shrub, D.5-1.8m 7 Shrub or tree

B. Species with medium or high-tannin acorns: Table 3
Species Uthocarpus densifloru ~ L.edulis L.glaber Q.acuta Q.acutissima Q.afares Q.aliena Q.alnifolia m Q.brantii m Q.castanaefolia Q.cerris Q.coccifera Q.coccinea Q.dentata Q.ehrenbergii Q.ellipsoidalis Q.engelmannii Q.faginea Q.falcata Q.frainetto Q.fruticosa carpets Q.garryana medium tree Q.qlandulifera Common names Tanbark oak, Tanoak Ev G Hd Habit (in cultivation)

E 2 7 Small to medium tree
8 Small tree or shrub to 7 m 7 Small tree or shrub to 7 m 7 Large shrub Large tree 2 5 5 Medium tree 5 Large tree 8 Shrub to 2 m , or tree to 8

E E Japanese evergreen oak E Sawtooth oak, Sawthorn oak, Korean o. Afares oak 1 Oriental white oak E 2 Golden oak

2 7 Shrub or small tree to 10
Chestnut leaf oak Turkey oak Kermes oak. Grain oak E Scarlet oak, Black oak, Spanish oak Japanese emperor oak, Oaimio oJk

2 6 Large tree 2 6 Large tree
2 6 Bushy shrub, O.3-1.Sm 2 4 Large tree 1 S Large tree 7 Shrub or small tree
~ 4

I

Northern pin oak, Jack oak, Hill's o~J Portuguese oak Southern red oak, Swamp red oak Hungarian oak, Italian oak

Large tree

S

1 7 Shrub or small tree

121 6-+i Large tree

sa
Oregon white oak. Garry oak, Post oL Konara oak, Glandbearinq oak

6 Large tree 1 8 Shrub. 0.3·2
5+
5 Medium tree

m, Small

often to

1 11

_--,--_ _ _ Acorn, _ _-::-:--:Species
Q.lyrata x virginiana Eastern USA Q.macrocarpa Q.macrocarpa x gambelii

Origin

r:~roI 2~:~:::: ! ~~~:: T~cn,F~:v
Southwest~rn USA I D

Oil

I VG

11
I VL

VL
a.macrae. x muehl x robur Hybrid Q.mongolica a.muhlenbergii Q.prinoides Q.prinus a.x schuettes

!Japan,

I
20 I D Mod 13-20 Gd 10-15 D 2-3 25-40

I
large
2-3 10-25 6-10
12-15 25-30 5-13

Sakhalin

I Eastern USA NE & Central USA
1 Eastern

USA

I Eastern USA
Eastern USA

I

12 I 112-14 I L-M 8-10 VL 15-25 1

I

IS

I~S :~
H

D VG
D
D Gd

I VL
L-M

I

a.stella ta Q.vacciniifolia Q.virginiana

Western USA Southeastern USA

I
I

1

B. Species with medium or high-tannin acorns: Table 4
Acorn Species Origin Lithocarpus densifloru s! Western USA l.edulis J Japan L.glaber Japan, China

UK Crop Mast Len Width TanninFlav Oil B VG 2 25-50 1

C.acula
Q.acutissima

I Japan, N.Korea, China
Japan , Korea. China

D D D D D

Q.afares

a.aliena
Q.alnifolia Q .brantii Q.castanaefolia Q.cerris Q.coccifera Q.coccinea Q.dentata Q.ehrenbergii Q.eUipsoidalis Q.engelmannij Q-faginea Q.fa lcata Q.frainetto Q.fruticosa Q.garryana Q.glandulifera Q.glauca Q.haas Q.hartwissiana Q.x heterophytla

I Japan,

IAlgeria
Korea Cyprus Kurdistan, Iran Central & Southern Europe

ICaucasus, Iran
I Mediterranean
I Japan,
Eastern USA, S.Canada Korea , China Syria, Lebanon

A C
D D

! Northeastern USA
California Northwestern Africa Southeastern USA Balkans, S.ltaly, Turkey

D
B

I S.Spain

& Portugal, MoroccoB

j Western N.America
1Japan, Korea, China

I Asia

Japan , China minor

D D

I Asia minor, Caucasus Eastern USA

D

25 15-20 15-20 8-12 20-25 VG 35-45 20-25 25-35 20-30 15-20 20-30 10-15 Gd 30-35 Gd 15-30 8 -20 3-5 15-25 15-25 12-24 12-20 30-40 20-30 12-20 10-15 to 25 25 1-2 12-14 10-15 20-35 10-12 10-15 8-10 2-3 20-25 15-20 10-15 10- 15 1 7 - 8 18-50 18-20 Gd 18-30 10-15 20-30

~5-18 1

1

I
H

I
I
I
I

~

I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page Jl

Species Common names Ev G Lucombe oak, Spanish oak '2 a.x hispanica 2 a.imbricaria Shingle oak, Laurel oak Q.infectoria Aleppo oak S 1 E 2 Q.x kewensis Q.laevis American turkey oak , Scrub oak 2 Q.lameJlosa E Q.leucotrichophora E 2 a.x libanerris Ubanerris oak 2 a.libani Lebanon oak a.lyrata Overcup oak, Swamp post oak Q.macroocarpa x robur Bur English oak Q.macrocarpa x turbinella Burli ve oak a.marylandica Blackjack oak, Jack oak 2 Q.michauxii Swamp chestnut oak , Cow oak Q.myrsinaefolia E Q.nigra Water oak, Possum oak, Spotted r.a Q.nuttallii Nuttall oak, Smooth·barked red o~k a.oblongifolia Mexican blue oak, Western live oak E Pin oak, Spanish oak, Swamp oa Q.palustris 2 Q.pedunculiftora Q.petraea Durmast oak, Sessile oak Willow oak, Peach oak , Pin oak Q.phellos 2 a.phillyreoides Ubame oak E 2 Q.pubescens Downy oak, Pubescent oak Q.pungens Sandpaper oak a.pyrenaica Pyrenean oak, Spanish oak tree Q.robur English oak, Pedunculate oak Q.robur x alba Englishwhite oak Q.robur x lobata Robata oak a.robur x turbinella Englishlive oak Q.rubra Red oak, Northern red oak, Gray ak Q.semicarpifolia E 2 a.shumardii Schumard oak, Schneck oak 2 Q.suber Cork oak E Q.trojana Macedonian oak 2 Q.undulata Wavyleaf oak, Rocky mountain sc ubi 0 3m, rarel y tree to 9m Q. variab ili s Chinese cork oak, Oriental oak 2 Q.velutina Black oak, Smooth·bark oak 2 Q.wislizeni Interior live oak, Highland live oa E 2

s [

s

Hd Habit (in cultivation) 6..l Shrub to large tree 5 Medium to large tree 6 Sma ll tree to 4 m 6 Small tree 6 Shrub or tree, 6· 12 m 8 Shrub or tree 8 Shrub or tree 6 Large tree 6 Shrub or tree to 7·8 m 5-+l Large tree Large tree 3 Large shrub or small tree 5 Small tree, 6-10 m 6 Large tree 7 Shrub to medium tree Large tree 2 6 2 6 Large tree Shrub or tree to 8 m 7 Large tree 6 Large tree 4 Large tree 6 Large tree 7 Shrub or tree, 3-9 m 5 Medium to large tree 7 Shrub or tree 7 Shrub! small to medium 6 3 3 3 2 8 5 8 6 Large tree Large tree Large tree Shrub or small tree 3 Large tree Shrub Large tree Small to large tree Small tree 1 5 Shrub,

SI

~

I~

Q

Q

Q

C C

C

(

1-

4 Large tree 4 Large tree 8 Shrub

Sources
Birchfleet Nursery, Nyeford, Nyewood, Petersfield , Hants, GU31 5JQ. Tel: 01730·821636. Dulford Nurseries. Cullompton, Devon, EX15 2DG. Tel: 01884-266361.

Acorn )ecies Origin UK ,x hispanica Southern Europe [ B .imbricaria Eastern & Central USA I Asia minor, Middle East .infectoria .x kewensis Hybrid A .Iaevis Southeastern USA D .Iamellosa Himalayas Himalayas !.I eucotrichophora Hybrid I.X libanerris Middle East, Turkey A 1.libani I Central & Southern USA Uyrata l.macroocarpa x robur/ Hybrid l.macrocarpa x turbin~lIa Hybrid :!.marylandica Central & Southeastern USA ::l.michauxii Southeastern USA D ).myrsinaefolia Japan , China, Laos J.nigra D Southeastern USA Q.nuttallii Southern USA Q.oblongifolia SW USA, NW Mexico D Q.palustris NE. USA, SE. Canada C Q.pedunculiflora Asia minor, Balkans Q.petraea A Europe Q.phe llos Southeastern USA D Q.phillyreoides B China , Japan Q.pubescens Southern Europe O.pungens Southwestern USA Q.pyrenaica SW. Europe, Morocco Q.robur Europe A O.robur x alba Hybrid Q.robur x lobata Hybrid Q.robur x turbinella Hybrid B Eastern N .America O.rubra O.semicarpifolia Himalayas Q.shumardii Southeastern USA D Mediterranean Q.suber C Q.trojana SE. Europe, Turkey I O.undulata Southwestern USA, Mexico D China, Japan, Korea Q.variabilis D Eastern N.America O.velutina D Q.wislizeni California C
1

Crop Mast Len Width TanninFlav Oil

30-40 120 2-4 , 10-15 12-16 25-40 12-18 20-25 10-15 1 20 I 30-40 120-30 20-25 13-15 to 35 25 25 3-4 15-25 15-25 M VG ' 3-5 large Gd 10-20 3-5 30 120-25 17-25 7-10 1-2 10-15 110-1 5 13 -4 20-30 15-20 S [ 1-2 12-17 20-30 15-20 3-8 20-30 15-25 10 15-20 8-10 15-20 8-12 10 15-30 Gd 1 2 - 6 15-30 10- 15 1 M-H 1 Gd Gd Gd 2-3 120-30 15-25 H to 30 25 2-3 18-30 2-4 20-45 14-18 127·45 20 [ 15-20 8-15 2 15-20 2-3 15-25 15-20 5-7 20-35 10-15 ;

I

I~

Mallet Court Nursery, Curry Maliet, Taunton, Somerset , TA3 6SY. Tel : 01823-480748 . Supply a huge range of oak species, but most not by mail order. Oikos Tree Crops , P.O .Box 19425, Kalamazoo, MI 49019 , USA. Tel : 616-624-6233. supplies a wide range of species and hybrids, some experimental.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 29

Sour cherries
Introd uction
Sour (acid) cherries (Prunus cerasus) are rather easier to cultivate than sweet cherries , as they form small trees . most are self·fertile. and they will tolerate considerable shade . They are also less susceptible to the ravages of bacterial canker than Sweet cherries . The fruits are too acid for most people to eat raw, but are excellent cooked or made into jam.

r

Tree forms
The usual forms are bush , half standard and fan. Bushes reach 3-3 .6 m (10-12 ft) high , whilst fans can be trained 2.1 -2.4 m (7-8 ft) high and 3.6-4.5 m (12-15 tt) in spread . Sour cherries can also be grown as pyramids; commercial mechanically-harvested orchards are now trained using the modified central leader system . A dwarfing rootstock is preferable, eg o 'Colt' . Sour cherries fruit largely on the young shoots which were made the previou s summer, hence un pruned trees tend to crop only on the outer edge of the crown , the centre tending to be unfruitful. The advantages of unpruned trees are that the work is reduced and that the chances of infection by bacterial canker are much reduced. To stimulate a constant supply of new replacement wood, a proportion of the older wood should be cut out each year, with any large pruning cuts painted with protective paint.

i

Bush trees
Plant as a whip , well-feathered maiden or two-year old tree, at a spacing of 3.6-4.5 m (12-15 ft) apart; stake each tree. Plant in autumn if possible because cherries start growth early in spring. Formative pruning: this is done in early spring , just as the buds break into growth ; always prune to a vegetative bud (not a flower bud) which is easily distinguished at this stage. If the maiden tree has strong laterals at 60-90 cm high, some can be used as the primary branches (of which 4-5 is the aim to start with). Cut back the central stem to the top lateral at about 1 m; prune each lateral by two-thirds to a bud facing upwards , and remove lower laterals not needed. (A whip should be cut back to a bud at 1 m, with 3-4 good buds immediately below; these can grow in the first year to form the first bran ches. In the following 2 springs. prune the previous summer's growth of each branch by a half to two-thirds to a bud facing in the required direction, usually outwards.) Ongoing pruning : In September, after the crop has been picked, cut back one-quarter of the old fruiting wood back to vigorous 1-year old shoots . In older trees it maybe necessary to cut out a few pieces of 3-4 year old wood, back to strong replacement shoots.

Fan trees
Fans can be trained against a wall or a wire frame ; any aspect, even North-facing , is suitable. Allow a width of 3.6-4.5 m (12-15 ft) , and a minimum height of 2.1 m (7 ft) : against a wall , plant the tree 20 cm (8") away. Wire supports , needed in any case, should be spaced at 15 cm (6") apart starting at 40 cm (16") from the ground. Formative pruning: In early spring, as growth is starting , if the tree is a feathered maiden and there are 2 suitable laterals, these can be used to form the first ribs , with the centre of the tree cut out [Prune now as for 'year 2' below]. With a poorly-feathered tree. cut back to 60 cm (24") to a lateral shoot or good growth bud , and select 2 buds below this , one to the left and the other to the right, about 22-30 em (9-12") above the ground . As growth occurs from these , pinch out all other growth to one leaf, and tie the stems to a cane as below. The next spring , cut back the 2 side branches to a growth bud 30-40 cm (12-16") from the main stem to form the first ribs.

Page 14

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Year 2: Tie the first 2 ribs to canes fixed to the wi re s at 40-45 0 . Over the summer , train 4 shoots each side: allow 2 side shoots on the upper side of each branch to grow (starting about 10 cm , 4" apart) , one shoot on the lower side , and a shoot at the end of the rib. Pinch out all other growth to one leaf, and train the selected shoots along canes or tie them to wires. Year 3: Cut back each shoot to leave 60-75 cm (2-2Yz tt) of ripened one-year-o ld wood forming ribs . Over the summer, allow the end bud of each rib to grow on, and train in more shoots above and below the ribs until all the space is filled. Leave filling in the centre to last. The young shoots produced along the framework branches should be thinned to about 10-15 cm (4 -6") apart on the upper and lower sides of the ribs (these will carry fruit the next year). and allowed to grow to 45 cm (18') before being pinched out. All other growths should be pinched back to one leaf. Ongoing pruning : Fans are best pruned on a replacement system , aiming to ensure that there is an adequate supply of vigorous 1-year old shoots for fruit production . In the spring & early summer, thin out new shoots along the ribs to 5-8 cm (2-3") apart, tying in the flexible rema ining shoots to the wires and allowing them to continue growing. Where possible, leave one shoot at the base of each fruiting lateral as a replacement. As soon as the fruit has been picked , cut the fruiting laterals back to these replacement shoots . As the tree ages , a proportion (up to a quarter) of the 3-4 year-old wood may need to be cut out, back to young laterals to stimulate new growth, in Sep tember or March.

Cultivation
A wide range of soils are tolerated, and sour cherri es can tolerate occasional waterlogging . Standard recommendations for feeding sour cherries are sometimes wildly high . Trees need very liUle feeding when young - a mulch of compost or manure will be quite sufficient. Cropping trees will need some input, though. C herri es hardly respond at all to additions of phosphorus, hence do not aim to add this specia ll y; their requirements for potash are moderate and for nitrogen m ode rate to high. There is some evidence that low nitrogen level s can make trees more susceptible to bacterial canker. Mature trees should have annual applications of 5 g potash (K20) + 10 g nitrog en (N) per squa re metre of rooting area. This can be achieved organically very easily with small amounts of compost or manure applied (2 kg m 2), or by the addition of cut organic material. eg from cut 2 comfrey plants - one plant sho uld produce enough material for 1.5 m of rooting area at the above rates in a year. Increase the nitrogen input if trees aren't making sufficient new growth. Trees should be mulche d to a minimum diameter of 1.2 m (4 ft). They won't suffer in dry weathe r if not watered, but the danger is that a sudden and heavy downpour of wate r onto a dry soil can cause fruit splitting when they are near to ripening . Mulching will help retain soil moi sture , and irrigation can be used in a steady , moderate method to minimise splitting in a dry summer. Most sou r cherries are self-fertile and late flowering ; they wil l, however, cross-po llinat e with late-flowering sweet cherries. Netting is highly desirable to protect the ripening fruits from bird predation (especially starlings); this is much easier with wa ll-trained fans than bush trees.

Harvesting & yields
The cherries on most cultivars sho uld be picked by cutting the stalks with scissors , as pulling them off with stalks intact is Hable to spoil the fruits or tear the bark , increasing the risk of fungal infection. Cultivars with fruits which separate easily from the stalks include Montmorency and North Star. Average yield s of 13-18 Kg (30-40 lb) per bush can be expected ; fans (eg . on a North wall) may yield 5-9 Kg ( 12-20 Ib). Sour cherries don't store for long , but preserve well by freezing, cooking, jamming etc.

Pests & Diseases
Bullfinches: May feed on the buds during the winter . Tre es can be netted if attacks are bad .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 15

-

--===¥¥"

:

Birds: Eat the ripening fruits, especially starlings. Netting is the only practical solution.

Aphids: These, especially the cherry blackfly (Myzus cerasi), infest young shoots causing severe leaf curling and checking growth. It's alternative hosts, which it flies to after feeding on cherries, are bedstraw (Galium spp) and speedwells. Small trees/fa ns can be sprayed if necessary with soft soap; otherwise, try to encourage aphid predators. Cherry slugworm: these are black, slimy, stug~like larvae which graze away the upper leaf surface. Damage occurs in two flushes, in May-June and July-August, but is rarely serious on established trees. Derris can be sprayed in severe cases. Bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae): the most serious cherry disease in Britain, causing elliptical canker on trunks and branches, sometimes spreading to girdle a branch of the whole tree. Sour cherries are less susceptible than sweet cherries. The disease is favoured by a moist climate, a lack of nitrogen, and by pruning in winter. Bordeaux mixture can give some control, applied monthly throughout the autumn. Cultivar resistance/susceptibility varies widely, and where possible, resistant cultivars should be planted .

Silver leaf (Chondrostereum purpureum): a fungus which enters the tree at a fresh wound on the trunk or branches. The invaded wood becomes brown, the leaves become silvery, and whole branches or the tree can be killed. To treat , cut out dead branches to 15 cm (6") beyond the point where the wood is stained. Susceptibility is highest in winter and spring. Control may be achieved by using the biological control Trichoderma viride, an aggressive fungus which when painted on a wound quickly covers it and seals it against infection. Pellets of this fungus can also be inserted into the trunk and significantly reduce the severity of the disease. Brown rot (Monilinia fructigena): causes fruits to rot on the tree. Dark brown circular spots rapidly spread over the fruit, which should be removed and burnt. The fungus can also affect green twigs and flowers . It usually overwinters in rotten mummified fruit on the tree or ground (these should be collected & destroyed). but also on dead flowers or twigs killed the previous year. Severe infections may respond to Bordeaux mixture.

Propagation
Sour cherries are usually propagated by budding (usually chip budding) in July-August or grafting (usually whip & tongue grafting) in March-April , onto the relevant rootstock. Several sour cherry cultivars (including Montmorency) are easily propagated on their own roots from softwood or semi-hardwood cuttings under mist.

Cultivars
For reasons of space, the cultivars described here have been limited to those which are commercially available from British or American nurseries, or are held by Brogdale.

Sour cherry cultivars suited to mechanical harvesting
These cultivars have fruits which abscise easily from the fruit stems (stalks) and are well suited to mechanical harvesting by using tree shakers etc: Galaxy North Star Montmorency Osteimer

Key to Cultivar tables
Flowering: Period of flowering. E = early, EM early-mid, M = mid, ML = mid-late, L = late, VL = very late. Cross pollination will normally occur if the flowering periods are the same or one period before or after, ie an EM flowering tree will cross pollinate with E , EM and M flowering trees . Poll: SF = seU-fertile, PSF = part self-fertile, SS = self-sterile . These cherries will also cross pollinate with sweet cherries flowering at the same time.


very late . In Southern England, these correspond approximately with the dates below ; more Northerly locations will be later: mid-late June, EM late June-early July, M early-mid July, ML mid-late July , L E July-early August , VL = mid -lat e August and sometimes into September.

=

=

=

=

= late

Fruit col : Fruit colour at maturity. B black, R red, W white, Y yellow, P purple. Susceptibility/resistance to the following diseases/disorders are denoted as follows: VR = very resistant , R = resistant , SR = slightly resistant. SS = slightly susceptible, S susceptible. Split: Indicate s resistance or susceptibility of fruit to splitti ng in wet weather. Cank: Indicates re sistance or susceptibility of tree to bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae). leaf spt: Indicates resi stance or susceptibility to cherry leaf spot (Btumeiella jaapii). brn rot: Indicates resistance or susceptibility to brown rot (Monilinia taxa). NB very few cultivars are resistant to the closely related M.fruticola. Suppliers: A number code indicates UK supp liers where known. These are: 1. Brogdale Horticultural Trust , Brogdale Farm, Brogdale Road, Faversham Kent , ME13 8XZ. Can propagate one of their cherry collection to order ; budwood may be available in the near future. 2. Deacons Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight. P038 3HW. Tel : 0 1983-

=

=

=

=

=

840750/522243.
3. Keepers Nursery, Gallants Court Gallants Lane , East Farleigh. Maidstone, Kent, ME15 OLE. Tel : 01622-726465. 4. Scotts Nurseries (Merriott) Ltd Merriott, Somerset, TA16 5PL. Tel: 01460-72306. 5. Thornhayes Nursery, St Andrews Wood, Dulford, Cullompton , Devon , EXI5 20F. Tel: 01883-266746. 6 . J Tweedie Fruit Trees, Maryfield Road Nursery. Maryfield Nr Terregles, Dumfries, DG2 9TH. Tel: 01387-720880. 7. Warley Rose Garden Ltd, Warley Street , great Warley , Brentwood. Essex, CM13 3JH. Tel : 01277-221966. A. Indicates is available commercia lly from a North American fruit nursery. See Whealy & Demuth for more information. Sour cherry Cultivar Diemitzer Amarelle Dutch Morello Dyehouse Earlimont Early Richmond Favorit Ferracida Flemish Red Galaxy Griotte du Nord Flowering Ripening Fruit leaf brn E EM M ML L VL poll E EM M Ml l Vl Col split cank spt rot Supp

I

II
I

II
II ,I I

R R
W

1
1 1 A A 1 1 1

I SF I

III
SF I SF

R R R R
R

R

Jan
Joy Kentish Morello Kentish Red (A) Knight's Early Bla ck Mesabi Meteor Montmore

A A A

I

I
I

A 1

1
1 A

II

R

I

A A

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 17

Sour cherry
Cultivar

Flowering

Ripening SF SF

Fruit

leaf brn

Montmorency Montmorency a Court Queue Morello (B.C.D) Nabella North Star

I I

E EM M ML l Vl poll E EM M Ml L Vl Col split cank spt rot Supp

I §I I
i!I

I
I

II

IR
R R
B

IR I
R

1 1.2.3 .~
2.3.4.56
1,7

Osthei~er Weichsef
Successa
Suda Hardy Surefire Wye Morello

I

I
I

1

SF SS

! I ..
I

I

R

Sour cherry cultlvar descriptions

I

II

SF SF

I

R R R

I VSR

i r
3

R

Synonyms are listed in italics with a reference to the correct name. Dubbelte Morelkers = Griotte du Nord Earlimont: Fruit red . acid. A reliable, heavy cropper. Origin: USA. Early Richmond: Fruit medium size, red, thin skin; flesh juicy_ Tree vigorous; heavy cropper. Origin: USA. English Morello = Griotte du Nord Flemish Red: Fruit roundish , small to medium size , bright cherry red; flesh yellow tinged pink, soft , very juicy (uncoloured), acid with a slight bitterness ; stone small, adheres to stem. Very good for bottling and jamming. Tree moderately vigorous, tall and twiggy becoming drooping ; very hardy and a reliable cropper. Galaxy: Fruit similar to Montmorency; tree open. Griotte du Nord: Fruit roundish, quite large , dark purplish red, glossy; flesh red , soft , very juicy (dee p coloured), sub-acid, good quality; stone free . Tree of weak growth, becoming drooping. Cropping good . Origin: very old, probably Germany. Jan & Joy: Trees vigorous, hardy. Kentish Red: (Several varieties are known by this name . This is the one held by BrogdaJe.) Fruit round, medium size, bright red, glossy; flesh yellow tinged pink, firm , juicy (uncoloured), acid, slightly bitter; stem short and stout , stone small. Good for bottling and cooking. Tree moderately vigorous and sized; a good cropper. Lutowka = Griotte du Nord Mesabi : Fruit red, sweet-acid. Tree of low vigour, small. Meteor: Fruit medium size, red skin; juic~ light red. Tree of medium vigour, spreading, a genetic dwarf growing to 4 m (13 ft) tall. Has thick dense foliage. Montmore : Fruit dark red, large; acid flavour. Tree of moderate vigour;' reliable , heavy cropper. Montmorency: Fruit roundish, medium to large , bright red , glossy, flesh red, firm, acid , juicy (red), good quality; stem long. Tree of medium vigour and dwarf habit; heavy cropping. Origin: France. Commercially important in the USA. Morel = Griotte du Nord Morello: Name used for a group of varieties with similar trees but differing flowering & ripening properties. Common Morello is described here: Fruit roundish-oblong. large, dark red-black , glossy; flesh very dark red, slightly fibrous , acid, slightly bitter, juicy (red), very good quality, excellent for jams and cooking ; stone medium to large . Tree vigorous when young, weak later, making a small, round-headed, pendulous tree. North Star: Fruit round, medium. bright mahogany red , glossy; flesh red, firm , acid, juicy (red) , good flavour, excellent for jams and cooking. Stone free. Tree of low vigour - very small (only 2-4 m high ), with dense foliage ; heavy cropping. Suda Hardy: Fruit red, dark juice, good flavour. Tree a genetic dwarf Surefire: Fruit heart shaped, medium size, bright red ; flesh firm, acid; small stone. Tree of moderate vigour, semi-upright with relatively few branches . Wye Morello: Fruit small. fair quality. Tree vigorous. Similar to other Morellos , though this was traditionally grown from suckers on its own roots . The cherries were also used to make cherry brandy . Origin: UK (Kent).

Page 18

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Sweet and Duke Cherries
Introduction
Sweet cherries are derived from Prunus avium, whereas Duke cherries are hybrids between Prunus Avium and P.cerasus (the sour cherry) . Both are vigorous trees , and even on the current semi-dwarfing rootstocks (eg Colt) . are too big for small gardens

Siting
A wide range of soils are tolerated , as long as they are well drained . The ideal is a slightly acid medium loam ; shallow soils and badly drained soils are unsuitable.

Tree forms
In Britain, the only easily-obtainable rootstocks are F 12/1 (vigorous) and Colt (semi· dwarfing) . In all but large gardens, Colt is likely to be preferable. Most maiden trees are well feathered. Pruning is carried out in spring , just as the buds are about to break into growth , to reduce chances of funga l disease infection.

Bush and half standard
Space trees (on Colt) at 6-7.5 m (20-25 ft) apart. A half standard has a clean stem of 1.35 m (4/s ft), while a bush has a stem of 75-90 cm (2Y2-3 ft) ; otherwise the pruning is similar. In the spring after planting, cut back the central stem to the desired height and prune each existing lateral which is to become a main branch by two-thirds to an outwards -facing bud . Cut back any lower laterals not wanted as part of the head to 8-10 cm (3-4~) and keep these pinched back to 4-5 leaves over the summer; cut out completely in the second year. Year 2: In early spring , choose 3-5 well-spaced shoots (including the desired laterals from year 1) as the main branches and prune these by a half to two-thirds to an outward facing bud. Cut out any other strong growing shoots, especially those forming acute (narrow) Vangles with the main stem. Ongoing pruning : little is needed . Leading shoots of spreading cultivars may need to be pruned to an upward pointing bud. Older trees may need some thinning - carry out in spring or early summer.

Standard
Space trees (on F12 / 1) at 12-15 m (40-50 ft) apa rt; because of these large spacings required for mature trees , there are possibi lities for intercropping etc. Alternati vely , planting can be more dense, with alternate trees removed by thinning after some years . Tradit ional orchard management in England was to graze sheep beneath standard cherry orchards, but this is rare nowadays and not commercia l practice anywhere because of the labour costs incurred by standard trees . Intercropping with plums, apples, small fruits and market garden crops has also been common in the past. To train standards , treat as for ha lf standard, except with a clear trunk of 1.8-2.1 m (6-7 ft) : it will be necessary to grow the maiden on for at least a year , pinching out all laterals , to get to this height. In the second year, pinch out and start to choose main branches during the second summer.

Fans
Form in the same way as for sour cherries. Sweet cherries are more vigorous than sour cherries, and it should be possible to fill the avai lable space in shorter time - most maidens have 2 lower laterals suitable for training as the primary ribs from the start , and thus it is possible to have 8 ribs (4 each side) by the end of the first growing season.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 19

r
should be pinched out in summer at 5-6 leaves ; in early autumn , shorten these to 3 buds , remove any dead wood, and retie any ties which are causing constriction . Older fans may become overcrowded or too tall. In this case, fruiting spurs can be shortened quite severely , removing a half to two-thirds , pruning back to a bud or lateral. When the growth at the top of the tree grows too high . either cut it back to a weaker lateral farther down or bend the shoot over and tie it down.

Cultivation
Trees need very little feeding when young - a mulch of compost or manure will be quite sufficient. Cropping trees will need some input, though. Cherries hardly respond at all to additions of phosphorus, hence do not aim to add this specially ; theif requirements for potash and nitrogen are low to moderate . There is some evidence that low nitrogen levels can make trees more susceptible to bacterial canker ; on the other hand , high nitrogen levels encourages sappy growth and aphid attacks. Mature trees should have annual application s of 5 g potash (K 2 0 ) + 5 g nitrogen (N) per square metre of rooting area . This can be achieved organically very easily with small amounts of compost or manure applied (1 kg/ m 2 ), or by the addition of cut organic material , eg from cut 2 comfrey plants - one plant should produce enough material for 3 m of rooting area at the above rates in a year. Increase the nitrogen input if trees aren't making sufficient new growth. Trees should be mulched to a minimum diameter of 1.2 m (4 ft). Make sure that trees against walls do not become too dry at the roots - mulching helps. In dry weather over the summer, watering is recommended (especially for walHrained fans) to keep the soil moist, as a sudden application of water can cause ripening fruits to split. Netting is highly desirable to protect the ripening fruits from bird predation (especially starlings); this is much easier with wall-trained fans than bush trees.

Flowering & Pollination
Most of the flowers on sweet cherries are borne on long-lived (10-12 year) spurs on 2-year and older wood while very few are borne near the bases of one year-old shoots. Pollination is via bees and other insects; bee hives are usually moved into the orchard at flowering time, at the density of 3-5 hives per Hectare (1-2 per acre ). Nearly all sweet cherries are self-sterile and thus need to be planted with a pollinator. As well as flowering at a similar time , the pollinator must not be in the same pollination group. There are 13 such pollination groups and in the table below, the group is listed (if know) in the 'Inc grp' column. Some cultivars are universal pollinators (marked U in the table) - these will cross pollinate with any other cultivar flowering at a similar time . A few cultivars are self fertile. If two cultivars are not incompatible by being in the same group, then, they will cross pollinate if they flower in the same period or the period before/ after each other, ie an EM flowering tree will cross pollinate with E EM and M flowering trees . Cross pollination can occur with sour cherries as well. A minimum of one pollinator to eight main-crop trees in required for good pollination (eg. a pollinating tree every third tree in every third row).

Harvesting and yields
Cherries can be left on the tree until they are fully ripe , unless they start cracking because of wet weather. Pick them with the stalk intact unless they detach easily and are to be used quickly. Fresh cherries soon lose their quality, but do freeze well. Bushes , half standards and standards can give average yields of 14-54 Kg (30-120 Ib) of fruit annually, fans 5-14 Kg (12-30 Ib).

Page 20

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Cherry processing
Duke cherries are used for both dessert and cook ing , sin ce they have a better sweet· acid balance than sweet cherries. The canning industry processes fruits of both red and whitefleshed sweet cherry cultivars .

I
~.

Drying fruits to make cherry 'raisins' have become a speciality product in North America . Initial dehydration temperatures of 63-7S o C, redu cing to 52-65 ° C are used . Dried cherries average about 20% moisture: levels over 22% can result in mould growth . Bing and Rainier are two of the cultivars used for drying. Firm fruits made into maraschino cherries are initially preserved in brine, then bleached with sulphur dioxide. and then steeped in marasca, a liqueur distilled from the fermented juice of a bitter wi ld cherry . Glace cherries follow the same initial process but are dyed after bleaching. Jamming of cherry fruits is an important commercial process , often for using in fruit yoghurts . Other commercial uses include processing for producing cherry juices , nectars , wines and liqueurs.

Pests & Diseases
See Sour cherries. The diseases are basically the same , except that sweet cherries are genera lly more susceptible to bacterial canker; in damper climates it is vital to choose cultivars with some resistance . In areas where canker is rife , high grafting on a resistant rootstock is sometimes useful.

Propagation
Sweet cherries are propagated by budding (usually chip budding) in July-August or grafting (usually whip & tongue grafting) in March-April , onto the relevant rootstock.

Cultivars
This article, for reasons of space , is limited to detailing cuUivars which are available from commercial nurseries in Britain and North America. For a much more detailed cultivar list, see 'Cherries: Production and Culture ', published by the ART this month.

Cold-hardy cultivars
The following are notably more tolerant of winter cold : Black Eagle Emperor Francis Lambert Black Heart Frogmore Early Windsor Black Tartarian Kristin Yellow Glass

Cultivars with frost-resistant flowers
Frogmore Early Geante de Hedelfingen Governor Wood Kentish Bigarreau Ulster Lapins Turkish Black

Cultivars for warm humid climates
I
In these areas , problems from fruit splitting (in wet weather) and bacterial disease can be serious with many cultivars. The following are all resistant to canker and fruit splitting . and well suited to such areas: Bolium Burcombe Corum Dun (Mazzard) Early Birchenhayes Fice Kassins Fruhe Hertz Kristin Merton Heart Preserving (Mazzard) Sam Small Black (Mazzard) Strawberry Heart Upright Viscount Vittoria White Heart

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 21

Self-fertile sweet cherries
Celeste Garden Bing Glacier Isabella
Lapins (Cherokee) New Star Starkrimson Stella Sunburst Sweetheart

Sweet cherry cultivars suited to mechanical harvesting
These cultivars have firm fruits which abscise easily from the fruit stems (stalks) and are well suited to mechanical harvesting by using tree shakers etc: Bigarreau Napoleon Merton Heart Van Bing Schmidt Venus Geante d'Hedelfingen Starking Hardy Giant Vittoria Golden Sweet Stella Windsor Kordia Ulster

Duke Cherry cultivars for warm humid climates
Duke cherry susceptibility to fruit splitting and canker is similar to that for sweet cherries, however. the following cultivar is resistant to both fruit splitting and canker: Olivet

Key to cultivar tables
Flowering: Period of flowering. E = early, EM = early-mid, M = mid, ML :: mid-late, L = late, VL = very late . Cross pollination will normally occur if the flowering periods are the same or one period before or after, ie an EM flowering tree will cross pollinate with E, EM and M flowering trees. Inc grp: For sweet cherries, Indicates incompatibility group number (see above 'pollination'; cultivars with the same number are incompatible). Also, SF = self-fertile , U = universal pollinator (not self-fertile, but will pollinate any other cultivar flowering at the same time) . These cherries will also cross pollinate with sour cherries flowering at the same time. Ripening: Season of fruit ripening. E = early , EM = early-mid , M = mid , ML = mid-late , L = late, VL = very late. In Southern England, these correspond approximately with the dates below: more Northerly locations will be later: E = mid-late June, EM = late June-early July, M = early-mid July. ML = mid-late July, L = late July-early August, VL = mid-late August and sometimes into September. Fruit col: Fruit colour at maturity. B

= black , R' = red. W = white. P = purple, Y = yellow.

Susceptibility/resistance to the following diseases/disorders are denoted as follows: VR = very resistant , R = resistant, SR = slightly resistant , SS = slightly susceptibly , S susceptible , VS = very susceptible. Split: Indicates resistance or susceptibility of fruit to splitting in wet weather. Cank: Indicates resistance or susceptibility of tree to bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae). leaf spt: Indicates resistance or susceptibility to cherry leaf spot (Blumeiella jaapii). brn rot: Indicates resistance or susceptibility to brown rot (Monilinia taxa). NB very few cultivars are resistant to the closely related M.frutico/a. Suppliers: A number code indicates UK suppliers where known. These are: 1. Brogdale Horticultural Trust, Brogdale Farm. Brogdale Road, Faversham , Kent, ME 13 8XZ. Hold the UK National Collection. Can propagate one of their cherry collection to order; budwood may be available in the near future . 2. Deacons Nursery, Moor View, Godshill, Isle of Wight . P038 3HW. Tel: 01983-

840750/522243.

Page 22

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

3. Keepers Nursery, Gallants Court, Gallants Lane, East Farleigh , Maidstone, Kent, ME15 OLE. Tel: 01622- 726465. 4. Scotts Nurseries (Merriott) Ltd , Merriott, Somerset, TA16 5PL . Tel : 01460·72306. 5. Thornhayes Nursery, St Andrews Wood, Dulford, Cullompton, Devon , EX15 2DF . Tel: 01883-266746. 6 . J Tweedie Fruit Trees, Maryfield Road Nursery, Maryfield , Nr Terregles, Dumfries, DG2 9TH. Tel: 01387-720880 . 7. John Beach (Nursery) Ltd , 9 Grange Road, Wellesbourne , Warks , CV 35 9RL. Tel: 01789840529. A . Indicates is ava ilable commercially from a North American fruit nursery. See Whealy & Demuth for more information.

Sweet cherry cultivars
Sweet cherry Cultivar Alba Heart Amber Heart Angela August Heart Bada Bigarreau Gaucher Bigarreau Moreau Bigarreau Napoleon Bing Black Eagle Black Etton Black Glory Black Heart (Kent) Black Republican Black Tartarian Bolium Bradbourne Black Brooks Buch Burcombe Caroon (A ) Cavalier Chinook Circassian Colney Corum Craig's Crimson Downer's Late Red Dun (Mazzard) Early Birchenhayes Early Burlat Early Purple Gean Early Rivers Early Ruby Elton Heart Emoeror Francis Flowering Ripening Fruit leaf brn E EM M Ml l Vl poll E EM M ML l Vl Col split ca nk spt rot Supp

I

I
I

I
I II
I

I
til

I

I

.,
U 7 3 3 1 2

Ii

II

II
II Ii

I

I
I I I I

I
I

Ii

I
I

:~ ~~ r
B B

't[ !;~~:
S S
S R S R
B B B B B R ~S

R

I II I I
I I Ii

2 7 1 7

I I

I

I

B R B S B S R-B R S S B S I S

I I
I

II
I I I II

12 9 1

I I I
I

II
I

S

S

R

VS
S
R R R

I

S

I
I

Ii

I

w
R

SF

I

I
I

.I .

II I
I

1

II

II

I

6 3 i

I I I

I I I

I

I

R
B B R B

i

RVR R R VS R R

I R~B
y
II
R

S S

R

S

VS I S

1,3 1,2,3 A 1,3 A 2,3 ,4 1,A 1,2,3" A A 1,3,5 1,3 3 3 A 1,3 ,A 1,5 1,3,4 A A 1,5 3 A 1,A 1,3 1,6 A A A 5 1,5 A A 1,2,3,4A A 1,3,5 1.3.A Page 23

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Sweet cherry Cultivar Fiee Florence Frogmore Early Garden Bing Garnet Geant~ d'Hedelfingen Giant · Gil Peck Glacier Gold Golden Boy Golden Sweet Goodman Gold Governor Wood Greenstem Black Hardy Giant Hudson Inga Ironsides Jubilee Kansas Sweet Kassin's Fruhe Herz Kentish Bigarreau Kentish Red Kirtland's Mary Kordia Kristin Lambert Lambert Compact Lamida Lapins (Cherokee) Larian Merchant Mermat Merpet Merton Bigarreau Merton Bounty Merton Crane Merton Favourite Merton Glory Merton Heart Merton Late Merton Marvel Merton Premier Merton Reward Nabella New Star Noble Nair de Guben Nutberry Black

Flowering

Ripening

Fruit

leaf brn

!

E EM M Ml l Vl poll E EM M Ml l Vl Col split cank spt rot Supp I 1,5 !l 3,4 U iii

I

2 SF

!'i

1,4

71U

ill

II '

I
R Y Y Y Y

A A
A

9 2 SF

11

1lI 1

A
A

A
A

6

A A A

6

R
B

rvs
I
R ,

S

S

rvs

3,4,6.A

5

II

B
9
B

B
R-Y

2

B

I rv5 1 rv5 rvs
,
R IR

I

1,A 1,A 1,7

3 A
A

R

4
4

11

B W

5 rvs
R

3
1,4

4,5
A

2

3 3 2

iii Ii iii Ii

SF

I III ill II II iii l!i II

III Ii Ii

R R-B B

I

~R

R rvR

A A
1,A 1,A

B i"S R

R

~

~S R
I RS

A
l,2,3,4A

R
i"5 R

A

2
2 2 2 2 U

R-B ISS R B 5 R

Ii Ii Ii
II II II

6

II!

9 3 4

Y-R rv5 R R-B R-B W IS B SR Y VR

'5
S

I

51 5
R S 5S
R

B B

I I5

5 VR R R VS

9

B
B B R-B R-B

S

!! ill II

SF 12 U U

5 S ,S

I

S 5R

R 5S R SS

1

1,3,6 1,6 1,6 2,3,4,A 4 4 4 1,2,3,4 2,3,4 3,4 3,4 3,4 1,3,4 4 1,A 1,3 1,3,6 1,3

Page 24

A GROFORES TRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

r
Ripening Fruit leaf brn Flowering Sweet cherry E EM M Ml L VL poll E EM M ML L Vl Col split cank spt rot Supp Cultivar Old Black Heart Olympic I '. R Parkhill Preserving (Mazzard) 9 Y-R R ; Rainier I B 5 5 1,3 1 Ronald's Heart 8 Royalton R Sam I : I ; RR Sasha I Saylo r I 8 iii BRA Schm idt I B WR , VR 5 Small Black (Mazzard) I R-B R WR 1,3 U Smoky Dun R A Spate Braun I B A Star Stella 5 1,3 Starking Hardy Giant Ii 1,6,A Starkrimson I 1,2,3,A 5 Stella Ii 5 1,2 ,3,A Stella Compact I 1,3 Strawberry Heart II A Sue A Sugar Sweet I 1 ,A Summit 1 ,2,3,4A SF Sunburst Ii A Sweet Ann A Sweetheart I A Sylvia I A Teickners Schwarze Her 1,3 Turkish Black iii A Ulster iii 5 Upright A Utah Giant I A R U Valera iii 1,3, 4,A 2 Van 1,6,A 12 Veg a 1,A 4 Velvet 1,A 3 Vernon A 2 Venus A U Vic A 4 Victor R 1,A 9 Viscou nt 1,A U Vista A Vittoria 4 pR A Viva W5 A 4 Vog ue 1,3,5 2 Waterloo I 1,3,5 U White Heart 1 2 Windsor B 9 Yellow Glass 1,A 4 Yellow Spanish

I

i ' ~ I l5 I

I I= II

~5 5

~,3

I

r

i,6

I , I

['II 'I

II

II
I.
I

" I

,

.

!,A

I

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 25

=
Duke cherry cuJtivars
Duke cherry Cultivar Archduke Belle de Choisy 8elle de Franconville Empress ~ugen;e May Duke Morello A Morello E Olivet

A

777

....---&2

E EM M Ml l Vl poll E EM M Ml l Vl Col spli t cank spt rot Supp

I

!! I ii'
II
• -I.
I

Fl owering

Ripening

Fruit

leaf brn

PsS;

I

'II
I
I!

IB B
B

IR
JR

IS I
S

I

'1 ,
,

I PSF
I

II

R;B R
R

S

I
I

I
VS

~.3.5,A

1111

1. 11

:

: IR

I

Sweet cherry cultivar descriptions
Alba Heart: Fruit small to medium, roundish-oval, glossy black; flesh dark red, fairly soft, a littre fibrous, juicy (red), fair to good quality; stone medium , free. Tree vigorous, becoming tall and spreading. Origin: UK. Angela : Fruit black, large , glossy; flesh firm, dark red, good flavour. Tree vigorous, sometimes overcrops. August Heart: Fruit large, roundish-heart shaped, glossy black; flesh dark red , firm , little fibre, juicy (red), sweet, good quality. Tree vigorous. Origin: UK. Bear Creek Early: Fruit dark red; flesh firm, sweet; keeps well. Tree vigorous, semi-dwarf. Bigarreau Gaucher: Fruit roundish, large to very large, quite glossy black; flesh very dark red, quite firm, juicy (red), sweet, good flavour; stout stems, small stone not free from flesh. Fruits transport well. Tree very vigorous, upright with many long straight upward branches ; a good cropper. Bigarreau Moreau: Fruit large, roundis h, reddish -black, moderately glossy; flesh quite firm, red , sweet, juicy. Tree of moderate vigour, fairly erect; mod . productive. Origin: France. Bigarreau Napoleon : Fruit long heart-s haped , large , red with yellow mottling , quite glossy; flesh pale yellow, very firm, moderate ju ice (uncoloured), sweet, aromatic rich flavour; stem quite short, stone large. Transports well and still widely grown co mmercially. Tree vigorous, erect becoming straggling; starts bearing early and bears regularly and well. Origin: an old German variety, much grown commercially for processing. Bing : Fruit large or ve ry large, roundish , reddish-black; flesh dark red, very firm and crisp, sweet, good flavour, aromatic, juicy (red) . Tr~e vigorous, erect becoming upright-spreading and rather open. An im portant commercial cultivar in North America, especially in the NW of the USA (origin). Black Eagle : Fr uit roundish heart shaped , large, purplish black, fairly glossy; flesh dark red , firm, not fibrous , juicy (red), sweet, rich flavoured, good quality; stem long, slender, stone fairly small. Tree erect becoming spreading and drooping; hardy, good cropper. Origin: UK. Black Elton: Fruit longi sh heart-shaped, large, black, fairly glossy; flesh dark red , soft when ripe, slightly fibrous, juicy (red), good to v.gd quality. Tree vigorous, upright. Black Heart: Several varieties are known by this name, this the one grown in Kent (UK): Fruit heartshaped, medium size. purplish black , glossy; flesh very dark red, soft, juicy (red) , sweet, fair to good quality ; stem slender. Tree fairly vigorous, very spreading and drooping; hardy; good cropper. Black Tartarian : Fruit long ovoid, very large , deep purplish black , glossy; flesh dark red, firm , not very fibrous , juicy (red), sweet rich flavour , good to very good quality; stem long, stone small. Tree mod. vigorous, becoming wide spreading; hardy; good cropper. An important early commercial cultivar in N .America. Bolium: Fruit small to medium , oval, dark reddish-black; flesh dark red , soft , a little fibrous, juicy (red), fair quality, slightly tangy-sweet; stone medium, stem long. Tree vigorous, upright, slender branches. Young leaves and blossoms reddish. Origin: UK (Cornwall).

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

good rich flavour, good quality; stem medium length , stone medium size . Tree vigorous, becoming tall with many long drooping bran c hes; a hea vy crop per. Has been grown com mercially. Origin : UK. Brooks: Fruit large, burgundy red ; flesh red, firm , fibrous , sweet, excellent balanced flavour; stone nearly free . Tree small , productive and reliable . A recent introduction from the USA (CA) . Buch: Fruit red. Tree a genetic dwarf 2.5 m high . Bullion = Bolium Burcombe: Fru it black , medium sized; flesh dark red, soft, fibrous , juicy (red), sweet , gd for bottling. Blossoms luxuriant , before leaves . Vig , spreading tree , wide crotch angles. Origin : UK (Cornwa ll). Caroon: Fruit long heart-shaped , very dark red , fairly glossy; flesh red , soft , a little fibrous, juicy (red) , good quality; stem long , stone large. Tree vigo rou s, making a tall round-headed tree with many drooping branches. Has been grown commercially. Origin: UK. Cavalier: Fruit medium to large, glossy; flesh firm , dry. Tree of moderate vigour, slow to bear; fruit easily picked. Cherokee = Lapins Chinook: Fruit large , roundish-heart shaped , mahogany, glossy; flesh firm , red, sweet , fairly acid . Tree vigorous, upright and spreading, precocious; heavy cropping. Origin: USA (WA), grown commercia ll y in the NW of the USA. Circassian (Knight's Early Black): Fruit oblong , very dark red , glossy; flesh dark red , firm , fibrous, sweet , juicy (red), very good flavour; stem short , stout, stone small. Tree of moderate vigo ur and medium size; cropping good. Origin: UK. Colney: Fruit large, black-purple; flesh firm , average to good fla vour. Tree of moderate vigour, semi -erect becoming spreading; croppi ng average. Origin: UK. Compact Stella = Stella Compact Corone = Caroon Corum: Fruit firm, sweet. Craig's Crimson: Fruit medium to large, dark red ; flesh firm , good flavour. Tre e a genetic semi-dwarf. Downer's Late Red : Fruit small, red; flesh sweet, pale yellow, gd flavour. Origin: USA (Mass). Dun (Mazzard): Fruit small , roundiSh-oval , glossy black ; flesh dark red , soft, fibrous , moderately juicy (red) , sweet. fair quality. Tree v.vig. tall and dense; heavy cropping . Origin: UK (North Devon). See also Mazzards. Early Birchenhayes: Fruit sma ll to medium, roundish-oblong , shiny black ; flesh dark red, soft, somewhat fibrous, fairly juicy (red), sweet, good quality; small stone, green stems ; sweet. Trees very vigorous an d erect when young, forming no large branches ; very twiggy , dense-headed and spreading when mature . Origin: UK (Cornwall) - poor in dry climates. Early Burlat: Fruit larg e reddish-purple ; flesh moderately firm , excellent flavour. An important comme rcial cu ltivar in North America Early Purple Gean: Fruit medium sized, heart-shaped , glossy purplish-black ; flesh soft, juicy (red). Early Rivers: Fruit heart-shaped, medium to large, dark purplish red , glossy ; flesh deep red , soft, melting , very juicy (red) , sweet , good flavour and quality when fully ripe. Stem long, stone small. Tree very vigorous. tall and weeping on good soils (lateral branches often sweep the ground). Origin: UK. Early Ruby: Fruit large, dark red; flesh sweet. purple. Origin: USA. Elton Heart: Fruits very pointed heart-shaped, large, pale golden-yellow with a faint red flush, glossy; flesh pale yellow. very soft. juicy (unco loured), sweet , very good flavour ; stem long and thin , stone large. Tree of weak vigour. becoming medium sized , upright. Cropping quite good but irregular. Ha s been grown commercially. Origin: UK. Emperor Francis: Fruit round heart-shaped , large, dark red over yellow, fai rl y glossy; flesh very pale yellow , firm , j uicy (uncoloured), sweet , rich flavour, good quality; stem medium lenQth, stone small. Tree small. comoact. round·headed. hardy: croooinQ very Qood .

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 27

$-

54

1

Frogmore Early: Fruit heart-shaped, medium to large , pale yellow with extensive red flush , gl ossy ; flesh yellow , translucent, very soft and juicy (uncoloured) , sweet , good flavour and quality; stem short and stout. stone small , almost free . Easily bruised . Tree vigorous, upright to spreading , rounded , hardy; cropping hea vy and reliable . Garden Bing : Fruit dark red, larg e; flesh sweet , good flavour. Tree a genetic dwarf. to 2 m high with lush foliage; self-fertile, moderately producti ve. Origin : USA (CA). Garnet: Fruit large, reddish-purple , roundish ; flesh pink , sweet , good flavour. Tree of moderate " vigour , semi-erect, sparsely branched , precocious; a good cropper. Origin : USA (CA), grown commercially there & France. Geante de Hedelfingen: Fruit roundish oval , medium to large, deep mahogany red with lighter dots, fairly glossy; flesh dark red , firm , not very fibrous, very juicy (red), good quality, slight almond fla vour; stone oval , large, clinging . Tree vigorous, large, tall , den se-headed. Cropping very good. Flowers quite frost res istant. Origin : Germany. Grown commercially in Europe and Canada . Giant: Fruit large, roundish-oblong, dark red; flesh blood-red, very sweet and juicy (red) , rich fla vour. Tree vigorous . Origin: USA. Glacier: Fruit large , mahogany, heart shaped. A recent self-fertile intro from the USA (Wash). Gold: Fruit small , golden : juice clear. Grown in the USA for brining and processing . Very winter-hardy. Golden Boy: Fruit golden yellow ; flesh soft, juicy, sweet. Tree a genetic dwarf. Golden Sweet: Fruit small , golden yellow; flesh firm. Used extensively for maraschino processing. Tree a heavy cropper. Goodman Gold: Fruit yellow. Flesh with a tangy flavour. Governor Wood: Fruit roundish heart-shaped , bright to dark red over pale yellow , glossy, thin skinned ; flesh pale yellow , soft , sweet , juicy (uncoloured), fairly good flavour ; stem medium length , slender, stone medium sized . Tree vigorous at first, later weak , with horizontal branches . Cropping heavy, reliable. Origin: USA. Greenstem Black (Mazzard) : Fruit small , round, glossy black ; flesh dark red , soft , fibrous , moderately juicy (red) , sweet. Origin: UK (North Devon). See also Mazzards . Hardy Giant: Fruit medium-large, reddish-black; flesh firm , excellent flavour. A heavy bearer, grown commercially in the USA. Hudson: Fruit medium to large , black; flesh firm , sweet, good flavour. Fruits hang well. Tree very large, open; moderately productive. Origin : USA (NY) , where grown commercially . Ironsides: Fruit medium to large, roundish-heart shaped , red over yellow, glossy; flesh pale yellow, very ha rd , a little fibrous, moderately juicy (clear) , sweet, fair quality; stone large. Tree vigorous, erect becoming spreading. Origin: UK (West Midlands). Isabella: Fruit large, heart-shaped , glossy red ; flesh firm , pale red , sweet. Tree of moderate vigour, erect, open, precocious, heavy bearing. A recent self-fertile introduction from Italy. Kansas Sweet: Fruit large, mahogany-red ; flesh sweet, firm , juicy. Kassin's Fruhe Herz: Fruit large, round-heart shaped , glossy black ; flesh dark red , firm , a little fibrous , juicy (red ), good quality. Tree vigorous , tall , open and drooping. Origin : Germany. Kentish Bigarreau: Fruit heart-shaped , medium to large, whitish yellow with a red flush, fairly glossy; flesh pale , firm , sweet , juicy (uncoloured) , rich flavour ; stem medium length, stone small to medium. Tree vigorous , upright becoming spreading. Cropping heavy, regular. Kirtland's Mary: Fruit flesh is crisp, pink , with a rich flavour. Origin: USA. Kordia: Fruit heart shaped , reddish-violet ; flesh red , firm , with an excellent slightly spicy flavour with good balance of sweetness and acidity . Tree very vigorous, tater moderating . to form a rounded tree . Very productive. Origin : Czech republic, where it is grown commercially. Kristin : Fruit large , dark reddish black: flesh red , firm , juicy, sweet , aromatic, very good quality; small stone . Tree large, vigorous and very winter hardy. Origin USA (NY). Grown commercially . Lambert: Fruit medium to large heart shaped , purplish red moderately glossy; flesh firm , dark red , slightly fibrous , juicy, good flavour. Tree vigorous , erect, heavy bearing . Origin : USA (OR).
..... _ _ _ "'0

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Lapins (Chero kee): Fruit large to very large, roundish-heart shaped , dark red ; flesh quite firm , sweet, juicy, slightly acid , good flavour. Tree vigorous , very erect , precocious , heavy bearing . A recent self-fertile introduction from Canada (BC) , becoming popular commercially. Merchant: Fruit medium size, black; good flavour. Tree of moderate vigour , spreading , precocious; a heavy cropper. Origin: UK (London). Mermat: Fruit black, large, good quality. Origin: UK (London) . Merton Bigarreau: Fruit heart-shaped, medium size, purplish-black ; flesh red , firm, juicy (red), very good flavour, good quality; stem medium length , stone smal l. Tree vigorous , upright and very spreading . Cropping heavy and regular, tends to overcrop. Origin: UK (London). Merton Bounty: Fruit large, oval, dark crimson; flesh red , fairly firm , sweet , juicy (red), fair quality. Tree vigorous, round-headed , a good cropper. Origin: UK (London). Merton Crane: Fruit heart-shaped, medium to large , very dark reddish-black , glossy ; flesh dark purple, sweet, rich flavour when fully ripe, juicy (red), good quality; stem long. Tree vigorous , branches upright; a good cropper. Origin: UK (London). Merton Favourite: Fruit short heart-shaped, large, dark reddish-black ; flesh dark crimson , sweet, good flavour, juicy (red) , good quality; stone small. Tree vigorous , compact, a good cropper. Orig in: UK (London). Merton Glory: Fruit roundish -conical, very large , creamy white wills a red flush flesh pa le creamy white, soft, sweet, good flavour, juicy (coloured), good quality; small stone. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading with many wide-angled branches, becoming slightly pendulous, precocious . Cropping regular and good. Merton Heart: Fruit long heart-shaped. very large, dark mahogany-black, fairly glossy; flesh dark red, fairly firm, sweet , excellent flavour, juicy (red) good quality; stem medium length , slender; stone large. Tree very vigorous, upright becoming spreading. Hea vy but irregular cropping - cherries are hidden under the leaves. Merton Late: Fruit orange-yellow overspread with deep crimson ; flesh orange -yellow, very firm juicy, good flavour; ripens v.late, in early September. Tree large , spreading , producing lots of lateral wood. Merton Marvel: Fruit heart shaped, very dark red ; flesh deep crimson , firm , juicy. Tree co mpact, medium to large, producing much thin lateral wood. Origin: UK (London). Merton Premier: Fruit heart shaped, medium to large, dark mahogany-black: flesh red , soft, sweet, good flavour, juicy (red), exc quality. Tree vigorous, spreading, a gd cropper. Origin: UK (London). Merton Reward: Fruit heart shaped, black; flesh crimson , firm , juicy, good flavour; stone small. Tree vigorous, upright. Origin: UK (London). Moreau = Bigarreau Moreau Napoleon = Bigarreau Napoleon Napoleon Bigarreau = Bigarreau Napoleon New Star: Fruit large, round, glossy reddish-black; flesh quite firm , dark red , sweet , aromatic; stone semi-free. Tree of medium vigour, wide-spreading and rather compact. A recent selffertile introduction from Canada (BC) & Italy. Noble: Fruit oval-heart shaped, very large, dark red-black , fairly glossy; flesh dark red , fairly jui cy (red) , fair to good quality; stem medium thick , stone large, almost free. Tree fairly vigorous when young, less when older, becoming fairly pendulous; demands a deep ferti le soil. Cropping v.good. Noir de Guben: Fruit round-oblong, large, dark reddish brown to black , glossy; flesh very dark red , very firm, very good flavour , juicy (red) , good to very good quality; stem stout, stone medium size, not free. Tree vigorous , erect becoming spreading and pendulous; cropping fa irly good. Origin: Germany. Nutberry Black: Fruit roundish-heart shaped, medium to large, dark red-black , glossy; flesh dark red , firm, sweet, juicy (red) , fair to good quality; stem stout , short , very green: stone medium size. Tree fairly vigorous , upright becoming pendulous with age: a good cropper. Old Black Heart: Fruit medium sized, heart-shaped , glossy black ; flesh dark red , soft , juicy (red ), fair to average quality; stem short. Tree fairly vigorous , spreading.

-tet
Rainier: Fruit large, yellow and pink; flesh firm, white-yellowish, juicy (clear) , good flavour; stone small to medium , fairly free. Tree vigorous, spreading, precocious ; heavy bearing (sometimes over bearing). Origin: USA. Grown co mmercially. Ronald's Heart: Fruit large, heart-shaped , glossy black ; flesh dark red , soft , little fibrous , juicy (red), good quality. Tree vigorous. Origin: UK. Rounder (Roundel Heart): Fruit heart shaped , very large, dark red-black , very glossy; flesh dark red , fairly soft, sweet, very good flavour , very juicy (red), excellent quality; stem medium thick , long; stone. plump, medium size. Tree of moderate vigo ur; cropping very hea vy and regular. "as been grown commercially. Royal Ann = Napoleon Royalton: Fruit very large, roundish-oblong , greyish-purple ; flesh purple , firm , excellent flavour and quality. Tree very upright and vigorous , with few lateral branches ; slow to crop. A recent introduction from the USA. Sam : Fruit medium sized, black ; flesh firm , average flavour. Tree vigorous , upright becoming spreading. Slow to start cropping , then a gd cropper. Origin : Canada (BC) ; freq used as a pollinator. Saylor; Fruit yellow; flesh crisp, juicy, very sweet with a distinctive aftertaste. Scarlet King = Coe's Late Carnation Schmidt: Fruit large, purplish-black , borne in clusters ; flesh firm , sweet , rich flavour, good quality. Tree vigorous , slow to bear , moderately productive. Grown commercially in the NE of USA. Small Black (Mazzard); Fruit small , round , glossy black; flesh dark red , soft , fibrous , moderately juicy (red) , fair quality. Tree very vigorous, tall and dense. Origin: UK (Oevon) . See also Mazzards. Smith's Smutts = Smutts Smoky Dun : Fruit long heart-shaped , dark reddi sh-black , fairly glossy; flesh dark red , soft, moderately juicy (red) , fair to good quality; stem medium length, stone ve ry large . Tree vigoro us, upright, large; cropping good . Origin: UK (West Midlands). Spate Braun : Fruit large to very large , glossy dark red ; flesh firm , crisp , red , good flavou r. Origin: Germany. Star Stella : Fruit very large, reddis h-black; flesh firm , juicy. Tree precocious. Starking Hardy Giant: Fruit large, roundish-heart shaped , firm , juicy, very good flavour. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading , wide branch angles ; very susc to virus diseases. Origin: USA (WI). Starkrimson : Fruit dark red , large; flesh firm , juicy, good quality. Small compact tree of low vigo ur. A self-fertile cultivar from the USA (CA) , primarily used by home gardeners. Stark's Gold = Gold Stella : Fruit heart-shaped , large to very large, dark red , glossy; flesh dark purplish red , fairly firm , good flavour, juicy (red), good quality; stalk fairly long, stone small, semi-free . Tree vigorous, upright, precocious, cropp in g very good. A self-fertile introdu ction from Canada (BC). Stella Compact: A sport of Stella, with a compact habit, only growing 2-3 m high. Strawberry Heart: Fruit small to large , heart-shaped , glossy bright red ; flesh dark yellow, slightly firm , fibrous , juicy (clear) fair quality; large stone . Tree very vigorous erect. Origin : UK (Herls). Sue: Frt Ige, waxy yellow, pink flu sh; flesh firm , sweet, ri ch flav. Hvy bearing . Org: Canada (BC). Sugar Sweet: Fruit medium size, ruby red ; flesh sweet. Tree precocious , heavy cropping. Summit: Fruit very large, heart-shaped , glossy dark red; flesh moderately firm , pale pink, very sweet and aromatic, good flavour ; stone small. Tree vigorous , erect with few branChes ; quite slow to bear, then a moderate cropper. Origin: Canada (BC). Sunburst: Fruit large , round , glossy reddish-black; flesh firm, pale red , juicy, aromatic, very good flavour . Tree vigorous , wide spreading , preco cious. A recent self-fertile intro from Canada (BC L

Page lO

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Upright: Fruit black , small~medium , very resistant to splitting; sweet pleasant flavour. Tree upright. vigorous; heavy cropping. Origin: UK (Cornwall). Utah Giant: Fruit of very good flavour, borne sing ly. Valera: Fruit medium size , black ; flesh of good flavour. Tree vigorous, precocious , regular cropper. Origin: Canada (Ont). Van: Fruit heart~shaped, large, bright red . very glossy; flesh dark crimson , very firm , sweet. pleasant flavour, moderately juicy (red); stone small, stem very short. Fruits can be small in some areas . Tree very vigorous, upright when young, precocious ; cropping regular , good . Trees may require regular pruning to retain cropping ability. Origin: Canada (BC. Vega: Fruit large, white; flesh firm, sweet; small stone. Venus: Fruit large, glossy pu rple-red; flesh red. moderately firm. Tree vigorous , productive. Vic : Fruit medium to large, dark red; flesh firm, sweet. Tree large, a regular heavy cropper. Viscount: Fruit large, kidney~shaped, glossy dark red; flesh red, firm, juicy (red), very good quality. Tree vigorous, spreading; heavy cropping. A recent introduction from Canada (Ont). Vista: Fruit large; flesh firm. Tree vigorous, productive. Viva: Fruit medium size , dark red; flesh semi-firm. Tree vigorous. Origin: Canada (Out). Vogue: Fruit large , glossy black; flesh firm, sweet; small stone. Tree heavy bearing. Waterloo: Fruit roundish or heart~shaped, medium size, dark red~black , very glossy; flesh dark red, fairly soft, a little fibrous , moderately juicy (red) , good flavour, very good quality; stem stout, stone small. Fruits are rather hidden and scattered. Tree of moderate vigour. compact and round~headed. White Heart: Fruit medium sized, heart~shaped. red over yellow , glossy; flesh pale ye ll ow, very soft , fibrous, fairly juicy (clear) , sweet, fair quality; long stem , large stone . Tree very vigorous , tall, dense and wide-spreading. Windsor: Fruit large or very large, roundish, heart-shaped. glossy dark red; flesh red , moderately firm to soft. juicy (red), good quality. Tree vigorous, upright-spreading, rounded ; heavy cropping. Origin: Canada (Ont). Yellow Glass: Fruit large, yellow; flesh firm , juicy, sweet , high quality. A heavy bearer. Yellow Spanish: Fruit crimson and yellow; flesh sweet, rich flavour. Tree very vigorous.

Duke cherry cultivar descriptions
Archduke : Fruits roundish. small to medium size , very dark red, fairly glossy; flesh dark red . soft. often fibrous , moderately juicy (red), sub-acid to sweet, good quality; stem stout, stone small, not free. Tree small, moderately vigorous, erect, open. A very old variety. Belle de Choisy: Duke Cherry for dessert or cooking. Fruit roundiSh , flattened , medium to large, bright browniSh-red with pale yellow streaks, not glossy; flesh very pale yellow , very soft , juicy (uncoloured). sweet with an acid touch, good quality; stem medium length , stone small, not completely free. Tree upright. moderately vigorous , hardy. Empress Eugenie: Fruit medium to large, round , dark crimson. glossy; flesh dark red , soft , juic y, subacid , fair to good quality. Tree moderately vigorous, erect. with few side branches . May Duke: Fruit roundish, medium to large, dark red to black, glossy; flesh dark red, very soft. juicy (red) , sweet, rich flavour, very good quality, good for bottling ; stem medium length, stout , stone small. Tree fairly vigorous, upright, compact , branches slender and straight with short shoots . A good cropper with adequate pollination. Morello A: Fruit medium to large, roundish-oblong, glossy black ; flesh dark red , soft, a little fibrous , juicy (red). acid , good quality. Tree vigorous , becoming less so , making a small , round , drooping head. Susceptible to silverleaf. Morello E: Fruit medium sized, round, black; flesh dark red , very soft , somewhat fibrous , juicy (red) , not very acid , good quality; stone small, stem short. Tree very vigorous , with a dense round head . Olivet: Fruit medium to large, roundish-oblong, glossy red; flesh light red , soft, very juicy (s light colour), subacid, good quality; stone small. Tree fairly vigorous , spreading , dense.

References
These cover both this article and the 'Sour cherries' article in this newsl etter.

Baker, H: The Fruit Garden Displayed. Cassell , 1989. Brogdale Horticultural Trust! Wye College : Catalogue of Cultivars in the United Kingdom National Fruit Collection. MAFF. 1994. Cumm if\s, J : Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties. HortScience, Vo l 26(8), August 1991. Cummins, J: Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties. HortScience , Vol 29(9), 1994. Grubb, N : Cherries. Crosby Lockwood, 1949. Hills , L: The Good Fruit Guide. HDRA, 1984 Moore, J & Ballington Jr, J : Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops. ISHS ,

1990. 1991 .
Ryugo , K: Fruit Culture: Its SCience and Art. Wiley, 1988. Simmons , A : Simmons Manual of Fruit. David & Charles. 1978. Spiers, V: Burcombes, Queenies and Collogetts. West Brendan , 1996. Webster, A & Looney, N: Cherries. CAB International, 1996. Westwood , M: Temperate-Zone Pomol ogy. Timber Press, 1993. Whealy, K & Demuth , S: Fruit, Berry and Nut Inven tory . Seed Saver Publications , 1993. Wolfram , B: 'Namare' und 'Nabigos ' . Erwerbsobstbau 36; 124-126 (1994).

Ogawa , J & English, H: Diseases of Temperate Zone Tree Fru it and Nut Crops. Univ. of Calif,

Forest gardening: Fungi
Introduction

Fungi will appear naturally in time in the forest garden , part icularly mycorrhizal species forming associations with trees and shrubs , and decay fungi attacking live and dead wood. Parasitic fungi, such as the damaging honey fungus (Armillaria spp) may also appear, though unwel come. The fungal species mix, though , can be manipulated through interventions to give crops of good edible species . This can be a particularly good way of usi ng very shady moist areas , eg o under trees with a dense canopy , where other plant crops are hard to grow or yield very little in terms of useful crop. Natural cultu re of mushrooms outdoors basically consists of constructing the substrate (ie what the fungi grow on) , inoculating it with spores or spawn (material impregnated with mycelium - a fungal network of thread-like cells) , and leaving it to the whims of nature, except for occasional watering if necessary. In general , native mushroom species do better than exotic ones. Thi s article considers three classes of fungi of use in the forest garden: • Woodland mycorrhizal fungi , wh ich form symbiotic association with tree and shrub roots . Primary decomposers. wood-decomposing fung i, mostly grown on stumps , logs or wood chips. • Wood-decompos ing fungi which are grown on wood chips and sawd ust. This article concentrates on fungi that produce good edible mushrooms, and those of medicinal use (seve ral are known to have anti-cancer properties).

Mycorrhizal species
Mycorrhizal fungi are not so easy to cultivate - the best method to encourage these species is to plant young trees whose roots have been inoculated with spores of appropriate species. Deliberately choosing good edible species to inoculate with may lead to crops of mushrooms in later years , though this technique is by no means certain ; it has worked with the Oregon white truffle , Tube r gibbosum, on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in North America . Several methods of inoculation are feasible (though none guarantees success):

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Plant young tree seedlings near the root zones of proven mushroom-producing trees, then transplant them a few years later. Natural infection with mycorrhizal species is likely. Dip the exposed roots of seedlings into water enriched with the spore mass of a mycorrhizal species. Mushrooms are gathered from the wild and soaked in water : thousands of spores are washed off the gills, resulting in an inoculum 'broth '. Several mature mushrooms are used to as bucketful of water, enough to inoculate 100-200 seedlings. Spores are broadcast onto the root zones of likely candidates . Success rates may be low, but little effort is required . Mature mushrooms are gathered and broken up by crushing or blending etc; the mixture then added to sand and well mixed before broadcasting. A handful of soil from the root zones of proven mushroom-producing trees (fro m depths of 5-15 cm! 2_6 is placed around the seedling either in the nursery or soon after planting . Such soil is likely to contain fungal mycelium - indeed it may be visible as fine white threads.
ft )

It is simple to see with the naked eye whether roots have become inoculated with mycorrhiza l fungi - the fine tree roots will be interwoven with slender white mycelium of the fungal species.

The following table lists the most desirable edible mycorrhizal species and their likely cand idate trees. Note that most mycorrhizal species are not host-specific, ie they will form associations with many different species (but usually either coniferous or deciduous trees, not both). Those that are host-specific (Gomphidius, Leccinium) are usually so to a whole genus, not a single species. For more information on mycorrh iza s, see the article in Agroforestry News, Vol 4 No 4.

Wood land mycorrhizal species with good edible mushrooms
latin name Candidates (Habitats) Origin Agaricus abruptibulbus Spruce Europe The Prince Agaricus augutsus Coniferous & deciduous trees Europe Agaricus langei Coniferous & deciduous trees Europe Agaricus lanipes Deciduous trees Europe (@) Agaricus nivescens (@) Red staining mushroom Agaricus silvaticus Coniferous trees Europe, N.America Agaricus silvico/a Can & deciduous trees Europe , N.America The blusher Amanita rubescens Coniferous & dec trees Europe, N.America ("*) Amanita solitaria Dec trees, chalk soil Europe, N.America (*) Amanita umbrinolutea Fir trees Europe (*) Amanita vaginata Dec trees Europe, N.America (*) Grisette Boletus aereus Deciduous trees (esp beech, oak) Europe (@) Boletus aestivalis De ciduous trees (esp beech , oak) Europe (@) Boletus appendiculatus Deciduous trees (esp oak) Europe (@) Bay boletus Boletus badius Mixed trees Europe, N.America Boletus mirabilis N.America (@) Boletus pallescens Europe (@) Boletus pinicola Coniferous trees Europe (@) Boletus pinophilus Pines Europe Boletus pulverulentus Deciduous trees (esp oak) Europe Boletus regius Dec trees (esp oak, lime, birch) Europe (@) Boletus spadiceus Coniferous trees Europe , N.America Cha nterelie Cantharellus cibarius Dec/con tr(esp oak,doug.fir)Europe,N.Amer (@) Cantherellus cinereus Deciduous trees (esp beech) Europe Cantharellus infundibu/iformis Con & deciduous trees Europe, N .America Birch, oak Europe Cortinarius praestans Cortinarius varius Coniferous trees N.America Gomphidius glutinosus Coniferous trees Europe, N.America Hvaroohorus camaroohvllus Pine trees Eurooe Common name

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 33

Latin name Candidates (Habitats) Origin Hygrophorus limacinus Dec trees (esp beech, hornbeam) Europe Hygrophorus poetarum Beech Europe Saffron milk-cap Laclarius deliciosus Pine. spruce Europe, N.America Laclarius deterr;mus Pine. spruce Europe Laclarius sanguifluus Coniferous trees Europe Laclarius vofemus Con & deciduous trees Europe, N.America Leccinium duriusculum Poplars Europe, N.America Leccinium quercinum Oak Europe (@) Orange birch belete Leccinium versipelle Birch Europe, N .Arneri ca Russula alutacea Deciduous trees Europe , N.America Russula aurora Europe Russula brunnroviolacea Deciduous trees (esp oak) Europe Yellow swamp russula Russula claroflava Birch (wet ground) Europe (@) The Charcoal burnerRussula cyanoxantha Deciduous trees Europe, N.America (@) Russula grisea Beech Europe Russula heterophyfla Deciduous trees Europe, N.America Russula ionochlora Beech Europe Russula /utea Deciduous trees Europe, N.America (@) Russula mellio/ens Deciduous trees Europe Russula obscura Coniferous trees N.Europe Russula olivaeea Beech Europe, N.America Russula paludosa Coniferous trees Europe Russula polychroma Coniferous trees Europe, N.America Bare-toothed russula Russula vesea Deciduous trees Europe, N.America Russula virescens De.c trees (esp beech) Europe, N.America (@) Russula xeramnpelina Deciduous trees (esp beech, oak) Europe Tricholoma columbetta Dec & coniferous trees Europe , N.America Trich%ma flavovirens Coniferous trees Europe, N.America Matsutake Tricholoma magnivelare (T.matsutake) Pine Japan (@) Tricholoma populinum Poplar Europe (@) Trich%ma portentosum Coniferous trees Europe, N.America Summer truffle Tuber aestivum Beech on chalk Europe Oregon white truffle Tuber gibbosum Douglas fir W.N.America (@) White truffle Tuber magnatum Deciduous trees Europe (@) Perigord truffle Tuber melanosporum Beech Europe (@)

Common name

-

'"

,

• take great care in identification - similar species in family are poisonous . •• poisonous raw. @ mushrooms of these species are valued especially highly.

Primary decomposers
These are the first fungi to capture a stump or log , and are typically fast-growing , sending out strands of mycelium that quickly attach to and decompose plant tissue . Some species of fungi are known to occur on both deciduous and coniferous stumps/logs: note that these are usually two separate strains, and the deciduous strain probably won't inoculate conifer wood and viceve rsa. The species suitable for this type of culture can mostly be cultivated on either logs or stumps; a few prefer one or the other.

Stumps
Stumps in the forest garden are a potential source of trouble , particularly from an invasive parasitic fungus like honey fungus (Armillaria spp.) which may establish there and then spread to healthy trees and shrubs. Removal of stumps, often recommended in gardens and forestry , is difficult and involves a lot of work, and may be physically awkward in a forest garden without damaging other nearby plants. A better, eaSier, and

Page 34

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

a better, easier and more productive method of dealing with stumps is to inoculate them with vigorouS fungi which will colonise the stump before other more harmful species can do so. If the fungi species chosen produce good ed ible mushrooms, a useful crop may emerge from the stump after some months or years. Stumps with their roots intact are particularly good for mushroom cultivation, because water is continuously drawn via capillary action through the dead wood cells from the soil. Stumps in full or part shade (as most will be in a forest garden) are better than those in sun. The open face of a stump is highly susceptibl e to colonisation by wild mushrooms, hence it is important to inoculate a stump within a few months and before the first season of wild mushrooms - old stumps are not worth inoculating, they will already have been colon ised. Large stumps in nature can harbour several species of mushrooms , so that fungal polycultures are also possible for experimentally-inclined cultivators. Small diameter stumps rot faste r and produce a crop of mu shrooms soo ner than bigger stumps, but they have a shorter mushroom-producing life. Th e speed of production depends partly on the speed of colonisation, which is itself dependent on a host of factors including stump density (ie species), moisture content, weather etc; Chicken-of-the-woods has been known to produce mushrooms 8 weeks after oak stump inoculation . Mushroom production in 12-36 months is more com mon . Stumps of species with wood not very durable, ego poplar , willow, will be colonised more quickly, but will crop for a lesser period than durable woods like oak etc. A study of the cultivation of oyster mushrooms on poplar stumps, with inoculation in the spring , led to mushroom production the following autumn and continued in following years; an average of 450 g (1 Ib) mushrooms per stump per year were harvested. Stump inoculation is best undertaken in spring onto new stumps of trees cut in late winter or early spring. Oeciduous tree stumps are generally easier to successfully inoculate than coniferous stumps. The I r ~ .:, J } ; ........ spawn is us uall y purchased from a commercial supplier . j: ~---" Inoculation is by one of several possible methods: , • Plug spawn can be inserted into the open face of the ! stump, either in holes specially drilled or in cracks in the face if they exist. (Plug spawn consists of plugs or dowels of birch wood with spiral grooves, lNhich mycelium have fully colonised.) Holes (a total of 30-60) should be drilled I~ ! I : in a circle around the edge of the stump surface (a few cm from the bark), with a few scattered inside this circle across the face . The plugs are inserted by hand, pounded in with a rubber mallet, and (optionally - not strictly necessary) the hole is then covered with cheese-wax ,/'1 I (painted on) to protect the mycelium from insect or ,<c....'-~_~ weather damage. By wedge or disc inoculation: using a bow or chain Wedge & disc inoculation of a stump saw, a wedge is cut or a shallow disc is sliced from the open face of the stump; the newly cut faces are packed with sawdust spawn (ie mycelium grown in a sawdust substrate) and the cut wedge/disc replaced and secured with a few nails. All ow about 30-50 g of sawdust spawn per log.

,

i

il.): ,..

I}, ' /

~

!

Log culture
Log culture was developed over 1000 years ago in China and Japan, and is still an important technique there now, as well as being increasingly popular in other regions.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 5

- #

¥ttt
M

5

Logs are usually cut from healthy trees in the winter or early spring before leafing , when the sapwood is rich in sugars , to a length of 50-120 em (20-48") and diameter of 10-25 em (4 Commercial growers use 10 cml 4 diameter logs, and these are much easier to 10 physically move and manage than larger logs. Most hardwoods from deciduous trees can be used ; logs with softer woods (eg alder, birch , poplar) start producing mushrooms very quickly but may last only three years; logs with harder but non-durable wood (eg. beech , cherry) take a little longer to start cropping, and last about 5 years ; logs from trees with dense , durable hard wood like oaks, may take 2 years to crop but will outlast the others - these logs, with thick outer barks (necessary for good mushroom flushes), are preferred by commercia growers to the softer woods with thin bark which are easily damaged by weather fluctuations The logs are ideally kept off the ground , and cool and moist, before inoculation , to prevent contamination. Inoculation takes place within 2 months of felling , and is by one of several methods : • By inserting sawdust or plug spawn (bought from a commercial supplier) into drilled holes along the log. Logs receive 30-50 plugs, inserted into evenly-spaced holes 10- 15 cm (4-6") apart in a diamond pattern. The plugs are inserted by hand , pounded in with a rubber mallet, and the hole is then covered with cheese-wax (painted on) to protect the mycelium from insect or weather damage. By placing newly cut logs near to logs already producing mushrooms so that the spores are broadcast onto them . Though not totally reliable, this method has long been used by Japanese cultivators with good rates of success; logs showing no fungal growth after a year are removed from the production area. • Similar to stump inoculation , wedges can be cut from the log, packed with sawdust spawn , with the wedge nailed back in position. A variation is to cut the log into 40-60 cm (16_24") sections , sandwich spawn between , and nail together. A further variation is to pack the ends of the log with sawdust spawn and cap them with aluminium foil to hold the mycelium in place. Allow about 30-50 9 of sawdust spawn per log. After inoculation , logs are stacked in ricks (see picture above) and covered with a tarpaulin! plastic/ carpets etc (to keep them moist) for 6-12 months. It may take up to 20 months for the fungus to completely colonise the log. when white mycelium appears at both ends of the logs. Then, mushroom formation is initiated by soaking or heavily watering the logs , after which they are lined up vertically in fence-like rows ; they should be situated in permanent shade (about 60%) where there is some air movement. In climates with severe dry spells , or where watering is not feasible , or where the fungus species prefers moister conditions, the logs can have their lower 25-30 cm (10-12 ") buried into the ground. The logs are best in shade so they don't dry out too much.
M ).

Fungi with good edible mushrooms suited to log and stump culture

Two of the easiest of these are the Brown swordbelt , Agrocybe cyfindracea, and the Indian oyster, Pleurotus pulmonarius. None of the species listed below will seriously affect the health of living trees in proximity to the fruiting logs , even if the trees are old or diseased and become infected themselves. Common name Latin name Candidates (Habitats) Origin Brown swordbelt Agrocybe cyfindracea Dec logs/stumps (esp poplar/willow/Acer)Temp rgns Enoki, Velvet shankFlammulina velutipes Dec & can logs/stumps Temperate rgns (= ) Hen-of-the-woods Grifola frondosa Dec (& con) logs/ stumps N.temp. regions Fungus icicles Hericium coral/oides Deciduous & coniferous logs/stumps Europe Lion's Mane Hericium erinaceus Dec logs/stumps (logs pt buried) Temp rgns Hericium ramosum Dec logs/stumps (esp beech) Europe Smoky gilled Hypholoma Hypho/oma capnoides Dec & coniferous stumps Europe, N.America Brick caps Hypho/oma sublateritium Dec logs & stumps N.America ,Europe,Asia Beech mushroom Hypsizygus tessularius Deciduous logs & stumps Temperate regions Elm oyster mushroom Hypsizygus ulmatus Dec & can logs/stumps Temperate regions Chicken of the woods Laetiporus sulphureus Dec & can logs/stumps Europe,N .America Shiitake Lentinula edodes (Trichofomopsis e.) Dec (esp oak) Japan , China , Korea Nameko mushroom Pholiota nameko Deciduous logs, part buried Japan ,

Common name Latin name Candidates (Habitats) Origin Abalone mushroomPleurotus cystidiosus Deciduous stumps Temperate region s Pleurotus eryngii Deciduous & can logs/stumps Mediterranean King oyster Tarragon oyster mushroom Pleurotus euosmus Deciduous logs/s tumps (esp. elm) Britain only Oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus Dec & can logs/s tumps Temperate regions Grey oyster mushrm Pleurotus pulmonarius Dec & can logs/s tumps Europe,N.America Phoenix oyster m. Pleurotus sajor-caju Deciduous & can logs/s tump s Subtrop.Himalaya Pluteus petasatus Deciduou s logs/stumps Europe Ca uliflower mushrm Sparassis crispa Coniferous logs/stumps Europe, N.America Volvariella bombycina Dec logs/stumps (esp elm) Europe, N .Am erica
=

Be careful not to confuse this with the poisonous Galerina autumnalis.

Medicinal fungi suited to log and stump culture
Common name Lat i n name Candidates (Habitats) Origin Jew's ear, Wood ear Auricularia auricula-judas Deciduous logs Europe, N.America (+) Wood ears Auricularia po/ytricha Dec & can logs Temperate regions (++) Reishi Ganoderma lucidum Dec (& coniferous) logs/stumps Temp. rgns (+) Porcelain fungus Oudemansiella mucida Dec logs (esp beech) Europe, N.America (+) + Also edible, though poor quality. ++ Also edible, though not flavourful , but high ly prized in Asia.
.\./ ~-:~)

..

ungi for outside wood chip I sawdust culture

In a forest garden, piles of sawdust or wood chips may be freely available (or may be from a local sawmill) and can be used as a substrate in which to grow fungi . It is important the sawdust! wood chips are fresh . The best substrate of this I Ji 1 kind is a mixture of 50:50 sawdust and chips (by volume). I 1 Spring is the best time for inoculation. Before inoculation , the ~ substrate is moistened to near saturation . The spawn is then thoroughly mixed in . Competition from wild species is ·l particularly strong using this type of substrate, and a relatively high rate of inoculation is necessary: 3:1 substrate: spawn to minimise competition from other fungi, down to 10:1 or 20: 1 if some competition is allowed (ratios by volume). , 'I , Sawdust spawn is best , though using collected mushrooms as for mycorrhizal species can also be tried, as can using collected mycelium from 5-15 cm (2-6~) deep beneath established fruiting patches. The bed is again watered after inoculation and covered with cloth , cardboard, carpet etc to protect the mycelium from dehydration and sun exposure. Colonisation can take from a few weeks to several months . After the new mycelial mat has established , the patch can be triggered into fruiting by frequent watering ; the covers are left off but the bed should be in shade. After the second year, more substrate can be added and mixed in . Such a wood chipl sawdust bed should last 3-4 years with hardwood chips. The king stropharia (Stropharia rugosa-annulata) can be easily transplanted: the trimmings from the base of the stem of a mushroom , resplendent with thick white rhizomorphs , quickly regrow when placed in contact with woody debris.

J. , ,

,

·.
I,':

"

., !.
"'

·

!. • 1 ,

Fungi with good edible mushrooms suited to wood chip culture
Common name Brown swo rdbeJt Shaggy mane Latin name Agrocybe cylindracea Coprinus comatus Recommended substrate Origin Wood chips Temp/s ubtrop rgn s Hardwood sawdust Temperate regions

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Page 3

.

Recommended substrate Origin Common name Latin name Enoki , Velvet shank Flammulina velutipes Dec/coniferous sawdust Temperate rgns(= ) Beech mushroom Hypsizygus tessularius Wood chips Temperate regions Hardwood sawdust (esp oak) Japan, Shiitake Lentinula edodes China , Korea Japan, Nameko mushroom Pholiota nameko Hardwood sawdust China ~ Taiwan Golden oyster mushroom Pleuratus cornucopiae Hardwood sawdust Temp.lsubtropic rgns Abalone mushroom Pleuratus cystidiosus Hardwood sawdust Temperate regions King oyster Pleuratus eryngii Dec/coniferous sawdust Mediterran., Asia Tarragon oyster mushroom Pleurotus euosmus Hardwood sawdust Britain only Oyster mushrooms Pleuratus ostreatus Dec/coniferous sawdust Temperate regions Grey oyster mushrm Pleuratus pulmonarius Dec/coniferous sawdust Europe,N.America Phoenix oyster m. Pleuratus sajor-caju Dec/coniferous sawdust Subtrop.Himalaya Pluteus petasatus Deciduous wood chips/sawdust Europe King stropharia Strapharia rugosa-annufata Wood chips & sawdust Temperate regions

Pests

Slugs: can devastate young mushrooms. With log culture, the logs can be temporarily moved to a drier site while they fruit , or perhaps they could be placed on a mulch of sand/ hair/ shell I other slug-deterrent substance. With stumps , wood chip beds and ground fungi , there aren't many options - pick mushrooms early and carry out general slug-deterring practices. Fungus fly larvae: these are the tiny 'worms ' which are often found in wild fungi which have 'gone over' . Harvest mushrooms young , before the flies get to them. Mushrooms fruiting in cool weather are less prone to damage.

Recommended mushroom identification guides

Harding, P, Lyon , T & Tobmlin , G: How to Identify Edible Mushrooms. HarperCollins, 1996. Jordan , Michael: Edible Mushrooms & Other Fungi. Cassell, 1995. Jordan, Michael: The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe. David & Charles, 1995. Lincoff, Gary: The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. A A Knopf , 1991. Pegler, David: Field Guide to the Mushroom.s of Britain and Europe. Kingfisher Books, 1990. Phillips, Roger: Mushrooms and other Fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Pan, 1981. Smith , A & Smith Weber, N : The Mushroom Hunter's Field Guide. Univ. of Michigan Press , 1980.

Mushroom spawn suppliers
The UK has few mushroom spawn suppliers apart from those supplying button mushroom kits. North America is much better served, and several of these will send spawn throughout- the world. Several other American suppliers exist (see 5tamets for details). Future Foods , POBox 1564, Wedmore , Somerset, B528 4DP. UK. Currently under reorganisation - previously supplied spawn. Fungi Perfecli, POBox 7634, Olympia, WA 98507, USA. Tel: (206) 426-9292, Fax: (206) 426-9377. MushroomPeople, POBox 220, Summerlown, TN 38483-0220 , USA. Tel: (615) 964-2200. MycobJank, Oude Gaverse Steenweg 70, 9820 Merelbeke, BELGIUM . Tel: 0032 (0) 92302449, Fax: 0032 (0) 92318695. Rainlree Nursery, 391 Bults Road, Morton, WA 98356, USA. Tel: (206) 496-6400.

References
Crawford , Martin: Useful Plants for Temperate Climates , Volume 5: Algae , Fungi & Lichens. ART , 1993.

Book Reviews
Essential Oil Crops
E A Weiss
CAB tnternationat, 1996; 608 pp; £75.00 (US $135.00). tSBN 0-85199-137-8 (Hardback) Plants producing an aromatic oil, fruit or seed have been used in religious ceremonies, for personal use and adornment, and for flavouring throughout history. Today there is still considerable pressure by consumers world·wide to use natural compounds in edible and personal products. This book is intended for essential oil producers, to enable them to respond to this demand efficiently. economically and reliably. An initial chapter gives an overview of the world trade in essential oils: the figures given underline the increasing commercial importance of these substances - for example, through the 1980's the UK annually imported 275 tonnes of Eucalyptus oil and 620 tonnes of mint oils amoung others; in 1994 the USA imported 205 tonnes of Citrus oil , 465 tonnes of Eucalyptus oil, 339 tonnes lavender oil, 305 tonnes peppermint oil, 5 tonnes of rose oil etc. The main 13 chapters each cover a different plant family . A brief history of the recent uses and development of the crop is given and the cultivation and care of the crop is discussed ; current research findings and recommendations for improved cultivation practices are also included. Ways of adding value to the crop, such as extracting the oil, are also discussed. Although the majority of species included in these chapters are of tropical origin, a number are of temperate origin and suitable for growing in temperate climates. These in clude Geranium macrorrhium for Geranium oil (a semi -evergreen perennial, a useful ground cover plant and very shade tolerant ; good scope for intercropping this beneath a tree crop); Sassafras albidum for Sassafras oil (a North American tree); Laurus nobilis for Laurel leaf oil (the familiar large sh rub or sma ll tree producing bay leaves); Eucalyptus species for Eucalyptus oil; Myrtus communis for Myrtle oil (a Mediterranean shrub) ; Jasminum spp for Rosa spp (including R.centifolia, R.damascena, Jasm ine oil (shrubs, some hardy): R.moschata, R.multiflora and R.rugosa) for Rose oi l. A final chapter covers the distillation and extraction of essential oils. This begins with a brief history: distillation dates back at least to 3000 B.C. (a terracotta still has been found from the Ind us valley civilisations), and methods have gradually evolved since. Earlier this ce ntury, most stills were small-scale and of ingenious low-cost design, but much of the oil produced was of poor quality. More efficient plants can be built inexpensively, although modern computer-controlled plants which accurately control oil composition are expensive. Various methods of obtaining essential oils are then described and illustrated with drawings and flowcharts. The book is a key reference for researchers and agrono mi sts concerned with essentia l oil crops.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

¥b

Fungi and environmental change
Frankland, J C, Magan, N & Gadd, G M (Eds)
Cambridge Uni ve rsity Press , 1996; 351 pp; £60.00. ISBN 0-521-49586-5 (Hardback).

**

Despite the upsurge in interest on environmental issues, fungi , vita l to the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems , are rarely mentioned. This volume helps redress this imbala nce by examining the effects on fungi of environmental changes such as global warming, increases in UV radiation and pollution. The effects of global climate changes on the relations between fungal pathogens and their woody hosts are discussed: the pathogenic activity of such fungi can be certain ly be affected by increasing temperatures, and the example of Phytophthora cinnamomi (ink disease) in Europe shows that it is likely to become as seri ous a disease in Britain after a 3°e temperature rise as it is at present in southern Europe. Warmer winters may allow many of the fungi which cause stem cankers and shoot dieback to become more active. More droughts may damage mycorrhizal fungi and thus indirectly affect plant growth and health. Increasi ng UV rad iation, due to ozone depletion , may have complex effects on both fungi and plants. It is poss ible that the normal patterns of succession of decay-causing organisms might be disturbed both before leaf fall and as long as leaf litter is exposed to sunlight. Loss of specific habitats and pollution are thought to be the causes of a decline over several decades of both numbers and range of woodland & grassland fungi, particularly mycorrhizal species - including boletes (Boletus spp), Cantharellus spp , Cortinarius spp, Hygrocybe spp , Hygrophorus spp and Tricholoma spp. The causes of these declines · are complex, but include loss of habitat and various pollution sources: acid and nitrogen deposition, aluminium, heavy metals , and radioactive particles have all been implicated . There is also evidence of severa l species of fungi which appear to be colon ising in Britain , moving northwards and westwards , probably due to global warming. Other chapters include the effects of environmental stress on mycorrhizas , the uptake of radioactive Caesium by fungi following Ch.ernobyl , the implications of rising sea levels for dune fungi , the effects of pollutants on lichens, and the use of fungi which take up heavy metals and radioactive substances for the biological restoration of polluted effluents . ThiS timely review, which reminds us just how important fungi are in our world , will be of interest to mycologists, ecologists and others concerned with environmental change.

Page 40

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 5 No 4

Agroforestry is the integration of trees and agriculturei horticulture to produce a diverse, producti ve and resilient system for producing food, materials, timber and other products. It can range from planting trees in pastures providing shelter, shade and emergency forage, to forest garden systems incorporating layers of tall and small trees, shrubs and ground layers in a self-sustaining, interconnected and productive system. Agroforestry News is published by the Agroforestry Research Trust four times a year in October, January, April and July. Subscription rates are: £18 per year in Britain and the E.U. (£14 unwaged) £22 per year overseas (please remit in Sterling) £32 per year for institutions. A list of back issue contents is included in our current catalogue, available on request for 3 x 1st class stamps. Back issues cost £3.50 per copy including postage (£4.50 outside the E.U.) Please make cheques payable to ' Agroforestry Research Trust', and send to: Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington, Totnes, Devon, TQ9 6JT, UK. Agroforestry Research Trust The Trust is a charity registered in England (Reg. No.1 007440), with the object to research into temperate tree, shrub and other crops, and agroforestry systems, and to disseminate the results through booklets, Agroforestry News, and other publications. The Trust depends on donations and sales of publications, seeds and plants to fund its work, which includes various practical research projects.

J

Agroforestry News

Volume 6 Number 1

October 1997

,

Agroforestry News
(ISSN 0967-649X)

Volume 6 Number 1

October 1997

Contents
2 5 13 17 20 30 36 News Forest Gardening: Ground cover polycultures The bayberries: Myrica species Basketry willows The hickories Pest & Disease series: Fireblight Book reviews:
Temperate Agroforestry Systems Iintercropping and the Scientific Basis of Traditional Agriculture I Plants for a Future I Biological Indicators of Soil Health

40

Classified adverts

The views expressed in Agroforestry News are not necessarily those of the Editor or officials of the Trust. Contributions are welcomed. and should be typed clearly or sent on disk in a common fannat. Many articles in Agroforestry News refer to edible and medicinal crops; such crops, if unknown to the reader. should be tested carefully before major use, and medicinal plants should only be administered on the advice of a qualified practitioner; somebody, somewhere, may be fatally allergic to even tame species . The editor. authors and publishers of Agroforestry News cannot be held responsible for any illness caused by the use or misuse of such crops. Editor: Martin Crawford. Publisher: Agroforestry News is published quarterly by the Agroforestry Research Trust. Editorial, Advertising & Subscriptions : Agroforestry Research Trust, 46 Hunters Moon, Dartington. Totnes , Devon , T09 6JT. U.K. Email: AgroResTr@aol.com.

AGROFORESTRY NEWS Vol 6 No 1

Page 1

News
Hydraulic lift and drop
Hydraulic lift is the name given to the well -kn own process which occurs when water is transported from de,ep moist soil by tree roots and relea sed into drier soil near the surface. This process is thought to be passive, with roots acting as conduits for water between soil layers, and during dry periods, hydraulic lift can assist plants in obtaining resources; this has potentially important implications for species interactions in agroforestry and mixed cropping systems, because water released into the soil by tree roots can be utilised by neighbouring plants. New evidence has now emerged that the reverse process can also occur, ie that under some conditions, foots of trees may siphon water downwards to deeper soil layers, where it can be stored for later use, be