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Textile Effects

NOVACRON FN reactive dyes


Exhaust dyeing

Textile Competence: Effects

NOVACRON FN

Contents
Page NOVACRON FN ......................................................................................................................................... 3 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Dyeing methods for 100% CEL Overview/yarn and piecegoods ............................................................................................................. 5 Dyeing method for pale to medium shades........................................................................................... 6 Dyeing method for deep shades............................................................................................................ 6 Salt and alkali recommendations at different liquor ratio....................................................................... 7 Dyeing method with caustic soda .......................................................................................................... 9 Washing off yarn and piecegoods ........................................................................................................ 10 Dyeing methods for blends Polyester/cellulose blends ................................................................................................................... 11 Polyamide/cellulose blends ................................................................................................................. 12 Dyeing auxiliaries Penetrating/de-aerating/defoaming, Special products......................................................................... 13 Special products cont., Soaping, Cationic aftertreatment ................................................................... 14 Pretreatment for CO and its blends, including elastane Discontinuous peroxide bleach / SMART PREP ................................................................................. 15 Discontinuous acid cracking ................................................................................................................ 15 Discontinuous alkaline cracking .......................................................................................................... 15 Pretreatment products ........................................................................................................................... 16 Explanatory notes Patterns, OEKO-Tex 100, HT cross-dyeing PES/CEL ........................................................................ 17 Post-bleaching, Post-mercerizing........................................................................................................ 18 Dischargeability, Solubility, Final exhaustion, Fixation ........................................................................ 19 Washing-off properties, Coverage of dead cotton, Coverage of barry viscose................................... 20 Influence of liquor ratio, Influence of salt addition ............................................................................... 20 Partial and radical stripping of dyeings ................................................................................................ 21 Fastness properties ............................................................................................................................. 22 Adverse influences during dyeing........................................................................................................ 23 Adverse influences of cationic aftertreatment ..................................................................................... 24 Adverse influences during drying................................................................................................... 2425 Adverse influences during finishing ..................................................................................................... 26 Handling reactive dyes........................................................................................................................... 27

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NOVACRON FN

NOVACRON FN
The NOVACRON FN dyes are innovative bi-hetero reactive dyes for warm exhaust dyeing. Highly compatible range for a wide shade spectrum and high fastness performance. Excellent reproducibility and outstanding washing-off properties resulting in increased productivity. Highlights of NOVACRON FN Highest fastness levels

...and what they mean for the dyer Fulfills brand & retailer requirements - pale shades - sportswear articles - repeated washing with peroxide (M&S test) - High IQ Lasting Color

- light fastness - perspiration light fastness (PLF) - oxidative bleach - color retention to home laundering
Compact range of brilliant dyes - few elements - high brilliancy of each element

Wide shade gamut - low inventory, simple replenishment - covers a wide shade gamut

Outstanding reproducibility - similar affinity level - robust dyes - very good diffusion - reactive bonds stable in both alkaline and acid condition

Improved right-first-time - excellent compatibility - little sensitivity to varying dyeing parameters - good leveling, uniform fabric appearance - high bulk to bulk reproducibility

Short and simple dyeing process - isotherm process at warm temperature - high solubility in presence of salt and alkali - easy washing off (see below)

Water & energy savings - energy savings - suitable for short liquor ratio dyeing - water savings

Excellent washing off - high fixation rate - medium affinity level - low re-deposition on fabric

Ecology - little dyestuff to be washed off - hydrolyzed dyestuff easy to remove - good color blocking

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NOVACRON FN

General
Storing the dyes Powder dyes are stable to storage for more than two years, liquid dyes for more than 1 year in closed containers at 2030 C/6886 F.

Pretreatment The goods should have a neutral pH and high absorbency. Impurities, sizes and lubricants must be carefully removed. Any peroxide residues from bleaching must be removed or destroyed in order to prevent losses of yield and/or unlevelness (especially important with pale shades). If peroxide killers are used, cold rinsing is recommended before dyeing. The pH must be adjusted to 6 at the beginning of dyeing.

Dissolving powder dyes The dyes are best dissolved by: Strewing into 10 times their weight of hot water (not higher than 80 C/176 F) and high speed stirring or pasting with cold water and pouring on hot water. Notes It is advisable to use soft or softened water. To avoid loss of yield through hydrolysis, the pH of the water should be slightly acid to neutral.

Notes on dyeing If the goods are pretreated in an alkaline medium or in areas where process water with a pH above 7 is used, an addition of acetic acid at the start of dyeing is recommended. The pH should be about 6 before the dyes are added. Salt: Either common salt or Glaubers salt anhydrous can be used. Glaubers salt can occasionally have a marked acid reaction. If this occurs, the amount of fixing alkali has to be increased accordingly. Sea salt and impure common salt contain soluble alkaline earth ions. If Glaubers salt cryst. (Na2SO4.10 H2O) is used, the amount of salt must be doubled. To prevent precipitation see: Use of dyeing auxiliaries.

Alkali: Soda ash or soda ash and caustic soda or caustic soda are recommended, depending on method. With soda ash, and more particularly with mixed alkali, care must be taken with industrial grades that may contain a certain amount of sodium bicarbonate. This reduces the pH during the fixation phase.

Notes on dyes Most of the Golden Yellow can show photochomy.

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing methods for 100% CEL


Overview/yarn and piecegoods 60 C/140 F method Soda ash 80/60 C/176/140 F method For merc. CO or CV and fabrics difficult to penetrate Modification - if soda ash is preferred for fixation - for unfavorable conditions as far as alkali additions are concerned (no dispensing equipment available) Salt addition: in portions (e.g. 1/10, 2/10, 7/10) Alkali addition: in portions (e.g. 1/3, 2/3) The following method is an alternative to that described above (dye before salt) and can save time: salt or brine is added at the beginning, the dissolved dye is added subsequently over 1020 min

60 C/140 F method Soda ash + caustic soda

- if mixed alkali is preferred for fixation - smaller addition volume for small addition tanks - lower impact of the liquor ratio Salt addition: in portions (e.g. 1/10, 2/10, 7/10) Alkali addition: 1. add: soda ash, 2. add slowly: caustic soda, well diluted

Modification

The following method is an alternative to that described above (dye before salt) and can save time: salt or brine is added at the beginning, the dissolved dye is added subsequently over 1020 min

60 C/140 F method ALBATEX SA-200

- if liquid alkali is preferred for fixation - smaller addition volume for small addition tanks - lower impact of the liquor ratio Salt addition: in portions (e.g. 1/10, 2/10, 7/10) Alkali addition: over 30-40 min at 70% progression

Modification

The following method is an alternative to that described above (dye before salt) and can save time: salt or brine is added at the beginning, the dissolved dye is added subsequently over 1020 min

60 C/140 F dispensing method caustic soda

- for fully automated machinery with dispensing equipment Salt or brine is added at the beginning Dye solution is dispensed linearly over 1020 min Alkali is added over 45 min at 70% progression

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing methods for 100% CEL


Yarn and piecegoods 60 C/140 F method for pale to medium shades

C 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
dispensed or in portions

F 194 176 158 10' 20' 15-30' 30' 30-40' 140 122 104 86

Aux. Dyes

Salt

Soda ash or Soda ash / NaOH or ALBATEX SA-200

60 C/140 F method for deep shades

C 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
dispensed or in portions

F 194 176 158 10' 20' 15-30' 30' 30-40' 140 122 104 86

Aux. Salt

Dyes

Soda ash or Soda ash / NaOH or ALBATEX SA-200

Notes - *On CV and merc. CO use the 80/60 C, 176/140 F method with soda ash only. = dispensed or in portions.

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing methods for 100% CEL


Salt and alkali recommendations at different liquor ratio

Soda ash method


Liquor ratio below 6:1 (Ultra Short Liquor Ratio) NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 20 30 40 Soda ash % 14 16 18 Liquor ratio below 8:1 NOVACRON FN % Auxiliaries Salt g/l Soda ash g/l 2 50 20 3 60 20 4 70 20

5 80 20

< 0.5 20 10

0.5 1 see pages 1314 30 40 12 14

2 50 16

3 60 18

4 70 20

5 80 20

Liquor ratio at and above 8:1 NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 30 40 50 Soda ash g/l 8 10 12

2 60 14

3 80 16

4 90 18

5 100 18

Mixed alkali method


Liquor ratio below 6:1 (Ultra Short Liquor Ratio) NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 20 30 40 Soda ash % 10 10 5 NaOH % 0.5 1 2 Liquor ratio below 8:1 NOVACRON FN % Auxiliaries Salt g/l Soda ash g/l NaOH ml/l 2 50 5 2.5 3 60 5 3 4 70 5 3.5

5 80 5 4

< 0.5 20 10

0.5 1 see pages 1314 30 40 5 5 0.75 1.25

2 50 5 1.5

3 60 5 2

4 70 5 2.5

5 80 5 3

Liquor ratio at and above 8:1 NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 30 40 50 Soda ash g/l 8 5 5 NaOH ml/l 0.5 1 NaOH 36 B/66 Tw

2 60 5 1.25

3 80 5 1.5

4 90 5 2

5 100 5 2.5

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NOVACRON FN

ALBATEX SA-200 method


Liquor ratio below 6:1 (Ultra Short Liquor Ratio) NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 20 30 40 ALBATEX SA-200 % 2.5 2.75 3 Liquor ratio below 8:1 NOVACRON FN % Auxiliaries Salt g/l ALBATEX SA-200 g/l 2 50 3.5 3 60 4.5 4 70 5.5

5 80 6.5

< 0.5 20 2.5

0.5 1 see pages 1314 30 40 2.75 3

2 50 3.5

3 60 4.5

4 70 5.5

5 80 6.5

Liquor ratio at and above 8:1 NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.5 1 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 30 40 50 ALBATEX SA-200 g/l 2.5 2.75 3 Notes

2 60 3.5

3 80 4.5

4 90 5.5

5 100 6.5

- For CV and CO merc. the amount of salt can be reduced by 2030%. - Quality of salt; see page 4.

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing methods for 100% CEL


Yarn and piecegoods 60 C/140 F caustic soda dispensing method

C 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
dispensed or in portions

F 194 176 158 10' 20' 15-30' 45' 30-45' 140 122 104 86

Aux. Salt

Dyes

NaOH

Salt and alkali recommendations/liquor ratio below 8:1 NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.51 12 23 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 2030 3040 4050 5060 NaOH ml/l 2.73.3 3.3 3.33.8 3.84.4

34 6070 4.45

45 7080 55.5

above 5 80 5.5

Salt and alkali recommendations/liquor ratio at and above 8:1 NOVACRON FN % < 0.5 0.51 12 23 34 Auxiliaries see pages 1314 Salt g/l 3040 4050 5060 6080 8090 NaOH ml/l 1.92.3 2.3 2.32.7 2.73 33.4 NaOH 36 B/66 Tw Notes

45 90100 3.43.8

above 5 100 3.8

- The mixed alkali method is our main recommendation for full shades with Navy FN-BN. - Quality of salt; see page 4.

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NOVACRON FN

Washing off yarn and piecegoods 100% CEL


Rinse for 10 min at 50 C/122 F One rinse is sufficient if liquor ratio is 10:1 If liquor ratio is below 10:1, overflow or intermittent rinse

Neutralize for 10 min at 50 C/122 F

With acetic acid (pH = 5.5 to 6)

Soap for 10 min at 90 C/194 F

The addition of a soaping agent is advisable. See dyeing auxiliaries/soaping

Soap for 10 min at 90 C/194 F

A second soaping operation is recommended for very deep shades if necessary

Rinse for 10 min at 50 C/122 F

Rinse for 10 min cold

Soften as usual or aftertreat

See dyeing auxiliaries/aftertreatment

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing method for polyester/cellulose blends


Yarn and piecegoods A two-bath process using TERASIL WW/W-EL dyes and NOVACRON FN is recommended for high wash fastness (at 60 C/140 F) requirements. Dye the polyester component first HT dyeing with TERASIL WW/W-EL dyes Dye the cellulose component by one of the NOVACRON methods described. Wash off as described.

Two-bath process / FN-FAST


Highest wash fastness performance ever achieved with disperse/reactive dyes For articles where the wash fastness is the main issue Use of state-of-the-art disperse dyes TERASIL WW/W-EL in conjunction with state-of-the-art reactive dyes NOVACRON FN More process time, water and energy consumption needed due to the two-bath technique No intermediate reduction clearing necessary
140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380

284 266 248 230 212 194 176 158 140

122 104 86
min

A
TERASIL WW/W-EL dyes 34 g/l ALBATEX AB-45 or 2 g/l ammonium sulfate + formic acid 0.5 g/l ALBAFLOW JET 12 g/l ALBATEX AR (if necessary) 1 g/l UNIVADINE DPL B

B
NOVACRON FN dyes

C
common salt

D
soda ash caustic soda

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing method for polyamide/cellulose blends


Yarn and piecegoods Reactive dyes are frequently used in conjunction with LANASET dyes for dyeing polyamide/cellulose blends, allowing maximum wet fastness properties to be achieved. The main challenge, besides fulfilling the demands for high fastness, lies in achieving the same shade on both fibers, in other words a solid dyeing. These requirements can be achieved by applying a two-bath procedure with NOVACRON FN dyes for the CEL portion and LANASET dyes for the polyamide portion. Dye the cellulosic component first Dye the cellulosic component by one of the NOVACRON methods described. Washing off NOVACRON FN Good reservation of the polyamide portion during dyeing of the cellulose portion guarantees excellent reproducibility and easy shade matching. NOVACRON FN dyes fulfill these requirements. For the best results we recommend maintaining a weakly alkaline pH throughout washing off and performing the final neutralization of residual alkali after the wash off. (For special effects, like white reservation of polyamide, ERIONAL RN can be used as a blocking agent). Washing-off procedure for NOVACRON FN dyes on CEL/PA blends: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. rinse for 10 min at 50 C/122 F rinse for 10 min at 50 C/122 F soap for 15 min at 90 C/194 F rinse for 10 min at 50 C/122 F neutralize with 0.5 ml/l acetic acid 80% for 10 min at 50 C/122 F

Dye the polyamide component with LANASET dyes (see pattern card or pocket card). Rinse and neutralize if necessary. For more details on CEL/PA blends specific pamphlets are available.

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NOVACRON FN

Dyeing auxiliaries
Penetrating/deaerating/defoaming Products 0.10.5 g/l ALBAFLOW FFC-01 slightly anionic 0.30.5 g/l ALBAFLOW SF PLUS nonionic 0.31 g/l ALBAFLOW CIR anionic Effects penetration accelerant Benefits - silicone containing product with de-aerating effect and durable antifoaming action - very stable to high alkali and electrolyte concentrations ideal for machines with short liquor or air stream technology - Mineral-oil-free product with reinforced foam control properties - APEO- and solvent free. Contains no silicon oil, no silicate - good stability to electrolytes and shear - APEO- and solvent free de-aerating agent with wetting properties and durable antifoam properties - instant penetration of goods, especially recommended for circulating liquor dyeing machines - stable in acid and alkaline media - promotes constant liquor flow, hence inside-outside levelness and reduced risk of channeling - APEO- and solvent free product with durable antifoaming action - very stable to high alkali and electrolyte concentrations - specially recommended for jet and overflow machines with short liquor or air stream technology alternative

penetration accelerant

penetration accelerant

0.10.5 g/l ALBAFLOW JET anionic

penetration accelerant

Special products Products 13 g/l LYOPRINT RG anionic 0.52 g/l ALBATEX DBC anionic 0.52 g/l ALBATEX CO anionic Effects reduction protectant dispersing agent Ca inactivation protective colloid Ca inactivation polymeric dispersant and protective colloid Benefits - protects reactive dyes against reduction during dyeing

0.53 g/l ALBATEX DS anionic

- dyebath conditioner: prevents precipitation of Ca, Mg in the water or on the textile - promotes levelness of the dyeing and improves the appearance of the dyed goods - binds metal ions (Fe, Cu) in the water - avoids precipitation of Ca, Mg in the water or on the textile - promotes levelness of the dyeing and improves the appearance of the dyed goods - keeps impurities from unpretreated cotton in stable dispersion - dyebath conditioner avoids precipitation of Ca, Mg in the water or on the textile - promotes the levelness of the dyeing and improves the appearance of the dyed goods - binds heavy metal ions in the water

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NOVACRON FN

Special products (cont.) Products 0.52 g/l ALBAFLUID C anionic/nonionic 0.52 g/l ALBAFLUID U anionic/nonionic 0.52 g/l ALBAFLUID CD anionic/nonionic

Effects lubricant

Benefits - reduces creasing in piece dyeing - markedly reduces textile-to-textile friction - prevents cracks and abrasion marks - no adverse effect on the stability of the dyebath - no retarding effect - for very sensitive fabrics - prevents crack marks and creases - no adverse effect on the stability of the dyebath - no retarding effect - excellent for heavy goods - suitable for dosing systems - reduces the friction of fabric against fabric and fabrics against machine parts by virtue of its structural viscosity - assists formation of a protective water layer in zones of high shear forces, creating an aqua planning effect - no adverse effect on the color yield - can be rinsed out of the fabric completely

lubricant

lubricant

Soaping Products 0.52 g/l ERIOPON R LIQ anionic

Effects washing agent

Benefits - speeds up release and outward diffusion of dye hydrolysates, even in hard water - prevents renewed uptake of dye hydrolysates - inactivates water hardness ions and ensures maximum fastness properties - low foaming

Note for all dyeing auxiliaries


Amount required depends on specific conditions, e.g. type of fabric, quality of process water, type of machinery.

Aftertreatment with ALBAFIX ECO Products 13% ALBAFIX ECO cationic

Effects wet fastness improver

Benefits - formaldehyde-free - zinc-free - prevents migration after dyeing - protects dye/fiber bond of reactive dyes against acid hydrolysis and thermocracking - allows good wash fastness up to 50 C/122 F - no adverse effect on handle

Goods dyed to medium and deep shades should be aftertreated following washing off

Method: aftertreatment with ALBAFIX ECO at 40 C/104 F for 2030 min. pH 67 adjusted with acetic acid. The goods are then hydroextracted and dried without rinsing.

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NOVACRON FN

Pretreatment for CO and its blends, including elastane


Discontinuous peroxide bleach / SMART PREP: 0.51.5 1.02.0 1.02.5 2.010 2.54.0 1.02.5 2.010 ml/l ml/l g/l ml/l ml/l g/l ml/l CLARITE GS INVADINE DA or ULTRAVON EL NaOH 100% H2O2 35% or CLARITE COM NaOH 100% H2O2 35% 4:120:1 9098 C (ULTRA BLEACH up to 115 C) 2060 min (ULTRA BLEACH up to 20 min)

Liquor ratio: Temperature: Reaction time:

Cooling/rinsing combined or separate hot rinse; drain. Neutralizing/final clearing with INVATEX AC at 4060 C for 510 min. Without draining, remove peroxide with INVAZYM performed in the same bath.

CAT at 4060 C for 510 min; dyeing can be

For goods with high alkaline earth and heavy metal ion contents, it is advisable to carry out an acid cracking process before bleaching to enhance effects and process safety. Discontinuous acid cracking 0.52.0 ml/l 1.02.0 ml/l INVATEX SA INVADINE DA or ULTRAVON EL

Liquor ratio: 4:120:1/temperature: 3060 C Reaction time: 2030 min/hot rinse; continue with bleaching For dark shades, which do not require bleaching, it is advisable to carry out an alkaline cracking process to remove greases, waxes, oils and other kinds of impurities. Discontinuous alkaline cracking 1.04.0 g/l 0.51.0 ml/l 1.02.0 ml/l NaOH 100% or soda ash INVATEX SA INVADINE DA or ULTRAVON EL

Liquor ratio: 4:120:1/temperature: 9098 C Reaction time: 2040 min/hot rinse C for 510 min Neutralizing/final clearing with INVATEX AC at 4060

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NOVACRON FN

Pretreatment products

Processor for batchwise, discontinuous systems. CLARITE GS bleach-processor

Crystallization and precipitation-inhibiting action in heavily soiled bleaching systems such as one-stage rapid bleaching, and in extremely short-liquor-ratio machines. Contains no surfactant; anionic. Combination product for batch-wise bleaching with peroxide. Regulates

CLARITE COM bleach-processor

the formation of active oxygen. No other additions to the bleach bath required than hydrogen peroxide and alkali. Good detergency and emulsifying properties. Anionic/nonionic. Low foaming wetting agent and detergent for discontinuous pretreatment

INVADINE DA surfactant

and continuous immersion processes. Good detergency/emulsifying properties and good hydrophilicity of the goods. Very effective also on synthetics and Elastane. APEO-free, anionic/nonionic. Dissolves grease and oil readily. High wetting/detergent/dispersing power reinforced by a crystallization-retarding complexing action. Low-

ULTRAVON EL surfactant

foaming, stable at high alkali concentrations (up to 300 g/l caustic soda 100%). Suitable for enzymatic desizing. Stain-removing action at high concentrations. APEO-free, anionic. Special cracking agent to optimize the washing process, mainly applied

INVATEX AC cracking agent

after bleaching or mercerizing. Core neutralization of the cellulose fiber and extremely clean fabrics through thorough removal of traces of impurities at the final rinsing stage. High complexing/dispersing power and threshold effect. Contains no phosphorous or surfactant, anionic. Versatile sequestrant mixture, especially for acid and alkaline cracking. Marked retardation of crystallization, high capacity to inactivate heavy

INVATEX SA cracking agent

metal ions in highly alkaline media. Stable to oxidation and effective at high alkali concentrations (>300 g/l caustic soda 100%). Prevents precipitation in causticizing, mercerizing and caustic soda recuperation baths. Contains no surfactant, anionic. Stabilized, liquid catalase. The catalase enzyme removes the hydrogen

INVAZYME CAT enzyme

peroxide specifically by splitting it into oxygen and water. Improves shade reproducibility without loss of color yield with dyes that are sensitive to oxidation processes. Outstanding biodegradability. Very broad application spectrum: pH 310 and temperature up to 65 C.

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Patterns The patterns illustrated were dyed to four depths on bleached cotton tricot. The amounts of dye are given for the 60 C/140 F method/soda ash at liquor ratio 10:1.

Oeko-Tex 100 The Oeko-Tex 100 tests are performed on ready-to-wear goods. Dye selection is only one consideration. Type of fabric, procedures and finishing agents are equally important. The pattern card covers dye selection only. Reference Assessment Oeko-Tex Standard 100, edition 1/2007 Provided the dyeing is performed according to our recommendations, dyes marked with can attain the standard

HT cross-dyeing PES/CEL Method Substrate Dye conc. Assessment Suitability very good good moderate not suitable Versus untreated fabric 90% yield, no shade change 8090% yield, no shade change 7080% yield, shade change < 70% yield, shade change Reverse dyeing method for PES/CEL blends. Cross-dyeing with 2 g/l monosodium phosphate, pH 5.5 with acetic acid, 60 min at 130 C/266 F CO cretonne, bleached approx. 2/3 SD and navy light/black light

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Post-bleaching A remarkable increase in productivity is achieved if the goods are dyed in the gray state and postbleaching is integrated into the washing-off process. Method Standard Comparison Stability to post-bleaching Washing off as recommended The soaping bath is replaced by a post-bleaching process with OKM= g/l soda ash TKR= ml/l peroxide 35% w/w X g/l stabilizer cold to 95 C/203 F at 2 C/min, 15 min at 95 C/203 F

Assessment Suitability very good good moderate not suitable Note Test Assessment Versus untreated fabric 95% yield, no shade change 9095% yield, no shade change 8590% yield, shade change < 85% yield, shade change Dyes rated (very good) are also suitable for yarn dyeings to be bleached with peroxide after weaving/knitting Peroxide bleach ISO 105/N02 (very good) = shade change 45/5, staining of CO: 45

Post-mercerizing Test Assessment Suitability very good good moderate not suitable Shade change none/trace slight/noticeable appreciable/high high Staining of CO 45/5 4/45 34/4 < 34 Huntsman TE internal test

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Dischargeability Dischargeability is tested on woven material, bleached, mercerized, at 1/6, 1/3, 1/1 and 2/1 SD. Neutral discharge 550 g SOLVITOSE C5 10%) 250 g water 150 g RONGALIT C (BASF) 50 g glycerin Alkaline discharge 450 g SOLVITOSE C5 10% 220 g water 150 g RONGALIT C 130 g potash powder 50 g glycerin

Dischargeability is assessed by the gray scale. The dischargeability limit specifies the standard depth at which gray-scale rating 4 is still attained.

Assessment very good good moderate not attained up to 2/1 SD up to 1/1 SD 1/31/1 SD < 1/3 SD

Solubility The amount of dye in grams which is soluble in 1 liter distilled water at 30 C/86 F and 60 C/140 F. Solubility at 60 C/140 F is also given under dyeing conditions with the appropriate salt and alkali additions.

Final exhaustion/fixation This refers to dyeings on cotton tricot, non-mercerized, produced at about 2/3 SD and navy light/black light by the 60 C/140 F method using soda ash at liquor ratio 10:1 after 90 min dyeing.

Note Exhaustion and fixation depend heavily on dye concentration, liquor ratio, method and substrate.

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Washing-off properties Methods: 1SD and navy light/black light dyeings on bleached CO tricot are washed off using standard procedure described page 9. Wet fastness properties achieved Staining of CO, Washing C1S, water: limit - rating 4 Assessment very good good after standard washing-off procedure after standard washing-off procedure with a second soaping bath

Coverage of dead cotton Coverage of immature and mature cotton is assessed as very good, good or moderate for the individual dyes.

Coverage of barry viscose Coverage of viscose with varying affinity is assessed as very good, good or moderate for the individual dyes.

Influence of liquor ratio The figures refer to 1% dyeings and 6% for black on bleached CO tricot dyed by the 60 C/140 F method using soda ash. The relative strength is assessed versus that at liquor ratio 10:1 (100).

Influence of salt addition The figures refer to 2% dyeings and 6% for black on bleached CO tricot dyed by the 60 C/140 F method using soda ash. Relative strength is determined with less and more salt than the appropriate amount.

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Partial and radical stripping of dyeings Recommended methods Hydrosulfite alkaline A 5 g/l hydrosulfite conc. 15 ml/l caustic soda 36 B (66 Tw) 50 C/122 F raise over 15 min to 90 C/194 F and treat for a further 15 min 3 g/l available chlorine pH 1011 with caustic soda, treat for 60 min at 2030 C/6886 F, antichlor with sodium thiosulfate or sodium bisulfite 5g/l hydrosulfite conc. 50 C/122 F, raise over 15 min to 90 C/194 F and treat for a further 15 min 30 g/l salt 8 ml/l caustic soda 36 B (66 Tw) heat rapidly to 95 C/203 F, treat for 1045 min (depending on required shade reduction) cool, rinse and neutralize

Chlorine

Hydrosulfite neutral

Partial stripping

Stripping methods can be combined. The order in which they are carried out is indicated by the position of the letters (AB/BA). The recommended stripping methods are indicated by the letters above Most suitable stripping method Suitable stripping method Partial stripping almost fully stripped markedly weakened attainable stripping effect in %

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Explanatory notes
Fastness properties Light fastness was tested at the given standard depths. Other fastness properties refer to dyeings at about 1/1 standard depth (SD), and navy light and black light. Light fastness is measured upwards from 1 to 8, other fastness properties from 1 to 5. Fastness properties were tested and assessed in accordance with International Standard (IS) ISO 105, issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). All fastness tests were performed on cotton woven bleached and merc. Key to abbreviations Shade changes Bl G R Y Fastness tables = bluer = greener = redder = yellower Br = brighter

De = deeper D W = duller, flatter = weaker

Ch = shade change CV = staining of viscose

CO = staining of cotton WO = staining of wool

Light fastness, Xenon lamp 1/252/1 SD or black light/navy light Artificial light lamp TL 84/Tungsten Shade under TL 84 and Tungsten lamps is compared with that in daylight and the change assessed Xenon lamp ISO 105/B02

Washing 60 C/140 F, C1S 1x 60 C/140 F, C1S 5x 95 C/203 F, E1S 1x Washing with peroxide, 95 C/203 F, E2S Washing with chlorine, 70 C/158 F, D3S Water Sea water Chlorinated water, 20 mg/l Perspiration, alkaline Perspiration, acid ISO 105/C06 Wash test with fresh wash solution, 5 times (without intermediate drying) ISO 105/C06 ISO 105/C06 ISO 105/C06 ISO 105/E01 ISO 105/E02 ISO 105/E03 ISO 105/E04 ISO 105/E04

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Explanatory notes
Adverse influences during dyeing Reduction Effect reducing substances transferred from the substrate into the dyebath, e.g. viscose or peroxide killer residues, may result in loss of yield and thus cause reproducibility problems a mild oxidizing agent ( see: use of dyeing auxiliaries) should be added

Prevention Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive Cu/Fe ions in the dyebath Effect Prevention Test Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive Chlorine in process water Effect Prevention Test

95% yield, no shade change 9095% yield, no shade change 8590% yield, shade change < 85% yield, shade change

Cu and Fe ions in the dyebath originating from the substrate or process water can cause shade changes see: use of dyeing auxiliaries dyeings were produced in the presence of 1 mg/l Cu or 1 mg/l Fe and compared with dyeings without metal ions

no shade difference little shade difference moderate shade difference significant shade difference

chlorine, often present in municipal water, may cause loss of yield and/or shade changes continuous dechlorination of the incoming water, or addition of a reducing agent, e.g. 0.10.5 g/l sodium thiosulfate yield and shade change of dyeing performed in the presence of 5 mg/l Cl were assessed by comparison with dyeings produced without any chlorine

Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive Yield loss 05% 510% 1020% > 20% Shade change none to trace trace to slight slight to noticeable appreciable to high

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Explanatory notes
Adverse influences of cationic aftertreatment Influence of cationic aftertreatment Effect Test cationic aftertreatment may cause shade changes and reduce light fastness, depending on the aftertreatment agent used dyeings at 2/3 SD and navy light/black light on bleached CO tricot were aftertreated with 2% ALBAFIX ECO. Shade and light fastness were compared with those of the untreated fabric

Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive Xenon no diff. 0.5 rating 0.5 to 1.0 rating > 1.0 rating Shade vs. gray scale 0 to 0.5 rating 0.5 to 1.0 rating 1.0 to 1.5 rating > 1.5 rating

Adverse influences during drying Influence of residual alkali/acid during drying Effect residual alkali/acid in the fabric after rinsing can cause shade changes during drying (duller). Uneven distribution of alkali/acid can result in an unlevel appearance a suitable neutralizing procedure is required dyeings on bleached CO tricot were treated with buffer solutions at pH 5 and pH 9. The shade change was assessed by comparison with neutral fabric

Prevention Test

Influence of residual hardness salts during drying Effect Prevention Test rinsing in hard water can cause shade changes during drying rinse with soft or softened water or add a sequestrant bleached CO tricot was treated with water of 25 Clark. The shade change was assessed by comparison with fabric treated with demineralized water

Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive Shade change (duller) none to trace trace to slight slight to noticeable appreciable to high

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Adverse influences during drying (shade change) Influence of gas-heated dryers Effect Prevention Test Assessment after 3 cycles not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive rating 45/5 rating 4/45 rating 34/4 lower than rating < 34 poor gas quality and badly regulated gas dryers may develop gas fumes, which cause shade changes with some dyes improve air circulation in the dryer AATCC 164 nitrogen oxides (NOx) 1/2/3 cycles

Hot pressing, immediate Effect Prevention Test immediately after drying/pressing, a significant shade change can occur with some dyes, but this will rectify itself after a minimum of 4h cool down and condition before checking the shade ISO 105/X11 hot pressing immediate assessment of shade change. assessment of shade change after 4 hours.

Assessment not sensitive slightly sensitive moderately sensitive highly sensitive rating 45/5 rating 4/45 rating 34/4 lower than rating < 34

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NOVACRON FN

Explanatory notes
Adverse influences during finishing Influence of finishing Effect Test Note Some finishes can have a pronounced effect on shade and light fastness. CO cretonne, merc. is finished using the recipes below. Change of shade and Xenon light fastness are determined versus those of the unfinished fabrics. If mill recipes differ from the finishing recipes below, preliminary trials are advisable.

Code MU

Recipe Methylol urea 90 g/l KNITTEX LPF 20 g/l TURPEX ACN NEW 14 g/l KNITTEXCATALYST MO 4 min at 150 C/302 F Methylol melamine 60 g/l KNITTEX CHN 20 g/l TURPEX ACN NEW 12 g/l KNITTEXCATALYST MO 4 min at 150 C/302 F Dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea 50 g/l KNITTEX FPC conc. 20 g/l TURPEX ACN NEW 2 ml/l Acetic acid 40% 15 g/l KNITTEXCATALYST MO 4 min at 150 C/302 F Ultralow formaldehyde 50 g/l KNITTEX FEL 30 g/l ULTRATEX FMS 15 g/l KNITTEXCATALYST MO 4 min at 150 C/302 F 400 g/l PYROVATEX CP NEW 60 g/l KNITTEX CHN 40 g/l ULTRATEX FSA NEW 20 g/l phosphoric acid 80% 4 min at 150 C/302 F (+ alkaline wash-off) Water repellent 5 ml/l INVADIN PBN 30 g/l KNITTEX FEL 9 g/l KNITTEXCATALYST MO 50 g/l OLEOPHOBOL CO 5 g/l PHOBOL XAN 4 min at 150 C/302 F

MM

DM(OH2)EU

ULF

Flame retardant

Hydrophobic

In the pattern section finishes are indicated by the code if: Shade change (gray scale) is less than rating 4 versus unfinished fabric. Xenon light fastness is more than one rating lower than that of the unfinished fabric.

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NOVACRON FN

Handling reactive dyes


NOVACRON FN dyes present no special risk to health if the usual hygiene and safety rules for handling chemicals are observed in storage, handling and use. Ingestion, inhalation, skin and eye contact, must be avoided. Any application restrictions indicated on the informative labels should also be observed. For information on toxicology and ecology, please see the relevant Safety Data Sheets.

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NOVACRON FN

Region Europe Huntsman Textile Effects (Germany) GmbH Rehlinger Str. 1 86462 Langweid a. Lech, Germany infotexeurope@huntsman.com Tel: Fax: +49 8230 41-0 +49 8230 41-370

Region Americas Huntsman International LLC Textile Effects 4050 Premier Drive High Point, North Carolina 27265, USA infotexamerias@huntsman.com Tel: Fax: +1 800 822 1736 +1 336 819 7440

Region Asia Huntsman (Guangdong) Ltd. Textile Effects Flying Geese Mountain Industrial Park Shilou Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511447, PR China infotexasia@huntsman.com Tel: Fax: +86 20 3937 7000 +86 20 8484 5222

Copyright 2007 Huntsman. All rights reserved. All trademarks mentioned are registered trademarks of Huntsman Corporation or an affiliate thereof in one or more, but not all countries. IMPORTANT: The following supersedes Buyers documents. Sales of the product described herein (Product) are subject to the general terms and conditions of sale of either Huntsman Advanced Materials LLC, or its appropriate affiliate. Huntsman warrants that at the time and place of delivery all Products sold to Buyer shall conform to the specifications provided to Buyer by Huntsman. While the information and recommendations included in this publication are, to the best of Huntsmans knowledge, accurate as of the date of publication, NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN (EXCEPT AS SET FORTH ABOVE REGARDING CONFORMANCE WITH SPECIFICATIONS PROVIDED TO BUYER BY HUNTSMAN) IS TO BE CONSTRUED AS A REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT OF ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR WARRANTIES AS TO QUALITY OR CORRESPONDENCE WITH PRIOR DESCRIPTION OR SAMPLE, AND THE BUYER ASSUMES ALL RISK AND LIABILITY WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF SUCH PRODUCT, WHETHER USED SINGLY OR IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCES. No statements or recommendations made herein are to be construed as a representation about the suitability of any Product for the particular application of Buyer or user or as an inducement to infringe any patent or other intellectual property right. Buyer is responsible to determine the applicability of such information and recommendations and the suitability of any Product for its own particular purpose, and to ensure that its intended use of the Product does not infringe any intellectual property rights. The Product may be or become hazardous. The Buyer should obtain Material Safety Data Sheets and Technical Data Sheets from Huntsman containing detailed information on Product hazards and toxicity, together with proper shipping, handling and storage procedures for the Product, and should comply with all applicable governmental laws, regulations and standards relating to the handling, use, storage, distribution and disposal of, and exposure to the Product. Buyer shall also take all steps necessary to adequately inform, warn and familiarize its employees, agents, direct and indirect customers and contractors who may handle or be exposed to the Product of all hazards pertaining to and proper procedures for safe handling, use, storage, transportation and disposal of and exposure to the Product, and the containers or equipment in which the Product may be handled, shipped or stored. Please note that products may differ from country to country. If you have any queries, kindly contact your local Huntsman representative.

www.huntsman.com/textile_effects

(Ecological and Toxicological Association of Dyes and Organic Pigments Manufacturers) 121056eMarch 08, Printed in Switzerland.

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