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CROWN ASIA

PROPERTIES, INC.
Current H & S Practices in a Typical
Small Scale Construction Company
By: GROUP 1
Cedric Ignacio
Michael
Kapulong
Jeremiah
Santos
Vernie Soriano

INTRODUCTION

Crown Asia is one of the developers of the finest


residential properties here in our country.
It is a privately-owned real estate company that
has been the leader in providing Filipino families
with quality homes.
It is a subsidiary of Vista Land and Lifescapes, Inc
(largest home builder in Philippines) that brings
finest house and lot properties in Cavite, Laguna,
Antipolo, Sucat and Taguig.
Some of their known projects are Augustine
Grove, Fortezza, Citta Italia, Valenza, Ponticelli
and Caribe.

INTRODUCTION

STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM:
A. Construction workers are not
wearing proper and complete
personal protective equipment.
.

They don't wear gloves, goggles,


safety vest, safety harnessed or life
lines and proper shoes. We found
out that some were just wearing
slippers during their construction
work.

STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM:
B. The scaffoldings used in the
construction site.

They are using old and flimsy


scaffoldings which could cause to
break down and to make them fall.

STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM:
C. They don't have Construction
Health and Safety Officer.

According to the engineer, they


don't have any health and safety
officers who could monitor and
inspect any health and safety
aspect of the construction work.

STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM:

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:
A.

Construction workers are not


wearing
proper
and
complete
personal protective equipment.

The company is not much focused in the safety


practices of their workers. The company thinks
that the PPEs will not be important because
their workers are not much involved in the
accidents.
Many of the construction workers cannot afford
to buy a complete set of PPE due to limited
resources.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:
As stated in the Occupational Safety and Health
(OSHA) Personal Protective Equipment handbook, To
ensure the greatest possible protection for employees
in the workplace, the cooperative efforts of both
employers and employees will help in establishing and
maintaining a safe and healthful work environment. In
general, employers are responsible for:

Performing a hazard assessment of the workplace to identify

and control physical and health hazards.


Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees.
Training employees in the use and care of the PPE.
Maintaining PPE, including worn or damaged PPE.
Periodically reviewing, updating and evaluating the effectiveness
of the PPE Program.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:

In general, employees should:


Properly wear PPE,
Attend training sessions on PPE,
Care for, clean and maintain PPE, and
Inform a supervisor of the need to repair or replace PPE.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:
B. Old and flimsy scaffoldings are being
used in the construction site.

According
to
the
engineer
we
interviewed, these are just being
provided by their contractors.
Some of the construction companies are
reusing their old scaffoldings because of
cost cutting and besides, these are still
useful.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:

As stated in the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (As, amended


1989) in rule 1414: Scaffoldings,

1414.01: Maintenance of Scaffolds:


All scaffolds shall be properly maintained and every part shall be kept,
fixed and secured in position to prevent displacement.
No partly dismantled scaffold shall be used unless it is rendered stable,
strong and safe for the purpose.
Scaffoldings left standing for four (4) months shall not be used until
damaged members are replaced and the whole structure returned to its
original strength.

1414.02: Supervision and inspection of Scaffolds:


Scaffold shall be erected, added, altered or dismantled only under the
supervision of the person in charge of the construction.
All materials used in any scaffold shall be inspected before use.
Lumber with two (2) nail holes aligned crosswise or four (4) nail holes
along the length shall not be used as horizontal load bearing member of
scaffolds.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:

1414.03: Strength and Stability of


Scaffolds:
Every scaffold shall:
be capable of supporting twice the maximum load

to which it may be subjected without exceeding the


allowable unit stresses of the materials used;
have all standards diagonally and horizontally
braced to prevent lateral movement; and
have no splices between the points of support of
horizontal members and secured to prevent lateral
movement.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:
C. They don't have Construction Health
and Safety Officer.

Most of the small scale construction


companies in our country do not have a
health and safety officers in their company
because they cannot afford to pay for them
or because of cost cutting.
The company thinks that they are just small
scale construction company and there are
no occurrences of major accidents.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:

As stated in the Department Order No.13 Series of 1998, Guidelines


governing Occupational Safety and Health in the Construction Industry:

Section 7. Safety Personnel

To ensure that a Construction Safety and Health Program is duly followed


and enforced at the construction site, each construction project site is
required to have the minimum required Safety Personnel, as described
herein:

7.1 The General Constructor must provide for a full time officer, who
shall be assigned as the general construction safety and health officer
to oversee full time the overall management of the Construction
Safety and Health Program.
The general construction safety and health officer shall frequently
monitor and inspect any health and safety aspect of the construction
work being undertaken. He shall also assist government inspection at
any time whenever work is being performed or during the conduct of
accident investigation.

CAUSES OF THE
PROBLEM:
7.2 The General Constructor must provide for additional

Construction Safety and Health Officer/s in accordance with the


requirements for Safety Man/Officer of Rule 1033 (Training and
Personnel Complement), depending on the total number of
personnel assigned to the construction project site, to oversee
the effective compliance with the Construction Safety and
Health Program at the site, under the direct supervision of the
general construction safety and health officer.
7.3 The General Constructor must provide for one (1)
Construction Safety and Health Officer for every ten (10) units
of heavy equipment assigned to the project site, to oversee the
effective compliance with the Construction Safety and Health
Program at the construction project site, in terms of heavy
equipment utilization and maintenance.
7.4 Each construction subcontractor must provide for a
representative, who shall have the same qualifications as a
Safety Man/Officer, to oversee the management of the
Construction Safety and Health Program for the subcontractors

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
Job

Safety Analysis (JSA)

A job hazard analysis is a technique that


focuses on job tasks as a way to identify
hazards before they occur.
It focuses on the relationship between the
worker, the task, the tools, and the work
environment. Ideally, after you identify
uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to
eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable
risk level.

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

A job hazard analysis is one component of


the larger commitment of a safety and health
management system.
The analysis also can be a valuable tool for
training new employees in the steps required
to perform their jobs safely.
For a job hazard analysis to be effective,
management
must
demonstrate
its
commitment to safety and health and follow
through to correct any uncontrolled hazards
identified.

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

WHERE TO BEGIN?
Involve your employees - Involving employees will help
minimize oversights, ensure a quality analysis, and get workers
to buy in to the solutions because they will share ownership in
their safety and health program.
Review your accident history - Review with your employees
your worksites history of accidents and occupational illnesses
that needed treatment, losses that required repair or
replacement, and any near misses.
Conduct a preliminary job review
- Discuss with your
employees the hazards they know exist in their current work
and surroundings. Brainstorm with them for ideas to eliminate
or control those hazards.
List, rank, and set priorities for hazardous jobs - List jobs
with hazards that present unacceptable risks, based on those
most likely to occur and with the most severe consequences.
Outline the steps or tasks - Watch the employee perform the
job and list each step as the worker takes it. Review the job

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

To make your job hazard analysis useful, document


the answers to these questions in a consistent
manner. Describing a hazard in this way helps to
ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and
implement hazard controls help target the most
important contributors to the hazard. Good hazard
scenarios describe:
Where it is happening (environment),
Who or what it is happening to (exposure),
What precipitates the hazard (trigger),
The outcome that would occur should
(consequence), and
Any other contributing factors.

it

happen

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

Table 1. Risk Assessment Code (RAC)

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
SEVERITY

CATASTROPHIC - Death or permanent total disability, system loss, major damage,


significant.
CRITICAL - Permanent partial disability, temporary total disability in excess of 3
months, major.
MARGINAL - Minor injury, lost workday accident, minor system damage, minor
property.
NEGLIGIBLE - First aid or minor medical treatment, minor system impairment,
little/no impact.
PROBABILITY
FREQUENT - Occurs often, continuously experienced.
LIKELY - Occurs several times.
OCCASIONAL - Occurs sporadically.
SELDOM - Unlikely, but could occur at some time.
UNLIKELY - Can assume it will not occur.
RISK LEVELS
EXTREMELY HIGH (E) - Loss of ability to accomplish the mission.
HIGH (H) - Significantly degrades mission capability in terms of required mission
standards
MODERATE (M) - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission.
LOW (L) - Little or no impact.

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

DECISION CRITERIA &


ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION
A. Construction workers were observed to not
wear
proper
and
complete
personal
protective equipment

All personal protective equipment should be


safely designed and constructed, and should be
maintained in a clean and reliable fashion.
It should fit comfortably, encouraging worker use.
When
engineering,
work
practice,
and
administrative controls are not feasible or do not
provide sufficient protection, employers must
provide personal protective equipment to their
workers and ensure its proper use.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION

Employers are also required to train


each worker required to use personal
protective equipment to know:
When it is necessary
What kind is necessary
How to properly put it on, adjust, wear

and take it off


The limitations of the equipment
Proper care, maintenance, useful life, and
disposal of the equipment.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION

If PPE is to be used, a PPE program should be


implemented. This program should address the
hazards present; the selection, maintenance, and
use of PPE; the training of employees; and
monitoring of the program to ensure its ongoing
effectiveness.
Personal protective equipment is addressed in OSHA
standards for Construction, General Industry,
Shipyard Employment, Marine Terminals, and Long
shoring.
More importantly, both employers and employee
should know the importance and essence of not only
having but properly wearing PPEs in the workplace.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION
B. Old and flimsy scaffoldings were being used
in the construction site.

One solution that could address to this kind of


hazardous problem would be to make and
assemble new scaffolding for the company and
ensure that all criteria within the OSHS would be
addressed, from minimum height to the maximum
load that one scaffolding would only support.
Employees should also be aware of when and
where not to use the scaffoldings since no matter
how strong and firm it may be, the surrounding
and the workplace would matter.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION

Based on the OSHS, Employees


shall not work on scaffolds during
storms or high winds, employees
shall not work on scaffolds which
are covered with ice or snow, unless
all ice or snow is removed and
planking sanded to prevent slipping
and a whole lot other areas where it
could cause a scaffold to fail.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION
C.

The
company
doesnt
have
Construction Health and Safety Officer.

All employers are bound by the Health and


Safety at Work Act of 1974, which imposes
general health and safety duties for
employers, employees and others such as
manufacturers, landlords and designers.
There is only one easy solution and that is to
hire a well-trained and verse Health and Safety
practitioner or a Safety Officer with all the
required seminars and certification available.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION

Businesses are required to employ a competent person to


act as a health and safety officer, be it the owner, one or
more employee, or an external person.
The health and safety officers main aim is to prevent
accidents, injuries and work-related illnesses in the
workplace. Their role is to create and implement health
and safety policies in accordance with the latest
legislation and to ensure that these policies are
implemented by management and employees.
One of their most importance roles is undertaking regular
inspections and risk assessments, and ensuring that any
hazards or defects are rectified immediately. They will also
keep an accident book and must record and thoroughly
investigate
any
accident,
recommending
any
improvements in safety standards if required.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION,
IMPLEMENTATION AND JUSTIFICATION

Another key role of the health and


safety officer in the workplace is
training all staff in safety issues, and
advising them on protective clothing
and equipment where necessary.
They also act as a key point of
contact for any member of staff who
has a query or concern regarding
the safety of the workplace.

EXTERNAL SOURCING
http://

construction.about.com/od/Engineers/
fl/What-is-a-Construction-Safety-Off
icer.htm
http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/co
nstruction-safety-officer-duties-2570
.html