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Schaum's Introduction to Mathematical Economics -- 532

Schaum's Introduction to Mathematical Economics -- 532

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[Perfect 'far p:r,e:'"1e_ls,1

Irev'ie-_ - -, -

To the memory of my parents"

~d'ward 1: .lJ 0 wfing , M.D. and M8J)" H~ Dowllngl

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I

CM PTER 2

IECO'I'U,lmriic' Ap,Licatlill'ns, ,Oi' Graphs, ,an:d i-qluatiifJ!'ns

1.1 ~ _ 5.1 lin", U'uP;)~'" nn!l IJC:'IlI.;Jnd An']), ~s.

1..31 hmr:nnu: D~IC'm:mjinu:m !\1~ dr:t 104,'. , .. [ J\f nl'lI~'iI~

(M PlER:3

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l.~ 1,'mjL~ ].) ['I IlIUlllU)'. l~ Th~~opc' uf Yr,rilim:~~r

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l·uEHinwl I. 3..6 Dl:lfl\ Ilj'lll L' uly1:iolil 3,." RuJl!!io d'

[li"cn:n~il'llillfm " , IHi her nrdf."1i D 'rli .d'i'lo'l: _ _ ~Y'lmr~iC'il~

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312

1:515"Dif J:I' ,D'e'rhJ,lti1le' in I '~~themiiltiirs alTIu!l IEclfU,.rics, !5:1 o:I.~, ~.n lit: - 109 aad DCCf~UloiJIIIg ["unruu[J'" ~U: t,lllll _" ill nnd

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C'al~cubIS Ilf jlultivariiabllj fUllnm,DM,

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,6.,6 'Ca:n"I Lr, incd Op~imi1.llli(lfli I lr M",dlj\ fl' b)\;

CH PlER 7

CHAPT R B

CHAPTER 9

CHAPTER 10

CHAPTER 11

I"UlH:tiUlH, m h':()]!H'll'l1i :'<ri" '6.7 HUllflog.cncQu,," PrrodIH;~ii'lr~ I' unc [I ons 6.H Kclums 'ff! 'SCi..,I~. IfJ.9 t'f.nlml~ltil~fI ~)'

f' )'bh~lJtlUt;t~;lc ... ,rru~UCI i~"Jn '·uncl'"n b. n~, r,~h'UI.LUinn III

('Ml~uml ~=~Wd;C:lI~ jn,l ~ult.:.llhnlOn r~:H.lu~uun I !lIn~IOII'I.'"

b'po'nential and Loga'fi'thlnri[ IFunction!; 1.411

".W L"'I}l,.JIlt.:nli.~ll-u"t:uun 7.1 t u~urilhml~ F'IU'IthU!l'

l' .. J fJr'4. p::rlu:... f I \p~~nC:"[I1h and ll,t~,jnl h m.... ..,.4, NOJilinul

P 'punenhal nd lU~.JnthllHI: fUJu;nnn."," 1.5 Snh.ln~ N'nmral "JlonL nIHIl dncl rn' 0 I nthuut" FUnClUJil'b 7.6 l .... lg.iJrilhmic

l'r n~turn1 tU~ln Nll ~,unlincur FunCliHIl'"

bpon,enrtial and L;ogarithm'~c Fu[nm1ons ffin

11~IUIDI.ic5 110

:ttl Lnh::rc!il f'ump-tlUruJung. oN,,! hlleCIII\i~ \':'( unnn ~ R.1h:' ~.t

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liffs felnti,Ei,th3ln cd bpome'Rtia I an dl lO,g'ilrl'UlMi,f fUlnctiuns

9. ~ ~~UlI!!s 11'1 Illi~',1 r~111 i.u~nn 'g,.2: I h~hcr~Urtlt'r D "lfi\ n~\,~,

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tugnu1knm: FUr'nC'liun, ,,~, LII.l.£unlhnlllc mJdh!h':Il1~i_ "io:l1

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the' fUlndamen'tals of U1n'ear (lor IMiltri:I' A)lge:bra :I}g,

m. ~ lln.: ,Rutc ul Iluh';.Jjr ,1\h~",l1rili 'W~ n'i!t1nuum~ ;~lf1d

J't;mr~ uu .. \ddJUun anti '~uhtT._tlll'm~ ut M(l~nn~

m.4, S"';,IL r \hmIUl1li"J]~h,tn Ul.:5i Vcc~or \I~ulhrli~. m!!!"ln

m.6, Mulllpllc:Jmron of M l1nCL;!\.. IU.1 ( (ltl1mlt.n.llh~. -\""II,KI:ni\'.:. nd DI:\~J IhUl~"'!C: luv. ... 111 M!'I~fi" ,\I~l.!bra. IO.M 'Mt'n"~l"" "ntll

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I ~~untIOn

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o! DC'm,cnmrllunl U.fiI. ~ "1!U:'ru~ .mill 'L1J111l1l1ll - T,u'liICC'oi..

~ t,l' h1l"'''~ M:urirc"i: II.! ~ ol\inlt Line ~f ~141!!!~UI}n .. \\ Illh 'lht:

I nversc, I["_~ Cr imcr's ftuh. In~ J1HU1:\ S'IIIl!llnn~

CHAPTER 2

(IHAPTER 14

eM PTEA '15

[IHAPlER 11

SlpediaL D'l!te'rm~namts aAld Matrices, ,ilJ'nd Thatr US,!, lin EcorIJDmffia

U:_.~ 1111~ ruUltmm. 1~.2 ~~ nt;~'I'I~n. ~,u' The

Dp'l~rll'il'lUli~~m ~J.,01 I~ hf:h~''f,OIil1c'r H~Oj.ium. 'U..:.~ Th1.:

Dunh:h.:d I h:'Ji;Ul rl'rJr ,( umlriH l;Jed t Jplrm!/.J{inn.

I,!.f't In['LliI fhl~'"IJU j\f1iiJI]~,!'oL"" U.l' hlllr.u~'h!n!'l.tH:: R~mt ... n~L!I Vt;crm"'i '!~ ig-=fI\"dul!:'i" lEil~n\ e LlI'~).

COlmpaFa'tive StatHts ailid C,o'ncavl' 1"regllli',a'mm~m!J1 ,284,

IIl,,~ hnn'ldiU:li,u:n Itn ,uml1'ilifH'IJI\.";: "r~l~ . U..! I( ump.n.uj,!~

~L.diL"'i "~'h f)lI1c ~':mJ ~tl,~nuu ... 'tlln~!11 .... 11,t. ,U..;l 'l',umiPilrnli\i~

~tilli!J,; Yliith ~'I'fiifC Ihnn Onle Endiflll;( nl)lI!'1 V!.Ir~.uhh:

1ll.41 nmpar[JIu,'('I. u~, IUf Ofli1 ifllil ~.nllfll f'm,hlli:mm!.

1,3,5 c.",mp~Fl.tI~~ e SI.<:IlIes '''i.~d sn CLtn!'o~ruincd Orl~rnllmiulli. 1111U', Th,' F.n\,.:hlp",: Theorem. Ill.7' r'nnctJl\'1." l;I!rngramm'l!1I~ :md ~nl:LI~hlh!\ un~LlI'.llnt ...

IIA'teglrail Calculus:: Thlel~nd,e'flll!1i'te Im'teg'ra*, ],2,11

~'41.'1 ~111~l!r.I~H·1I1 ~4.! Hulc~ nf hn!.:~fillnm. Ui .. J Injmi.lll

['omJ1~UJll! nnd rhUUi,,-hur~ _ nmJilUms. 1, •.• 41 Imeg;r.1I11f11it b) SUI'ri~1u.mun. 11,-1.5 In'!.!.! If lI'l1lllll h\\' P ~rI ... , t.,tt. ~(itU'ul!ll1~1!

AflJ1hc.- .. ~liurl!

IlntegralltalcuI1illl:S: The Delll'dt! Entegllral 34:2~

m5.'~ A rlt~~ l nd~r .. I un'!.: ~'-.l ~n,(.;. D~'ftmh:: ]1I1;C,I1-rt'l1.

~:";jq,1 'Ihe tUlTildrmcnl;'1~ 1"cf~rL1'11'iI1I.'1 r1~h;ul~ II~A Pirlll.Jrh:ni~ c'l DchfUrt: ~nh:~Is. U:.!! \''':(1 "('~\Wl!:n (~U",,'~ IS"fj Imprup!:1r

h~t~1!'al'~ 115.'1 [:1 ~d'llll..ilI·'" Kif ,~;.H, ·un .. um~t!O' MIld

rtU~du~~r,.· Sml'plu<!l!. t5.Q' Ihe ndinnc I nh:~rnl un.dPmb~!hdml~c"

f\1rrd: .. (llrder DiHerrenH ai, Eqlualti D'IIS, l,eU!;

~16~m rldifliul.1l1i1" and .1Il~fl1'.... '~"1 (~~n~rn' formtdu 'for

Fir .. t-Ordur I ml".lr nl~rrcrclIIl~J ~ llu.J~'iul'!1'" l,ft.J, "'l.~_1

01 r f~ fi! n'~ j,a I if: IqIU,.l.U ~un~I" anti Parliill 1t1 h.' gfallol,ln" 16~.:I,! n'rl'!~m i rnlj; I ... 1ur~ Uw .. !li Ru'Ic-,'" fur du: :Iflle~rn[m factor.

r16.6, Scr'.mui'''l~~ lIr \'~Iri, hh.:" Ui.' ,,;unnrmc ;I'\,pph(3nul!I:ti Ih'IIJI, (-ihol~ ~ljll~I'"ttm~ rur ni'lh.;rcm~ II P.1G.~lhliW!n:o.

lF1hst .. I'rdltr Diffie:rel:ceJ' Equath)ns,

17,"1 rh:hmhllll1~ und l.\!'nc'cpf.. '1'7.1 .J~n~r 1 !llfmUmlJi ~,n,r

liill''''I-Urd~r ~ mCiU Ddl'cf,-"fll:il: 1:lQlIHtIHlrli"i< j',JI 1~IInUh) Conduions. 11'7,...1 1..r.lggl!d [n('~HII~c D\;lcmllmulinn M,ndell. 17.$ l1l,e ('(lIhloli,C h M'odct n~', -n1t:ll~~n~ III '\1twJl:!'ll

11''1.7 ,rha"i~ nl~L~ film", fnr Ilm·l."r"nt~ 1~"~U{ljUh'ILIo..

CHAP1 R 18

CHAPTER 1.9

CHAPTER 21

nd )(

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Dt~'"I1'limiWli i~, 'me 'I)~:i ,offiindmg ~iil,~' deriy,a~i¥~ or l~' :frum~~oml. ,I~ ~f:woJveS! 'Q~lhl1Ql, ,DlQ17,e: ~mpl]~~-i!d '~btl ,~.lyws:~, [1;:'W lu~nde!!1 :(g\f 'rmm~lgs '~t1! g, 8ii¥m~r~, t~ ~l!rlrrtiPg '~h1lm'~$; o-f d~ffcmlfitiftliiO'nrM-, f1!Jliitdolli, I!lwlfi, ia'S J' !!!! If.' ,)~ otbet' :funmOfi$ lutbl U «I') Mid -~"I')-.tr.:: rummJonIJy .~"..A wha::r~ ,c;' lind ,Ij Wi!:! 'lxitJii, l1illi--ed&dIi.""'oji~~fi""'-~u_ ~ ,-:-I-,_,ii:.iili,;;;,-----II,L:ij: ..... , ,fi'''- 1:!iiji: .. :"I1 '~~~-:-w

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The dm"'.a:Lirv~ o:f - :lime!ll!f Imlloti,Qol~) ::I! ,fl-R '*' ", ~ C'Cjuel [0 ttl!; [h,C) cooliciJent. o:fx" T:he d~ri~lli~e ,of :0 "~l3ilti~!I;' ,rllii~d ~ h: ti~l pil''llfC£1I g il3d~YI' ~lI!a!l. 'to, ~t.b~: ~gem~i:,lWt, o.f tilt vW'~llb:JiI!l,w:tiin~ ,tJ1~ ,d~iiii,v:iltli)li!!l! ,0'1' ,8, il~~tli,tanL & ,dmp), ~

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Sec 4110 Pro'~m ,]."",

3~ 1::4 'l'i-!!!./Glfll' &wn LlfldDfl~cg

ne d;cIii!''l3iliv~ ~r ilill,lnmI ,o.t: two, f,U~li:omiS If#!} - M~~ '" ,&(~,,*!lC ,Itx) ~d, ,!II~Ai) ,UR;I hotll, d!ill'~fesjlrtUlb'le WDt..~,0~ ill el;l,W!iI :001 tilt: sum ,O'J' the Id~m,qU;m. of ~C: ~firJj,;,id9Jj:6~ :NnCiLiam:. ,Simlall,i{., [~ ,der[va:ti,'VIe, O:f rtbiil! diff1;TfC~ '(J£ 1.'WO ifWilcijOOJ lis l'uluaJ ~Q ~. diJfe:~~ 'Q'L thei dJirJl!l!!1.tJRS: Qf rJJ~ ~ ifJmCtiW5,

Given tv.)1 .. ~) ~ JJ{iJ!),

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De Ide;n.iI!;I),liivt, of III ,miilut1 '(~) ,... itt) !:h(.r)., 'wKR I(li) lmid ,fi{::C)i]~I~ bIll'h d1ffemnlJijarmilc :f'!.!l.nmo.n,.·~ ~ui!ll IIQ,tbc: rlQ~;(~~nn :Pl!.llupli!:d,b;y ·~~Ull ;t!)=dilJn\i[t ... ~ nf tll!~ ~goorJ: 'l~ijlD rm~ $l!C(lo.d; fWidWl. mUll!ip.l'Itlil, by lihic *ri\l.ali.1t,c IQ~ ~~ :IinL. CU;YM, Jtl' I!!!! J(x), •. "'{~.>.

flfJ) ._ g;(~) . J~··(~l ... h(J() ,i, '~{l'} (3,1)

ED'.MPI!.!E tOI, (;ti~ /{~) ~ :k~{;n '=' :5), ~w~l' 0:::; ~ lind 1~(.1) ""' :h; "" S. ~Bl dtc. bl!tlvir1_~ ,li!ri'i1ii~ 8'(,1:) - .or andl f.I'I(.IJI ,., .3 •. nco ~ 11iI'MI!il~lItiJQ !]D_: !!'fiI~, :iIlI ma·fU:OOlWt..mr rQMuI~, ,(3,j)~

rei(' w ib".(2) -+ ~ ~ ~)O,1I)1

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lGi1.!!1JWJ:310r 'l~me3 fbe ,CiI'er.i'¥a1ir'.i't'i' flif tbri. ,OODQmililf.tm,. atru dl¥id!ldl by the: ,d~ntUmMh1f Q,~ mlltU,

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Sec: ~h:1i'W; .!-.12, uti ~~t~i :,~ lamllilI:iHYilml.iOJ'·dM:. flUte., _ ~I$ :uti.

JI.10,'1 Dc. IG .. nj'~ ,~, ,~toJiJ! llgll

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ttN} ;;:; ~[gtl)]"=~ ,;, '''~Z)I (15)

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,3"';;'_ :ny. Clvfn, RrlI,

GWYM ,0 toln,'fJIJift ~i'llaD'lIlr aliso m1tcd a j1mdim ~f a ~n~tWltj,i'n wlri:ttbi J' ~S' ,a, .fw:CliDn 'af U ,mdl ;,jln tum is, ,3, '~Qtl of ..vi' tM~: is, "= If~) am:i, ~ ,,,,"' jJ(:.c:'). "~n y 0:3 II¥(xlll ,andtl'u~ dlenwtlV~Qif' IWim:hJ ~:m ,x is CQiU~, to 'tbe d!ui1l'ath'l' 'QJ Ithe mm: fWldlmt 'wilh ft"-spem '. U 'ti;imes ~e deri¥al~\fe Qf Itbe 'K:oond 'iUI1Im.iw, wjilib ,~~ 1m' X!

'EXMI~ 113, 'Comid'el" ~M 'W~G:l!~1 !I ;;: (~-+ 3)~. TO !Usc: 1~ thaiia :N1_c" I~t ,I ';;': 'II ,.nd ~~' J.r ¥ 3. D~ '''ylldu 9 ,4r ,Mdl ,dwtM ;;; nk, :SUbstitil~:e: 'Iiluc: '~UI.l-1l ~fI, U"'6)~

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g,HlIGlfER·ORDIR, DJlt'RIVATl:VES,

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~ (!, I~ '!',I!;JtI~ !;,IllY;"", 'I;I!:I:~'!1lr !Iii!~ll _ !!!!!!I!I _ !I!li I;,.---~, u_n,.~~~'_ 1m _ "" :'111}'- ~g ~'Y ' '!;!!II!, ~..mJ-""I!f"'- ~ _~_ru_

~nd.lid£'l' Id£:ri,¥Ql~,v'O!i;'m., 'R~GM!!f"a~it~ Iderh.Uw:s, .. ~ :['C;\I,MiI by ~P~yOCng; the rul:c& O'f' ,Hercn,1ia;. lion m ilowu·c.' dCiDrm1lves, ns liUliidrated 1m, Emmp'lc :1,4, a:mti ill"!m!~d b!JP!:lob1~e. 1.2.0' Mil 321.

Hlig:btt,.g«[~f·dIm~l;i~;!!. :f!..1\t '[~U;[j;dl ~ :~~~~I)I·. Wl~ ~ rn:_~ 'I!!~di1feten1~MliI31IJ ~o ·!k:n\'IJ:l~. lOt !1M

p.~viQ~ I®'mN, 1bJQ. iIi'lP:jl ... ~ +-iT + W.

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'lilNhoouctOF)' '~\lGll0m;iCS, ,de.o.15 mQt~. lI!)ien wim~pticil !r~nctihm iD'Whi!@,~li1e ,(j'epmlSen:i 'V8ri!nille. !!Jp~.r& ~ th.E le(~: tJlf tll~ Eq,ul .i!lp :~d WA':' ~d~~n,'.tIl1~¥~bl~I~, ~ 'tb~ risht ~qiu~m:Uy cnoowt1!I::r:dm m.a:R M~. ~IiiOmiCS, oo~ b:.Q~ef;', ,am ,tmpl'i;i~' jwrDi{JMm. wmcbbtilU:i; yatja:bl~, .8n~ ,ooDs1aa;1S aR; '10 'me: Idt 'Q~' th~·'~.llgJ :srgn~ lome lm,Jid~. (,11'I1~iiODS 'ClWI ~ :e~, allnre~.lrtted 'l'Ol e~'lieilt f\iillldllCflS 'b¥ :iM¥~PPi :£or the 'd~pM.nlvariaMe· ,lnlerms ,of 'the: .iru:jh::Jlendell~ 'Y.afhlb.IJ~ otJ:nu~

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EXililIl\pie U~ Ilmdl Pro'blJcmi: ~l.l1, 3.23" -1,;15,;, :andi ~.2i ;IlK!' SiC!C' ~(;tt.Qn :S.lD iind i\tiWr:rms S.2tl'. 5:~~1 I' :I!ISI. a~d: fl~,

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41.

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I., I' _;J_" "1" -" ~ .H, ',. "" -"",-4)1" ~ -~, 'd;;;'~' '. g' ~;

_ 1:-' - ~ ~.' =. 11

,DIi"'1J'x"" "1' ~: '71, ~ru~I~-"'''' ~'1if.·~"'·~ ~Jif'

.n Ji(-J:~) - '18\1i - 1:&. i\1:

,rtf ';;:;: ~8;(!) .. ;rIl'II-1 .:= '£IJ:-l_!;I;:. '9.

,dt ,2' . '\G"

\'IIi.'.' o.~., U·~, . 'i'llo .. : IiIl" "'0:' ~-c- , 'l AI d!~8~- ~rn {r~~MDi'l!io:llI'l (M; lrtllil..,~-- (tu:I""i~:m!I!L D:eu~' .!i-~

1ilS!'!~ ~ ~~!t!i :r _ \'l ~!_r _~ ~Uy _I!Y: _ .,""'~.. . _ _.!iIJC _ ....... _ .. _ _. __ !~,q, ~ __ ~ _~ __ . _. _" I~

,b~mdeB,t",airia!bte01 ~t!l ~~:k ·as )" MUll! tlt~;~~ni~, y.an.b~ IO~ ~ nib! ~ s:

d'" ~'"",: s{' + 5r - Iii ,b J C "" ~rl - 9j .. j,- 21~' -68:

':::' ~ :[,61' +- !i

"')1 ,~' .~ ·iIi .~ lIT' d..p' '_ '1M' _ n~ ,dq ........,. ~

'D:IE :PR,Q(IltrCT RIJII)E,

19~ 'G,iveg, , "'! .n;r;:~ "" S\;""(~ ,_ 7}" (a:)1 'uee m'e .p:rodu~mAiI~ IlD' ~lmd, ~u ~il!~hI11!1)ivc. (101,)1 s.1m.;pl'ily 'tbel iP~ f_elion rrl;mt Q.~ ~lM[I, hili, ~ (hl"riwa'lJ1,!~i (Iii) O:n:llprurc, t!li.c~,'WO Clft!lV,lIl1lV.,

~l R~Im:G ttll'Ne· ~r~1,!!1!!! 'fer ~ p:rod~ Plij'~ p;gm ,(;iI:.31~,

J'tr) '"'" ,.~l· Jj!'(~), ~. h{x) ., !;"'{Xl

Id d::rc) !II S~ ,wdl h{~), - ~ ,.. 7,. ~, r"(.;f.)1 ... ::&&J, ~J, lI"(dt), !II, J .. :!i~LlJ.!~ lbe~lfI1'~!!!· Ia. ~ p:woduci - :li1Illlil :(~Fm!lilJo"

b~ S~: "tbe, lim,iiDl1I_I~, hI mWti,~D,

,',.,. ~t:h·~7) ... · 'Ik·=~

)il :ii' '7.5t1 ~. t41~'

e).1 'fbe: ~'Ili91ii~"e!· Ji"iu.ooi :i.rIi pam tp:) aM, tb) :Ire id:enRtil. "iI:'be diMi,'Ii\ tiMe '00:' ~ pl.odUCil: mill be :&I!.!;MI ~bI;' ,c:itb,Cii' mctbod" bUI ,iii th~ ,flJDii:r.lmil P'ill:W mQj\if!! ~~fa~i!d, 'tbe'piiOlilum: irull!i' ~~ m_~w.I" K_lw,'wil\ed~ I!JJ :~I!I!li~m,etbgd. hell" 'to ,~. ItrfiWeliE

3i.:m. Rru!JI~LllAtom 3~'iI'. iRlru'o'ciQ! I"'" f(~):o;o; f~4 9;j(~+ 11).,

d') 'lei: ,!1!(~,) ,~:-!!!' $ ,i;OOll!!(lt) ... iI" "'" U. 'Deco ,r'()) .... ,ewr' ~Uld ,""f;t)""" ~. SI.I'!m':wHnp: Itb-e:stl !ihl(')jt~

I~J;J)"

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= ,~j1J .jl. Illik'" "I- atl,~ SSt' ",,' ~'~L~ -t lkil ,-it- .;~

"')' :SImp~ifyJng 'Om (b'u'OO,IbI'UllltipniGUio:D.,

ji .. ~~ ·,"6,H~ ~ H} ... Ji'~!!Il '. U~ "". &:ii. :fIf!I'

J.n. 'D~g';;~f;i:1Irli1i~:i!: {,tiiLCb Iill" tbel rO:I!IOfif.\\ifl8 f;li.'Rli~.JUi' U!1lug; I(ht':·p~~ flu.1_C'.. ,Nf)'l~ Th~ IfIlIKi~ oJ prohlems, :is p~1!1~ ke:p~'~'PI.ei.n tim: .ao£!1! 6tb~ f is\e~Oflil, of ItIlt,C' 1bH~, 118 ~Ii'iBbl:C, :ilI~mlloo;l1Si, '001 ~~,Ilmv '!1ar1:QWj, mI~wnl'k~ While it ~ p~n~ra:n!;j] o:fteon~~i'e!r ~'ll sim;pm, ~, fLUQC~~[!;!, IrdI~'bI:'~ly IbeifQ:li'~:m'll;ro,g ~. ~rir1!'~'Ii~ia~J:dyhJ:S, dl~l)'uIDel!i1 to fh~r IProbl~m9, ;Q-gs1\1\~1I!l iin~eIJ~n.g mo' !lliiJllbe11'p1 ilhLe. 5tgden~ Ik! m~k!i' 'ih~ mJ~ mn!rt:: cd5'1llil(i~Ilf~

d'] P ~ 1(4r2> 3)(h~~

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b''--1J.~1~~.J,I ~~~J =!i~, -~-+ ~'!lir == ~-,~'

b) }1'" 1;~(.3ci~~ = 12)

::"~ 'lX;ltlt) it- !~~ - 1Jl)(6kj) "" 4hil!! +- .l.~~('i-7~= l:n ,I.~ - ''1.~ t) .y "" I(h' "'" )}~ '~I)

: .., (21·' * ll)~lSi~) t- I(:ir: '~I:}t~) ,'" ~ ... '7~A --I' 24,~ ~ !il4_.;;11 ,,_. S~~ "" ,~~ ti~~

d') :1:' ,,,,,,, .(~, ~, W')(5 '"I- 4~)

d'"

'd~ '"'(3:-12tl(,W)',,"~'5: ',~f)(~3~) "'" nf'~~~1J~lJ)fi-IW3 ~4:fJil+'1U'-lW

QUOJ]E;,' 'I - I[lLE ,1'0., GIven

(I~)I find Ilh~ 1diC::I'iil!l'at~"'!il!, dl~I:IYI ~, "I; I[be qygth::;flt.W~C\. tl'!)1 !iII!\lpUf¥ Il'!!!' tu.Biinifi!l iii)' dlvbji.:;m, ,g&!l *~Q Itaikt: h~,~wi"ati.~. ~C) Co;MpMl 'the' tw-o d~rl'¥§j¥d,

10::1)1 Fmmr (J.f). Il'b~ fQr.m",hIJ for ~hc' quf!i!ilifmr niiki IU,

fl(JI)1 f!!I1 ~,). RJ.tj =,~~I "I!'~!!

. ", Il~(tHF

~i'h~,gt~) ''''''Ilie fi1JifiI!l'lilt'if ",,~~,~ 16.\'" mlii{.t) == ~B d'¢mlmm:tu;(i(¥ '- :h:" 'D!k~ ~ hwM!1M1 Ikri,'JiIiltl!;"Q"

rr;u·;lID .'~~YYil! ~

bJ SlmpLU:)ing 'me 'ru;GiDd '~~ton !irsl ~t' di,!O'i!ilim.

o.t.' M;"

,r ." 1 .... _ - . ""';5;1:1.- h:"l

:~ . -

" .". ,l~~ - 'lSi"

~JI "Hil:! (lie riYiitr~~, ","lil] ,JlJW.!i::!i'.!!I ~I ilh~ '~tl if d~ I~tm\~!ity~ !b\:u ~ :[il~!i@f[j ~~ :mW'rntiJ~, dlo '(ioli~fil. ~mb:J IkOO:HilI9 Im_fiile: b:n~wU. ,AI, ~.Dt!I! ~~Oi!IUi mJi~ Ii 'w,y 'liOl ~ ,~mW!!k

l.'lII_3-., DiB~!nli8ile each C\f 'llie :FbtlbwlJlg 'NMtlfiQS: 'b:li' mClitDtl, ,of Ilhjj:: q~otien1.mle" ,COniIlU 'tiD, la~ly ~h e. liUit~ 1m 1hefonct_~oms: !J15. :g;i,'Vi!!Di~ Uier, w'hC=II1 ail'! die mla. :bn~e:~, mM~eRld, the 'fiUmtimu: 'm~ ~. :stWlpli1ii!.ld 'Ii"~, and ~:Ile' ,~BSie:si nl10 3pplr:e'dJ,

]is _;b~1 ifl' )1 -. 4.r'

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1~1 ... 2tor -!JW: - mil'- jlrnlr (~'i:l 1-'1l: - ~;)1

(.AI' ~ ID

4 ~~ - ~)~6]1 ... (~_' l'JlQ;) _ ~ _ . .llD. _.l!&r ... ~ _2fi

~-b' {It - ~r == (&: - sr~ (8.t ~ . .s)~

,o"'!'Hi'-~"!li~1 ",,_, I!.__g:,. '''~I

'IIIE GENf:JRAJ.;lIID PUWt;:[l:mNmON RilltE

3014,. !O~~ ,l!';;::l' _~~' +,8);01,. (!~) I!!J$~ 'l'h~ ~m~l~~ ~~r; f-Um.:tiiQllryl~, 'to ,W 'L~ ded\llati;Ytl: (Ib,) rim,p~1[l'!' the wn,m'!lD :fiI'si ~'§llll'arri_l1ig: i~, udllben, 'take tile Id~ti1!,aMw;.;1 (c)CQm~le an~a,

n) ~m, the ~~.ra[tud '~r ru]!CijQ!J, IMI¢ m (.l~! i! R:f.l J:i[ft~'~r"

few)'" tlf,m,t;lr-' . ,~rr~)

l'I.ei!'iIii' S.!i[Jl)1 ,,", k 'Ill, 8'{oT.) ... .s. ,and 11: ,,", 2. SiI,lI!!S!UlIte. 'i:hf~ WI~, m~ ~b.'Ci' ~'l~~~ 'PQ~r I~dog mk.

&) :~, tll'£lfU~~ :fiJR1i:iM '~~n, 'I(lik,e '~k ,*f;i~l~.

Y I"" (~4' S)(S;f +- :S) ""'"15T.+ ,,,,'t,,~ J'I "'" :SUt¥ RO

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'" !V(l;'S __ • L_" - - - - __ ~~. -~F- ~ ~_ __ _ _~ , \I., ~, _

[power fWJCOO:1I1 !rUle III fa*,"' ;;md mme-l~'

&H~ :fi~ilI the' .ri:¥af~~i;f: ~iWh, ,pf 'lb~ fnU~Wi;g ~w~tl~ wiUlilhem:l,p ad' th~ ,l\tne;j'--!l'l'i~~ pg~j' '[u!u!liitl~, rul~,

ld J!.' (~ +9)~'

HciI'iC IIP") ","' 'fiiI' +9'" £,,~ot,~,:~ 1:&r.1';~ ,g ~ 4. Sui~rnllJl.c:m 'iiDI ~~ ~r: fundioo-nlile;. ,~I - ,:,(~ + DI}JI-'! ,;, ~ba.r

,",,' 4~~ + ~., l®iF·:_ ,~~~ +~t

nrsl ;cM\<'C,ft 'libi:i :fg~lJ 1'01 :BJI' t-.ui~r ,e~rm,wlm~~ 'fmm,

y 5ij :(1.w'+' .l!lr +- ,j~~~ t~ liWW' ~~ plicliiiilig; ~'ll!i\Cif~lIIJt~j:~n if1!f~

" '.;;;;: '~l'l(iil" + :W3ir.' t, 3)-!il, "(2mr +. 1'3)1 = ~1(2-W~+ '~~)fi~ '*" l--.i~',*, 3)~ ~.C1~:+U,}

"""~~~~~

fl;/ * U& $l)'~

~) ,j! ~ V:34, = lt1i2i

COD!~'eIiil:.m.:e. e.~ieiJllo, ii,,~ :lJ1:lile:l~imJ, IIll.ai diH_~oo:mili8.r~, >' .. ~I - r6.~JI;I,

,t ""I~:M' - ~)~m. ( .... l'h)

e)

Cllli¥!I:II, (0 lUI ~q,Ii.!ti~nt' iDmn;' 'I;b~D ~ tIlb' ,d~_:riI;;"'~t"c', ., "'" (4il,. 94,r!i.l

jI""" .... ;k4i/ ... 'P4:l-,m. 1(~2i!')""" .,...,~il(:~· '''9~J'-~ "'!~""ir

... , ._ =:iP'~=-~

(.,iI' -t 9t)~Vt~ + '9<Iri

'CILUN RDlliE

:1.16,. [J~-IiI\u~dlIJiLiDmh~'lil) :!imd; the' *riv~ti:¥'e ,dytu f!:ilJieam. !!lflhe fenD., :~tioru, o:f' __ fu~t~Il~, IChe~ ,taU ;QM'q.r '08, ,OUJ' ~01",fI 'witb the I~mend~, :Pfl<l.rer :fImmoamle"potin..l: '~b.at ~b_ei ~it.eplhi!dJ ~ Ifilifii:tioa tiWe iii :si:lHm;dy ill ~diliiledl ~. or Iihe cbalii11 fijl~

,i'Ji) Y "'" ,(~i' ... 5;r

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t) y~{~=U"

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3i.lIlT. 'ID;do, :P:oclblem 3,;1.6. gly.oo:

... t., 'Ii,!' :"". t~ .I. "jI'_ - l''fl

gl ~,- ~ • ril!Uji I JI

.um, J~ ,~ 1Ili~' iil!:ldl ,w '!ii!' ~,+- l~ = '~~ ltlli!li .if#t1:N '''''' :5~ Pd, dllf. .... ':':+1. :S~'U;Li~ m 'OI.~,)~ ~. == 5.u~tb -ic 3) ,= 1(J.O.t· -t 'liS) rt

&1)1 }I'~ ' ~r' ..." k,)tiI'

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,dI, ~'!ii •• ~ '" 8-1~ ill "II,,,_ Mi..,JlI

_- -!l-,o!.l!I!I f~'-'-:) -'\-~. :"""'j'~

,~(-~+ 96~~'-c~+lIlf'

COi-MBIN':_'1lI0N O-'RI]LD

~.. Use wltatm'r N'Di11lOOm:tion of ~, b ,1lae&Sll)! to 'find Itbe ,dernwtJim '0'r ~k (DI:lowilD:S :WD:OiUll;. 109 'om 'nm_,:llf,y the: lorigjna.1l~bmfiDl,1lIe,' ,ere .~i·berDite~lf~ept Ihm,Jt~lkI' iluc5)j)ta;h:!: Imel :pt.mi!OOl Iltf '~Iil!:1 ,mll~t

1111_1 -, _ ~bC'k= I.)

~ ,OY ,_. ,Sx~1

• 'Iitlm!::k!a m~eJ ,m 'ilIlAO~i Wilh ,Eli tpJOdWR im~be 11~(m', H~re 00'Iili 6e: q~em :1iiIJ1t!!

oodJ the prodoo: mi:~: ~.~ Sian with: ~I 'q)OOil ._n1 ruk ~ (3~i41i -

'. ,lIt~'·C~!)1 = e(l}. N'[!l

y l[~f~)r

,~~ i{lr.) . .., k(ll! ,- 1)" ,&(ir) '""iI' ,- ,2:. !ind 'J~{j)1 - ,S •• O! _ ,~ ~~. :Rl1~ ~, '(3:"')' Jm' g'~i)1

g'I(..r} ~ ,b;' ,! .". ~ ~ ~.,JI' 3, ,'"" 12l - 31 ~~b;tt-c ~I!!,~~ ~~iQ'~ qontim~ _Ie..

{:k' -'~Kl~ -~ 1~ .... r~r~"- n~ '_5:

rl" Ii

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:simptU" 1l'le'bJ!II~~

l"''''' ~.~ ]~='-~'F_~=-~4>lk ,- ~ ~ J~·.6

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~'-1

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I$di Il~ '~be, :p.".w :_Ii ,i(1inll1riq :111, iCI~IilT.iU.C,.

,k . 'i;

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1'h!ll' iUlKilio!t m~"'t,~ I!!II ptorJ~ run, whitb iI!IRC:~«iQm.i!!.:t.mikd ~._, pQwtr.I:olh!.~ ~'ud; m.i'rJ.

~ - d- 'i'i._ - - - .... ~iJ~_gA 1-', c--~ .. iI'."' :'~- ""'1- I"''''''': ~_": ... I_ .!i:i1i ....... !i'II;ii' ... ~.:I:.'i. ,"i..., '.0I0U!iiiII.- .- .. - ,- ...... -~ .. i .. _

III .m.i: ~_ .. ,.W~I ,~I' ~""'n", nt'li Ii! "",", ,I~!I,II;, ii:I!_'.,,"-""Ci' !!!'UU 1I.l1 ... ,t""'"",,,Jj,,. 1111 ....

tl -rs(rJ ·,1 'til'" h(;tl ',g"'CIf)

g{J:} ,,,,,. :b' ",(',I~I ."", (4~- . .5)" ."nd 1'1{l!)' - 3,

1JilC [~ :~p;::.llizt,ilIlpn~rr ~~1lIJ ruI~, tor JI'(.f),

l!~~) =·~t;b'·~ ~'} . 4 """I{~ ~ ,Sjl ~ ~'"' 40 SUbstill~l.tl i:.h~ Qlif.ropt'iIal¢wi~i :illl! ~ P~I: ~~

y' IIIJI 1l' . (P...,;- ~~. ,+ (>tot - '1 ' ;.I

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.. ! ,." ,(b _ ,4~ ,. :!I'3,+ :~ """Ii, 3 "'" .119.1"- t~ 1'- cLU ''if' :3, .. .., -,~ 'L2:c ·71 :1t _. '7' (b ... 'ij:J ~ '*' "

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O.;w' ~UW ¢11~ci mI:$ ~r' Illy. 1~~tiIl_g .. )i' - p~ _, '4}(S~,· :[)Jt'bl" 7) ,Mull WJ 1lI.~ qoodew ndo inv>ot~iq: a,proiJutt.

$imn. 'Witb_ ~~I qliQIi~!1I~, ~. wh~

_Jill ... C~ -·5' ,h{l} ""'1~ +4 ."-(;;]1"'" '1 Mdi ~ W~ g.cn,e!ial~cd. ~:II" :hmm[cli m~ f:or 1~,(Jf>.

,,"(.-:, ,.., ,,~ '"" ~f· 8 ,,.. :24l~·2' :S\)~ 'S:uMl'lwttlib~ "'illIW~ hll d_qualK:mr.li rWe!..

!., III fi\E +4'J' :%4{&- ,5)1-,(:& ~ S~ ·1

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(t6lk +- 96}(~' ... ,sf ~. '';!llk'~ ~It'

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o:r.+4f

S,l

'1b dI"ik '!!hi! ,!tn~~r. ,~ ~U1d [\c:il: y O!i! tk = ,S}V" (b + ,ill) -I' ,lUId li!i~lli~ pr,yd:!.L'(;I,r:1lJl~imvtJhlm-Bl, 'Iht ~&mlim~ ,ow~r' fiimtiOi'i. :fii!lIr: ~

iIJ) Y ~ 1('," 3;~ .~ 4, ),,1

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,~~ :hi" j, ,1 ,~2x T' ,~il

!mill ,iIlu.~Mjlul;e; tliki.'!, '01!I'lue m 1(.a~'!1,l,

( ,,- ,.k, }I, )' , 'JI~'IJl_.:., >'Ii\, .'01 ..l. ,..,..,

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J' " ~ 4~ s ('b + sr (2J:: ,5,f ('k ,iL" :$)'

1':0 dJ~, '~bjj; ~n, let !!' "'" 'l~ 4~ ., ,[~ +~)-;. and W~ ~h~ prod~t 11!J~ ini\'Ohili!g ~ :pMrol~ po~'~r ~WU.tiOlll rule: t~-'.

]..:W.[)i~r~~¢Ull~~ ~th ~.r ~~, '[ia1IllilwW,e;. iiI~r; whro;~1!'i!!f ml~ .ilf:i!: ~~OO~: ~,) ,'"'" '(53 - ~U~l1:'" '4)~

U~O:IlIJ, :Ilbe iP~ 'NIe ~iiliI~J' ''lllith tbe ,g@ll:erd\:~'¢d :pawell" :riI(Jrt~l1l ru.!~

z- ,{)x -, :~~f3(lr '*' 4)r{3'}] '(h-+ '4l,,5J'

8~~!I!'i~ .. lgl1Jbt~~~n~l,

':: [II<,(k - I )(9)(:h; .... 4')~ 1- :5(l% + ,~)l ... ",~S-1- !)'];(3z +qJ~ '+, 5(~ .... ~)! _ {9~ ~-:l)(i'~ + ;} ~I

b) )' = S:r -

UWiI~bi!li l!ilii;i@lie:ili:1 ~Iii.':' i'i1(i:i'i - ,'!ifi~~ ,~,IiH~ :mlt;

I' Dl . .!!19!"'-'2!!), ~ ~'Jt+'Jj(18~M ~"(I~r '-1:){j~ + ~i}(S)

Y (:itf':!

,SimplliJOOg~j~bt!!i!):~~ .

. -' ~63.f = :~4 "*' ~~ ''Ii" 5ob-~ .... S~fla~' ~ rlr ;3 .~~ .... 6~ ro~ c, ,115r ,.f;, 3ft

Jt.l; 'g .. 'E!!' '

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1,5.tr ' 23 el' }! = ,(,~ t J)~

Ulilil:! '~htl, "OO1~!lt mk'pwj, '!ih@ ,R:O(MfIl]~icLd, 'powu fu!n;dn!l: lil.!l'e,

,! ' .... ,~,!J + ir'OS)I~· (.1~ + 23~~(h + U(l)]

;.Ii ~hi' I,V'

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tJling !::he ,g,@tl~oo: power i[1li1'1 eliift.n, mlfl:md 'Ihe q~lienJ': 'm1~ 1,/ <= 'i ~'~ 1. )~, (~f2) ,~ (~ ... L)P)'

:y - \ 2J: 'T' .s 1(2x +' :!i )"li

RIG,8"ER~O:rtDEI D'E,RW4!DVES

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3A 'V~ tm.'il~~, ~i'l~otill!tiO'Q ttl :lindl t'h~ iIl'I~riW~ ,lJrtih' fQI le~clI: ,of tho "r>Q~hi'!MJng ~ati~

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.,

RElUVADOI'( 'OF 'fIlE 1r"rr_.LIS OJ ,D~NTlA_l1a:N

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:~rom tC:U)1 ~b~ d~riwtj~ iQff(~') :15,

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'C' ron '0'" "m" '11 C··········5

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J.\ rllfllClk"lJru /tz) ia :s_aid [0 ~e' ,mtreW'i~1 (d"Jf~a.rl~') ia~,:r = ~'ifiD tile limml:dhl:lle. '\fmm~ 0:[ 'tJtm I!l~ I'{t Irl.l\l U 1'hegmr!!i ·m'tlle fiiIul:!'tiall :nK;5i' (mlll!i) ill, 1'1: ImMe:!i hili ~!i:ft 'liD ri_1~ S:mee 'tile llilf'll t ti .IiI' mw:' !ufgIl, Itlle' m:~ i!:!f C~Bi~ ood s'1'Gpe of ill! &!i!'g;!!tl~Iw." _, posi'tiw !Iii.i!~ ~r:tQ:!lY,~ , ~ .. X"" il'll nd", ,lit: ~ II I JIfiIL'l~il'l'l is 1nm .!]qg, ;a:l, _~ 0 1Ili1i!!,g:l!ldw I~ d:edv,jliw rulld~_m~'C:;. tt, b '~t1flcuiililg;, Em. ~hDW,. \:!i! .en m Fl_ ·t

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1\ rtlnd {~:)f1 ,th~ t m '.I'lliOl'i.it.'i' ~Qiujl!ll~ei~C!).1 o'!!'Ct' .i;II; C'mJdll\c. chnlnDlm i:a ,eD~Ie;~t ,~rOll'j'Jl~iIJ~i:'/~~ai'il!!n,.I~. ii!n~id to hwuhW::. (M ~) !'l~af!oli'mi~aZ{v. Sii!~ Pwo:b~.i!~4,1 ~'Q' 41.',

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1\ f Ii.I ncu lltl , i';S .a!l'II.MIII'C' ,0:1: ~ - U 'if.m [some, :smdli regj.o:o d@se: too libel .,o.m'l [o.Jltll)] Nlille 1~.I\pb. lot

hi: II !fi(UOO jj~ !'.'ibmp~~d}' ~l'ffw .ru, 'taqe:Jl,t Iim::. A ~Q[jnjl :UU:OIiIVU :wI!:.I' .~ ,!II :if m ~ ,iUQ vell~ el~ tu I fj" J I" 111 h~ Bf I blor '[be: funct:iol!l its mm,~~:Le~ SbOtV;c::rul5Mn.g;em,i tmu:. A ·pooi·tiJl!i~ :!l~md d~rl1lI!ti;",e n I ~ a j'~1!ICJI e'l;; \he' :r:UD~i:Uil. iDs DDQ}'Il'i!M m: it .;;::;. ,a;,:11 mC,8;B'li)'II! [~~CDDdl d~ma'li:y.. at It: ~ ~ '.nO'l!!s ~M f11 ~ eu fft I am .1: 811 ,Ii. Theiiiign I.Jf !lr.cmm, amtl!fii ... c' :is ~tt,tlI:e;YM:[ :(cr ,oo3!J£lli¥i:lf.. :b1lbrid.. ,lUi .I:.m. iim

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41.31 RlEl.ADV: :1OCfR.'E_; •

A rotd:~,~ ~tromltm ~ ~a :~mu !I!~ 'yriitie]~ ~f~Ili~OD HJ, ,_,t :~relQ;tj;¥e :tfi~l1iml.ltmMMimJ!lfm. Th l]e at a :itl!l:a;tlvt mmdmum Oil' ttimtm'4Blllit I· 'pom~ #;, ~iJe, rnrurtiiOJ] MHtW. !It, :8 :re_li8~~ p/Wtmi" j.e~j nei,ttlcr; i'flC:mdlfig,illllFi' 1Ii!lIE:~tmmiiug :IlIJlt ,a~ If iI!Il" 1~.eti'oQ. [su!.tlll!hi!:'f :lm.cH!!Mi~1 Jtilrr' '~Cf'eiW~ .O't I~., 1.1,e. frn.'1 dt1liv. tive ICI.£' ·dI.~ru_ncU:oa .IU ,d mu.u eq~ :RNJ o:r' 'liN:: ·1m~flOO. ,A,',o m'l. ,in. the dC!i!Jlm~ia, of D mmamiml w.lii.J:n=' • d'e!£i~a'v~ ~~~, ~~l) f;):f ~i;'-nd~l!a~,h; ~i~d _!. ,~~ ,~,; 'Ol 1/,lltQt'].,

1. U''''(~) >·O~ ~mlica:i'iq ~.hal'llhe iWiilahm. U,Cilln,Y~J; ,ud tbe ,lRplt oUlle;lwu1mn 1Lf§, Mmp!e1~i:l1'

ROO.ve :h.s: taq.e;oit: ~ . ·t· ,it r !!l,.U1I,e.~w)~.oo :is!' t I. rre:ta~'e ,mimmu:m ,All[ - 6l. .

2. :ur(~:)1 <',0. dlc:!l!Qt~K thlln tfl~ f1I:ilC110ill b ~n~VC!1 ,DId 'lllIe: 'sm:,h oUhe flrl.!!lcrio!l!, ~i:£'& mm.plcmJ)· ~kirw' '~ll 'limgCJrI 'fiRe ., it ~'i!!!!I III, '!lIlic 'f~e.:n ,jj ,g~ 11. 're'IIi(i1l!C :mflDmwn 11:I.:t ~ CII'•

3.. If' rl(a] !~ Ill .. 'lbr=I·~.t .is IrwmEJw!Sivlo.

Fw ~fUnc~~iln! w.liiichl ,-rie dl:ltfinilia1bl'e ,91t aDvliu-el. e}I.;r.. wil1\e,d: dll~t.moob;l~ I~t it~'Ih Irm'fdiIJld, QitI,C g~d W'l~;r- ~de:f ~~s where t(J!) ,- Q :w,too1cblg fm eEili«t1 pomils., '10 ~~.

f'(g) _, 01 f(II)';;:" ~ :mia,1i1le· mi.,um_ -it J; - ~

f'(~) "",!) rli~) <~ :I'c~gti~ muimn.m, It x _, I~

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All til' «riM pDim'js;lJ. p:!lDit OD tbe ,11'11,.11 'when. :the :~M 'c:KISses .WIlS 'mDpfn lioea:m dIlInps from ~¥e tQ ~~~J't 'Qif'.: ·'fCrsa"I.d~D pW~~~!U 001,· wh~Un~ :SfJOO'nd'~.ti:.: I~q!~ ~, Qil" :i.8 w{l~d. 1h1: si,p lofdie :1Mm1 deriv_'ie :is, im:mHlle:rigJ. :In, ,sum" tfQIl" alii infiemQrl, 'pWu,1: ~.t;n.

as iSftinl in .Rg.44 ,allld Pli-ooh~ 4,~· :gd 4,,1~e:). -

1. r(,~ll =. Ci Qff 'lIWl'etJncd~

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(J!plli:n'J':~Dri"""iSi tbe l~; ,of :mlltl~1l,8 IU!lc: :1f;!:I~!l1ii,V;Ci IIllDlmiliim or mimmlillm iillrt -iJillClinn. W'1it1W.;d: mffile,rsbl m:f :[1, ~phitlt_Qi .• iSdiO_Mth6.a: ki~u.i!:!l d:ewl .• dl in. k~rl!l:WI, ~L3 ~iJmti!.'I.gh ,41.4 QliI1d ~UJItbI:ed,

blow. QWI;Dl~! INWil ·dlilf.efeilltillb:le :t~J!iODi, - .

1.. "lI"iI,L.,...:to -:c. ,,",.,.... I.'I,",~ ..• ~"'""" ~..,.. '·1'" .. ni! .... ,lj '0"" _...... ..,...~ "''''''ILv'' ,'''""" ",'I.'1i' I ..... ;,~~ Inn~·n.J!';"')L .• ~.. .o>lilioi:rm. llll,~ft,!!!i!' ,l~' .Wi:l1l. g~II"'TI fIIfI'-l!I1llr.., ~" _J\ '!Ii!,,~W "'~ :.;~"11j1~1 Id:iW ~ I ~I !I,""''tII, ~n!~, ~J!~'It~j, ,17,_,iII_ _ ~'IiiIl)"1I! l~ fI!Il~!!i!l' ~It""

fi,epr~!ltl'~~,,~ !Mlce~,~tioo b~ NI Ulefi_J'"'I)f4"U ~&:11~, :II~ UkiDd~ d,'~ pomiill. at 'wlLilfh. Illlle rll.l!BCIHm. hil M!~lb.elimQI'e;MiJDg .ntH" *~8! lbul 8it a plJa:iellliil., .AI. i!liuch, pnmr5 M~ icudldates :[Ql8, possib~ ro:t!tiw~um 'Or. minimUM.

Ili j't4j' 1::111 01 l1.Qj (I

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mtiml,paimi 11.,

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IEMMPLE. t. IOftinml:: jtIl:j IIii!! If ~ W~ '" :i:l& t 59.

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/"i(7) _I 12(7) - 60 tIOIJ 'i4 i> ,D Imc,V.~ ,r~llt:iv~1 minimum

'illb.~,l1mdjMl, !m ~ ,a~. ~ I!!!J 3 il!lndl ,mlnim:~lllil:.g ',," 7,.

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2'. n tihe, fiih'l, m(\llfilim \\I,wli!e ID,I'lI, tl'i,gber-oR'lu diJiv:Jlive,. ~~, 1e'~~tedDr1 :g,mitiAil paint ,;i~, iU, gil !CiiWiIl"'1liwnbo~, ~rlil!i'811'Ve, it_ f~li:0.1l1, i:l, ,!lit ,n mmli'.!l!: @m~tmruma:I,"~ 'wjllb, ,:DGp,'tiiRiViW,IJjC, of t!Jl~ d'cui":at!:v¢ ,~~d:i,mija!G mat llbe ,rw:~MI ,IS ,ootIGI,lR, 1~1i1d! ,DlE 0 iI:~lDtj~~~, :_nd ill po5ilirv~ ''''ahlrr=~Yi.,~,e E_IClIJ,\lflI :~, W'!lLY~]i ;anod ,a1a rel~~'lic ~w:n,,, ~e :~b1e~4 .. 6(~J' and (t)i, '4.i~~)" ~nd ~.g(\c) :;mdJ (d' )1,

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aa ~dd1dcm!illU!fiit. Marg~aJ re:~fcllhi' ~!i: d~Jl!i~ IllS Ilh~GlltiDiD.drnl'toEaiI, ft!fe~ ibc(iu,g:tU.ob.ilui by'tbe wie, ,oF ~111, ~l~ ~LSm~ "t~~aJ ,~1 file) a!!td~IDtnil ~~liIe ,(,T.I," i[~e iOO~~, ru'!ilCti~ ~f"~ti:l.e' l~~ ~ I~U!~PU~: (a), :mlPii;Ba~ ~. {Me) ;WJdi :OlQ'lin:atre1!';cmUJe ('MR.) ~ e!W'h ~ ~~ ma1hc.m.a,:lticaJli M

deriwDlvc,1,0'f '1lhtir 'RSptdliVC to:ooru ,~H& 'D,U; - -

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The' QIDoomi'st i~, fR;~U4lQJlIly calietl~ ~!I)"lI[f!1 tOI b:@lp Allirlil'lt ~~ ·,,~l!ill'!!Jcl ,kYds '~f pb]!;si'ca!I, l~ruitP!i!'I, ral'!d~Y~Nr,. ;IlS wel1 g ~(i mhtlfi'iiK OOjtl, ~cy,cm:s ~f' ~'Ilt;,~D., ilndl·tM use of ~ee :OiiiIXiOO, relo!iJ~s., ni~ its: done ~i~b itiD' '1!I.c]~ ~I' ~o~'h~il:Ir,g!a d.c:vC:b;,~,d 1!:;lIrlije-r :II:Qdill~tcd m, Eqm,k, 4, I. mIll Pm~leei ';:.1" '0' ,4,231

,E;MMPl.E:.~ Mru.!_iroie prtiDt.jj 'R'fi;u: i!li 'lr:m, givent !:o~ 1r=.li"I}nU~ I' "" ~'~ ,:B~ ad! iolllJ I~l:

C;:; 20] ~ 3Q2' -t 400Q'.~ mk ;~milll'D:>o..

gJ ~t!iIP ~k" pfg:Dj~ t~tklJl1; '~- ,R'.~ C.

r.:t ,." 4OilIOQ - ]-3,~ - '(2~ -' ,3Q' +,~ ~'1~ .I!!l =2-(1 =:IJ~ * ~ -:5000

IIiS

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'j(-' _, -'12Q' ",,60'

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,A, ':~tal ,p,rutblc-t crlP~ mnre ~~'n :~PlIl~, i~! '~llriftdfE'om, a ~u£tiofl,C1JmClt~Qm, b," aIIDo,\iFliing, U~ijJ amC.1.I.D~~ af' ~fi'e! llii,ut ~~, ~pi'taIDI~n '~ wi]iil.e blilldJ!Il.IImCo-.l'h.ttr: impU!~ I~iliilm!i and :IIl:Qd,) ~T! SLim't., A groplh :5b~Dg ~'h' _ f~I'~lciionS~Jp rtI~~wg~!,! ~~,t{l~1J1, Q"~fS1,gc. ,Qndl 'llmr'ginJI :P'OOgil1:~ ,gil Q'D, '!-!iptlol I~" 001111)' 'H 'rdl:iI!'ilCbedi 'by 1Mt11\8, IR'O'\!!!:r;gml'lil'lr mt:,tb. !i!l;R ,4t:M!ln_~m;~edI ill! Exampl:~ s.

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lIP'l(ill!~ "", ,180:>~' ~QJl~l, re:kiilir.r1\l!mlnimilll~

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;r' ;:; 310 =lllfQ!l '!illI~

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Ni@:t-e (hat '(Ii) M.P: m~mlOSes ~htQ T.P lis .00,1.1.'9 :amil ~ll:l; aiw maee~iJlg· I[,EIite. Hi al, a m~, Vi,\fu:~ TP' [$: itlrn I'U~ If~1jIf]J ;p:ahIJt.an.d '~'ea·eo!i_sa . :~hcm, lP' ~i ,eonC,a~e ·ilod .ilit~;sin,!i:, ,l~ :a dc:ereasi'llB :m~ (6;) TP i~niJ.lfc:a~!l '~~f m.; wh.lllIIc. ifufige 'Wh~:te M1P:", L~ I~itir'lf~ is Id I! maxl1'lll1.lm' wbu~ MP'i!!.' ""0. ndl &:clm!tS~'h;tIlIMPli;: ii~!,!~gar~iv:e;: i'~) A.P~ i~ :!,il~, !:Imgllft!ln1' ~IK!IfC~ I~hi!i ,~, of ::IIlli~:i~Qm '~ m.ijilil~Q lb;i 'JiP'~!"'o\e iis: lan~,1; to ~b£l1'P ~~ ·iJ~.!w.be·I;e.MPK - Ar:lI:~ td) :1\1P~> M;,; 'Wi'h~l], ,A'PM:.ii ii~n:s, Mip~ "". AP';ft, w:n~n; AP.;riii, a~ ;'Ima~ilmum~ illimd Jr!t~;,;< .i'\F,~ i~n APl!r,I\k!lft'ILH;~ !iifid'~iI"!il' hU"i!I,i:li !n.c,· ,,1M' ~lIC'n D ,ei'1in-. See, ,~ 'rtillil'~m 414

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4.2. btdli~~e' 'with mJXd; [01 'diepo,h5 ~I'I fit- 4r7 wb:rdi fi1l!;RgiG:lli~ bBlW: 1(1) pllJti:Liv'l Jlrli: 'on;v Cj~, ffIQr ail~! (2lllleiatWf! ifi.!'51 d~d\!,Dll~~' ifo~! ail'! ;t. ,f],) pOJi'll\IJe: HilOlla, IliIii!ri~l9i~~ r:Qf' IlJ .r" €"1~ ae.gg;twIi: Hl!ld Idi!ri:~tii~ ~gf :IIID1I .l''i' (5) :Iie~. dlCr.ilr,I:!iV!;!. IC,UQ:1 iiiil~e;r{) (if' Ulldtilmid ~ ,:mlml.E pom'l" ud (f.i~ :se~\II,d dl.l;'!LiV,Q'U:~, ,e:q!1Il1, 110 ,Zl!im 'Of' lUJ4:d~k",d arE mme ~D!L

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J"'(4'~ ... '~('4.)~ = :t.qo:1f+<S(:f, ;;;;; 10 ~, ~;il~ijQmuy;

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jl~i3'JI = ~]1t3) "'" IS :::::;,=28 < (II ,mu~~

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I) J(X) ... · -'1~: + 1~ - D

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r~JI ~ 24~ _I~ +. 1M

.r{;IJI), '" Ut!.l~~ ~ '~~)i *' ~, -= ,5:1, ,.. '01 f',,2} ,... ,24(2l~'= 196(2;) -4- ;6.1, '';;;' =32 ,<00

f"l(~' =" "!.ie(4 .~ ~ 961'~O "'" ~ ... '601~ n

ron;~l, iml::l.atU'o!t: ,mOOImlm. m:~vc\' f"el~tjl.', IM!Mimum OOIl,WI:, :r'Clltl~: mimmum

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'11

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ll6K~~l,n I ~n44

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,f:i.~ m~ l!h~ ~.-(fIIMW. di~(:,; .P~.f'jt:I'hJil)l, (;U')j. ,~'IhJ~!~l'~!l'!! ~~, ~~I~ of ~,~, '~l~ pMDlll. _.d ~ Ihe'~

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e) .fl;Qm (S:S)c ~tctb.c,C't,~ l'l1l1tl_T dcri~~lml, Qld ~hc.'I~ :WietQ11C t:b8L ,~j'.(~,&1' i ';;~(a'i,b'l>I~~ :!ft,bJIJIl,

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Mtliltiply IiliiUi diH~r~ri!ll!ll!' I!i:f ,~ f11!!dillllfki !.he 'p~gQ QI ~ l-WQ;tm rn~ ,OIij~dJVtll1lm~, ~1Ji itn-del" '~ ~

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:rial G .. p~iIol[ n,EBmp~ 5" i:1 ''IlIiD k :J.Ifitmlll th;id ,,l' iiii.l;il. , . Qjjini'm1!.m~ Na)II~: 'tIi:U In tbe m~ l;Itiuc!!!", ilR

:1: -OMfLOiiIa:n, t~l:Inc!li'~" Z,I!I'I'IU~"', 'lJli:" ... i.Il'..-t~ :l', ....... :'.,...., "'~-:-'r"'-:, !'ii.~ _ ..... ,,~j'.-,,-,~---'I .. ----,-. ,?~, ~_'M- - - _[!. _[!i'. - . ~ - ,,",,,' ~ "I~ ~ - _ .. ' "'!I!~_lI!.,"" _ Y'--""~!-'i!"-"" ~~,_c onC! """,,,,.utilh ~U!I" .. ZGD ~ ~~,WIl1U~i!.m

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1UlAMN.E: 1~ 1M to'~ dilte:IICI'I,1ki1 D{i)liklW 1M IrOl~ 1.Gi'!i'£n~ it - ~ + iby "*' 3,r

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II' .~.me o:f.the md~~de[llt: vanl."Jes. :~ b.c:JJd '~~a:Di'. for e:i:am;pl.e:. dy ~' Ig,. W¢' ~n g~ ,!II, ~

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A pardoJ' dilf~«tJfi,a1 meil~~,tbe C1Dingc lin Ilh;e d~:p:Mejn '"",ar'.ia:b~ of' II Imgl~~ri'silC fuill'Clron :.'!Il:t1iq: lfl'DDli!:lilimnJID dlal'lgem, ,De ~rtb:cLm!l~Fm.lll: 'v".biQ:$!Uaodi ,~~~ '(be ~!!" b'!df;!:,~&:Dit ''''lIili8!bl!e!! 1ii1Jt; :eamiml:t.. Sec .~b.~1'm S,"b~ ;[lUDi!!II 5iJ1'1 tm.d 'iAS, to. 6,.:5:2.

S~9 TOIA.LDERNADVES

,OtV!eQi a 'w~'Wi~r,e' l ~ l(r"Y)m:ld I' ,~~,lbt 'i;s"wbenl x ,~ , !!I.:f!@ ",11"( i:n.~.!::!dQI. ~ ,d!!a~l,ef ~1il.,~Wi!l1 ~I.I'!: ilJireclliy ~:bfOl.!I.b ~:beliitmmoml/i!l!llJd: i[u:ik~lirdJn!llQJ:I, U1Ci :ftl~iIIl".''1bis :illil'hlS'tf!l~dl ~tJ, iIh!.l!;(';hMm~'l map :iJ!! Pili ~,J:. 1i'brn.e~ the: e!fm..cl·of ~ fJMWpl in ~'C: on xwll.el'l, j; ,lmd r 8R!i not: iiadefer,1I1c,1iI~. 'tile l~l1d .ri""~th'~ ,m..~ • r~lJd. "Die, Ifl.M$ ,d'IfJ'$1'(Iriw II'Il~U~ IIL~ diinct ,.Cd: of' oJ

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B)IIIMP,~ 1fi,. 1~ iQilai~1 ~rii\'-!ltN~ ~ lbe ler!I~dlc!d1 ~Q~fQodIlUJ !1I~be!" ijPtl!f~"If1t'Ci~Di W wQI], GiWlI1

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5.:10 :WPUJCtl' AND ~INV,ERSE IfIJNC'flDN IRJUruES

A:s seen ,in Sectffioo. l,9. tu~<mS 0:[ rbe; fWm, y-I(x): 'C!Mp:rm JI Illplid$J]!ii m ~;er,DW· O'J .X ,Wl.ml OR: ~U~ t!qJi'd",Pf~CjiQ~$;. Fiu:~cti~~ ~f 'diI.~ :fQrm f{~. ,)10; 0 do DQlt l;.\:llPrre"~ Y~1!p1Tdt~!i' i:J!' ~:~I o:f ,;1: ~~d lD~' ~1I1!:d ,~Ipli£it; "UI'ClifJ,tli!J"H!lIIim:p~j~~I,mn¢ti- 1(x. 1)= I!)e:~'$:~d f., '# '0 :alt 'tbe point amuli'ld :wbiit'h ;'~e ;im,Jidt it.u!!Gtioll, ~ ~6!i'!~d. :the [om[ d~!:'!lIiiw i5.s,iftl(p"I~ ;tl~·+ it ~~ - 0.

RU1I:n,g lllt~~ ,It del1ii\!'Ii!I&i!f~ b 1'1 Qlt$o >O~ ,diif£:Ci~Ult'i~t 'I;;W ClQi:llCIi! '!1earpUl~ ~ 'i~r.ou,~Il' g.et th~ lJ,'tJjilk.Jl fim_./.~Im,1 ml~

}\4(1I!)O!\i '~ha:t, lIhe. d\GriV8iIi'O'E iiJy'frkHi Iti!: 'II'lilfJtJrit of l!hl!; ,,~pmC¥J1 ~f ~i'!c '~O:~iJ"~lld/l.l'JlElI p$i~1:ii. ,d1 _ -h_ .W

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CiJiI'oit:n ,.nct!lOl'I ji' ·~f(l:J.,.ili'iil jRIiii:~ ,/Uiraioo x .... r~ui) exitb it[l!a;m y,;;iIue< (If'." yieM'I'(ltGte ;~d:id 'Inl~Y OQ.G Y.~I,!I!:!' 'oil: ,;t;. M'Ulmililg m= ilnNll!Hr5(l1 ~u!Wlio.nJ '~Ii5,.Me mVilfl7R' jiwlr:ltlWii ",jl~'s.unil!:!tht ilI:U!!: ,deiri'¥,uJtiv,e: !I)~ ,tIlIe: ~nverre [UmctlHl1I11 is ,the: :r~tiproc:~ iif Ole: deri.vrtdve ~ tbe.m.giimw~ .~1im,if:!I;iO'li. lllQ, til g = fefl:;ii$ ~ ~"J}I'J ,Fu!,1~o!1l., ~b~.D~8:tlv~: 'Q~ tm.(lQm,gilil~ /imt'-i,Qn'i8 d(2Jd;'f'! ~~ .l1¥3tw~ 10,1 'me i!ni,",!;~!:l' 1i,!"~~jil1\ [P ."". r~(.em is; dPJtiQ •. ~tia

dl! 1

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'Ilbe 'fWlcti~ mt~ ~'Wo:IiB:<Ik4$k!'a..relli" i11~: sim.p.le ~ 'tbe :m~ ~,~ 100 c~~ b:y 'mI~ng fur JI in t:er.m!! ~f x· gdl m,~:nld:in~tMl tkrlJ.i.ari'llle dJt~l,t •. Sinco l' ."", h'l. ,~):Jm' c;; l'lb.

d~1 J~ ~ . ,]h'

• - - f,,"" --351 OIl 35),":

EXAMPLE. t1',Rn!'il 'Ih~ di:~~1t\1ti ~r~~'dli:I mve~ ~t th~ fJci]il!W~n~ £~iO:[b"~ 'II. uRn Q .~ 20~2,P.

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