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Lesson 8.

Chapter 8: Equations and Functions


Standards:
6.0 Students graph a linear equation and compute the x-and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4). 7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula. 8.0 Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line parallel/perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point. 16.0 Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions. 17.0 Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression. 18.0 Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion. Alg2-24.0 Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions.

Lesson 8.4: Function Notation


Objectives: 1.Use function notation to find the value of a function for a given value of the variable.

Functions
A function is a relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range. Another way of saying it is that there is one and only one output (y) with each input (x).

f(x)

Function Notation

y f x
Input Output

Name of Function

Function Notation
When we know that a relation is a function, the y in the equation can be replaced with f(x). f(x) is simply a notation to designate a function. It is pronounced f of x. The f names the function, the x tells the variable that is being used.

Value of a Function Since the equation y = x - 2 represents a function, we can also write it as f(x) = x - 2.

Find f(4): f(4) = 4 - 2 f(4) = 2

If g(s) = 2s + 3, find g(-2). g(-2) = 2(-2) + 3 =-4 + 3 = -1 g(-2) = -1

Value of a Function If h(x) = x2 - x + 7, find h(2c). h(2c) = (2c)2 (2c) + 7 = 4c2 - 2c + 7

If f(k) = k2 - 3, find f(a - 1) f(k)=(a - 1)2 - 3 (Remember FOIL?!) =(a-1)(a-1) - 3 = a2 - a - a + 1 - 3 = a2 - 2a - 2

Composition of Functions Composition of functions is the successive application of the functions in a specific order. Given two functions f and g, the composite function is defined by f g x f g x and is read f of g of x. The domain of f g is the set of elements x in the domain of g such that g(x) is in the domain of f.

Another way to say that is to say that the range of function g must be in the domain of function f.

A composite function
f g
x g g(x)

domain of g
f

range of f
f(g(x))

range of g domain of f

A different way to look at it


x
f g x

g
Function Machine

gFunction x Machine

Example 1: Given f(x) = 2x + 2 and g(x) = 2, find f(g(x)).


Start on the inside: f(g(x)) g(x) = 2, so replace it. f(g(x)) = f(2) = 2(2) + 2 = 6

Example 2: Given g(x) = x - 5 and f(x) = x + 1, find f(g(x)). g(x) = x - 5 so replace it. f(g(x)) = f(x - 5) Now replace x with x - 5 in f(x). f(x - 5) = (x - 5) + 1 = x-5+1=x-4 f(g(x)) = x - 4 Find g(f(x)). f(x) = x + 1 so replace it. g(x + 1). g(x + 1) = x + 1 - 5 = x 4 g(f(x)) = x - 4

Example 3: Given f(x) = x2 + x and g(x) = x - 4, find f(g(x)) and g(f(x)). f(g(x)) = f(x - 4) = (x - 4)2 + (x - 4) = x2 - 8x + 16 + x - 4 = x2 - 7x+12

g(f(x)) = g(x2 + x) = x2 + x 4

Application The number of bicycle helmets produced in a factory each day is a function of the number of hours (t) the assembly line is in operation that day and is given by n = P(t) = 75t 2t2. The cost C of producing the helmets is a function of the number of helmets produced and is given by C(n) = 7n +1000.
Determine a function that gives the cost of producing the helmets in terms of the number of hours the assembly line is functioning on a given day. Find the cost of the bicycle helmets produced on a day when the assembly line was functioning 12 hours. (solution on next slide)

Solution:

n P t 75t 2t 2

C n 7n 1000

Determine a function that gives the cost of producing the helmets in terms of the number of hours the assembly line is functioning on a given day.
Cost C n C P t Cost C n C P t C 75t 2t 22 C 75t 2t
2

75t 2t 1000 7 75
14t 2 525t 1000

Find the cost of the bicycle helmets produced on a day when the assembly line was functioning 12 hours.

C 14t 2 525t 1000 $5284

Individual Practice/Homework Problem Set 8.4, TB pp. 509-511 Multiples of 4 (4, 8, , 52) 54, 56, 58