Chapter #23 Identifications Thomas Nast NY Times Cartoonist who exposed Tweed by attacking him through his comics

Horace Greely Nominated for president; editor of NY Tribune; pleased Democrats North and South Roscoe Conkling Senator from New York who was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican party in the !"#s and !!#s James G. Blaine Congressman from $aine who was the champion of the %alf&'reed faction of the Republican party in the !"#s and !!#s Samuel Tilden New York attorney who led the prosecution of the Tweed Ring in the !"#s Charles J. Guiteau (ssassinated )ames *arfield in !! Hard or Sound Money The metallic or specie dollar; +t was in opposition with ,greenbacks, or ,folding money-, Gilded Age ( name for the late !##s. coined by $ark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the /ery rich- %igh po/erty rate. a high crime rate. and corruption in the go/ernmentBloody-Shirt Republican symbol for elections during the *ilded (ge 0ointed out to /oters that the Republicans& not the democrats& won the Ci/il 1ar for the 2nionT eed Ring The group of corrupt politicians who milked New York City of 34## million during the !5#s Credit Mo!ilier Scandal Scandal in which the company that was constructing the transcontinnetal railroad hired itself to get paid double; They bribed congressmen with stock to a/oid getting in trouble

"hiskey Ring *roup of people who conspired with *rant6s pri/ate secretary in !"7 to rob the 2-STreasury of millions in excise taxes on alcohol Resum#tion Act (ct that occurred in !"7 in which the go/ernment was to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and begin in !"8 to redeem all paper currency in gold Crime o$ %&' The 9ourth Coinage (ct was enacted by the 2nited States Congress in !": and embraced the gold standard and de&moneti;ed sil/er- 2-S- set the specie standard in gold and not sil/er. upsetting miners who referred to it as a crime Bland-Allison Act (ct in which go/ernment buys sil/er each month and mint it into coins Hal$-Breed 0eople who fa/ored tariff reform and social reform. ma<or issues from the Democratic and Republican parties; They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party Com#romise o$ ()&& Compromise in which %ayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election resultsCi*il Ser*ice Re$orm $a<or issue of the *ilded (ge +endleton Act !!: law that created a Ci/il Ser/ice Commission and stated that federal employees could not be re=uired to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons ,Billion -ollar, Congress 2nder 'en<amin %arrison. the 9ifty&9irst Congress reached a spending milestone and was subse=uently nicknamed this Chapter #23.1 Guided Reading Questions The ,Bloody Shirt, .lects Grant /no 0 1lysses S. Grant2 3hio 4dea2 Re#udiation2 Horatio Seymour2 Bloody Shirt ( "as General Grant good #residential material5 "hy did he in5 *eneral *rant was not /ery good president material; %e won primarily due to his military accomplishments and the Republicans wanted a war hero to continue southern reconstruction

The .ra o$ Good Stealings /no 0 Jim 6isk2 Jay Gould2 Black 6riday2 Boss T eed2 Gra$t2 Thomas Nast2 Samuel J. Tilden 7. ,The Man in the Moon...had to hold his nose hen #assing o*er America., .8#lain. Described the corrupt>fetid nature of scam ridden finance and bribery politics in the post& war eraA Carni*al o$ Corru#tion /no 0 Credit Mo!ilier2 "hiskey Ring2 "illiam Belkna# '. -escri!e t o ma9or scandals that directly in*ol*ed the Grant administration. )im 9isk and )ay *ould tried to con/ince ?bribe@ *rant to stop Treasury selling of gold to increase the prices of gold. but treasury did anyway- The Tweed ring. led by 'oss Tweed. ruled NY and bribed se/eral go/ernment officials to continue crimeThe :i!eral Re#u!lican Re*olt o$ ()&7 /no 0 :i!eral Re#u!licans2 Horace Greeley ;. "hy did :i!eral Re#u!licans nominate Horace Greeley $or the #residency in ()&75 "hy as he a less than ideal candidate5 They were disgusted by military reconstruction under *rant admin; he wasn6t an ideal candidate because he had insulted the Democratic party -e#ression and -emands $or 4n$lation /no 0 +anic o$ ()&'2 Green!acks2 Hard-money2 Crime o$ %&'2 Contraction2 So$tmoney2 Bland-Allison Act <. "hy did some #eo#le ant green!acks and sil*er dollars5 "hy did others o##ose these kinds o$ currency5 Debtors supported greenbacks>sil/er because they would cause inflation and make debt easier to pay. and miners who had struck sil/er wanted sil/er- Creditors opposed them and supported deflationary policies that would make the credits more profitable to them+allid +olitics in the Gilded Age /no 0 Gilded Age2 Grand Army o$ the Re#u!lic2 Stal arts2 Roscoe Conkling2 Hal$Breeds2 James G. Blaine =. "hy as there such $ierce com#etition !et een -emocrats and Re#u!licans in the Gilded Age i$ the #arties agreed on most economic issues5 9ierce competition can be seen as due to sectionalism. moral differences. and ci/il war ri/alry-

The Hayes-Tilden Stando$$2 ()&= /no 0 Ruther$ord B. Hayes2 Samuel J. Tilden &. "hy ere the results o$ the ()&= election in dou!t5 +n the election. Tilden won the popular /ote. but was /ote shy from winning in the Alectoral College- The determining electoral /otes would come from three states. Bouisiana. South Carolina. and 9lorida who had each sent two sets of ballots to Congress. one with the Democrats /ictorious and the other with the Republicans /ictorious; there was no winner in these statesThe Com#romise o$ ()&& and the .nd o$ Reconstruction /no 0 Com#romise o$ ()&&2 .lectoral Count Act2 -a*id -a*is2 Ci*il Rights Cases >())'?2 ). Ho did the end o$ Reconstruction a$$ect A$rican-Americans5 +t ended racial e=uality. allowed the passing of )im Crow laws. blacks disenfranchised

Chapter #26.1 The Great West Big Picture The es (. Nati*e Americans out "est $aced t o o#tions0 agree to settle on a reser*ation or $ight the 1.S. Army as @hostiles.A Some chose reser*ations2 others to $ight2 !ut all ere cleared out. . Chapter #26.1 Identifications Sitting Bull Cne of the leaders of the Sioux tribe- %e became a prominent +ndian leader during the Sioux 1as from !"5& !"" George A. Custer 9ormer *eneral during the Ci/il 1ar. he set out in !"D with his Se/enth Ca/alry to return the 0lains +ndians to the Sioux reser/ation- Defeated by an army that outnumbered his men # to Chie$ Jose#h Beader of Ne; 0erce- 9led with his tribe to Canada instead of reser/ations- %owe/er. 2S troops came and fought and brought them back down to reser/ations Siou8 "ars The Sioux 1ars lasted from !"5& !""- The Sioux +ndians were led by Sitting 'ull and they were pushed by Custer6s forces- Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Bittle 'ighorn- $any of the +ndian were finally forced into Canada. where they were forced by star/ation to surrenderGhost -ance ( cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young bra/es to fight+t was crushed at the 'attle of 1ounded Enee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux- The *host Dance led to the Dawes Se/eralty (ct of !!"- This act tried to reform +ndian tribes and turn them into ,white, citi;ens-a es Se*eralty Act Cccurred in !!"; dismantled (merican +ndian tribes. set up indi/iduals as family heads with 5# acres. tried to make rugged indi/idualists out of the +ndians. attempt to assimilate the +ndian population into that of the (merican Battle o$ "ounded /nee ( group of white Christian reformist tried to bring Christian beliefs on to the +ndians9earing the *host Dance (merican troops were called to go with the reformist- 1hile camped outside of an +ndian reser/ation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reser/ation killing +ndian men women and children-

Chapter # 26.1 Guided Reading Questions The Clash o$ Cultures on the +lain /no 0 4ndian Territory2 Siou82 Great Siou8 Reser*ation2 Tenth Ca*alry (. -escri!e the e$$ect o$ est ard e8#ansion on Nati*e Americans. "est ard e8#ansion limited Nati*e American $reedoms. "ith the ne reser*ation system2 4ndians lost land and e !unched together in small2 unattracti*e !oundaries. 6amilies ere se#arated2 and culture as lost through the con*ersion o$ 4ndian-to-"hite ays. Receding Nati*e Americans /no 0 George Armstrong Custer2 BoBeman Trail2 Sitting Bull2 Battle o$ :ittle Big Horn2 Chie$ Jose#h2 Geronimo 7. Ho as the "est , on5, The "est as on through a series o$ !loody !attles resulting in the do n$all o$ the +lains 4ndians. Bello ing Herds o$ Bison /no 0 Bu$$alo Bill Cody '. Ho ere the Bu$$alo reduced $rom (< million to less than a thousand5 Bu$$alo as reduced $rom (< million to less than a thousand through the hunting $or their $urs !y the masses $rom est ard e8#ansion. The .nd o$ the Trail /no 0 Helen Hunt Jackson2 Ghost -ance2 Battle o$ "ounded /nee2 -a es Act2 Carlisle 4ndian School2 4ndian ReorganiBation Act ;. "hat did the go*ernment do to try to assimilate Nati*e Americans5 To assimilate Nati*e Americans2 the go*ernment used the -a es Se*eralty Act2 hich granted Nati*e Americans citiBenshi# i$ they dis#layed .nglish-like !eha*ior a$ter 7< years in the country. Also2 the Carlisle 4ndian School e$$ecti*ely and slo ly destroyed Nati*e American culture hen the children ere taken $rom their $amilies and taught .nglish culture2 instead o$ learning 4ndian culture $rom their #arents. The go*ernment also outla ed many religious #ractices nati*e to the Nati*e Americans2 like the ghost dance. Mining0 6rom -ish#an to 3re Breaker /no 0 +ike%s +eak2 Comstock :ode2 Sil*er Senators <.. Ho did the disco*ery o$ #recious metals a$$ect the American "est5 The disco*ery o$ #recious metals in the American "est led to the increase in esterniBed mo*ement2 and also s#urred a more industrialiBed society in the est. Ga#s !et een #olitical #arties idened2 as di$$erent #arties had di$$erent *ie s on the *alues o$ these #recious metals2 and the ,American dream, !eca

me more clear2 as many #eo#le !ecame #ros#erous $rom the metals. Makers o$ America0 The +lains 4ndians =. Ho as the cu(lture o$ the +lains 4ndians sha#ed !y hite #eo#le5 Nati*e Americans ere #ut on territories and $orced to con$orm to American traditions2 sha#ing their culture. Bee$ BonanBas and the :ong -ri*e /no 0 :ong -ri*e2 "ild Bill Hickok &. "hy as cattle ranching so #ro$ita!le in the ()&C%s5 Cattle-ranching as so #ro$ita!le in the ()&C%s !ecause there as a *ery high demand $or the leather and meat o!tained $rom cattle. The 6armersD 6rontier /no 0 Homestead Act2 Great American -esert2 John "esley +o ell2 Jose#h 6. Glidden ). -id the Homestead Act li*e u# to its #ur#ose o$ gi*ing small $armers a descent li$e on the #lains5 The Homestead Act did not li*e u# to its #ur#ose2 !ecause also ten times as much land that actual small $armers o!tained as taken !y greedy land-gra!!ing #romoters. "hile a considera!le amount o$ $armers ere a!le to make success$ul li*es ith this chea# land2 most o$ it as o!tained through $raud !y !usiness-minded #eo#le. The 6ar "est Comes o$ Age /no 0 Boomers2 Sooners2 ()EC2 6rederick Jackson Turner2 Fello stone E. "hat ere some milestones in the @closingA o$ the "est5 Some milestones in the ,closing, o$ the "est ere that the #o#ulation o$ the 1nited States had e8#onentially increased2 and many nature-#reser*ation ste#s ere !eing taken2 such as the $ounding o$ Fello stone in ()&7. The 6ading 6rontier /no 0 6rancis +arkman2 George Catlin2 6rederic Remington (C. "hat e$$ects has the $rontier had on the de*elo#ment o$ the 1nited States5 The $rontier as accounta!le $or the o#ening o$ many ne o##ortunities $or immigrants to !e success$ul2 *ast2 ne areas o$ land to !e $illed2 and as such2 a huge #o#ulation increase. The $rontier2 !ecause o$ its #ro$ita!ility2 also #romoted industrialiBation.

Chapter #2!" 4ndustry Comes o$ Age G Big +icture Themes (. Be$ore the Ci*il "ar2 railroads had !ecome im#ortant. A$ter the ar2 railroads !oomed and ere critical to the nation. Railroads2 along ith steel2 ere to !e the skeleton on hich the nationDs economy ould !e !uilt. 7. A class o$ millionaires emerged $or the $irst time e*er. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rocke$eller made $ortunes. This ty#e o$ ealth as cham#ioned !y @Social -ar inismA here the strong in in !usiness. '. 1n$ortunately2 many o$ the mega-industries2 like railroads2 gre at the e8#ense o$ the @little manDsA interest. As !usinesses2 they ere out to make money2 and they did. But the orking man cried $oul. ;. To right these rongs2 the !eginnings o$ anti-trusts !egan >to !ust the mono#olies? and organiBed la!or got a 9um#start >although they ere still rather ine$$ecti*e?. Chapter #2!" 4denti$ications Go*ernment Su!sidies +t is known as a sub/ention. a term of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sectorTranscontinental Railroad Completed in !58 at 0romontory. 2tah. it linked the eastern railroad system with California6s railroad system. re/olutioni;ing transportation in the west. ( railroad that stretches across a continent from coast to coast- The Transcontinental Railroad made it so that it was easier to for mail and goods to tra/el faster and cheaper- +t took land away from Nati/e (mericans and many were killed in the early stagesCornelius Hander!ilt The railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York- %e populari;ed the use of steel rails in his railroad. which made railroads safer and more economical- This man was one of the few railroad owners to be <ust and not considered a ,Robber 'arron, Jay Gould Cften regarded as the most unethical of the Robber 'arons. he was in/ol/ed with Tammany %all and 'oss Tweed early in his career- (fter damaging his reputation in a gold speculation that instigated the panic of 'lack 9riday in !58. he went on to gain control of western railroads and by !!4 had controlling interest in 7F of the country6s tracks- (lthough mistrusted by many of his contemporaries. he was recogni;ed as a skilled businessman-

4nterstate Commerce Commission 9ederal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabili;e the industry and pre/ent ruinous competition Hertical 4ntegration absorption into a single firm of se/eral firms in/ol/ed in all aspects of a product6s manufacture from raw materials to distribution HoriBontal 4ntegration ( techni=ue used by )ohn D- Rockefeller- %ori;ontal integration is an act of <oining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly- Rockefeller was excellent with using this techni=ue to monopoli;e certain markets- +t is responsible for the ma<ority of his wealthTrusts an economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them- This made the head of the board. or the corporate leader wealthy. and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust- This method was used>de/eloped by Rockefeller. and helped him become extremely wealthy+t was also used in creating monopoliesJ.+. Morgan 'usiness man &refinanced railroads during depression of !8: & built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads & marketed 2S go/ernemnt securities on large scale Sherman Anti-Trust Act 9irst federal action against monopolies. it was signed into law by %arrison and was extensi/ely used by Theodore Roose/elt for trust&busting- %owe/er. it was initially misused against labor unions Fello -og Contracts ( labor contract in which an employee must agree not to <oin a union as a condition of holding the <obBlacklists Bist of people who agitated companies that was circulated to employers so they couldn6t get <obs Haymarket SIuare incident ##.### workers rioted in Chicago- (fter the police fired into the crowd. the workers met and rallied in %aymarket S=uare to protest police brutality- ( bomb exploded. killing or in<uring many of the police- The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants. so the incident promoted anti&immigrant feelings-

Chapter #2! Guided Reading Questions The 4ron Colt Becomes an 4ron Horse /no 0 :and grants (. "hat ere the ad*antages and disad*antages o$ go*ernment su!sidies $or the railroads5 The railroads ould o$ten sell the land and make money o$$ the land that as #aid $or !y citiBens >their ta8 money goes to the go*ernment2 hich ga*e the land grants?. They also ithheld land $rom other users until they $igured out here their tracks ould lay. A !ene$it as that railroad com#anies ere a!le to e8#and $urther est. Granting land as a ,chea#, ay to su!sidiBe a much-desired trans#ortation system2 !ecause it a*oided ne ta8es $or direct cash grants. S#anning the Continent ith Rails /no 0 1nion +aci$ic2 Central +aci$ic2 +addies2 :eland Stan$ord 7. -escri!e ho the $irst transcontinental railroad as !uilt. The Central +aci$ic Railroad Com#any started !uilding in Sacramento and continued east across the Sierra Ne*ada2 hile a second com#any2 the 1nion +aci$ic Railroad2 !uilt est ard $rom the Missouri Ri*er2 near the 4daho-Ne!raska !order >3maha?. The t o lines o$ track met in the middle. Binding the Country ith Railroad Ties /no 0 The Great Northern2 James J. Hill '. .8#lain ho the railroads could hel# or hurt Americans. Americans ould !e connected across the country2 hich ould hel# tra*el time2 the a!ility to connect ith di$$erent ty#es o$ #eo#le2 and allo #eo#le to get #roduce and meats $rom di$$erent #arts o$ the country >due to the decreased tra*el time?. +eo#le could also !egin to mo*e est. Ho e*er2 railroad construction as laced ith scandal and corru#tion2 hich hurt Americans $inancially >e8. Credit Mo!ilier?. Also2 the ork as *ery dangerous2 and many #eo#le ere killed on the 9o!. 4n addition2 railroads created many millionaires ho could control the #u!lic and #lace large ta8es on $armers. Railroad Consolidation and MechaniBation /no 0 Cornelius Hander!ilt2 +ullman Cars ;. "hat technological im#ro*ements hel#ed railroads5 More e$$icient and economical steel rails2 standard gauge o$ track > hich reduced need $or numerous car changes?2 the "estinghouse air !rake hich increased sa$ety2 and other sa$ety de*ices like the telegra#h.

Re*olution !y Rail ays /no 0 Time Jones <. "hat e$$ects did the railroads ha*e on America as a hole5 Railroads created a huge domestic market $or ra materials and manu$actured goods and s#urred industrialiBation and ur!aniBationK stimulated mining and agricultureK took $armers to land and goods to #eo#leK started cities2 created more millionaires2 dro*e creation o$ time Bones. "rongdoing in Railroading /no 0 Jay Gould2 Stock "atering2 +ools =. "hat rongdoing ere railroads guilty o$5 Stock atering > hich ena!led railroad stock #romoters to in$late their claims a!out a gi*en line%s assets and #ro$ita!ility and sell stocks and !onds in e8cess o$ the railroad%s actual *alue? as ell as other corru#tion such as !ri!ery. Go*ernment Bridles the 4ron Horse /no 0 "a!ash2 4nterstate Commerce Commission &. "as the 4nterstate Commerce Act an im#ortant #iece o$ legislation5 Fes2 it #rohi!ited re!ates and #ools and reIuired the railroads to #u!lish their rates o#enly. Most im#ortant2 it set u# the 4nterstate Commerce Commission to administer and en$orce the ne legislation. Miracles o$ MechaniBation /no 0 Mesa!i Range2 Ale8ander Graham Bell2 Thomas .dison ). "hat $actors made industrial e8#ansion #ossi!le5 A!undant liIuid ca#ital2 natural resources like oil and coal2 chea# la!or in immigrant #o#ulation2 and easier trans#ortation o$ ra materials and goods thanks to railroads. The Trust Titan .merges /no 0 Andre Carnegie2 John -. Rocke$eller2 J.+. Morgan2 Hertical 4ntegration2 HoriBontal 4ntegration2 Trust2 4nterlocking -irectorate E. Ho did !usinesses organiBe to try to ma8imiBe #ro$its5 Businesses used horiBontal integration >allying ith com#etitors to mono#oliBe a market?2 trusts >consolidations o$ $ormerly com#eting com#anies% stocks into a single enter#rise large enough to dri*e out remaining com#etitors?2 and interlocking directorates >#lacing o$$icers o$ a larger com#etitor on the *arious !oards o$ directors o$ com#etitors?.

The Su#remacy o$ Steel /no 0 Hea*y 4ndustry2 Ca#ital Goods2 Consumer Goods2 Bessemer +rocess (C. "hy as steel so im#ortant $or industrialiBation5 The metal ultimately held together the ne ci*iliBation2 $rom skyscra#ers to coal scuttles2 hile #ro*iding it ith $ood2 shelter2 and trans#ortation. Steel making2 nota!ly rails $or railroads2 ty#i$ied the dominance o$ ,hea*y industry2, hich concentrated on making ,ca#ital goods2, as distinct $rom the #roduction o$ ,consumer goods, such as clothes and shoes. The #roduction o$ steel also !ecame a ma9or market. Carnegie and 3ther Sultans o$ Steel /no 0 Andre Carnegie2 J.+. Morgan ((. Brie$ly descri!e the careers o$ Andre Carnegie and J.+. Morgan. A$ter accumulating some ca#ital2 Carnegie entered the steel !usiness. By (ECC he as #roducing one-$ourth o$ the nation%s Bessemer steel. Morgan made a legendary re#utation $or himsel$ !y $inancing the reorganiBation o$ railroads2 insurance com#anies2 and !anks >!anker%s !anker?. Carnegie2 looking to sell his !usiness2 !artered ith Morgan until they $inally came to the agreement o$ ;CC million dollars. Morgan ent on to !uy other !usinesses and de*elo# the $irst (.; !illion dollar !usiness. Rocke$eller Gro s an American Beauty Rose /no 0 /erosene (7. Ho as John -. Rocke$eller a!le to !ecome so ealthy5 By ruthlessly em#loying horiBontal integration and trusts to near-mono#oliBe the oil industry ith his Standard 3il Com#any o$ 3hio. The Gos#el o$ "ealth /no 0 Social -ar inism ('. Ho did the ealthy 9usti$y their ealth5 Social -ar inism and the Gos#el o$ "ealth >the rich ere meant to !e rich2 and had orked hard to achie*e it2 so they deser*ed it?. Go*ernment Tackles the Trust .*il /no 0 Sherman Anti-Trust Act (;. "hat t o methods ere tried !y those ho o##osed the trusts5 Those ho o##osed the trusts resorted to strikes and :a!or 1nions. The South in the Age o$ 4ndustry (<. Ho success$ul ere Southerners at industrialiBing5

Their success as limited >o$ten !y Northerner industrialists? !ut they $ound some success ith the inno*ation o$ the machine made cigarette. The 4m#act o$ the Ne 4ndustrial Re*olution on America (=. -escri!e the #ositi*e and negati*e e$$ects o$ the industrial re*olution on orking Americans. The nation o$ $armers and inde#endent #roducers as !ecoming a nation o$ age earners. 4ndustrialiBation ga*e omen more inde#endence. Brought corru#tion in economy and #olitics2 idened class di*ides2 connected nation more than e*er2 increased ur!aniBation >and #oor conditions in those ur!an areas?. 4n 1nions There is Strength /no 0 Sca!s2 :ock-out2 Fello -dog Contract2 Black :ist2 Com#any To n (&. "hat conditions e8isted in America that led Jay Gould to say2 ,4 can hire one hal$ o$ the orking class to kill the other hal$,5 Jo! security as so lo 2 orkers ere so easily re#laced2 #eo#le ere al ays searching $or and trying to kee# their 9o!s to su##ort themsel*es and their $amilies so strikes ere usually ine$$ecti*e and o$ten detrimental to the strikers. :a!or :im#s Along /no 0 National :a!or 1nion2 /nights o$ :a!or (). .8#lain the similarities and di$$erences !et een the National :a!or 1nion and the /nights o$ :a!or. The National :a!or 1nion Skilled included unskilled and $armers !ut e8cluded the ChineseK they didn%t try *ery hard to aid omen and !lacks. The /nights ere created in ()=E as a secret society and sought to include all orkers2 !arred only ,non#roducersK, !road goals included economic and social re$orm2 codes $or sa$ety and healthK they $ro ned u#on industrial ar$are and anted an ) hour ork day. 1nhorsing the /nights o$ :a!or /no 0 Haymarket SIuare (E. "hat $actors led to the decline o$ the /nights o$ :a!or5 They !ecame in*ol*ed in many $ailing May -ay strikes in ())=. 4n Chicago they ere accidentally in*ol*ed ith anarchists hen the Haymarket SIuare Bom! occured in con9unction ith a /nights o$ :a!or strike. Another $atal handica# o$ the /nights as their inclusion o$ !oth skilled and unskilled orkers.

The A6 o$ : to the 6ore /no 0 American 6ederation o$ :a!or2 Samuel Gom#ers2 Closed Sho# 7C. Ho as the A6: di$$erent $rom #re*ious unions5 The A 6 : !ecame a union organiBing skilled orkers2 those men ho had a cra$t. Samuel +. Gom#ers realiBed a success$ul union ould not succeed i$ it !ecame a #olitical organiBation so he concentrated on the ,!read and !utter, issues--!etter ages2 !etter orking conditions2 collecti*e !argaining agreements2 hours orked2 and sa$ety issues. Makers o$ America0 The /nights o$ :a!or /no 0 Mother Jones2 Terence +o derly 7(. "ere the /nights conser*ati*e or re*olutionary in their ideas5 The /nights o$ :a!or ere re*olutionary in their ideas2 seeing as they ere made u# #rimarily o$ the minorities such as !lacks and omen. Harying Hie #oints0 4ndustrialiBation0 Boon or Blight 77. To hat degree is it #ossi!le $or common #eo#le to im#ro*e their status in industrial America5 The 4ndustrial Re*olution in America as !oth good and !ad2 and there$ore is not Iuanti$ia!le in degrees. "hile industrialiBation !rought a!out an increased *olume and *ariety o$ manu$actured goods and an im#ro*ed standard o$ li*ing $or some2 it also resulted in o$ten grim em#loyment and li*ing conditions $or the #oor and orking classes

Chapter #2#" $ erica %o&es to the Cit' ( Big Picture The es (. Cities gre !ecause $actories gre . The 4ndustrial Re*olution kicked into gear in America in the late ()CCs and $actories needed orkers2 so #eo#le $locked to the cities. 7. +ro!lems arose as cities !oomed. The #ro!lems included0 e8#loitation o$ immigrant la!orers2 #oorLunhealthy ork conditions2 o*er-cro dedness and sanitation #ro!lems2 corru#ton2 and @nati*ismA >anti-immigrant $eelings?. '. Booker T. "ashington M "...B. -uBois ere the to# !lack leaders. They disagreed on ho to hel# !lacksN"ashington encouraged !lacks to o!tain a #ractical skill at a trade school2 -uBois encouraged !lacks to study anything they ished2 e*en academic su!9ects. ;. The roles o$ omen !egan to change2 i$ only slightly. More omen orked2 though most ere still at home. The @ne omanA as idealiBed !y the althletic2 outgoing @Gi!son Girl.A Chapter #2# Identifications 6lorence /elley a woman who worked at the %ull %ouse; successfully lobbied in !8: for an +llinois antisweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor; lifelong battler for the welfare of women. children. blacks. and consumers; later mo/ed to the %enry Street Settlement in New York and ser/ed for three decades as general secretary of the National Consumers Beague Mary Baker .ddy 9ounded the Church of Christ ?Christian Science@ in !"8- 0reached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness- ?No need for a doctor. if ha/e enough faith can heal self@- 1rote a widely purchased book. ,Science and %ealth with a key to the Scriptures,"illiam James 0hilosopher on %ar/ard faculty. wrote 0rinciples of 0sychology. The 1ill of to 'elie/e. Garieties of Religious Axperience. and 0ragmatism; !D4& 8 #H %elped to express philosophy of the nationHenry George %e was a <ournalist&author and an original thinker- he saw po/erty at its worst in +ndia and wrote the classic 0rogress and 0o/erty- this book in !"8 broke into the best&seller lists- he belie/ed that the pressure of a growing population with a fixed supply of land pushed up property /alues-

Horatio Alger a popular writer of the 0ost&Ci/il 1ar time period- %e was a 0uritan New Anglander who wrote more than a hundred /olumes of <u/enile fiction during his career; the famous ,rags to riches, themeMark T ain %e was (merica6s most popular author. but also renowned platform lecturer- %e li/ed from !:7 to 8 #- 2sed ,romantic, type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences- +n !": along with the help of Charles Dudley 1arner he wrote The *ilded (ge- This is why the time period is called the ,*ilded (ge,- The greatest contribution he made to (merican literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters useNati*ism antiforeignism; touched off by the +rish and *erman arri/als in the !D#s and !7#s; fear of being outbred. out/oted. and mixing ,fairer, (nglo&Saxon blood with ,inferior, southern Auropean blood +hilanthro#y 1ith the wealth of this time period. pri/ate organi;ations were formed from single indi/idual wealthy persons and would become some of the largest foundations in the world. they would help the people and foreign nationsSocial Gos#el preached by many people in the !!#s and said that due to the social en/ironment poor people sometimes could not help their situation- This caused some churches to get in/ol/ed in helping the poor. but some disagreed and didn6t think that they should be helped because it was their faultSettlement House a house where immigrants came to li/e upon entering the 2-S- (t these pla/es. instruction was gi/en in Anglish and how to get a <ob. among other things- The first one was the %ull %ouse. which was opened by )ane (ddams in Chicago in !!8These centers were usually run by educated middle class women- They became centers for reform in the women6s and labor mo/ements"omen%s Christian Tem#erance 1nion organi;ed in !"D to push for the prohibition of alcohol and lead by 9rances A1illard ?also a champion of planned parenthood@; another leader was Carrie (Nation. who smashed saloon bottles and bars which brought considerable disrepute to the prohibition mo/ement because of the /iolence of her one&woman crusade; the white ribbon was its symbol of purity .ighteenth Amendment 0rohibited the manufacture. sale. and distribution of alcoholic be/erages

Chapter #2#" Identifications The 1r!an 6rontier /no 0 :ouis Sulli*an2 "alking Cities2 -e#artment Stores2 Tenements (. "hat $actors led to the gro th o$ cities in the second hal$ o$ the ()CC%s5 4ndustrial 9o!s dre #eo#le o$$ their $arms and into $actory centersK 3ther AttractionsOglitter o$ city lights2 electricity2 indoor #lum!ing2 tele#hones2 engineering mar*els. The #er$ection o$ the skyscra#er allo ed more li*ing s#ace on less land. The Ne 4mmigration 7. Ho ere the ne immigrants di$$erent $rom the old immigrants5 The Ne 4mmigrants came $rom southern and eastern .uro#e >instead o$ estern .uro#e?K they included 4talians2 Slo*aks2 Croats2 Greeks2 and +olesK many orshi##ed in orthodo8 churches or synagogues. They ere largely #oor and illiterate2 not used to democracy. Southern .uro#e 1#rooted '. "hy did the ne immigrants come to America in such large num!ers5 They le$t their nati*e countries !ecause .uro#e seemed to ha*e no room $or them2 !ecause America seemed so #romising2 and !ecause they sought religious $reedom. Makers o$ America0 The 4talians /no 0 Birds o$ +assage2 #adron ;. Ho did 4talian immigrants li*e their li*es in America5 They clustered in tightly knit ur!an communities and orked as industrial la!orers. Reactions to the Ne 4mmigration /no 0 +olitical Bosses2 Social Gos#el2 Jane Addams2 Hull House2 Settlement houses2 :illian "ald2 6lorence /elley <. Ho did #olitical !osses hel# immigrants5 They traded 9o!s and ser*ices $or *otes. They o$ten $ound housing $or immigrants2 ga*e them $ood and clothing2 and hel#ed set u# schools2 #arks2 and hos#itals in ethnic communities. Narro ing the "elcome Mat /no 0 Nati*ists2 Anglo-Sa8on2 American +rotecti*e Association2 Statue o$ :i!erty =. 4n ())=2 hat as ironic a!out the ords inscri!ed on the !ase o$ the Statue o$ :i!erty5 Their elcoming ideal contradicted the recent $ederal la s hich !locked the Chinese and undesira!les >such as criminals and #au#ers? $rom the nation

Churches Con$ront the 1r!an Challenge /no 0 - ight :yman Moody2 Cardinal Gi!!ons2 Sal*ation Army2 Mary Baker .ddy2 FMCA &. "hat role did religion #lay in hel#ing the ur!an #oor5 Christian socialism #ricked the consciences o$ the middle class $or $uture re$orm2 city #rograms like FMCA hel#ed needy. Catholic leaders em#loyed gro ing in$luence to assist re$orm mo*ements. -ar in -isru#ts the Churches /no 0 Charles -ar in2 3rigin o$ the S#ecies2 6undamentalists2 Modernists2 Colonel Ro!ert G. 4ngersoll2 ). "hat e$$ect did the theory o$ e*olution ha*e on Christian churches5 Charles -ar ins theory on e*olution created many ri$ts in the church. Modernist clergymen ere thro n out o$ o$$ice and un!elie$ as #romoted. The :ust $or :earning /no 0 Normal Schools2 /indergarten2 ChautauIua E "hat ad*ances took #lace in education in the years $ollo ing the Ci*il "ar5 +u!lic education continued its u# ard clim!. the ideal o$ ta8-su##orted elementary schools2 ado#ted on a nation ide !asis !e$ore the ci*il ar2 as still gathering strength. Americans ere acce#ting the truism that a $ree go*ernment cannot $unction sucess$ully i$ the #eo#le are shackled !y ignorance. Booker T. "ashington and .ducation $or Black +eo#le /no 0 Booker T. "ashington2 Tuskegee 4nstitute2 Accomodationist2 George "ashington Car*er2 "...B. -u Bois2 NAAC+ (C. .8#lain the di$$erences in !elie$ !et een Booker T. "ashington and "...B. -u Bois. "ashington%s sel$-hel# a##roach to sol*ing the nation%s racial #ro!lems as la!eled ,accommodationist, !ecause it sto##ed short o$ directly challenging hite su#remacy2 instead #romoting #ractical education and economic inde#endence. -u Bois demanded com#lete and immediate eIuality $or !lacks in society2 economy2 and li$e. The Hallo ed Halls o$ 4*y /no 0 Hassar2 Ho ard2 Morrill Act2 :and Grant Colleges2 Hatch Act ((. "hat $actors allo ed the num!er o$ college students to dramatically increase5 4n the years a$ter the Ci*il "ar2 college enrollment dramatically increased due to land grants that allo ed the de*elo#ment o$ multi#ur#ose institutions ith #rograms characteristic o$ the leading t entieth-century uni*ersities >electi*e a##roach? throughout the country. +lus #hilanthro#y

The March o$ the Mind /no 0 "illiam James (7. -escri!e some o$ the intellectual achie*ements o$ the late ()CCDs. Ad*ances in #u!lic health and increased #hiloso#hy and #sychology >"illiam James?. .lecti*e selection o$ courses in higher education. The A##eal o$ the +ress /no 0 Jose#h +ulitBer2 "illiam Randol#h Hearst2 Fello Journalism ('. Ho did the a!ility to #roduce ne s#a#ers ine8#ensi*ely change their content5 Chea#er ne s#a#ers meant a##ealing to the masses ho could no a$$ord themK content !ecame riddled ith se82 scandal2 rumor2 and human-interest. A#ostles o$ Re$orm /no 0 .d in :. Godkin2 Henry George2 .d ard Bellamy (;. Ho did riters in the ()&C%s and ())C%s try to address the #ro!lems o$ their time5 4n magaBines2 ne s#a#ers2 and no*els2 riters #romoted social re$orm2 ci*il-ser*ice re$orm2 honesty2 and economic gro th. +ost ar "riting /no 0 -ime no*els2 Horatio Alger2 "alt "hitman2 .mily -ickinson (<. -id the trends in riting a$ter the Ci*il "ar make it a good #eriod $or literature5 .8#lain. The literature #ost-Ci*il ar had $antastic historical conte8t that made it real and e$$ecti*e. :iterary :andmarks /no 0 /ate Cho#in2 Mark T ain2 Bret Harte2 "illiam -ean Ho ells2 Ste#hen Crane2 Henry James2 Jack :ondon2 6rank Norris2 +aul :aurence -un!ar2 Charles ". Chestnut2 Theodore -reiser. (= "hat did many riters in the late ()CC%s ha*e in common5 "riters such as Mark T ain2 Ste#hen Crane2 Bret Harte2 "illiam -ean2 Ho ells and Cho#in !egan relating their literary ork to some o$ the realism o$ an industrial society. The Ne Morality /no 0 Hictoria "oodhull2 Anthony Comstock (&. "hat e*idence demonstrated a !attle raging o*er se8ual morality5 The antics o$ the "oodhull sisters and Anthony Comstock e8#osed to daylight the !attle going on in late-nineteenth-century America o*er se8ual attitudes and the #lace o$ omen.

6amilies and "omen in the City /no 0 Charlotte +erkins Gilman2 .liBa!eth Cady Stanton2 Susan B. Anthony2 Carrie Cha#man Catt2 National "omen Su$$rage Association2 4da B. "ells (). "hat changes ere occurring in the omen%s rights mo*ement5 Ne est leader Carrie Cha#man Catt stressed the desira!ility o$ gi*ing omen the *ote i$ they ere to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly #u!lic orld o$ the city. "omen had s#ecial res#onsi!ility $or the health o$ the $amily and the education o$ children2 the argument ran. 3n the $arm2 omen could discharge these res#onsi!ilities in the se#arate s#here o$ the isolated homestead. But in the city2 they needed a *oice on !oards o$ #u!lic health2 #olice commissions2 and school !oards. By thus linking the !allot to a traditional de$inition o$ omen%s role2 su$$ragists registered encouraging gains as the ne century o#ened. +rohi!ition o$ Alcohol and Social +rogress /no 0 "omen%s Christian Tem#erance 1nion2 Carrie Nation2 Anti-Saloon :eague2 ()th Amendment2 Clara Barton (E. "hat social causes ere omen >and many men? in*ol*ed in the late ()CC%s5 "omen%s su$$rage2 tem#eranceL#rohi!ition2 animal #rotection. Artistic Trium#hs /no 0 James "histler2 John Singer Sargent2 Mary Cassatt2 George 4nness2 Thomas .akins2 "inslo Homer2 Augustus Saint-Gaudens2 Metro#olitan 3#era House2 Henry H. Richardson2 Colum!ian .8#osition 7C. "hy is this section titled ,artistic trium#hs5, The Business o$ Amusement /no 0 Haude*ille2 +.T. Barnum2 Bu$$alo Bill Cody2 Annie 3akley2 James Naismith 7(. "hat $orms o$ recreation !ecame #o#ular $rom ()&C to (ECC5 Base!all2 $oot!all2 croIuet2 !o8ing2 !icycling2 !asket!all2 "ild "est sho s2 circuses2 minstrel sho s.

Chapter #23.2 Po)itica) Para)'sis in the Gi)ded $ge ( Big Picture The es (. The go*ernment did reach the !illion dollar le*el $or the $irst time. This as largely due to military #ension #lans. The #lans ere *ery #o#ular and re*ealed the goal o$ the legislatorsN#ass something that ill get me reelected. 7. +o#ulism started. This as a $armer and orker mo*ement that sought to clean u# the go*ernment2 !ring it !ack to the #eo#le2 and hel# the orking man out. Chapter #23.2 Identifications James A. Gar$ield Republican candidate in presidential election of !!# ?against Democrat 1infield Scott %ancock@; won election but assassinated by Charles )- *uiteau a year later Chester A. Arthur Senator Roscoe Conkling ran a powerful political machine in New York in the !"#sThis man. who later became president. was his chief henchmanCharles J. Guiteau (ssassinated )ames *arfield in !! Gro*er Cle*eland 44nd and 4Dth president. Democrat. %onest and hardworking. fought corruption. /etoed hundreds of wasteful bills. achie/ed the +nterstate Commerce Commission and ci/il ser/ice reform. /iolent suppression of strikes Resum#tion Act (ct that occurred in !"7 in which the go/ernment was to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and begin in !"8 to redeem all paper currency in gold Crime o$ %&' The 9ourth Coinage (ct was enacted by the 2nited States Congress in !": and embraced the gold standard and de&moneti;ed sil/er- 2-S- set the specie standard in gold and not sil/er. upsetting miners who referred to it as a crime Bland-Allison Act (ct in which go/ernment buys sil/er each month and mint it into coins Hal$-Breed 0eople who fa/ored tariff reform and social reform. ma<or issues from the Democratic and Republican parties; They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party

Mug um# Reform&minded Republicans who could not stomach the !!D nomination of )ames 'laine were gi/en this nickname +endleton Act o$ ()'' Spawned by *arfield6s murder; it made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal and established the Ci/il Ser/ice Commission to make appointments to federal <obs on the basis of competiti/e examinations rather than ,pull, Thomas B. Reed ,C;ar, of the %ouse of Representati/es. this Speaker of the %ouse from $aine singlehandedly endea/ored to change the %ouse rules in !8#- %e ignored the Democratic minority. counted as present people who were not there. and caused pandemonium for three days- 9inally. he succeeded. and the first ,'illion&Dollar, Congress resulted,Billion -ollar, Congress The 9ifty&9irst congress. the first to appropriate as much as its eponymous sumControlled by Republicans. it aimed to destroy the surplus through spending measure such as the 0ension (ct and the Sherman Sil/er 0urchase (ct+ension Act 0assed by the 9ifty&9irst congress in !8# under the direction of president %arrison; it awarded stipends to all Ci/il 1ar /eterans who had fought for at least 8# days and were no longer able to do manual labor- 9oreshadowed the ,welfare state, of the next century- 1on support from the *(R and the *C0Chapter #23.2 Guided Reading Questions The Birth o$ Jim Cro in the +ost-Reconstruction South /no 0 Redeemers2 sharecro##ing2 tenant $arming2 Jim Cro la s2 0lessy /9erguson (. AnalyBe the data in the lynching chart on #age <('.

Class Con$licts and .thnic Clashes /no 0 Great Railroad Strike o$ ()&&2 -enis /earney2 Coolies2 Chinese .8clusion Act '. "hat as the signi$icance o$ the Great Railroad Strike o$ ()&&5 Railroad orkers $aced tough times hen ages ere cut !y (CP in ()&& so they ent on strike $rom Baltimore to St. :ouis. The 6ederal Go*ernment sent in troo#s to $orce the orkers !ack to ork and o*er (CC #eo#le died. The $ailure o$ the Great Railroad Strike e8#osed the eaknesses o$ the la!or mo*ement. 1nions ere $ractured !y racial and ethnic !oundaries. 6or e8am#le2 the Chinese on the "est Coast. -enis /earney and his $ollo ers resented the com#etition o$ chea# la!or $rom the more recently arri*ing Chinese. The /earneyites terroriBed the Chinese !y shearing o$$ their hair and some ere murdered outright. 4n ())72 Congress #assed the Chinese .8clusion Act hich #rohi!ited $urther immigration $rom China until (E;'. Gar$ield and Arthur /no 0 James A. Gar$ield2 Charles J. Guiteau2 Chester A. Arthur2 +endleton Act o$ ())' '. "hat ne ty#e o$ corru#tion resulted $rom the +endleton Act5 The ci*il-ser*ice re$orm $orced #oliticians to gain su##ort and $unds $rom !ig-!usiness leaders >marriage o$ #olitics and !ig !usiness? The Blaine-Cle*eland Mudslingers o$ ()); /no 0 James G. Blaine2 Tattooed man2 Mug um#s2 Gro*er Cle*eland2 Ma2 ma here%s my #a52 Rum2 Romanism and Re!ellion ;. .8#lain ho character #layed a #art in the #residential election o$ ());. -emocrats unco*ered Mulligan letters that re*ealed Blaine to !e dishonest2 hile Re#u!licans $ound out that Cle*eland had had an a$$air and #ossi!ly and illegitimate child. Both ere arguing #oints o$ the res#ecti*e #arties >mudslinging? @3ld Gro*er, Takes 3*er <. Assess the $ollo ing statement0 ,As #resident2 Gro*er Cle*eland go*erned as his #re*ious record as go*ernor indicated he ould., He had said though the #eo#le su##ort the go*ernment the go*ernment should not su##ort the #eo#le. *etoed act to #ro*ide seed2 anted lo er tari$$. Cle*eland Battles $or a :o er Tari$$ =. "hat ere the reasons !ehind Cle*eland%s stance in $a*or o$ lo er tari$$s5 He anted to lo er #rices $or consumers and less #rotection $or mono#olies2 end to treasury sur#lus.

The Billion -ollar Congress /no 0 Thomas Reed2 Ci*il "ar #ensions2 Mc/inley Tari$$ Act o$ ()EC &. .8#lain hy the tari$$ as detrimental to American $armers. -isru#ts the trading market a!road $or American $armers. -ro*e u# #rices $or $arm eIui#ment and decreased #rices on American agricultural goods. The -rum!eat o$ -iscontent /no 0 +o#ulists ). "hat as the most re*olutionary as#ect o$ the +o#ulist #lat$orm5 -e$end your ans er ith e*idence. An e#idemic o$ nation ide strikes in the summer o$ ()E7 raised the #ros#ect that the +o#ulists could eld together angered $armers Cle*eland and -e#ression /no 0 Gro*er Cle*eland2 -e#ression or ()E'2 "illiam Jennings Bryan2 Sherman Sil*er +urchase Act E. "hat could Cle*eland ha*e done to lessen the im#act o$ the $inancial turmoil5 /ee# tari$$s high2 im#lement in$lationary #olicies >sil*er currencyL#urchase?. Cle*eland Breeds a Backlash /no 0 "ilson Gorman Tari$$ (C. 4s the characteriBation o$ the Gilded Age #residents as the @$orgetta!le #residentsA a $air one5 .8#lain. These #residents ultimately sent our economy do nhill and caused a lot o$ destruction ith their greediness and ine#titude. They should !e $orgotten or remem!ered $or their in$amy.

Chapter #26.2 $gricu)tura) Re&o)ution and Popu)is

( Big Picture The es

(. Miners looking $or sil*er andLor gold $led to Colorado and Ne*ada seeking Iuick $ortune. A $e $ound it2 the *ast ma9ority didnDt. 7. Cattle !ecame king in Te8as as co !oys dro*e herds north to the /ansas railroads and rea#ed Iuick money. '. 6armers struggled out est due to se*eral #ro!lems0 eather2 insects2 high mortgage rates2 high railroad shi##ing rates2 and lo #rices $or their cro#s. ;. The $armersD struggles led to the +eo#leDs >or +o#ulist? +arty. This #arty sought @chea# moneyA >or sil*er money? in order to create in$lation and thus make it easier to #ay o$$ de!ts. Chapter #26"2 +dentifications Jose#h 6. Glidden the !"D in/entor of a superior type of barbed wire James B. "ea*er the !!# presidential candidate for the *reenback Babor party 3li*er H. /elly the founder of the *range in !5" Mary .liBa!eth :ease called a ,0atrick %enry in 0etticoats, and ,the Eansas 0ythoness., this 0opulist of the !8#6s upbraided the moneyed aristocracy and a go/ernment ,of 1all Street. by 1all Street. and for 1all Street, Comstock :ode ,fifty&niners, poured in to Ne/ada to mine the riches of this famous find :ong -ri*e the nickname for the system in the late !##6s of dri/ing large herds o/er unfenced and unpeopled plains until they reached a railroad terminal Homestead Act the !54 law pro/iding a settler with 5# acres of land free if the settler li/ed on it for fi/e years. impro/ed it. and paid a 3 # fee +atrons o$ Hus!andry The 0atrons of %usbandry was a group organi;ed in !5". the leader of which was Cli/er %- Eelley- +t was better known as the *range- +t was a group with colorful

appeal and many passwords for secrecy- The *range was a group of farmers that worked for impro/ement for the farmersGranger :a s The *ranger laws were a series of laws passed in western states of the 2nited States after the (merican Ci/il 1ar to regulate grain ele/ator and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address long& and short&haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers6armers% Alliance the ma<or !!#6s mo/ement besides the *range that organi;ed farmer cooperati/es and fought the railroads and big corporations +o#ulists 0opulists were new political party formed by mostly frustrated farmers attacking financial issues Jaco! S. Co8ey ( socialist (merican politician. who ran for electi/e office se/eral times in ChioSupported and helped establish paper money- Bed protest of unemployment from 0anic of !8: "illiams Jennings Bryan the elo=uent young Nebraska congressman who fought Cle/eland6s dri/e to repeal the Sil/er 0urchase (ct in !8: Bimetallism 2se of two metals. gold and sil/er. for currency as (merica did with the 'land&(llison (ct and the Sherman Sil/er 0urchase (ct- Anded in 8## with the enactment of the *old Standard (ct6ree Sil*er 0olitical issue in/ol/ing the unlimited coinage of sil/er. supported by farmers and 1illiam )ennings 'ryan -e#ression o$ ()E' The 0anic of !8: was a serious economic depression during the *ilded age- The panic was marked by the collapse of shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures- The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of !8#. along with the protectionist McKinley Tariff of !8#. ha/e been blamed for the panicCross o$ Gold S#eech (n impassioned address by 1illiam )ennings 'ryan at the !85 Deomcratic Con/ention. in which he attacked the ,gold bugs, who insisted that 2-S- currency be backed only with gold-

Chapter #26.2 Guided Reading Questions The 6arm Becomes a 6actory /no 0 Montgomery "ard2 Com!ine (. .8#lain the statement2 ,The amaBing mechaniBation o$ agriculture in the #ost ar years as almost as striking as the mechaniBation o$ industry., Historians generally agree that the Ci*il "ar as the $irst modern ar2 meaning the $irst in hich technology and industrial strength #layed a signi$icant role. -e$lation -ooms the -e!tor /no 0 -e$lation 7. "hat #ro!lems $aced $armers in the closing decades o$ the (Eth century5 The $armers o$ the "est !ecame attached to the one-cro# economy - heat or corn - and ere in the same lot as the southern cotton $armers. The #rice o$ their #roduct as determined in a un#rotected orld market !y the orld out#ut. 4n ()&C2 the lack o$ currency in circulation $orced the #rice o$ cro#s to go do n. Thousands o$ $arms had mortgages2 ith the mortgage rates rising e*er higher. 1nha##y 6armers '. Ho did nature2 go*ernment2 and !usiness all harm $armers5 The good soil o$ the "est as !ecoming #oor2 and $loods added to the #ro!lem o$ erosion. Beginning in the summer o$ ())&2 a series o$ droughts $orced many #eo#le to a!andon their $arms and to ns. 6armers ere $orced to sell their lo -#riced #roducts in an un#rotected orld market2 hile !uying high-#riced manu$actured goods in a tari$$-#rotected home market. 6armers ere also controlled !y cor#orations and #rocessors. 6armers ere at the mercy o$ the har*ester trust2 the !ar!ed- ire trust2 and the $ertiliBer trust2 all o$ hich could control the out#ut and raise #rices to high le*els. The 6armers Take Their Stand /no 0 The Grange2 Coo#erati*es2 Green!ack-:a!or +arty2 James B. "ea*er ;. Ho did the Grange attem#t to hel# $armers5 The Grange in the late ()CC%s hel#ed $armers !y getting them organiBed in relation to their cro#s. They hel#ed the $armers $igure out hat they needed to gro and hen they needed to gro certain things to get the !est #rices.

+relude to +o#ulism /no 0 The 6armersD Alliance2 Mary .liBa!eth :ease <. "hat ste#s did the 6armersD Alliance !elie*e ould hel# $armers5 The 6armers% Alliance o#erated $ree mills and gins that small $armers could use. They !elie*ed in graduated income ta8es2 su!-treasures- arehouses2 and go*ernment o nershi# o$ railroads. Co8eyDs Army and the +ullman Strike /no 0 Co8eyDs Army2 .ugene H. -e!s2 +ullman +alace Car Com#any =. "hy did +resident Cle*eland send in $ederal troo#s during the +ullman Strike5 The strike as !roken !y +resident Cle*eland !ecause the railroad orkers had sto##ed the trains2 harming commerce in the 1S. Golden Mc/inley and Sli*er Bryan /no 0 Mark Hannah2 "illiam Mc/inley2 "illiam Jennings Bryan2 Cross o$ Gold s#eech & "as "illiam Mc/inley a strong #residential candidate5 .8#lain. Mckinley as considered to !e a strong #residential candidate #rimarily due to the issues that he con$ronted o$ his day. Class Con$lict0 +lo holders *ersus Bondholders /no 0 6ourth +arty System ). @The $ree-sil*er election o$ ()E= as #ro!a!ly the most signi$icant since :incolnDs *ictories in ()=C and ()=;.A .8#lain. The issue in the 1S election o$ ()E= that as considered to !e %the ma9or issue% as the #roduction and issuance o$ unlimited coinage. The coinage in Iuestion as s#eci$ically sil*er. "illiam Mc/inley as o##osed to this ideaK he anted to stick ith the gold standard. "illiam Jennings Bryan ho e*er2 as *ery su##orti*e o$ the idea o$ unlimited access to sil*er. Re#u!lican Stand#attism .nthroned /no 0 -ingley Tari$$ Bill E. -id Mc/inley #ossess the characteristics necessary to !e an e$$ecti*e #resident5 Mc/inley had a tough stance2 es#ecially ith $oreign #olicy and e8#ansion2 so yes he did #ossess the characteristics necessary to !e an e$$ecti*e #resident.

Harying Hie #oints0 "as the "est Really @"onA5 /no 0 6rederick Jackson Turner (C. "hich criticism o$ the Turner Thesis seems most *alid5 .8#lain The *ie o$ the ,Ne "estern, historians seems the most *alid. 4n contrast to Turner%s theory that the $rontier as the #rinci#al sha#er o$ the nation%s and region%s character2 they !elie*e that a *ariety o$ $actors including ethnic and racial issues2 !ig !usinesses2 go*ernment2 and climate and landsca#e sha#ed the "est and the country%s character.