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1 Rizal and the Katipuan
On June 21, 1896. Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Bonifacio’s emissary, visited Rizal in Dapitan and informed him of the plan of the Katipunan to launch a revolution. Rizal objected to Bonifacio’s bold project stating that such would be a veritable suicide. Rizal stressed that the Katipunan leaders should do everything possible to prevent premature flow of native blood. Valenzuela, however, warned Rizal that the Revolution will inevitably break out if the Katipunan would be discovered. Sensing that the revolutionary leaders were dead set on launching their audacious project, Rizal instructed Valenzuela that it would be for the best interests of the Katipunan to get first the support of the rich and influential people of Manila to strengthen their cause. He further suggested that Antonio Luna with his knowledge of military science and tactics, be made to direct the military operations of the Revolution.
2 Rizal and the Propaganda Movement
To prove his point and refute the accusations of prejudiced Spanish writers against his race, Rizal annotated the book, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, written by the Spaniard Antonio Morga. The book was an unbiased presentation of 16th century Filipino culture. Rizal through his annotation showed that Filipinos had developed culture even before the coming of the Spaniards. While annotating Morga’s book, he began writing the sequel to the Noli, the El Filibusterismo. He completed the Fili in July 1891 while he was in Brussels, Belgium. As in the printing of the Noli, Rizal could not published the sequel for the lack of finances. Fortunately, Valentin Ventura gave him financial assistance and the Fili came out of the printing press on September 1891. The El Filibusterismo indicated Spanish colonial policies and attacked the Filipino collaborators of such system. The novel pictured a society on the brink of a revolution. To buttress his defense of the native’s pride and dignity as people, Rizal wrote three significant essays while abroad: The Philippines a Century hence, the Indolence of the Filipinos and the Letter to the Women of Malolos. These writings were his brilliant responses to the vicious attacks against the Indio and his culture. While in Hongkong, Rizal planned the founding of the Liga Filipina, a civil organization and the establishment of a Filipino colony in Borneo. The colony was to be under the protectorate of the North Borneo Company, he was granted permission by the British Governor to establish a settlement on a 190,000 acre property in North Borneo. The colony was to be under the protectorate of the North Borneo Company, with the "same privileges and conditions at those given in the treaty with local Bornean rulers". Governor Eulogio Despujol disapproved the project for obvious and self-serving reasons. He considered the plan impractical and improper that Filipinos would settle and develop foreign territories while the colony itself badly needed such developments.
3 Rizal's Articles in La Solidaridad
La verdad para todos (The Truth for All) – May 31, 1889 Rizal’s irst article. Verdades nuevas (New Facts) – July 31, 1889 Una profanacion (A Desecration) July 31, 1889 – A scathing attacked against the friars for refusing to bury Mariano Herbosa in the Catholic cemetary. The friars alleged that the deceased
Aileen Grace Delima B.S.BIOLOGY
"I shall tell you how we lived here. 1890 Rizal prognosticated the Filipinos’ revolution against Spain winning their independence. which are called barotos here. wood. but later the Americans would come in over its colonization. I see the seashore where I keep two boats. attending to my patients in town. etc.BIOLOGY . "At noon. and planting many kinds of trees. In a latter to his friend. and nipa. Rizal lived at the commandant’s residence. 1890. "From my house. Ferdinand Blumentritt.had not made any confession since his marriage to Lucia Rizal (1857-1919). from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m. which consists of tea. October 31. Then.m. feed the chickens. and prepare our breakfast. and the third octagonal. On this land.all made of bamboo. Rizal’s elder sister. bread. and other things. Rizal’s advocacy of a new spelling in Tagalog. "I have many fruit trees. The Governor told the people : "You should not allow yourselves to be deceived by the vain promises of ungrateful sons. 1889 Filipinas dentro de cien anos (The Philippines Within One Hundred Years) – serialized in La Solidaridad on September 30." Aileen Grace Delima B. We stop at 6:00 p. Cosas de Filipinas (Things About the Philippines) – April 30. I have three houses-one square. Rizal’s brilliant and masterly defense against the imputation of indolence of the Filipinos.S. visited the Provine of Laguna. "I rise early in the morning-at five-visit my plants. A reply to Gov. 1890. cats. 4 RIZAL IN DAPITAN: Peaceful Life in Dapitan During the early part of his exile in Dapitan. while the third had six sides. 1889 and February 1. cheese. The hexagonal house is my barn where I keep my chickens. Then I dress and go to Dapitan in my baroto. I have rabbits. 2 Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinas (On the Indolence of the Filipinos) – serialized on July 15 to September 15. together with my mother. With his prize from the Manila Lottery and his earnings as a farmer and a merchant. December 15. 1890. he built three houses. awaken my people. guayabanos. lanzones. I treat the poor patients who come to my house. At half-past seven. I teach the young boys. another hexagonal. Diferencias (Differences) – September 15. baluno. I live in the square house. "After breakfast. 1893. 1890. on December 19. nangka. The second house was the living quarters of his pupils. The first house which was square in shape was his home. All these houses are made of bamboo." Sin nobre (Without Name) – February 28. and nipa. Weyler who in company with the Dominicans. and my nephew. In the octagonal house live some young boys who are my pupils. I am busy the whole morning. I hear the murmur of a clear brook which comes from the high rocks. pruning the fruits. he bought a piece of land near the shore of Talisay near Dapitan. wood. Trinidad. My pupils help me in watering the plants. Gen. and other animals. I am busy as a teacher. Sobre la nueva ortografia de la lengua tagala (On the New Orthography of the Tagalog Language) – April 15.. And the third house was the barn where he kept his chickens. 1890. for the Angelus "I spend the night reading and writing. such as mangoes. "I spend the rest of the afternoon in farming. we eat our breakfast. sweets. my sister. I return home to Talisay for lunch. dogs. Ingratitudes (Ingratitudes) – January 15. The second house had eight sides. Rizal described his peaceful life in Dapitan.
In a letter to his sister.000 abaca plants. Captain Carnicero. Rizal introduced modern methods of agriculture which he had observed during his travels in Europe and America. As Christmas came nearer. and sugar cane because of its fertile soil and favorable climate. Later. without comparison. wide and swift current. coffee. The guests enjoyed the delicious dishes prepared by the commandant’s native cook. his plan of founding an agricultural colony in Sindangan Bay did not materialize. With the help of his pupils and some laborers. He said: "I spent a merry Christmas here. At midnight. cacao. he bought more lands in other barrios of Dapitan. He invited his relatives and friends in Luzon. He encouraged the Dapitan farmers to replace their primitive system of cultivation with these modern methods. Rizal bought an abandoned farm in Talisay. Rizal enjoyed his first Christmas in Dapitan. I had a happy dinner on Christmas eve. 3 No wonder. The whole place is poetic and very picturesque. He did not get the support of the Spanish government. dated January 5. became his friends. who were formerly indifferent to him.000 coconut palms. With the exception of Rizal. three Spaniards from a neighboring town. Many Dapitan folks. Rizal described how he enjoyed his first Christmas in Dapitan. There are dalag (fish) and pako (edible fern). If you and our parents come. for the cost of living in Dapitan was cheaper than in Calamba. and the use of farm machines. It was also ideal for the cultivation of coffee.S. Some rich patients paid him well for curing their eye ailments. coconuts. On his lands. a barrio near Dapitan. I am going to build a large house where we can all live together. He began to buy agricultural lands in Talisay. He was one of the guests of Captain Carnicero at a Christmas Eve dinner in the comandancia (house of the commandant). In his letter to his sister Trinidad on January 15. Rizal became a farmer in Dapitan. especially those in Calamba. In due time. many coffee and cacao plants and numerous kinds of fruit trees. Rizal earned more money by practicing medicine. Rizal actually built a permanent home.BIOLOGY . Lucia. At some points. Aileen Grace Delima B." During the first year of his exile (1893). better than Ilaya River." On this land in Talisay. His health improved. like that of his former project to colonize North Borneo. he cleared it and planted cacao. a barrio near Dapitan.5 Rizal's First Christmas in Dapitan After a short time. It lay beside a river that resembled the Calamba River-clear fresh water. Rizal became more cheerful. he said: "We cannot all be doctors. He planned to build his house in this scenic barrio by the seashore. for he disliked hard liquor. Rizal actually imported some farm machines from the United States. We heard Mass at 12:00 midnight. They contained 6. and a Frenchman. 1893. It could not have been merrier. and fruit trees. This region contained plenty of water and good port facilities. for you know I go to Mass here every Sunday. It was a merry feast. Jose Rizal began to enjoy the simple life of Dapitan. 1. Rizal. 1896. He believed that it could accommodate about 5. it is wide like the Pasig River and clear like the Pansol. Rizal became prosperous. These modern methods of farming consisted of the use of fertilizers. together with my host (the commandant). The other guests were three Spaniards from the neighboring town of Dipolog and a Frenchman named Jean Lardet. the rotation of crops. 1896.000 coconut palms. Aside from his lottery prize. His savings increased. his total land holdings reached 70 hectares.000 heads of cattle and 40. and has some crocodiles in some parts. it is necessary that there would be some to cultivate the soil. This farm had an area of sixteen hectares and was rather rocky. and other guests went to church to hear the Mass of the Noche Buena. to colonize the Sindangan Bay area. they drank beer. Unfortunately." 6 Rizal as a Farmer in Dapitan To prove to his people that farming is a good a profession as medicine. Rizal dreamed of establishing an agricultural colony in the sitio of Ponot near Sindangan Bay. In a letter to his mother. on February 12. Rizal said: "My land is half an hour’s walk from the sea.
Before the Holy Week of 1894. Italian. and Russian-19 in all. Catalan. Doctor?" he asked. In his native city of Barcelona. bringing his own sketch based on the latter’s ideas. British. Malay. Spanish. Rizal memorized five root words every night before going to bed. German. viewed from a wide open gate. He needed a good backdrop (canvas oil painting behind the main altar) for the annual Lenten celebration. and in his writings. "I’ll try. "Doctor. Hebrew. Rizal demonstrated his talent for painting. Rizal sketched in soft pencil the general outline of the picture. 1896. It is necessary. He was accompanied by a convent helper named Leoncio Sagario. Spaniards. Portuguese. he learned 1. " Beautiful. Greek. Latin. Rizal went to the Jesuit priest. Russian. He knew 22 languages.Malay. a Filipina nun from Cavite who could paint. Father Balaguer went to Talisay to talk with the exiled doctor. He never forget these foreign words because of his retentive memory. a young Jesuit parish priest. I would like to have a beautiful backdrop behind the church altar that shows the spirit of the Holy Week. to know other dialects. and Subanun. To learn a new language. Dutch. Ilokano. Spanish. and I speak it quite well." he said. "I need your help. 7 Rizal as a Painter in Dapitan In Dapitan. Father Vicente Balaguer. Rizal increased his knowledge of languages. Hebrew. was worried. Sanskrit. I haven’t done any painting for many years. Japanese. 1896. Father. On April 5. English. It Aileen Grace Delima B. Dutch. and Almirol. Japanese and others. Rizal had become one of the world’s great linguists. He studied three more languages. he already knew many languages. Many times during his travels abroad. Tagalog. The actual painting of the backdrop was a difficult task. he wrote to his Austrian friend. Chinese. Italian. namely. after which his two assistants applied the oil colors. 4 His knowledge of many languages was one aspect of Rizal’s amazing genius. French.made the sacristy of the church as their workshop. Upon hearing of Rizal’s painting ability.S. Latin. Portuguese. a church had one that showed a colonnaded court.Santiago Church. These languages were: Tagalog. however. He warmly thanked Rizal and his two assistants for the work well done. but I’ll do my best. Arabic. He was glad to note that he still had the skill in painting. German. English. he acted as interpreter for his fellow travelers who belonged to various nationalities-Americans. Swedish. Swedish. Catalan." By the end of his exile in Dapitan on July 31." The following day. a native painter of Dapitan. The trio-Rizal. Father Balaguer was very much satisfied with the finished oil painting of the backdrop.825 new words. He himself put the finishing touches. Spain.BIOLOGY . Sanskrit. Bisayan. You see. And one of these rare men was Rizal. The gorgeous backdrop became a precious possession of the Dapitan church. Greek. Rizal made a good use of his knowledge of many languages in his travels in Europe and America." Father Balaguer made some rough sketches as he described the backdrop in the Barcelona church. Rizal obtained the help of two assistantsSister Agustina Montoya. Professor Blumentritt: "I know Bisayan already. Arabic. Italians.Before Rizal was exiled in Dapitan. French. I’ve in mind something similar to one in a church in Barcelona. Few men in history were gifted by God with such ability to learn any language easily. Father Balaguer was satisfied and urged Rizal to begin the painting job at once. in communicating with foreign scholars and scientists. Japanese. At the end of the year. and Francisco Almirol. During his exile in Dapitan. Bisayan and Subanun.a scene depicting the court of Pontius Pilate. Daily. Rizal supervised the work of his assistants. very beautiful. Chinese. Ilokano. Sister Montoya. French. " Can you paint in oil such a picture on a huge canvas." he told Rizal. German.
Rizal saw his child die three hours after birth. Sorrowfully. Rizal was very happy. "I also have the same wish." said Rizal. As a result of her great fright. At one time General Leonard Wood. " that it will be a boy.S. Seeing the baby’s condition." 9 Rizal's Last Christmas in Dapitan The Christmas of 1895 was one of the happiest events in Rizal’s life. I give you another tiny angel. Rizal praised Josephine. 1896. it was destroyed during the Second World War when fires and bombs razed the city of Manila. thus: "She cooks. He did everything he could to save the life of his infant son. Rizal immediately baptized him Francisco in honor of his father." she replied." On December 25. He prayed": "Oh." asked Josephine in joking manner. He also made chicken broth out of a fat hen. 5 After the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. saw it and said that it was truly "a Rizalian legacy". God. He was deeply impressed by its majestic beauty. He was scheduled to leave the town on board the España. his last day in Dapitan. Please bless his soul. Quezon saw Rizal’s painting masterpiece during his visit to Dapitan. In his letter to his sister. Senate President Manuel L." he told Josephine. I will name her after my mother. With a heavy heart. which serves the purpose. which frightened her terribly. Rizal had every reason to be cheerful and gay. 1895. "I wish it would be a boy. as almost always. Rizal played a practical joke on Josephine. "We celebrated merrily. on September 25. As an expectant father. I will name him after my father. but in vain. Unfortunately. 8 Rizal's Son Dies By the beginning of 1896. it proved to be Rizal’s last Christmas in Dapitan. There was dancing." Unfortunately. she gave birth prematurely to an eight-month baby boy. In the absence of miki for making pancit. Writing to his sister. I should be grateful to you. Rizal and Josephine were not destined to have a child. We roasted a small pig and hen. he drew a sketch of his dead son. By a strange twist of fate. Rizal and Josephine gave a Christmas party at their home in Talisay. They all danced and made merry until dawn. She makes also chili miso. He invited all his neighbors. takes care of the chickens and the house. It was because of the presence of Josephine.was truly a masterpiece. We invited our neighbors. Within a few months. on January 15." 10 Adios Dapitan On the morning of July 31." "Suppose. which was sailing Aileen Grace Delima B.BIOLOGY . Rizal roasted a small pig to golden brown over a slow fire. The baby was very weak and was gasping for breath. washes. the beautiful backdrop was sent to the Museum of the Ateneo de Manila for safekeeping. His beloved Josephine was heavy with child. 1896. she would give birth to a child. but it seems to me that what we have will last for 10 years. "Let us hope and pray. 1895. she made some long macaroni noodles out of flour and eggs. Trinidad. for she makes bagoong. Then he buried him under a shady tree near his home. and we laughed a great deal until dawn. Rizal described his last Christmas party in Dapitan. All his knowledge and skill as a physician could not save little Francisco. She was now used to living a simple rural life in the Philippines. She was industrious and learned to cook all sorts of native dishes. "that it will be a girl?" "Then. Trinidad. governorgeneral of the Philippines. If you could send me a little angkak. Rizal busily packed his things. One day in early March 1896. who proved to be a loving wife and a good housekeeper.
Estanislao (son of Lucia Rizal). The Dapitan folks shouted "Adios. Angelica (daughter of Narcisa). Narcisa (his sister). the brass band played the sad music of Chopin’s Farewell March. August 6. 19 August 1896 He advised his parents and sisters how they could visit him on board the Castilla. his three nephews. Mauricio (son of Maria Rizal ). vests. He was not able to depart immediately for Spain. Dapitan!" He gazed at the crowded shore for the last time. He was met by the captain of the boat. As the steamer left the town. asking her to let Josephine Bracken send him pants. mostly natives of Dapitan. He had sold his lands and other things he owned to his friend.back to Manila. And Mrs. the steamer departed for Manila. he wrote a letter to his mother informing her of his good health on board the ship. anhored off Cañacao. young and old. and was given the best cabin. Captain Carnicero. and Mr. The town brass band played the music of the farewell ceremony. Cavite. to Wednesday. he thanked his sister Narcisa for the hospitality she had shown by letting Josephine Bracken stay in her house. Rizal!" and threw their hats and handkerchiefs in the air. His heart was filled with sorrow. he and eight other companions embarked on the steamer. Capt. September 2. He informed his mother of his departure for Cuba. 6 Almost all Dapitan folks. through a certain Prudencio Bulag. 2 September 1896 Rizal was transferred to the boat Isla de Panay at 6:00 o’clock in the evening. from Thursday. in full regalia of a commandant’s uniform. because the Isla de Luzon which Rizal was supposed to board left the day before they arrived at Manila. Aileen Grace Delima B. He wrote in his diary: "I have been in that district four years." 11 Life after DAPITAN Rizal in Manila Bay 6 August 1896 At dawn the España entered Manila Bay. 25 August 1896 In a letter. When he could no longer see the dim shoreline. saying that Rizal’s conduct in Dapitan was exemplary and that he had no connection at all with the Philippine Revolution. At midnight. whom he had come to admire and respect. collars.1896. Dr. July 31. Sunico. with tears in his eyes. and Teodosio (another son of Lucia Rizal). 6 August to 2 September 1896 For twenty-seven days. he turned sadly into his cabin. 12 August 1896 He sent a letter to his sister Narcisa . who treated him well. He raised his hand in farewell to the kind and hospitable people of Dapitan.BIOLOGY . comforting her that everybody is in the hands of the Divine Providence. and a few hours. and cuffs. Captain Carnicero saluted his departing friend. thirteen days. was on hand to say goodbye to his prisoner. At 5:30 in the afternoon. His eight companions were Josephine. were at the shore to see the departure of their beloved doctor. Friday. and likewise requested Narcisa to buy fruits for the officers of the cruiser. Castilla. saying: " Adios.S. To his sisters. Rizal was kept under arrest aboard the cruiser. The pupils of Rizal cried. for they could not accompany their dear teacher. he urged them to take good care and and love their aged parents the way they expect their children to love them. Rizal was in the upper deck. 30 August 1896 Governor Ramon Balnco sent Rizal a letter recommending him to the Minister of War. Later. Alemany. 1896.
00 o’clock in the afternoon. Rizal’s patient moved to the upper deck. they left Colombo for Aden.BIOLOGY . He left Manila for Spain. Maria Tuason And Pedro A. The boat anchored near Manila to load passengers. 7 September 1896 At 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon. 12 September 1896 He recovered slightly from hi sea-sickness. 9 September 1896 In the evening. passing near Perim which was fortified. There were already many buildings constructed. Parrado. Rizal was disappointed.S. On board he saw a mentally deranged captain who was being shipped back to Spain. the dead body was thrown over board. they anchored alongside the wharf made of wood. At 2o’clock Sunday morning. Cecilio on board the boat Isla de Panay. 13 September 1896 At 4:00 they started to see land and at 1:00 in the evening the Isla de Panay anchored at Colombo. Cecilio.Rizal Sailed for Cuba Via Spain 3 September 1896 Rizal was given a new cabin. This time the weather had already improved a little bit. 7 4 September 1896 Rizal was informed of the rumors that he was the cause of the disturbances in Manila. Aileen Grace Delima B. At 8:00 p.m. 24 September 1896 Rizal was called to attend to a sick woman on board. although the ship continued moving roughly. 15 September 1896 They passed by Maldivas and Laquedivas in the evening.. Rizal noticed that the Englishmen in Aden had progressed much. They left Singapore at 1. Paterno. Rizal’s patient on board became worse for having eaten butter. a native of Aragon. Rizal described to his mother the trip he had from Singapore to Colombo and from Colombo to Aden. the boat left Aden.m. A young student. 25 September 1896 He dreamed that his Jesuit patient died. The captain became mentally derange due to the two months imprisonment imposed on him by Gen.they saw a lighthouse. No. informed him that around 600 Filipinos were already ordered shot by the Spanish authorities. 19 September 1896 Rizal made mention of the death of a certain Capt. among whom were Pedro Roxas. and the hopeless condition of a sick Jesuit. At 4:15 p. In a letter. 20 September 1896 The Isla de Panay arrived at Guardful at 12 o’clock. with a divan. 5 September 1896 A Jesuit father told him about poor Anacleto del Rosario died of heart trouble. 21 September 1896 The Isla de Panay arrived at Arden at 4:30 in the afternoon. the throwing overboard of the dead body of Capt. 22 September 1896 At 3 o’clock in the morning. 22. Rizal injected her with morphine and later applied hot bath. 14 September 1896 At 12:00 o’clock. they met the Isla de Luzon full of soldiers bound for the Philippines. There were plans of holding a concert but was not realized due to the rudeness of a passenger.
which. In the evening. The boat packed with soldiers.S. Some passengers were inventing fantastic stories against him. would make him doubt everything. Rizal arrived at Montjuich at exactly five o’clock. he woke up a little bit lively. A cabin boy was surprised by Rizal tiptoeing into his cabin o steal his papers. 10 October 1896 The two holes of his cabin were covered in the morning. Francisco de Asis. Alemany. 8 4 October 1896 Rizal heard 31 canon fires which signaled the celebration of the feast of D. Rizal was whisked away from the boat by one military man and another in civilian clothes. he could refute the accusations hurled against him.BIOLOGY . At about two o’clock in the afternoon. Rizal had to do everything in a jiffy under the threats and shouts of the captain. after one-hour walk under heavy guard. according to him. Rizal was notified by the same officer called Tudela to get his baggage ready in order to board the boat S. a district of Cavite City. to the effect that after taking dinner. Colon. 29 September 1896 Rizal was the object of malicious talk on this day. The passengers were placed under quarantine for three days. departed at eight o’clock in the evening. He was not given breakfast. was being bombarded. only supper. His diary was confiscated form him. if true. 1 October 1896 The boat left Malta at two o’clock in the morning. He was a little bit affected by the cold air. Rizal should stay inside the cabin until another order is received. ordering him to prepare his baggage. He was guarded in his cabin the whole day. he had conversation on various matters with two soldiers. 9 October 1896 On this day.S. 8 October 1896 He woke up very hungry and weak. apparently under the instruction of the steward who was peeping through the hole of the cabin at the time. Colon the whole day. the Isla de Panay arrived at Barcelona. Then he wrote a letter to Prof. 29 October 1896 Aileen Grace Delima B. after staying in Montjuich for about 8 hours.S. He asked the captain for the reason and the Captain answered that it was due to some rumors that Rizal would remain in Malta. He thought that the order of his return to the Philippines was timely for.26 September 1896 Rizal received a very bad new. 12 Rizal Back at Home 7 October 1896 Rizal stayed inside his cabin on the board the S. 3 October 1896 After exactly 30 days of travel. The infantry officer informed him that various newspapers in Madrid identified him as the author of the disorders in the Philippines. Blumentritt disclosing the contents of the two letters of recommendation issued him by Governor Blanco. thus depriving him of the sunlight. 6 October 1896 At three o’clock in the morning a sergeant woke Rizal up in his cabin. He was informed that San Roque. 30 September 1896 Rizal received an order from Capt. The boat was still quarantined off the shore of Barcelona. Rizal stayed the whole day in his cabin. At four o’clock. A. 11 October 1896 The boat arrived at Port Said.
" then he "rest for a short. 9:00 – 10:00 a." No debate or discussion on religion is recorded to have taken place between the Fathers mentioned and Rizal. Sources: El Imparcial and Fr. Blumentritt through F. Viza presents statue of the Sacred hearth of Jesus and medal of Mary. 6:00 – 7:00 a. enters death cell and interviews Rizal in the presence of Fr. .m.S Colon approached a port anchor. Fr. 29.m. his travel diary was returned to him. 2 November 1896 Before arriving at Port Said. Balaguer. S. 3:00 – 4:00 p. 10:00 – 11:00 a. he is allowed to attend to his personal necessities). He was the object for an application for a writ of Habeas Corpus prepared by Charles Burton Buckley and Manuel Camus. He "writes several letters . Gov. Dominguez and Testimony of Lt. Capt. Pi and Fr. defying stringent regulation. then meditates. 12:00 – 1:00 p. Stahl and F.m. Rosell. Rizal rejects the letter. Balaguer. Rosell. Rizal reads verses which he had underlined in Eggers german Reader. J. 1896. Aileen Grace Delima B.m. Rosell. 11:00 – 12:00 noon. Stahl. Fr. Sources: Fr. Dominguez reads death sentence to Rizal.m. 9 13 Rizal's Last Hours Dec. Rosell and letter of Invitation. Saderra talks briefly with Rizal. Dominguez in conjunction with the testimonies of Fr. who is not allowed to enter the death cell) that Rizal is either to Prostestant or rationalist who speaks in "a very cold and calculated manner" with a mixture of a "strange piety. Lt. Later. S. Source: "Notes" of Capt. The two Solicitor for Rizal were Rodyk and Davidson. Sources: Rizal’s habits and Rizal y su Obra.with his last dedications. Andrade and chief of Artillery come to visit Rizal who thanks each of them. Mataix. Rizal denies (probably. "Im little of a Marian." Source: Fr. Sr. a book which he is going to hand over to his sisters to be sent to Dr. Vilaclara who will later conclude (with Fr. His baggage was searched minutely and he was lodged in prison cell everytime the S.He arrived at Singapore bound for the Philippines. Sources: Letter of Mataix ti Retana Testimony of Fr. Rosell . . Sources: El Imarcial and Rizal y su Obra. saying . Fr.S.BIOLOGY . Gallegos. Rizal confers with Fr. Rizal talks on "various topics" in a long conversation with Fr. Mataix asks Rizal’s permission to interview him." Sources: F. Viza. Father. . the applications was turned down by Lionel Cox.m. Luengo drops in to join the conversation. Fr. 7:00 – 8:00 a. Since the boat carried a Spanish flag and Rizal was detained on order by the Spanish government. Source of information: cablegram of Mataix to EL Heraldo De Madrid. 8:00 – 9:00 a.m. Sources: "Notes" of Capt. Faura persuades Rizal to put down his rancours and order to marry josephine canonically. 1:00 – 2:00 p. Rizal is transferred to his death cell. Dominguez.m. "Notes" of Capt. Rizal reads Bible and Imitation of Christ by Kempis. March and Fr.m. Vilaclara. 2:00 – 3:00 p. Rizal scribbles a note inviting his family it visit him. Sr. Rizal is shares his milk and coffee with Fr. Balaguer reports to the Archbishop that only a little hope remains that Rizal is going to retract for Rizal was heard saying that he is going to appear tranquilly before God. Rosell. a heated discussion on religion occurs between them ion the hearing of Fr.
Balaguer. he receives Bro. Sources: Rev. Josephine is prohibited by the Spanish officers from seeing Rizal. Sources "notes" of Capt. Rizal calls for Josephine and then they speak to each for the last time. most probably. It has to be done during night rather than during daytime because he is watched very carefully. Fiscal Castaño. 6:15 – 7:00 Rizal walks to the place of execution between Fr. Diaro de Manila. something to remember. asks guards for paper and pen. Rizal manifests strange reaction. Rosell. and Testimony of Josephine to R. 4:00 – 5:00 a.m. Titllot. 5:30 – 6:00 p. Rosell. comes to exchange views with Rizal. Fr. March and Fr. Keeps looking around as if seeking or expecting to see someone. admitted on account of his dignity. said in a loud voice: "It is finished" 7:00 – 7:03 Aileen Grace Delima B. 11:00 – 12:00 midnight Rizal takes time to his hide his poem inside the alcohol burner. Rizal rakes supper (and.S. Vilaclara with whom he converses. Rosell hears Rizal’s farewell to his sister and his address to those presents eulogizing the cleverness of his nephew. reads. Dominguez is moved with compassion at the sight of Rizal’s kneeling before his mother and asking pardon. Fiscal Castaño exchanges views with Rizal regarding their respective professors. attends to his personal needs.m. Pi on the report of Bro. Rosell hears an order given to certain "gentlemen" and "two friars" to leave the chapel at once. 12:00 – 4:00 a. Balaguer and Fr. 8:00 – 9:00 p. Silvino Lopez-Tuñon. 1986. 7:00 – 8:00 p.m. El Imparcial. Rizal sleeps restfully because his confidence in the goodness of God and the justness of his cause gives him astounding serenity and unusual calmness. Rizal is emotion-filled and. Sources: Testimonies and circumstantial evidence. Wildman in 1899. The other sisters come in one by one after the other and to each Rizal’s gives promises to give a book.Blumentritt. Reads Bible and meditates. and Sworn Statement of Fr. Dec. probably. Faura. Sources: Fiscal Castaño. after remaining some moments in silence. Balaguer) or "useful" (Fr. attends to his personal needs). The Dean of the Cathedral. Rosell. Sources: Separate testimonies of Fr. Fr. Fr. Fr.m. 6:00 – 7:00 p. Rosell leaves Fort Santiago and sees Josephine Bracken. His last word. 10 4:00 – 5:30 p.m. Fr. Titllot with whom he had a very "tender" (Fr. Serapio Tamayo. the Spaniards come to know that Rizal is writing a poem. Fr. takes breakfast.m. 30. Pi) interview.m. Sources: El Imparcial and Ultimo Adios. Fr.m. Sources: El Imparcial. confesses to Fr. Cavana (1956) – Appendix 13.BIOLOGY . Fisal Castaño. and the "Notes" of Capt. Writes a letter to his parents. Balaguer leaves Fort Santiago. Sources: Fr.m. meditates and then writes in Kempis’ book a dectation to his wife Josephine and by this very act in itself he gives to her their only certificate of marriage. an alcohol burner. Then. Capt. 5:00 – 6:15 Rizal washes up. Dominguez and Fr. 9:00 – 10:00 p. Dominguez. his pair of shoes. From rough drafts and copies of his poem recovered in his shoes. He then writes his last letter to brother Paciano. Wildman in 1899. Rizal picks up Imitation of Christ. 10:00 – 11:00 p. according to Josephine’s testimony to R. Faura returns to console Rizal and persuades him once more to trust him and the other professors at the Ateneo. an instruction.
Manuel Garcia. and as a Society prohibited by the Church. escritos. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mis cualidades de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica.S. 14 Texts of Rizal's Retraction The "original" discovered by Fr. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras. Aileen Grace Delima B. Any contribution shall be deeply appreciated since it will help in further enlightening our students on this controversial issue. Silence. 1896 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. I retract with all my heart whatever in my words. inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. 1935 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras. como Autoridad Superior Eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. writings. C. I believe and I confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatever she demands. make public this spontaneous manifestation of mine in order to repair the scandal which my acts may have caused and so that God and people may pardon me.BIOLOGY . Puede el Prelado Diocesano.M. Rizal vacillates. turns halfway around. como autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. escritos. Rizal's Retraction: Introduction This section presents contrasting views on the retraction by biographers of Rizal. as the Superior Ecclesiastical Authority. Shouts of vivas for Spain. falls down backwards and lies on the ground facing the sun. Read on and judge for yourself whether Rizal retracted or not. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Manila 29 de Deciembre de 1896 Jose Rizal Jefe del Piquete Juan del Fresno Ayudante de Plaza Eloy Moure Translation (English) I declare myself a catholic and in this Religion in which I was born and educated I wish to live and die. on May 18.Sounds of guns. publications and conduct has been contrary to my character as son of the Catholic Church. Puede el Prelado Diocesano. y como Sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Abomino de la Masonaria. Abomino de la Masonaria. December 30. as the enemy which is of the Church. Manila 29 of December of 1896 Jose Rizal La Voz Española. 11 Interested readers may submit their materials for inclusion in this site or you may advise us of your own web site on this topic for linkage. como enigma que es de la Iglesia y como sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. The Diocesan Prelate may. como enigma que es de la Iglesia. I abominate Masonry.The team deemed it proper to present the views in the exact words of the scholars so as to avoid misinterpretations.
Puede el Prelado diocesano. y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. we have seen and read his (Rizal’s) own handwritten retraction which he sent to our dear and venerable Archbishop…" On the other hand. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose it is. Pi’s copy of Rizal’s retraction has the same text as that of Fr. Stahl wrote in a letter: "besides. Manila pharmacist F. . January 1897 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. (Ascertaining the document was necessary because it was Aileen Grace Delima B. . Don Manuel Alhama of El Imparcial and Sr.S. 1935. The first text was published in La Voz Española and Diaro de Manila on the very day of Rizal’s execution. no one claimed to have seen it. "For example. . in the fortnightly magazine in La Juventud. This "exact" copy had been received by Fr. Manila. para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar. Dec. That newspaper reported: "Still more. Balaguer. Balaguer in the evening immediately preceding Rizal’s execution. Santiago Mataix of El Heraldo. inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi calidad de hijo de la Iglesia. Pio Pi in 1910. . not only Rizal’s family but also the correspondents in Manila of the newspapers in Madrid. como Autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia. 29 de Diciembre de 1896-Jose Rizal 15 Analysis Rizal's Retraction At least four texts of Rizal’s retraction have surfaced. Balaguer himself who. . Balaguer’s "exact" copy but follows the paragraphing of the texts of Rizal’s retraction in the Manila newspapers." Fr. Pi was not able to verify it in his sworn statement. 29 de Diciembre de 12 1896-Jose Rizal Jefe del Piquete Juan del Fresno Ayudante de Plaza Eloy Moure Fr. it came from an anonymous writer who revealed himself fourteen years later as Fr. escritos. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto Ella manda. The second text appeared in Barcelona. Regarding the "original" text. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras. Fr. Vida y Escritos del Jose Rizal with the addition of the names of the witnesses taken from the texts of the retraction in the Manila newspapers. 1897.BIOLOGY . Spain. verify whether it might be of Rizal himself . I am sending it to you that you may . on February 14. Retana in his biography of Rizal. Balaguer's text. y como Sociedad prohibida por la misma Iglesia. We know not that reproductions of the lost original had been made by a copyist who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting. nobody has seen this written declaration. Pi nor His Grace the Archbishop ascertained whether Rizal himself was the one who wrote and signed the retraction. in his letter to his former superior Fr. after it disappeared for thirty-nine years from the afternoon of the day when Rizal was shot. This fact is revealed by Fr. it is the short formula of the retraction. were not able to see the handwritten retraction. . and was followed by Sr. W. . The fourth text appeared in El Imparcial on the day after Rizal’s execution. Rizal y su Obra. 1896. said that he had received "an exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. The "original" text was discovered in the archdiocesan archives on May 18." He proceeded: "I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself.Manila. 30. except the publishers of La Voz Espanola. Neither Fr. in spite of the fact that quite a number of people would want to see it. Abomino de la Masonaria. como enigma que es de la Iglesia.
C. the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction add before the third "Iglesias" the word "misma" which is not found in the original and the newspaper texts of the retraction. it is not yet clear whether Fr. because Fr. Pi a short formula. Pi. Sixth. Fr." After that. In his notarized testimony twenty years later." However. In his letter to Fr. you) made. but her made no mention of the witnesses. Balaguer finally named the witnesses. In Fr. 1935. which Fr. Fr. instead of the words "mi cualidad" (with "u") which appear in the original and the newspaper texts. The discovery. Adjutant of the Plaza. in his own account of Rizal’s conversion in 1909.retraction was signed together with Dr. the text of Fr. He said "This . Balaguer himself has unwittingly answered this question. According to Fr. 13 On May 18. Balaguer’s "exact" copy come from? We do not need long arguments to answer this question. which was signed by Rizal. Balaguer said that he had the "exact" copy of the retraction. Balaguer admitted that he dictated to Rizal the short formula prepared by Fr. He said in his letter to Fr. in his letter to Fr. Fourth. . the documents could not be seen by those who wanted to examine it and was finally considered lost after efforts to look for it proved futile. Thomas Gonzales Feijoo. I myself delivered it personally that the same morning to His Grace Archbishop… His Grace testified: At once the undersigned entrusted this holograph to Rev. Balaguer and F5r. and the other the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. and Señor Moure. Pi in 1910: "…I preserved in my keeping and am sending to you the original texts of the two formulas of retraction. How did Fr. Balaguer’s text does not begin the second paragraph until the fifth sentences while the original and the newspaper copies start the second paragraph immediately with the second sentences. Pi in 1910. and keeping a copy of the same for our archives. Fr.BIOLOGY . Where did Fr. no witnesses signed the retraction. Pi’s short formula previously approved by the Archbishop.possible for one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting aforesaid holograph. Second. Balaguer was using the long formula of nor no formula in dictating to Rizal what to write. the Jesuits’ copies have "mi calidad" (with "u"). the proceeding quotation only proves itself to be an addition to the original. instead of ending doubts about Rizal’s retraction. Balaguer dictated from Fr. La Voz Española) had the "original" while the Jesuits had only the imitations. the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction omit the word "Catolica" after the first "Iglesias" which are found in the original and the newspaper texts. . Rizal by Señor Fresno. We now proceed to show the significant differences between the "original" and the Manila newspapers texts of the retraction on the one hand and the text s of the copies of Fr. And. with regards to paragraphing which immediately strikes the eye of the critical reader. Chief of the Picket. is the one that appeared ion his earliest account of Rizal’s retraction. Fr. Pi in 1910. whereas the texts of the retraction in the original and in the manila newspapers have only four commas. Pi. Fr. secretary of the Chancery. the lost "original" document of Rizal’s retraction was discovered by the archdeocean archivist Fr. and the first with the changes which they (that is.S. the most important of all. Manuel Garcia.M. This means that the friars who controlled the press in Manila (for example. the fact that the texts of the retraction which appeared in the Manila newspapers could be shown to be the exact copies of the "original" but only imitations of it. Balaguer’s earliest account. In his accounts too. has in fact encouraged it because the newly discovered text retraction differs significantly from the text found in the Jesuits’ and the Archbishop’s copies. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose Aileen Grace Delima B. Moreover. Balaguer wrote. The only copy. Balaguer’s copy did not have the names of the witnesses from the texts of the newspapers in Manila. Balaguer obtain his copy of Rizal’s retraction? Fr. Fifth. that from you and that of the Archbishop. Balaguer’s copy has eleven commas. Balaguer never alluded to having himself made a copy of the retraction although he claimed that the Archbishop prepared a long formula of the retraction and Fr. which they (You) gave me. however. he contradicts himself when he revealed that the "exact" copy came from the Archbishop. Fr. Pio Pi on the other hand. First. Third.
if we are to believe the fictitious account. Rizal rejected the long formula so that Fr. the other. Pi (with "changes") is that the latter was "shorter" be cause it omitted certain phrases found in the former so that.. almost two years before his execution. Pi. Fr. what actually would have happened. Pi’s short formula. Thus." Prof. Someone read it aloud in the hearing of Capt." Aileen Grace Delima B. Pi) made". Both the Archbishop and Fr. He only "suspected" that "Rizal himself" much as Fr.BIOLOGY ." "It is a useless life that is not consecrated to a great ideal. which had to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. Dominguez. which came from Fr. Actually. Allegedly. Fr. Rizal. Dominguez never claimed to have seen the retraction: he only "heard". Pi saw the original document of retraction. their guide was Manuela Orlac. It is like a stone wasted on the field without becoming a part of any edifice.it is. Pi in which "changes" (that is. The "exact" copy was shown to the military men guarding in Fort Santiago to convince them that Rizal had retracted. Rizal wrote down what was dictated to him but he insisted on adding the phrases "in which I was born and educated" and "[Masonary]" as the enemy that is of the Church" – the first of which Rizal would have regarded as unnecessary and the second as downright contrary to his spirit. Rizal would sign it. Pi acted innocently because they did not distinguish between the genuine and the imitation of Rizal’s handwriting. but the local government had not provided any way for people to avail themselves of the right." "He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish.. "Spanish law had established civil marriage in the Philippines. his copy of the retraction proved him wrong because its text (with "u") and omits the word "Catolica" as in Fr. Pi. Capt." In order to marry Josephine. remember" whose handwriting it was.. Austin Craig who wrote down in 1912 what the priest had told him. However. and I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself. 16 Rizal's Famous Quotations "Ang hindi magmahal sa sariling wika. as Fr. was ready for the mail when Rizal came hurrying I to reclaim it. Balaguer said that the "exact copy" was "written and signed by Rizal" but he did not say "written and signed by Rizal and himself" (the absence of the reflexive pronoun "himself" could mean that another person-the copyist-did not). who claimed in his "Notes’ that Rizal read aloud his retraction. Craig wrote. who was agent and a mistress of a friar. Antonio Obach to his friend Prof. daig pa ang hayop at malansang isda." "While a people preserves its language. According to Fr. it preserves the marks of liberty. "The document (the retraction). Balaguer’s copy but which are not the case in the original. This incident was revealed by Fr. Rizal wrote with the help of a priest a form of retraction to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. Balaguer had to dictate from the short formula of Fr." Rizal realized (perhaps. However. according to Fr. Balaguer did "not know nor . which is "that of the Archbishop" was "the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal" (underscoring supplied). he was made to believe that it was the one that faithfully reproduced the original in comparison to that of Fr. Very early in 1895." 14 In his own word quoted above. inclosed with the priest’s letter. Neither the Archbishop nor Fr. Balaguer said that he received two original texts of the retraction. contained "the changes which You (Fr. What they was saw a copy done by one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting while the original (almost eaten by termites) was kept by some friars. not having seen the original himself. the "exact copy" came from the Archbishop! He called it "exact" because. The truth is that. The first.S. Pi had fervently hoped. Rizal had written a retraction in Dapitan. Balaguer.. the difference between that of the Archbishop (the "exact" copy) and that of Fr. Pi. Rizal fell in love with Josephine and wanted to marry her canonically but he was required to sign a profession of faith and to write retraction. Josephine Bracken came to Dapitan with her adopted father who wanted to be cured of his blindness by Dr. where deviated from the "exact" copy) had been made. rather late) that he had written and given to a priest what the friars had been trying by all means to get from him. was that Rizal’s addition of the phrases was the retoration of the phrases found in the original which had been omitted in Fr.
15 "There can be no tyrants where there are no slaves. Rizal studied under Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz – a well-known teacher of young boys. even the love of the pretty girl and a good job could make him forgets his mission in life.S. But he was dedicated to a noble mission . 6 months and 11 days old • What is the first novel of Rizal o Noli Me Tangere • What is the title of Rizal's unfinished novel in Tagalog? o Nakamisa • Where and when did he finish his Bachelor of Arts degree? o Ateneo Municipal (now Ateneo de Manila) on March 23. he would have stayed permanently in Japan. • Who was the youngest sister of Rizal? o Soledad • Who was the oldest sister of Rizal? o Saturnina • Where did Rizal obtain his early schooling? o Jose Rizal obtained his early schooling at a private school in Biñan. for the Spanish legation offered him a job with a high salary. If Rizal were a man without patriotism and without self-control." 17 Frequently Asked Questions • How old was Rizal when he died? o 35 years. He could have married beautiful O-sei-san and lived happily with her. he was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Medicine." "Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinangalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan.BIOLOGY .the welfare and freedom of his oppressed people. 1884. on June 21. • Who became Rizal’s wife? How did they meet? Aileen Grace Delima B. He could have a good life in Japan." "The youth is the hope of our future. 1872 • When and where did Rizal start formal schooling? o In Biñan on 1869 • What was Rizal's first poem? o "Sa aking mga kababata" • What was Rizal’s first winning literary piece on the competition sponsored by the ArtisticLiterary Lyceum? o A La Juventud Filipina • When and where did Rizal finish his medical course? o Central University of Manila. Rizal was nine (9) years old when his parents sent to him to study in Biñan. • Why did Rizal leave Japan when he was happy in that beautiful country and was in loved with a pretty Japanese girl? o There is no doubt that Rizal and O-sei-san were deeply in love. And nothing." "He who does not know how to look back at where he came from will never get to his destination. because Biñan at that time was famous for its private school.
16 • To Jose Rizal. others the chisel. what is the most important contribution of every Filipino to his country’s progress? o The main thing is that every Filipino must be a good man. He falls in love with a pretty Irish girl from Hongkong name Josephine Bracken. a good citizen so that he can help his country to progress by contributing his heart. to treated by Jose Rizal.) • Why did Leonor Rivera break her engagement with Rizal? Who did she marry? o Another sorrow of Rizal in Madrid was the break-up of his engagement with Leonor Rivera. Unfortunately. Aileen Grace Delima B. we ought to work always. there only child-a-boy. This sorrowful news broke his heart. be his arm. a British Engineer in the Manila. Together they lived as man and wife in Dapitan.S. I prefer the pen. Rizal fails to cure Taufer’s blindness.died three hours after his birth. George Taufer. On my part. The principal tool of the heart and the head is the pen. and if need. Other prefer the brush. Josephine proved to be worthy of Rizal.o Rizal has his last romance in Dapitan.BIOLOGY . Dagupan Railway. Josephine made Rizal happy. This girl accompanied her blind foster father. but he won the love of Josephine. with the arm when the time comes when physical strength is needed. One cold day in December 1890 he received a letter from Leonor announcing her marriage with Henry Kipping. (With the head and heart.
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