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TABLE OF CONTENT NO. CONTENT 1. 1.0 Introduction 1.

1 Importance of speaking English for study and work proposes 1.2 Basic principles of effective speaking and listening skills 1.3 Various forms of oral communication in English 2. 2.0 How oral communication works 2.1 Theories of oral communication 2.2 Focus on the transactional model of oral communication 2.3 How the components of the model work together 2.4 What makes the process complex 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 3.0 Interpersonal Communication 4.0 Small Group Communication 5.0 Public Communication 6.0 Conclusion 7.0 References 8.0 Pages of Slide Show 56 6 6-7 7 7 89 9 - 12 12 - 13 14 15 - 20 PAGE 1 12 34 5

Communicating effectively in spoken English in selected social contexts 1.0 Introduction Language is a system of vocal symbols through which human beings in the same speech community or subculture interact and hence communicate in terms of their common cultural experience and expectations (Henry Lee Smith,Jr.). As we know that English language is very important now days because it is becoming the lingua franca of the world. From the small country until to big country, English language playing the important role in communication. In Malaysia, which is a multiracial, multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi-religious country is give a priority to English language as a second language. This is because of the few reasons why this language is very important in Malaysia in 21st century.


Importance of speaking English for study and work purposes The English language is one of the most widely spoken languages in the

world, second only to Mandarin. Many people settle in areas near family or other immigrants from the same part of the world so the language is easier, but there comes a time when every newcomer needs to step out of his or her safety zone. Learning and speaking English is an important step in the settlement process because it helps newcomers obtain better jobs, get involved in their communities, participate in events, vote with confidence and express themselves. That English is used almost everywhere is only one of the many advantages of learning the language. Ibrahim Absiye , Executive Director of Culture Link, a Toronto-based settlement agency for new Canadians, says communication "opens the door for employment, integration and education." In Toronto, speaking English can be the first step to clear, effective communication. Absiye identifies "5 Cs" for new immigrants; they are five major challenges, all starting with the letter C: Colour, Cultural Confusion, Climate, Computers and Communication. English is the primary language of work throughout the world. Most international business transactions, including emails, memos, reports and contracts, are written in English. The English language is predominantly spoken throughout the world, so international travelers may find that speaking English can make their travels

a little easier. Most hotel and restaurant employees, as well as store merchants, probably speak English to some degree. The English language is the predominant language of academics all over the world, with a large amount of research conducted, written and presented in English. Knowing English can helpful for scholars who wish to communicate their ideas and research findings to peers in their field. Most software programs are written in English. Those seeking to expand their computer knowledge can find the ability to read and understand the English language invaluable. Learning English does not mean giving up culture, background or a native tongue, its simply adding a new and valuable skill that will make the transition much smoother for all people. 1.2 Basic principles of effective speaking and listening skills Camp and Satterwhite (2002) explained that oral communication is a two-way process that required both a speaker and a listener. It is most of effective when sender of a message has good speaking skills and the receiver has good listening skills. Speaking is very spontaneous process and we cannot avoid making mistakes. So just stop worrying and speak English. Everywhere we go we find language. Shop names, street names, advertisements, notices on buses and trains.. Even if we are not in an English-speaking country, there are often a lot of English words you can see when walking in the street, especially in big cities. And there are always numbers. How can this help us? When we walk down the street practice reading the words and numbers that we see. Say them to ourselves. Its not exactly a conversation, but it will help us to think in English. Learning and speaking English is totally depends on environment. That environment can be artificially created so that we can learn and speak English. To speak English try to speak with your friends first so that you will get some confidence. Don't take tension at initial stage when we go wrong go on speaking English. After some period we will be able to find our own mistakes and then correct them. To improve English one should have good word power. So why not English! The best way which we think will great help us in increasing our level of English is that if we record our voice while speaking English and then listen to it

again and again. In this way we will come to know our mistakes and the other thing which we can do is stand in front of the mirror and speak what we want to speak this really helps us a lot. We can read the Editorial Column of any National Daily in front of your mirror loudly. Underline tough words and refer to Dictionary and note the

meaning in a diary. If you find any new word go on collecting them so that when these word are reused in news we can remember that. Learn at least 3 to 4 words per day. Everything can be improved. This will grow confidence for us. In the beginning don't try to use sophisticated constructions. Use the simple ones we are sure. This helps us build our confidence and will make us speaking more fluent. The right way to improve our English speaking skills is to have good

vocabulary first. Then try to speak with your friends, family members. It will give you a bit confidence. Practice will lead you towards improvement and finally towards desired goal. Speak as much as possible! Make as many mistakes as possible! When we know that we have made a mistake, we know that we have made progress. Above all, dont be afraid to speak. We must try to speak, even if we make mistakes. We cannot learn without mistakes. There is saying: The person who never made a mistakes never made anything. So think of our mistakes as something positive and useful. In order to improve our speaking its better that listen more to English news, films and songs carefully because when we want to speak English we are as an infant who in early years just listen to mother and father voice after a while start to speak step by step. In order to speak fluently we go to the internet find native speakers then try to speak with them in free time. It helps us to have good accent, intonation, and pronuncituation fluently. Listen to the words of an English-language song that we like. Then repeat them to ourselves and try to sing with the music. Repeat the words as many times as possible until they become automatic. Its good practice for our memory and for the mouth muscles that we need for English. We also upgrade our listening skills which is necessary for natural speaking.


Various forms of oral communication in English Oral communication is the process of people using verbal and non-verbal

messages to generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels and media. It encompasses various sets of skills including the ability to speak coherently and persuasively, understanding of communication theory and processes, knowledge of verbal and non-verbal cues, audience analysis, listening skills as well as communication ethics. The seven forms that oral communication often takes: intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, small group communication, public communication, mass communication, corporate communication and intercultural communication. 2.0 2.1 How oral communication works Theories of oral communication There is much discussion in the academic world of communication as to what actually constitutes communication. Currently, many definitions of communication are used in order to conceptualize the processes by which people navigate and assign meaning. Communication is also understood as the exchanging of understanding. Additionally the biocommunication theory investigates communicative processes within and among non-humans such as bacteria, animals, fungi and plants. We might say that communication consists of transmitting information from one person to another. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lasswell's maxim, "who says what to whom in what channel with what effect," as a means of circumscribing the field of communication theory. A simple communication model with a sender transferring a message containing information to a receiver. Communication stands so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures of society that scholars have difficulty thinking of it while excluding social or behavioral events. Because communication theory remains a relatively young field of inquiry and integrates itself with other disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, and sociology, one probably cannot yet expect a consensus conceptualization of communication across disciplines. One of the issues facing scholars is the possibility

that establishing a communication met theory will negate their research and stifle the broad body of knowledge in which communication functions. 2.2 Focus on the transactional model of oral communication There are those who think that communication ideally should only involve messages intentionally sent and successfully received, this is not the case in real communication situations. How can we determine the true intentions of speakers and writers, anyway? This model therefore proposes that all kinds of intentional sending and intentional receiving should be considered as acts of communication. This model suggests that both the receiver and sender of the message change roles most of the time. The receiver is also a sender of the message, while the sender is also a receiver of the message.

Immediate physical environment



Immediate physical environment


How the components of the model work together Linear model is perhaps the most basic model of communication.

Communication involves two people the sender and the receiver of the message. The communication process is relatively unproblematic: one person sends a message, and then another person receives it. In this way, the flow of information is linear. An interactional view of communication assumes that the sender who encodes a message also receives feedback from the receiver who decodes the message. This view also includes channel or medium of communication, as well as the physical environment.

Simply put, this model of communication stresses the importance of power relations in any form of communication. Not only does power influence communication; it is part of any communication situation. 2.4 What makes the process complex? Clearly, cultural model puts culture at the centre of the communication process. Communication happens because of culture, so there is no adequate understanding of the nature and process of communication without recognizing the central role of culture in it. Communication involves language and other non-verbal modes of interaction. All these are culturally-shaped. Communication also involves the transmission and negotiation of meaning; these are also cultural practices. If we know that all these elements work together in every communication context, we may be able to understand more adequately how and why people behave in a particular way.


Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in

numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history. It can involve one on one conversations or individuals interacting with many people within a society. In so doing, we would examine how many people are involved, how physically close they are to one another, how many sensory channels are used, and the feedback provided. Interpersonal communication includes message sending and message reception between two or more individuals. This can include all aspects of communication such as listening, persuading, asserting, nonverbal communication, and more. In the developmental view, interpersonal communication is defined as communication that occurs between people who have known each other for some time. Impersonal communication means mass communication, in which the message is directed to large, diffuse audience, with no direct contact between source and receiver. Like interpersonal communication, it can be oral, visual or non-verbal, using written, pictorial, or simulated interpersonal Someone talking to the audience in a TV or radio advertisement. Importantly, these people view each other as unique individuals, not as people who are simply acting out social situations.


Small Group Communication Groups usually produce more and better solutions to problems than do

individuals working alone. Groups form to accomplish some objective. The objective may be to complete some kind of task or it may be to promote the interpersonal relationships between the group members. Many groups, however, fulfill both of these functions. Read more about the various types of groups and then complete the interactive activity and the quiz at the end of this unit.

Communication in small groups is interpersonal communication within groups of between 3 and 20 individuals. This generally takes place in a context that mixes interpersonal interactions with social clustering. The first important research study of small group communication was performed by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid 1950s.

The strategies for small-group discussion give students the opportunity to develop critical thinking skills, build positive relationships, work cooperatively, and participate actively in their learning. You can put your students at ease by modeling effective skills for small-group discussion and by providing many opportunities to practice these skills in a safe environment.

Praised for its writing style, research base, and range of topics covered, this text develops issues of diversity, ethics, technology and the organizational use of groups and teams within a systems theory framework. Clearly organized and logically presented, this text provides the opportunity for outstanding discussions of critical issues. Harris and Sherblom effectively integrate real-world examples, hypothetical situations, social science theories, and scholarly research into a unified discussion of small group and team communication. Extensive examples, case studies, and exercises engage students and help them to move from theoretical discussions into application and experience of the concepts presented.

A group's members must be able to communicate freely and openly with all of the other members of the group. Groups will develop norms about discussion and group members will develop roles which will affect the group's interaction.

A group must have a common purpose or goal and they must work together to achieve that goal. The goal brings the group together and holds it together through conflict and tension. Every member of a group plays a certain role within that group. A leader is essentially defined as one who can influence a group to develop something which would not have happened had the leader not been present. Some roles relate to the task aspect of the group, while others promote social interaction. A third set of roles are self-centered and can be destructive for the group. Read about the roles group members play and then complete the activity. When a leader builds trust and candor, it can build a truly open communication environment, and give and receive feedback in an ongoing basis, you motivate your employees, you create truly effective small group communication, and you build a high performing team. If our teams communication quality is better, our teams performance is also better. But if our small group communication quality is poor, our teams performance is also poor. Whether our team has good or poor communication, I and only I as the boss of our team are responsible for it. We cannot blame anybody else, because the moment you start blaming somebody else, we begin to fall into the victim role, we begin to loose control and we decrease the likelihood that you will be able to deliver the results you must deliver. If we are the chief of our team, whoever we might be: A high rank executive, a mid-level manager, or an entry-level supervisor, we are the person accountable for the quality of the communication within the team we lead not our direct reports, but our. It is easier said than done of course, but the discipline it requires is well worth it. 5.0 Public Communication Public communication is the sending and receiving of messages on a large scale that impacts groups of people. For the communication to be considered effective, the messages must be clearly and accurately sent and received with full comprehension. It is also speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner. It is a form of communication that adds to the knowledge and wisdom of listeners, or that influences their attitudes or behavior. In other word, public

communication is the act of delivery speeches in public or the art or skill of addressing and audience effectively. According to (Pearson and Nelson, An Introduction to Introduction to Human Communication, P 201), public speaking is the process of understanding and sharing that occurs in the speaker to audience situation. Public speaking, like interpersonal (Judy C. Pearson and Paul E. Nelson, 1999)communication is transaction in which people simuttaneously give meaning and recieve meaning from each other. Effective public communication can manifest itself in different ways. Public speaking in any form is considered public communication. This can be a school assembly, a business meeting or a presidential speech. Mass media, the use of TV, radio, newspaper or any other mass-produced medium, is another type of effective public communication. It is used to inform, educate, persuade and inspire the audience. Oral Communication is the ability to use speech to give and exchange thoughts and information. We use this skill to greet people, take messages, reassure, persuade, seek information and resolve conflicts. The material of our presentation should be concise, to the point and tell an interesting story. In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids, the following are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking them in: voice, body language and appearance. A public speaker needs to understand the needs and expectations of an audience before the speech. Prepare the structure of the talk carefully and logically, just as we would for a written report. The speech should then address those needs and expectations. The speaker's body language should be confident with a strong, projecting voice. The speaker's timing is important. There should be pauses, allowing for words to sink in and audience reactions. Humor is helpful when appropriate. Questions should be taken at the end of the speech. Good presentations then follow this formula: Greet the audience (for example, 'Good morning, ladies and gentlemen'), and tell them who we are. The length of time

for a speech is important in public speaking. Keep to the time allowed. If we can, keep it short. It's better to under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow 2 minutes for each general overhead transparency or PowerPoint slide we use, but longer for any that we want to use for developing specific points. However, the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than 5 minutes, especially if we are not actively talking about it. So switch the display off, or replace the slide with some form of 'wallpaper' such as a company logo. Stick to the plan for the presentation, don't be tempted to digress, we will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape. Experienced public speakers know too, that eye contact is important. By continually scanning the audience and making eye contact with individuals, a speaker keeps the audience engaged and interested. Handouts are important in giving an audience the perception that the presentation was rewarding. Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion, 5 minutes is sufficient to allow clarification of points. The session chairman may extend this if the questioning becomes interesting. At the end of our presentation ask if there are any questions, avoid being terse when we do this as the audience may find it intimidating. If questions are slow in coming, we can start things off by asking a question of the audience so have one prepared. The audience will be on our side and want to hear what we have to say. So as always, practice is essential, both to improve our skills generally and also to make the best of each individual presentation we make then enjoy ourselves. The audience will be on our side and want to hear what we have to say! Credibility statements can refer to our extensive research on a topic, our lifelong interest in an issue, our personal experience with a thing, or our desire to better the lives of our listeners by sifting through the topic and providing the crucial information. As speakers we all know the importance of properly preparing our material far enough in advance so we may have sufficient time to rehearse and "fine-tune" our

speeches. Unfortunately, this is not enough to assure that our speech or presentation is well received. Our speech preparation must also include gathering information about our audience and their needs. A well prepared speech given to the wrong audience can have the same effect as a poorly prepared speech given to the correct audience. They both can fail terribly. It is critical that our preparation efforts include some amount of audience analysis. The more we know and understand about our audience and their needs, the better we can prepare our speech to assure that we meet their needs. Proper audience analysis will assure that we give the right speech to the right audience. Most professional speakers send their clients a multi-page questionnaire in order to gather enough information about them and the speaking event to properly customize their speeches. Develop specific questions which fit into each of these eight categories and ask the client or audience to tell we what they want. Essentially, ask them what they need and give it to them. 6.0 Conclusion

As we have seen, it is clear for us that English language plays an important role in many fields such as education, social, economic and many more. Therefore, if we fail to teach this language to our children, they will become a blind man in future. This is because, in future, English language becomes very important in many deals in Malaysia. Although English is the second language, but it will use widely everywhere include in the rural place. Therefore, for our generations better life in future, we should start to use English from now. However, several teachers say all of these fears can be overcome by always speak in front of audience. They also learn from their experiences and mistakes. If somebody want you to speak in public, do it with confident and dont make mistake. One way to make them "work" is to "overwork" them. They do this by accepting every invitation to speak in public and by seeking out additional opportunities to appear before the public. They speak as often as possible, on as many occasions as possible, and in as many different venues as possible. Sheer repetition generally helps

to distance one from the tension generated by the anticipated ordeal. But with some people it may ingrain the fear and concern The best way to do this is to stand alone in a room in front of a full-length mirror. The trick is to stand there with our eyes closed. Naturally, with our eyes shut, we cannot see ourselves, but we know that you are in a sense being seen by the members of an imaginary audience beyond the mirror. Imagine we are going to speak in five minutes. Conjure up the negative feelings, the leading symptoms that have affected your equilibrium in the past.


Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second language use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Brooks, N (1960). Language and language learning: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Harold Lasswell (1948). "The Structure and Function of Communication in Society." In Lyman Bryson (ed.), The Communication of Ideas. Harper and Row. (Lasswell, 1999) Judy C. Pearson and Paul E. Nelson. (1999). The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Seelye, H. N. (1994). Teaching culture: Strategies for intercultural communication (3rd ed.). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company. Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

8.0 Pages of Slide Show Power point Communication effectively in spoken English in selected social contexts

Primary language of work and academics

Second language in Malaysia

Important of speaking English

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Principles of effective listening and speaking





Talk message clearly



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Personal Communication
One on one conversation Individuals interacting with people Sending and present message clearly

Impersonal Communication

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Better solutions

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Group members roles

A leader Candor Trust Integrity authentic

Brainstorming Turn talking Justifying choices and alternatives Agreeing and disagreeing Drawing conclusions

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Sending and receiving message clearly School assembly, business meeting Speaking to a group of people

Influences audience attitudes or behavior

Adds the knowledge and wisdom of listener

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Small group communication Interpersonal communication Public Communication

Communication effectively

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