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‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •   K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ •  K‫א‬‫א‬ •   K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬  K٦    W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ • K‫א‬‫א‬ •    W‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ .

1‫א‬FCounter Sunk‫א‬Shank‫א‬ ‫א‬٣٦،٣٣،٣٠،٢٦،٢٣،٢٠،١٧،١٤W‫א‬  K٢٦،٢٣E‫א‬F‫א‬٢٠،١٧،١٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     Button head Countersunk head Flat head Truss head Pan head  ‫א‬‫א‬W5.١ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬             ‫א‬     K ‫א‬،  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    Riveted Connection‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J   Bolted Connection   Welded Connection   E‫א‬F‫א‬ J    ‫א‬ J  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٢ WRivets‫א‬ JI Round Head‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E5. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W.1‫א‬   .

2 ‫א‬   W‫א‬EF‫א‬   Black Bolts‫א‬EF J    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٧  K٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   .2‫)א‬E‫א‬F ‫א‬WasherNut EThreadF‫א‬  K‫א‬      KW5. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J١  K‫א‬   Closing the rivet head‫א‬ J٢   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬      ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    BoltsE‫א‬F–I I  (5.

 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    Turned BoltsEF J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥٢٣٧  K‫א‬    High Strength Bolts‫א‬EF J  K٠{٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬.٣    W‫א‬‫א‬ J١    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •    K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬   Types of Riveted Joints‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬ Lap JointE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ •  Butt JointE‫א‬‫א‬F •   Lap Joint E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Single riveted lap ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  joint        ‫א‬ K‫א‬  Double riveted lap joint  KPitch‫א‬ .

s 4     . . q s.s = π .s = 0.98 t/cm2 d2 R s.s = A . q s. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   Butt Joint E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬.96 t/cm2 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •  ‫א‬‫א‬ •   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬   W‫א‬‫א‬ -١    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫ א‬ J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫ א‬ J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    qs.٤    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E0.98 t/cm2٣٧‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ • EfbZ1.

s = 2 x 3.96 = 4. fb‫א‬‫א‬    W‫א‬٢٠‫א‬١٢‫א‬‫א‬  Zfb =2. qs.15 t   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬fb‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  Rb ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Rb = A .s = 2 .2 x 1.s =2 A .70 t t . q s. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    W‫א‬‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬ d2 2. d=20 mm       . fb = t .s = π . t=12 mm .0 x 1.3F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ T= 14 t . d . . Rs. Rb    ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬    W    W ‫א‬E 5. 0.0 2   R s.077 = 6. d .s = A . .s = π . q s.98 = 3.077 t 4 4  W‫א‬‫א‬  RD.

s 4   2 d 2.077 t 4 4  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    Rb = A .s = A . q s. R b ) = Min (3.s .98 t/cm2  W‫א‬‫א‬ d2   R s.3‫א‬  W‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬      qs.07  W‫א‬ .s = A . fbZt .5 = 6 Rivets 3. q s. 0.2 x 1. q s. .98 = 3. d .0 x 1.70) = 3.s = π .96 = 4.07 .s = 0. 4.0 2   R s. .07 t    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  n = T R min = 14 = 4.70 t    W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     R min = Min ( R s. .s = π .s = π . q s. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    KEF‫א‬W 5.fb = 2.

0.4 cm     ZRb2t2 . 0 2   R D. t1=12 mm . .48 = 49. .48 t K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    x 5.fb = 1.5‫א‬ d2 2.4 x 2 x 1. ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    W    W‫א‬E5.s = 2 π . t2=14 mm .5‫א‬F    K‫א‬‫א‬W 5.s . q s.4‫א‬ T= 14 t .s = 2 A . n=9 Rivets  W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K(5. 5.98 = 6.96 = 5.s = 2 π . R b ) = Min (6.15 .4F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      KEF‫א‬W 5.32 t٩ .48) = 5.15 t 4 4       ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1. d . d=20 mm .48 t     R min = Min ( R D. b=30 cm . q s.

3.4 (30 . ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬   A net = t .04 t pt 47.4 = 47.7F‫א‬E5.6 x 1.6 cm 2 2   A net .6F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     .04 t‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  W‫א‬K٥   WRivets‫א‬‫א‬ •   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(5. (b . φ ) = 1. F = 33.3 x 2) = 33.

٦    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  K . ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ٢٥٦  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٦‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٧‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ .