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Marine Biology Semester One Review Sheet

Ch. 2 The Sea Floor Summary

brief overview of the chapter
We learned the geology and
physical characteristics of the planet
and its influence in shaping the sea

Review see if you can answer

these questions
What is density and how does it
influence the sea floor?
What are the three main layers of
the Earth?
What is the mid-ocean ridge and
where is it located? What type of
plate boundary is it?
Describe the sediment and rocks
along the mid oceanic ridge.
Describe lithospheric plates and
how they move.
Describe the different plate
What is continental drift? What is
What are the two most abundant
types of sediments? What makes up
the two types of sediments?
Why does sea level fall during ice
What are the 3 main parts of the
continental margins? Compare active
and passive margins.
What are black smokers and where
are they found?

Ch. 3 Chemical and Physical

Features of Seawater and the
World Oceans
This chapter examines the physical
and chemical properties of water and
world oceans.
Water can hold a tremendous
amount of heat and resists
Temperature and salinity affect
water density: causing it to stratify
into layers.
Waters characteristics produce
different environments for different
marine lifestyles based on
temperature, light penetration, and
Oceans currents are affected by
wind and rotation of the Earth.

The sun and the moon determine


Describe the traits of water as it
freezes & as it vaporizes. Include the
definitions of latent heat of fusion,
latent heat of vaporization, sensible
heat, and non-sensible heat.
Explain how salinity, temperature,
and density relate.
Make a diagram of the three
density layers of the oceans, labeling
each. Indicate where a thermocline
would be expected in these three
Explain how water scatters and
absorbs light.
Define etotherm, endotherm, and
homeotherm. What are the
similarities & differences?
What is the Coriolis Effect and
how does it influence the ocean
Describe the Ekman spiral and
What are gyres and how are they
How do the gyres affect the global
climate and distribution of
What is the water column and how
is it stratified?
What are the three main layers of
the ocean?
Compare stability and overturn.
What is the Great Ocean
Compare waves and tides. What
causes wave and tide
Diagram the seas, swell, and surf.
Why are there tides? Describe the
different types of tides? What types
of tides exist on our local coast?

Ch. 4 Fundamentals of
In this chapter we studied the
fundamental properties of life.
All living things are made of four
basic macromolecules: lipids,
carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic
The currency for life is ATP.
Photosynthesis and cellular
respiration are the basic chemical

reactions that contribute to energy

flow through an ecosystem
Eukaryotes and prokaryotes
contain similar and different
organelles. There are structural
differences between plant and animal
We reviewed the levels of
Marine organisms face unique
challenges regulation of salt and
water, temperature, and surface to
volume ratio.
Depending on the species,
organisms have specific modes of
reproduction and unique adaptations.
It is difficult to study and discuss
the millions of life forms on earth
unless we first classify then and sort
them into groups.

Describe, diagram, and give
examples the four groups of
Write the equation for
photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. Describe the relationship
between them.
What is primary production and
what type of organisms are
responsible for the primary
Compare prokaryotes and
Compare the types of eukaryotes:
plant vs. animal.
What are the levels of
Compare diffusion and osmosis.
How do osmoconformers and
osmoregulaters regulate water and
How do marine organisms regulate
body temperatures? What are the
different types?
What are the different modes of
What are some of the strategies
organisms have used to perpetuate
What is the theory of evolution and
natural selection?
How do scientist classify
What are the domains and
kingdoms of organisms?

Ch. 5 The Microbial World

Bacteria and Archaea are
structurally simple microorganisms
that are significant decomposers
breaking down organic matter into
nutrients that other organisms can
Cyanobacteria are the first
photosynthetic organisms on earth.
Archaea are prokaryotic
microorganisms once thought to be
bacteria, but are more closely related
to eukaryotes. They were once know
to be extremophiles, but with recent
discoveries are known to occur
everywhere in the ocean.
We reviewed the metabolic
processes of prokaryotes and focused
on chemosynthetic, phototrophic,
aerobic and anaerobic organisms.
We studied different phyla of
unicellular algae, protists, and fungi.

Understand the differences
and similarities of the domain
Bacteria and Archaea. What is the
role of prokaryotes in an ecosystem?
Compare heterotrophic and
autotrophic prokaryotes.
Describe the different types of
autotrophic bacteria?
What are red tides and what types
of organisms cause them?
Compare aerobic and anaerobic
What group of microorganisms are
nitrogen fixers?
What is nitrogen fixation?
What are diatoms? Why are they
important to the ecosystem?
How do diatoms reproduce? What
are blooms?
What are dinoflagellates?
Describe the characteristics of
What are the characteristics of
forams, radiolarians, and ciliates?
How are they different and alike?
What are lichens?

Ch. 6 Multicellular Primary

Producers: Seaweeds and
All of the organisms in this chapter
are primary producers. Seaweeds,

seagrasses and flowering plants play

an important role in costal
You learned the general structure
and types of seaweed.
We also examined the reproduction
and economic importance of
Seagrasses, alt marshes, and
mangroves provide energy, refuge,
and vital nutrients to many types of
organisms, and the destruction of
them would create desserts along

Sketch and label the general
structure of seaweeds.
Know the different types of
seaweeds and the differences among
Understand the reproduction of
seaweeds and alternation of
What is the economic importance
of seaweeds?
What are seegrasses, salt-marsh
plants, and mangroves?
How are they important to the
How do mangroves reproduce?
What happens when these
flowering plants are destroyed?

Ch. 7 Marine Animals

without a Backbone
Most of the multicellular
organisms that inhabit our planet are
We reviewed those animal phyla
that were invertebrates.
We examined organism that were
structurally simple to complex.
We studied groups of organisms
for each phylum, distinguishing
features, general habitat, level of
organization, symmetry,
segmentation, digestive tract,
respiratory exchange and the
circulatory system.

Know the anatomy of the
organisms we dissected.
Know the level of organization of
sponges and how they obtain
nutrients and reproduce.
Know the general structures of
cnidarians during the medusa and
polyp stages.

What are the different types of

How do cnidarians feed and digest
food, and what unique behaviors they
What are comb jellies and how are
they different from other jellyfish?
What are the different groups of
worms and what are their unique
What are the general structures that
all mollusks have?
Compare the characteristics of
mollusks, and how are they unique
form each other?
How do the different types of
mollusks eat and digest?
Describe the nervous system and
behavior of different mollusks.
What are the general
characteristics of arthropods?
What are the different types of
small crustaceans?
Know the similarities and
differences among the crustaceans.
Know how they reproduce, feed,
and digest.
What are horseshoe crabs and why
are they known as living fossils?
What is a lophophorate?
What are the differences between
the bryozoans and lamp shells?
Why are arrow worms not worms?
Know the classes of echinoderms
and their unique characteristics.
What are some unique behaviors of
How do they reproduce and obtain
Why are hemichordates considered
the missing link?
What do all chordates have in
What are the characteristics of
tunicates and lancelet?

Study Tips
You may use a half sheet of paper,
front and back, with notes of your
choosing at the final exam. You
must handwrite it.
Review all the tests from first
Review your lecture notes.
Study with a partner or in a group.
Have family members quiz you
Sleep well the night before and
have a good breakfast
Relax; just tell me what you know.