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The Chemical

Earth
Contents
Pure and Impure Substances................................................................................. 2
Chemical Earth...................................................................................................... 2
Separating Techniques........................................................................................... 3
Gravimetric Analysis.............................................................................................. 4
Periodic Table......................................................................................................... 4
Particle Nature of Matter........................................................................................ 5
Structure of an Atom............................................................................................. 5
Arrangement of Electrons...................................................................................... 5
Covalent Compounds............................................................................................. 6
Ionic Compounds................................................................................................... 6
Metallic Bonding.................................................................................................... 6
Comparison of Properties....................................................................................... 7
Chemical Reactions............................................................................................... 8
Decomposition.................................................................................................... 8
Synthesis............................................................................................................ 8
Organic Chemistry................................................................................................. 8
Alkanes............................................................................................................... 8
Alkenes............................................................................................................... 9
Alkynes............................................................................................................... 9

Pure and Impure Substances


Matter can be divided into two categories:

Pure substances (homogenous): these can be divided into two more


categories
Elements: matter consisting of one type of atom
Compounds: matter consisting of two or more types of atoms
(elements) bonded together
Impure substances or mixtures: these are a collection of substances
not bonded together, these can be divided into two more categories:
Homogenous: uniform composition (air and blood)
Heterogeneous: non-uniform composition (rocks and soup)

Chemical Earth
Layers of the Earth:

Crust
Mantle
Outer core
Inner core

Spheres of the Earth:

Atmosphere: Layers of gases surrounding Earth (mixtures of gases)


Hydrosphere: Mass of water found on, under and over the surface of
the Earth (mixtures of salts and water)
Lithosphere: Outermost shell of the Earth; comprises of the Crust
and portion of the upper mantle (mixtures of elements and
compounds; minerals and ores)
Biosphere: Includes parts of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and
lithosphere; all the living matter (mixtures of carbon-containing
compound

Separating Techniques

Filtration
Residue: solids left behind/remains
Filtrate: fluid that passes through the
paper

Evaporation
Solute: the solid
Solvent: the liquid

Distillation
Latent heat: the amount of heat
used to change a substance from
one state to another

Chromatography

Gravimetric Analysis
This is the process of determining the
percentage composition of each substance in mixtures. This is done by
separating every substance and then weighing it to compare with the
original mixture total weight.

Periodic Table
Atomic number: Number of protons and electrons in an atom
Valence electron: The number of electrons present in the outermost shell
of an atom
Valency: The number of electrons an atom either needs to lose or gain to
complete its outmost shell

Particle Nature of Matter


All matter is made up of particles called atoms. There are three states
matter can exist in:

In solids, atoms are packed tightly together in an orderly array and


are held by very strong forces resulting in high melting points and
boiling points
In liquids, atoms can move freely; the force between atoms is less
strong
In gases, the atoms have weak forces between them causing very
rapid random motion (Brownian movement)

A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that is capable of


independent existence. E.g. an atom of Oxygen is O where as a molecule
of Oxygen is O2 (because Oxygen is a diatomic molecule; an substance
which exists in a molecule composed of two atoms)
Some elements exist as polyatomic molecules E.g. Phosphorus P4 and
Sulphur S8
Noble gases exist as independent atoms i.e. Helium exists as He and Neon
exists as Ne

Structure of an Atom
An atom consists of a dense nucleus made up of positively charge protons
and neutrons (no charge). A cloud of rapidly moving negatively charged
electrons surround the nucleus. There are increasing energy levels as the
shells go further away from the nucleus.
A
Z

A: Mass number (mass sum of protons and neutrons)


Z: Atomic number (number of protons)
X: Element

Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with different mass numbers
due to the different number of neutrons. E.g. Carbon-12 (6 neutrons) and
Carbon-14 (8 neutrons)

Arrangement of Electrons
Electrons exist in discrete energy levels (first, second, third energy levels
and so on). Electrons in the outer shells have higher energy than electrons
than inner shells.
nth energy level can accommodate 2n2 electrons
The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an
electron configuration of the nearest noble gas i.e. the outermost shell
must accommodate 8 electrons to reach stable configuration.

Covalent Compounds
Covalent compounds are formed by sharing electrons between atoms of
two or more elements. Non-metals usually form covalent compounds.
There are three types of covalent bonds:

Single bonds: single pair of electrons are


shared (H2)
Double bonds: two pairs of electrons are
shared (O2)
Triple bonds: three pairs of electrons are
shared (N2)

In covalent molecular compounds, the formula


represents the number of atoms of each element in one molecule. E.g.
CO2 (Carbon dioxide; one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms)
In covalent network
compounds, atoms are
covalently bonded in an
extended 3D network. There
are no individual molecules and
the formula represents the ratio
the component atoms in the
substance. E.g. C (graphite or
diamond)

of

Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds are formed when atoms lose or gain
electrons to become either cations (positively charged)
or anions (negatively charged). Strong electrostatic
forces allow the two oppositely charged ions to bond
together. Ions are arranged in a regular 3D lattice in an
ionic solid thus ionic compounds do not exist as
molecules.

Metallic Bonding

Comparison of Properties
Property

M.P. and
B.P.
Electrical
conductivit
y
Hardness
and
Malleability
Forces
holding
particles
together in
the solid
Example of
substance

Metals

Ionic
Compounds

Covalent
Molecular
Substances
Low

Covalent
Network
Solids
High

Variable

High

Good

Good
(molten)

Poor

Poor

Hard and
Malleable

Hard but not


malleable
(brittle)
Electrostatic
forces

Soft

Hard but not


malleable
(brittle)
Covalent
bonding
throughout
the lattice

Sodium
chloride

Water

Delocalised
electrons

Magnesium

Intermolecul
ar forces

Diamond

Chemical Reactions
A chemical reaction involves rearrangement of atoms to form new
compounds

Decomposition
This is a chemical reaction where a bigger compound breaks into two or
more simpler substances. Decomposition can be done by:

Heat: CuCO3 breaks into a black compound CuO and a gas CO2
Electricity: H2O can decompose into elements H2 and O2 by passing a
current through it (electrolysis)
Light: Silver salts decompose when exposed to light. E.g. AgBr
decomposes into Ag and Br2. This is used in photography

Synthesis
This is a chemical reaction where two or more reactants form one product;
combination reaction. E.g. N2 + H2 to from NH3

Organic Chemistry
This is a branch of chemistry where it studies carbon compounds.
Hydrocarbons are the compounds of hydrogen and carbon. Prefixes:
1. Meth2. Eth3. Prop4. But5. Pent6. Hex7. Hept8. Oct9. Non10.
Dec-

Alkanes
These are saturated hydrocarbons where carbon atoms are linked with
single bonds. E.g. Methane (CH4)
General formula:

Cn H 2 n+2

Alkenes
These are unsaturated hydrocarbons where carbon atoms are linked with
double bonds. E.g. Butene or Butylene (C4H8)
General formula:

Cn H 2 n

Alkynes
These are unsaturated hydrocarbons where carbon atoms are linked with
triple bonds. E.g. Propyne (C3H4)
General formula:

Cn H 2 n2