UNIT-I LISTENING SKILLS

OVERVIEW OF LISTENING

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UNIT 1 LISTENING SKILLS
1.1 AN OVERVIEW OF LISTENING: Listening is an art which requires 3 A (Attitude, Attention, Adjustment) that can be learned by practice, it is virtually impossible to think of a task that does not require hearing, which most people are able to do. However, people do not always listen. The two terms, listening and hearing, are often used interchangeably but mean very different things. The majority of the population is born with the ability to hear, but not to listen. There are several reasons that people do not or cannot listen or remember, ranging from physical conditions to cultural beliefs. Since the beginning of mankind, the skill of listening has been necessary to communicate, relay messages and obtain information. Before 3200 BC, when writing was first used by cultures such as the Sumerians or Egyptians, listening to people speaks and repeating the message was the only way to communicate. When interacting, people often are not listening attentively to one another. They may be distracted, thinking about other things or thinking about what they are going to say next, and to avoid this listener must actively listen. Active listening means a structured way of listening and responding to others. It focuses attention on the speaker. Other than one’s dislikes and likes are important in order to fully attend to speaker. While listening it’s important to listen to speaker’s behaviour and body language, since they communicate through both verbal and non-verbal communication like posture, gesture, signs and symbols. Listening does not mean to agree with the speaker but need to state what was communicated. The active listener should be able to describe underlying emotions in what has spoken. Active listening is used in many areas like interviews, counselling and journalistic settings. In groups it aids in reaching consensus. The benefits include getting people to open up, avoiding misunderstanding, resolving conflict and building trust. It’s a huge part of everyday life in organisation, individual society and quality of life.in offices the employees listen to the instructions of the superiors of what they have to do? At colleges the students listen to the teachers for information that are expected to understand for quizzes and tests to summarize the active listening plays a huge role in human communication.
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But what is listening? Listening involves a collage of skills:
• • • • • • • • •

Predicting Guessing Reflection Recognizing connectors Recognizing discourse markers Understanding intonation Summarizing Identifying relevant and irrelevant points Understanding inferences Listening happens in all aspects of life. We listen to each other talk, to gossip on the

street, to sermons, to advertisements, to lectures, to music and in all kinds of situations. One must be able to listen to material in whatever form and however fast it is presented! Students listen in different ways and for different reasons throughout the school day. They listen to directions, they talk with their friends, they listen to stories, they listen to game rules, they listen to announcements, etc. Each of these situations requires a different type and level of listening skills. Types of listening: There are four general types of listening that occur:

Inactive listening: Inactive listening is simply being present when someone is speaking, but not

absorbing what is being said. Example: Imagine attending a conference session that has no interest or applicability to you. You will be there physically, but not mentally.

Selective listening: Selective listening is hearing what you want to hear or what you expect to hear

instead of what is being said. Example: In your ninth grade English class, Duane always does his homework. One day you ask students individually who turned in an assignment, and Duane replies that he did not do it. You move on to the next student without comment until another student complains that it’s not fair that Duane gets excused from doing the assignment.

Active listening:
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Active listening is hearing what is said, concentrating on the message and absorbing it. Example: The Board of Education is offering bonuses to teachers that complete a required list of professional development courses. You are interested in the courses and the bonus. You take detailed notes and pay close attention to what you need to do.

Reflective listening: This is one of the most complex types of listening. It involves actively listening;

interpreting what is being said and observing how it is being said. Example: A student regularly comes to class looking sad and depressed. When you ask her if everything is o.k. at home, she responds that it is, but the look on her face and body language scream it is not. You ask her again if things are o.k., but question her body language. She breaks down and begins to cry, revealing that her parents have been arguing a lot.

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BARRIERS OF LISTENING

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1.2 BARRIERS FOR LISTENING: 1. Not focusing on the message: As listeners, we can mentally handle more than 400 spoken words per minute, yet the average speaker produces between 125-175 words per minute. In the excess time, the listener begins to think of other things. We often bring into the communication setting our past, our feelings, our values, our attitudes. Sometimes the speaker will present a thought or word which triggers a past experience. At that point we start to think about the experience and soon forget the message being presented. 2. Passive listeners. Being passive is much easier than concentrating on the speaker’s message, but, unfortunately, it leads to ineffective listening. 3. A physical communication setting that works against listening. Other thoughts can invade your internal perceptual field, so also can distractions outside your body invade your external perceptual field, drawing your attention away from the speech. 4. Listener’s own needs that may compete with the speaker’s ideas. Perhaps you didn’t sleep well, have a cold, or are hungry. All of these personal factors compete for your energy and focus. Again, your physical needs as an individual win out over your intellectual needs as a listener. 5. Unfamiliar language. It takes mental and physical energy to deal with words or concepts that we don’t know; it is easier to turn off the listening process when the speaker uses unfamiliar language. Unfamiliarity requires energy that listeners may not be willing to expend. 6. Preset ideas about the topic, the speaker, or the occasion Many speakers are not given a fair hearing because the audience accepts conclusions about them or their topics beforehand.

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EFFECTIVE LISTENING

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1.3 EFFECTIVE LISTENING: Effective listening is actively absorbing the information given to you by a speaker, showing that you are listening and interested, and providing feedback to the speaker so that he or she knows the message was received. Delivering verbal communication, like writing a newsletter, involves trying to choose the right words and nonverbal cues to convey a message that will be interpreted in the way that you intend. Effective listeners show speakers that they have been heard and understood.

Seven Keys for Effective Listening: 1. Find areas of interest. The Poor Listener: Tunes out dry topics. The Good Listener: Seizes opportunities: "What's in it for me?" 2. Judge content, not delivery. The Poor Listener: Tunes out if delivery is poor. The Good Listener: Judges Content skips over delivery errors. 3. Hold your fire. The Poor Listener: Tends to enter into argument. The Good Listener: Doesn't judge until comprehension is complete. 4. Listen for ideas. The Poor Listener: Listens for facts. The Good Listener: Listens for central theme. 5. Be a flexible note taker. The Poor Listener: Is busy with form, misses content. The Good Listener: Adjusts to topic and organizational pattern. 6. Work at listening. The Poor Listener: Shows no energy output, fakes attention The Good Listener: Works hard; exhibits alertness. 7. Resist distractions. The Poor Listener: Is distracted easily. The Good Listener: Fights or avoids distractions; tolerates bad habits in others; knows how to concentrate.
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ACADEMIC LISTENING

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1.4 ACADEMIC LISTENING: Hearing is a spontaneous act. Listening, by contrast, is something you choose to do. Listening requires you not only to hear what has been said but to understand as well. Understanding requires three activities:
 

dynamic listening paying attention
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concentration

The best way to concentrate is to start with anticipation. Review your notes from the last lecture and make sure you go to class having read the assigned material. Use this method to cultivate a mind-set that is needed for 100% concentration during a lecture. Be a comprehensive listener! Comprehensive listening has to do with the feedback between speaker and listener. The speaker has an obligation to make his/her words comprehensible to the listener. The listener, in turn, must let the speaker know when he/she does not understand. Both parties must make a conscious effort to accept their individual responsibilities. You may think this is a 50/50 proposition, which in part it is; however, both parties must be willing to give a 100% for effective listening comprehension to be achieved. The best way for you to let the speaker know that you don't understand is to ask questions. A surprising number of students are too embarrassed to ask questions. The only dumb question is the one that goes unasked.

Twelve Guidelines to Effective Listening: 1. Sit where the instructor will always see you, preferably in the front. 2. Pay attention to content, not the lecturer's appearance or distracting habits. Judge the material, not the delivery. 3. Put aside emotional concerns. If you disagree with what is being said, hold your judgement or fire until after class, then see the instructor. 4. Find areas of interest; listen for ideas, not just facts, and words; put new ideas to work during the lecture by using your imagination. 5. Intend to get down a good written record of the lecture material; be a flexible note taker. 6. Listen for new rods and watch for signals of important information; listen for examples the instructor provides to define or illustrate main ideas. Note these examples with "EX" in your notes or textbook. 7. Read in advance about the topics to be discussed in class and relate them to something you care about. 8. Exercise your mind with challenging material; keep your mind open even if you hear emotional words.

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9. Be prepared to ask questions in class. Use facial expressions to let the instructor know that you don't understand an idea completely or you would like the information repeated. 10. Don't stop listening or taking notes during discussion periods or toward the end of the lecture until the instructor concludes. 11. Work at listening instead of pretending to listen. 12. Resist external distractions such as someone coming in late to class, a pager going off, and maintenance mowing the grass, other students talking.

Taking Good Notes: Learning to take notes effectively will help you improve your study and work habits and to remember important information. Often, students are deceived into thinking that because they understand everything that is said in class, they will therefore remember it. As you take lecture notes and make notes from your textbook, you will develop the skills of selecting important material and discarding unimportant material. The main secret to developing these skills is practice. Check your results constantly. Strive to improve. Notes help you to retain important facts and data and to develop an accurate means of recording and arranging necessary information. Here are some hints on note making: 1. Don't write down everything you read or hear. Be alert and attentive to the main points. Concentrate on the "meat" of the subject and forget the trimmings. 2. Notes should consist of key words or very short sentences. As a speaker gets sidetracked, it is often possible to go back and add further information. 3. Take accurate notes. You should use your own words, but try not to change the meaning. If you quote directly from the author, quote correctly. 4. Think a minute about the material before you start making notes. Don't take notes just to be taking notes! Take notes that will be of real value to you when you review them at a later date. 5. Have a uniform system for punctuation and abbreviation that will make sense to you. Use a skeleton outline that shows importance by indenting. Leave lots of white space for later additions.

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6. Omit descriptions and full explanations. Keep your notes short and to the point. Condense your materials so you can grasp the main points rapidly. 7. Don't worry about missing a point. Leave space and pick up the material you missed at a later date, either through reading, questioning, common sense, or looking at a classmate's notes. 8. Don't keep notes on oddly shaped pieces of paper. Keep notes in order and in one place. A three-ringed or spiral notebook is preferred. 9. Shortly after taking your lecture notes or making textbook notes, go back and edit (not copy) your notes by adding extra points, spelling out unclear items, etc. Remember, we forget rapidly. Budget time for this vital step just as you do for the class itself. 10. Review your notes periodically; three types of review are daily, weekly, and a major review just before a test. This is the only way to achieve lasting memory.

Lecture Notes: There are many note-taking techniques available to help you become a more efficient note-taker. The following are two very good examples. The first example deals with taking good lecture notes and the second with textbook notes. The notes you take in class are really a hand written textbook. In many instances, your lecture notes are more practical, meaningful and more current than a textbook. If you keep them neat, complete, and well organized they'll serve you splendidly. The Cornell System of taking lecture notes is a prime example. The keystone of this system is a two-column note sheet. Use 8 1/2 by 11 papers to create the note sheet. Down the left side, draw a vertical line 2 1/2 inches from the edge of the paper. End this line 2 inches above the bottom of the paper. Draw a horizontal line across the bottom of the paper 2 inches above the paper's edge. In the narrow (2 1/2") column on the left side, you will write cue words or questions. In the wide (6") column on the right, you will write the lecture notes. In the space at the bottom of the sheet, you will summarize your notes. NOTE: You can use this system if you use lined notebook paper too. Disregard the red vertical line and make your own line 2 1/2" from the left edge of the paper. Refer to the Textbook Study Strategies for a complete description and illustration of the Cornell System.

Textbook Notes:
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The second example of efficient note taking deals specifically with taking textbook notes and preparing for exams. The Soprano Study/Reading Technique involves six steps for accomplishing this. This system, in contrast to the SQ4R system in the Study Skills package, is another method for note taking. You should look at both methods carefully, try them both, and then decide which will work the best for you.

The six steps of the Soprano Technique are: 1. Read your textbook paragraph by paragraph without a pen or highlighter in hand. 2. After you finish a paragraph, decide if any information in that paragraph is worth highlighting or underlining. Ask yourself, "Is this really important? Does it support and define the main topic? 3. Pick up your highlighter or pen and highlight or underline the most important key words or phrases of that information, or write "key words" notes in the margins. 4. Then put a number in the margin of the text next to the highlighted or underlined material. Use numbers in ascending order to note the importance of the highlighted or underlined material. 5. Put the same number and page on a separate sheet of paper in your notebook. Then write out a question based on the information you have just highlighted or underlined in the textbook. Essentially the information you have just highlighted or underlined in the text should answer your questions. 6. Proceed with your study/reading of the text. Every time you decide to highlight or underline text material, assign it a number in the margin of the textbook next to the highlighted information. Put the same number in your notes and create a question about the information you have just highlighted or underlined.

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E-LISTENING

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1.5 E-LISTENING: A device used to capture the sound waves of conversation originating in an ostensibly private setting in a form, usually as a magnetic tape recording, which can be used against the target by adverse interests. Devices which are used to capture the sound waves of conversation originating in an ostensibly private setting in a form, usually as a magnetic tape recording, which can be used against the target by adverse interests. There are two kinds of electronic listening devices. One takes advantage of equipment already present on the target's premises, such as a telephone, radio, phonograph, television set, public-address loudspeaker, or tape recorder, to act as a microphone, transmitter, or power supply. The other does not. In the former case, the target's equipment is said to have been compromised. Compromise of the target's own equipment takes advantage of the fact that any loudspeaker is capable of functioning just as well as a microphone, that convenient sources of dc power are available within the equipment, or that the equipment is connected to power or signal lines that can transmit the intercepted conversation to some place where recording can conveniently be accomplished. The equipment most frequently compromised is the telephone handset. Eavesdropping devices that can stand alone are known commonly as “bugs.” They take advantage of many developments of modern technology, such as microcircuits, miniature ceramic microphones, and miniature batteries. Electronically a bug is often just a two-stage frequency-modulated transmitter: an audio amplifier and a variable-frequency radio-frequency (RF) oscillator. Bugs may operate on any frequency from 20 to 1000 MHz, but usually they snuggle up beside a powerful local FM or vhf television station. See also Amplifier; Oscillator; Radio transmitter. A popular hybrid between a compromise device and a bug is the telephone drop-in. In this design, an FM transmitter is made in the form of a telephone microphone. The eavesdropper can casually unscrew the mouthpiece of his target's telephone handset and substitute the drop-in for the original microphone. The range of this device is about 240 ft. (75 m). It has the added advantage of drawing its dc power from the telephone company central battery.

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UNIT-II WRITING SKILLS

2.1. BUSINESS LETTER
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Business letters are formal letters used for business-to-business, business-to-client, or client-to-business correspondence. ELEMENTS OF BUSINESS LETTER: Date & Sender's Address The first line of a business letter should be the date the letter was written or completed. Directly underneath the date is the sender's address. Do not include the sender's name here. Sometimes the sender's address is listed on a letterhead, in which case the address should not be repeated under the date. Recipient's Address If known, the recipient's address should include the name of the person to whom the letter is directed. You should also include a title (Mr., Mrs., Ms., or Dr.) in front of the name. If you are including the country with the address, capitalize the country name. Salutation The salutation should be the same as the name written with the recipient's address, followed by a colon. It is fine to only use the first name if you personally know the person and you typically refer to her by her first name. If you do not know the recipient's name, it is fine to use the salutation, "To Whom it May Concern." Example: Dear Personnel Director, Dear Sir or Madam: (use if you don't know who you are writing to) Dear Dr, Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms Smith: (use if you know who you are writing to, and have a formal relationship with - VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs or Miss) Dear Frank: (use if the person is a close business contact or friend)

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Body The body of the letter should be formally written. The body of the letter should contain the reference, reason for writing the letter and the closing remark. Use single-spaced lines, except between paragraphs, where a double-spaced line should be inserted. The closing paragraph should summarize what was previously stated throughout the letter. Example: The Reference With reference to your advertisement in the Times, your letter of 23 rd March, your phone call today, Thank you for your letter of March 5th. The Reason for Writing I am writing to inquire about apologize for confirm Requesting Could you possibly? I would be grateful if you could Agreeing to Requests I would be delighted to Enclosing Documents I am enclosing Please find enclosed Enclosed you will find Closing Remarks Thank you for your help please contacts us again if we can help in any way. there are any problems. You have any questions.

Reference to Future Contact I look forward to ... hearing from you soon.
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Meeting you next Tuesday. Seeing you next Thursday. Closing To close the letter, insert a phrase such as "Thank you" or "Best regards," followed by a comma. Insert four lines between the closing and sender's name. This space will be used for your signature once the letter is printed. Example: Yours faithfully, (If you don't know the name of the person you're writing to) Yours sincerely, (If you know the name of the person you're writing to) Best wishes, Best regards, (If the person is a close business contact or friend)

BUSINESS LETTER-1
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Ken's Cheese House 34 Chatley Avenue Seattle, WA 98765 Tel: Fax: Email: kenny@cheese.com October 23, 2006 Fred Flintstone Sales Manager Cheese Specialists Inc. 456 Rubble Road Rockville, IL Dear Mr Flintstone: With reference to our telephone conversation today, I am writing to confirm your order for: 120 x Cheddar Deluxe Ref. No. 856 The order will be shipped within three days via UPS and should arrive at your store in about 10 days. Please contact us again if we can help in any way. Yours sincerely, Kenneth Beare Director of Ken's Cheese House

BUSINESS LETTER-2
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6123 Farrington Road Apt. B11 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 January 11, 2005 Taylor, Inc. 694 Rockstar Lane Durham, NC 27708 Dear Human Resources Director: I just read an article in the News and Observer about Taylor's new computer center just north of Durham. I would like to apply for a position as an entry-level programmer at the center. I understand that Taylor produces both in-house and customer documentation. My technical writing skills, as described in the enclosed resume, are well suited to your company. I am a recent graduate of DeVry Institute of Technology in Atlanta with an Associate's Degree in Computer Science. In addition to having taken a broad range of courses, I served as a computer consultant at the college's computer center where I helped train users to work with new systems. I will be happy to meet with you at your convenience and discuss how my education and experience match your needs. You can reach me at my home address, at (919) 233-1552, or at krock@devry.alumni.edu. Sincerely, Raymond Krock

2.2. REPORT PREPARATION

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A research report is a written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose, scope, objective(s), hypotheses, methodology, findings, limitations and finally, recommendations of a research project to others. The last stage of a research process. It is more than a summary of findings; rather it is a record of the research process. The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own benefit.  Any research report contains: o Descriptions on methodology, o Results obtained, o And recommendations made.  The basic orientation of a research report depends on its audience. Before writing the report o The researcher must know his or her audience;
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He/she may have to make assumptions about the composition, background and interests of the target readers.

Types of reports:Technical Report: suitable for a target audience of researchers, research managers or other people familiar with and interested in the technicalities such as research design, sampling methods, statistical details etc., Popular Report: suitable for: a more general audience, interested mainly in the research findings as it is non-technical in nature. Steps in report preparation: • The interpretation of the results of data analysis in light of: - The marketing research problem investigated, - And the research design and methodology followed. • The research report is a means of communication that can be understood, believed, trusted by everyone who are likely to be affected by the research, and acted upon by the decision maker. • The researcher should discuss: the major findings, conclusions, and recommendations with the key decision makers. Necessary to ensure that the report meets the client's needs and is ultimately accepted.
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The entire marketing research project: Should be summarized in a single written report or in several reports addressed to different readers. Should present the findings in such a way that they can be used directly as input into decision making.

Report Format • No universally accepted standard format or style for research writing. Different researchers may prepare their reports differently. – The personality, background, expertise, and responsibility of the researcher and those of the decision maker for whom the report is written interact to give each report a unique character. Report formats are likely to vary with the nature of the project itself. However, the research report closely resembles the steps of the marketing research process. It comprises of: Title page, Letter of transmittal, Table of contents, List of tables, List of graphs, List of appendices, List of exhibits, Executive summary, Introduction, Approach to problem, Research design, Data analysis, Result, Limitation, Conclusion and Appendix. Effective Report Writing • • Effective report writing is an art. Some basic points to note in writing a report. – Readers: The report should take into account the level of readers' technical sophistication, their interest in the project, ability to understand as well as the circumstances under which they will read the report and how they will use it.. – – • • • Adherence to study objectives: A research report must show that the research objectives have been accomplished.. Easy to follow: The most basic characteristic of a good report is that it is easy to follow. It should be well organized, logically structured, and clearly and lucidly written. Headings and sub-headings should be used for different topics and subtopics. Objective: Report writing should always be guided by objectivity. Should accurately present the methodology, results, and conclusions of the project, without slanting the findings to conform to the expectations of management.
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• • • • • • • • • •

Selectivity: A researcher must use his or her discretion in deciding what should be included in the report. Concise: A report should be concise. Yet brevity should not be achieved at the expense of completeness. Presentation: The report should be professionally done with quality paper, good typing, and attractive binding. Visual aids: Key information presented in the text of a research report should be reinforced with tables, graphs, pictures, maps, and other visual devices. Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital part of the report and deserve special attention. Every table should have a number and brief but clear title. Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly stated to facilitate understanding. The arrangement of the data item should emphasize the most important aspect of the data being presented. If necessary, explanations, comments etc. should be provided as footnotes. If the table presents secondary data, the source(s) must be cited clearly.

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REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS

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RSAC EE RH F L O -U OL W P
2.3 THE AGENDA, MINUTES OF MEETING 2.3.1 THE AGENDA
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R a in o t e ed g f h Rp r b t e e ot y h c n lie t

Agenda communicates important information such as: • • • • • Topics for discussion Presenter or discussion leader for each topic Time allotment for each topic Provides an outline for the meeting (how long to spend on which topics) Can be used as a checklist to ensure that all information is covered. Make the participants know what will be discussed if it's distributed before the meeting. This gives them an opportunity to come to the meeting prepared for the upcoming discussions or decisions. • Provides a focus for the meeting (the objective of the meeting must be clearly stated in the agenda) How to Create an Effective Agenda You're responsible for planning your project meeting this month. Arrggh!! What to do? Now you understand how important an agenda is to the effectiveness of the meeting, but don't know how to create one. Breathe easy! All you have to do is follow the steps outlined below. 1. Send an e-mail stating there will be a meeting, the goal of the meeting as well as the administrative details such as when and where it will be. Ask those invited to accept or decline the meeting. Make it clear that once they have accepted the meeting, they are expected to attend. 2. Ask participants requesting an agenda item to contact you no less than two days before the meeting with their request and the amount of time they will need to present it. 3. Once all of the agenda requests have been submitted to you, summarize them in a table format with the headings Agenda Item, Presenter and Time. It's your responsibility to ensure that each agenda item is directly related to the goals of this particular meeting. If an inappropriate request is made, suggest that person send an e-mail or memo instead or recommend that this agenda item be discussed in another meeting. Also, you must be realistic in the amount of time you allocate to each presenter. Don't cram an unrealistic number of agenda items into an hour meeting. When people accept an hour meeting, they expect to be finished in an hour. When meetings go over time, people generally tend to get uneasy. It's

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better to schedule 50 minutes of discussion into an hour time slot. This way you have 10 minutes to spare and if you get done a little early, people will be pleased. 4. Send the agenda to all the meeting participants the day before the meeting with a reminder of the meeting goals, location, time and duration. At this time, ask the presenters if they are happy with the order in which they will be speaking and the amount of time they have been allocated. 5. Of course, the most important part of creating an effective agenda is to follow it during the meeting!

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SAMPLE AGENDA
BRIDGING LEADERSHIP INTRODUCTORY SEMINAR- Leadership for Social Change Insert Date, Insert Location DAY ONE- LEARNING ABOUT OURSELVES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT 8:30 Coffee INTRODUCTION 9:00 Introduction to Seminar and Participants 10:00 Leadership and Social Change 11:00 Break IDENTIFYING AND UNDERSTANDING DIVIDES 11:15 Small Group Discussion on HDI 12:30 Lunch 1:30 Large Group Discussion on Bridging Societal Divides LEADING FROM THE INSIDE OUT 2:15 Leading with Purpose: Leadership Challenge 3:30 Break 3:45 360 Degree Feedback- How we are perceived in Groups. Understanding our leadership capacities And opportunities for growth. 4:15 Real Time Consulting 5:15 Debriefing and Group Reflection DAY TWO- LEARNING ABOUT OTHERS 8:30 Coffee LISTENING: A CRITICAL LEADERSHIP SKILL 9:00 Listening with Purpose
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SYSTEMS THINKING 10:00 Introduction to Systems Thinking 11:00 Break 11:15 Introduction to Systems Thinking- continued 12:30 Lunch STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS 1:30 Small Groups Discussion- Building a Partnership to Overcome Domestic Violence in the Philippines: The Case of Tessie Fernandez and Bantu Banta 2:30 Large Group Discussion- Identifying Stakeholders 3:30 Break 3:45 Using Stakeholder Analysis 4:30 Collaborative Exercise 5:30 Debriefing and Group Reflection DAY THREE- LEARNING TO ACT TOGETHER 8:30 Coffee PARTNERING FOR SUSTAINABILITY 9:00 Personal Ecology 9:30 Group Ecology 10:00 Small Groups Case Discussion: FECHAC and Khun Paiboon 10:45 Break 11:00 Large Group Discussion- "From Crisis to Partnership: The Case of Fundación FECHAC"; "Building Partnerships between Government and Civil Society: The Case of Paiboon Wattanasiritham And the Governmental Central Bank" 12:00 Lunch PARTNERSHIP BASICS
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1:00 the Collaboration Typology 2:00 Leadership Qualities and Roles for Sustaining Partnerships 2:45 Break GETTING STARTED: DEVELOPING COMMON GROUND 3:00 Introduction to Dialogue 3:30 Large Group Dialogue 4:30 Debriefing and Final Group Reflection 5:00 Evaluation

2.3.2 MEETING OF MINUTES
Minutes, also known as protocols, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. They often give an overview of the structure of the meeting, starting with a list of those present, a statement of the various issues before the participants, and each of their responses thereto. They are often created at the moment of the hearing by a typist or court recorder at the meeting, who may record the meeting in shorthand, and then prepare the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards. Meeting Minutes Format These days, many of us find ourselves in the position of taking meeting minutes without a clue of how to go about it. The following is a guide for making this task easier: • Make sure that all of the essential elements are noted, such as type of meeting, name of the organization, date and time, name of the chair or facilitator, main topics and the time of adjournment. For formal and corporate meetings include approval of previous minutes, and all resolutions. • Prepare an outline based on the agenda ahead of time, and leave plenty of white space for notes. By having the topics already written down, you can jump right on to a new topic without pause. • Prepare a list of expected attendees and check off the names as people enter the room. Or, you can pass around an attendance sheet for everyone to sign as the meeting starts.

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To be sure about who said what, make a map of the seating arrangement, and make sure to ask for introductions of unfamiliar people. Don't make the mistake of recording every single comment, but concentrate on getting the gist of the discussion and taking enough notes to summarize it later. Remember that minutes are the official record of what happened, not what was said, at a meeting.

Use whatever device is comfortable for you, a notepad, a laptop computer, a tape recorder, a steno pad, shorthand. Many people routinely record important meetings as a backup to their notes.

Be prepared! Study the issues to be discussed and ask a lot of questions ahead of time. If you have to fumble for understanding while you are making your notes, they won't make any sense to you later.

• •

Don't wait too long to type up the minutes, and be sure to have them approved by the chair or facilitator before distributing them to the attendees. Don't be intimidated, you may be called upon many times to write meeting minutes, and the ability to produce concise, coherent minutes is widely admired and valued.

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MINUTES OF MEETING
MINUTES OF THE 15TH MEETING OF THE EMPOWERED COMMITTEE ON BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH HELD ON 5TH FEBURARY, 2008 AT 11.00 A.M. IN THE UGC OFFICE The 15th meeting of the Empowered Committee on Basic Scientific Research was held on 05.02.2008 at 11.00 a.m. in the UGC Office. The following attended the meeting: 1. Prof.Sukhadeo Thorat Chairman, UGC 2. Prof.Mool Chand Sharma Vice Chairman, UGC 3. Prof.Goverdhan Mehta Hon.Prof. & CSIR Bhatnagar Fellow Indian Institute of Science Bangalore - 560 012 4. Dr.Kota Harinarayan Raja Ramana Fellow Structure Division National Aerospace Laboratories Bangalore - 560 017 5. Prof.S.P.Thyagarajan #, 1st Main Road, Nehru Nagar, Adyar, Chennai - 600 020 6. Dr. R.K. Chauhan Secy., UGC. 7. Ms.Parbati Bose Under Secretary, UGC Prof. P. Rama could not attend the meeting. The Chairman, UGC assured the Empowered Committee that every support will be given to the Committee for smooth implementation of the Recommendations. He further suggested that one major function may be organized where 100 to 150 students may be invited for distributing ,”Dr. D.S. Kothari Post-Doctoral
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Fellowships” certificates from the hands of the Hon’ble Minister for HRD. After the initial welcome remarks by the Chairman, UGC, the agenda item were taken up one by one. Item No.1:-Confirmation of the minutes of the meeting held on 4.1.2008. The minutes of the meeting held on 4.1.2008 were confirmed. only with the modification in item No.6 regarding appointment of Prof. R.P. Gandhi as Consultant, iy was proposed to add gthe following sentence after the first Para :- “The programme may be run in collaboration with INSA with INSA Fellow, Prof. R.P. Gandhi as National Coordinator”. Item No.2:-Action taken on the minutes. The Committee noted with appreciation the action taken by the UGC on the minutes of the last meeting of the Empowered Committee. Item No.3:- Information received with regard to strengthening of Infrastructure in non-SAP science departments in Universities. The Empowered Committee reconsidered its decision taken in the last meeting regarding providing grant to the non-SAP science departments in the universities on the basis of their faculty strength, number of publications and PhDs produced. The Committee authorized Prof.. S.P. Thyagarajan to go through the proposal submitted by each university and indicate the grant to be allocated based on the information received. Accordingly Prof. S.P. Thyagarajan analyzed the data compiled by the BSR Bureau and the criteria prescribed in items 3 and 5 of the minutes of the meeting held on 4.1.2008 and recommended the grant for the non-SAP departments of the universities as per annexure enclosed. Item No4:- Presentation by 4 departments for Networking Resource Centers for finalization. The following four departments were invited for presentation for establishment of Networking Resource Centres, in the respective departments. 1. School of Life Science Sciences, JNU, New Delhi. 2. Institute of Radio Physics & Electronics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata. 3. School of Chemistry, Hyderabad University, Hyderabad. 4. School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamraj Univefsigty.
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The Committee desired that the centres should send one page commitment indicating that the following activities shall be performed by the proposed networking centres. They may send it by e-mail and a hard copy may be send later on. After receiving the commitment letter 50% of the grant as first installment may be released to the selected centres.: 1. Research, training and skills development of the faculty and research scholars through periodic discussion, workshop and summer / winter schools. 2. Capacity building by adopting faculty and departments for augmenting their research skills and to mentor them. 3. Hosting and facilitating researcher from other institutes / universities to carryout keys experiments. 4. Augmentation of information resource facility of the department to provide quality research information to other institutes / researchers. 5. To enhance and build state of the art in-house research infrastructure and other research facilities in the department. Item No.5:- Presentation by 6 departments for consideration of Networking Resource Centres: The following departments were invited for presentation: I. Departments of Materials Engineering 1. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 2. Sardar Patel University, 3. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi II. Department of Geology 1. Jadavpur University 2. University of Delhi, Delhi 3. Punjab University, Chandigarh The Department of Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh could not come for presentation The above departments made presentation before the committee After detailed discussions, the committee recommended that some more departments may be invited from the list prepared by the BSR Bureau including the Department of Panjab Univerfsity, Chandigarh which could not made presentation.

Item No. 6:Meeting with Prof. R.P. Gandhi for finalizing the
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modalities for launching of the scheme,”Operatiion Faculty Recharge”. The Empowered Committee recommended that Prof. R.P. Gandhi may be designated as National Coordinator for the scheme.”Operations Faculty Recharge” on an honorarium of Rs.35,000/-p.m. The scheme will be formulated in the same manner as has been done in the case of “ Dr. D.S. Kothari Post- Doctoral Fellowship. The committee also recommended that a formal letter may be sent to the President, INSA from Chairman, UGC exploring the possibility that the programme may be run in collaboration with INSA with Prof. Gandhi, INSA fellow as the the National Coordinator. Item No.7:-Meeting with DG-CSIR and the ‘Empowered Committee’ The chairman of the Committee narrated the need of closers linkages between the universities and CSIR laboratories for strengthening higher education and research and the chairman, UGC affirmed the commitment of UGC for bridging the gaps, if any, in this regard. The D.G. CSIR, while welcoming the idea, stated the current difficulties and lacunae in getting CSIR laboratories and their scientists recognized by various universities for the conduct of Ph.D. research and also for the conduct of certain specialized teaching programmes. Chairman, UGC requested DG, CSIR to provide a letter specifying these difficulties and answered that they would be redressed promptly by UGC norms/guidelines to the universities. The following programmes were accepted for follow up implementation: 1. Establishing UGC-CSIR centers of Excellence in identified areas of scientific research in universities with active partnership of CSIR scientists along with university faculty. 2. To recognize CSIR scientists as recognized Ph.D guides by the universities under whose geographic jurisdiction the CSIR laboratory-falls. 3. To appoint CSIR scientists as adjunct proposals adjunct faculty in respective university departments. 4. Both the universities and the CSIR laboratories to mutually utilize the scientific infrastructure including libraries for teaching and training of post-graduates and PhD students. 5. It was resolved that the UGC-CSIR, Co-ordination Committee already constituted in this regard would periodically meet and monitor the strengthening of the consortium approach suggested and also the implementation of joint schemes evolved already and to the evolved in future. The chairman suggested that a meeting of similar nature can be called for after a month to consider the letter of DG, CSIR to be received regarding the remedial measures
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required to be taken by UGC to promote closer academic linkages between CSIR laboratories and universities. Item No.8:- Any other item. 1. The matter regarding providing extension to the SAP departments For utilization of infrastructural grant was discussed and the committee decided that extension upto 31st March, 2009 may be provided for spending the 2nd installment of infrastructural grants released during 2007-2008. 2. A reminder may be sent to the remaining 16 colleges under Colleges for Potential for Excellence to send proposals for infrastructural grant @ Rs.5.00 lakhs each to science departments of the college. 3. The Empowered Committee recommended that for better and quick functioning of the BSR Bureau, the Officers of this Bureau may be provided with STD facilities at residence and Office, internet and mobile. The meeting ended with a vote of thanks to the Chair. It was decided to hold the next meeting of the Committee on 20.03.2008 at 11 A.M. in the UGC office.

2.4 E-WRITING
E-Writing can refer to a variety of things:
1. Writing courses that a person can take online. These are often associated with a

college or university, but the courses can also be just for fun or for a career path.
2. Jargon that has developed to make writing emails faster and more efficient

(examples: LOL for Laughing Out Loud; BTW for By the Way; WDYT? For What Do You Think? or CYA for See You Later).
3. A style and format of writing geared for use on the internet for Web-based articles or

in email communications for such purposes as cover letters and resumes. This is how we use that term on this site. Format of e-Writing: 1. Uses short and crisp sentences to express thoughts and ideas.

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2. Uses a significant number of keywords - important words related directly to the

subject matter of the content -- so that the article or resume or web page can be "searched" on the basis of those keywords. 3. Makes good use of page formatting with headings and white space used appropriately. 4. Uses bulleted or numbered lists instead of long blocks of text. 5. Is in the right format for its purpose.
6. A resume needs to be readable by a variety of computers and software programs.

Usually this means using an ASCII "plain-text" format. 7. If you know that the person has word processing software compatible with yours, then you might send it in rich text format, which allows for more formatting options. 8. If you want people to view your document as a Web page, you need to have a Web server that hosts your document as a Web file based on HTML An article for a Web site would also be in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).

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UNIT- III EMPLOYEE ABILITY SKILL

3.1 Job Application 3.1.1 Introduction:

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When you apply for a job you are typically asked to complete an employment application. You may be asked to complete a job application even if you have already submitted a resume and cover letter. That way, the employer has a record of your personal and employment history, verified and signed by the applicant. It’s important for your job applications to be complete, correct (no errors) and accurate. Here is the information you will need to complete an application for employment and tips and suggestions for writing applications that make a great impression.

3.1.2Definition:
An application for employment, job application, or application form (often simply called an application) is a form or collection of forms that an individual seeking employment, called an applicant, must fill out as part of the process of informing an employer of the applicant's availability and desire to be employed, and persuading the employer to offer the applicant employment.

3.1.3Job Application Form Details:
Personal Information:
• • • • • • •

Name Address City, State, Zip Code Phone Number Eligibility to Work in US Felony convictions If under age, working paper certificate

Education:
• • • •

Schools/Colleges Attended Major Degree/Diploma Graduation Dates(s)

Position Applied For Information:
• • •

Title of the job you are applying for Hours/days available to work When you can start work

Employment Information:
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• • • • •

Names, addresses, phone numbers of previous employers Supervisor's name Dates of employment Salary Reason for Leaving

References

List of three references - names, job title or relationship, addresses, phone numbers

3.1.4 Sample Job Application Letter
XYZ Company 87 Delaware Road Hatfield, CA 08065 (909) 555-5555 george.gillhooley@email.com Date Dear Mr. Gilhooley, I am writing to apply for the programmer position advertised in the Times Union. As requested, I am enclosing a completed job application, my certification, my resume and three references. The opportunity presented in this listing is very interesting, and I believe that my strong technical experience and education will make me a very competitive candidate for this position. The key strengths that I possess for success in this position include:
• • •

I have successfully designed, developed, and supported live use applications I strive for continued excellence I provide exceptional contributions to customer service for all customers

With a BS degree in Computer Programming, I have a full understanding of the full life cycle of a software development project. I also have experience in learning and excelling at new technologies as needed. Please see my resume for additional information on my experience. I can be reached anytime via email at george.gillhooley@email.com or my cell phone, 909-555-5555.

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Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you about this employment opportunity. Sincerely, First Name Last Name

3.1.5 Online Job Applications
How Online Job Application Systems Work
Some sites let you upload an existing resume with the click of a button. On other sites, you can copy and paste from your resume or use a resume builder that is incorporated into the application system. Once you have uploaded your resume, you will be able to search for jobs that interest you and submit your application or resume with a click of your mouse.

Tips for Email Job Applications
Proofread your email for grammar and spelling (do not trust spell check software). Remember, this is your chance to make a critical first impression; even an emailed note needs to be professional and error-free. Be brief and to the point. Your cover letter should not be any longer than two or three short paragraphs. Make sure you include a signature with your full name, email address and phone number. Include the title of the position you are applying for in the subject line of your message. Be sure that your email address has a professional tone. If the job posting asks you to send an attachment, send your resume as an MSWord or PDF document. Many employers do not accept attachments. In these cases, paste your
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resume into your email message. Use a simple font and remove the fancy formatting. Send the message to yourself first to test that the formatting works. If everything looks good, resend to the employer.

3.1.6 Job Application Form
Instructions: Print clearly in black or blue ink. Answer all questions. Sign and date the form.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
First Name _____________________________ Middle Name ___________________________ Last Name _____________________________ Street Address _______________________________________________________ City, State, Zip Code _______________________________________________________ Phone Number (___)___________________________________ Are you eligible to work in the United States? Yes _______ No_______ If you are under age 18, do you have an employment/age certificate? Yes ___ No ___ Have you been convicted of or pleaded no contest to a felony within the last five years? Yes_______ No_______ If yes, please explain: _________________________________________

POSITION/AVAILABILITY:
Position Applied For ________________________________________
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Days/Hours Available Monday ____ Tuesday ____ Wednesday ____ Thursday ____ Friday ____ Saturday ____ Sunday ____ Hours Available: from _______ to ______ What date are you available to start work? ________________________________________

EDUCATION:
Name and Address of School - Degree/Diploma - Graduation Date _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Skills and Qualifications: Licenses, Skills, Training, Awards _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY:
Present Or Last Position: Employer: _____________________________________________________ Address:______________________________________________________ Supervisor: ____________________________________________________ Phone: _______________________________ Email: ________________________________
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Position Title: _________________________ From: ______________ To: ______________ Responsibilities: ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Salary: _______________ Reason for Leaving: ____________________________________________ ===========

Previous Position:
Employer: _____________________________________________________ Address:______________________________________________________ Supervisor: ____________________________________________________ Phone: _______________________________ Email: ________________________________ Position Title: _________________________ From: ______________ To: ______________ Responsibilities: ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Salary: _______________ Reason for Leaving: ____________________________________________

May We Contact Your Present Employer?
Yes _____ No _____

References:
Name/Title Address Phone _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
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_________________________________________________________________ I certify that information contained in this application is true and complete. I understand that false information may be grounds for not hiring me or for immediate termination of employment at any point in the future if I am hired. I authorize the verification of any or all information listed above. Signature______________________________ Date__________________________________

3.2 Covering letter:
A cover letter is a document sent with your resume to provide additional information on your Skills and experience. A cover letter typically provides detailed information on why are you are qualified for the job you are applying for. Effective cover letters explain the reasons for your interest in the specific organization and identify your most relevant skills or experiences.

3.2.1 How to Write a Cover Letter By Alison Doyle, About.com Guide

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Writing a cover letter often seems like a particularly daunting task. However, if you take it one step at a time, you'll soon be an expert at writing letters to send with your resume. A cover letter typically accompanies each resume you send out. Your cover letter may make the difference between obtaining a job interview and having your resume ignored, so, it makes good sense to devote the necessary time and effort to writing effective cover letters. A cover letter should complement, not duplicate your resume. Its purpose is to interpret the dataoriented, factual resume and add a personal touch. A cover letter is often your earliest written contact with a potential employer, creating a critical first impression. here are three general types of cover letters:
• • •

The application letter which responds to a known job opening . The prospecting letter which inquires about possible positions . The networking letter which requests information and assistance in your job search .

3.2.2 TYPES AND SAMPLES
hard copy / e-mail differences | all cover letters should... | page margins, fonts sample cover letter format | letters of application or inquiry | info-seeking letters and follow-up

3.2.3 Sample cover letter format guidelines:
(Hard copy: sender address and contact info at top. Your address and the date can be leftjustified, or centered.) Your Street Address City, State Zip Code Telephone Number
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E-mail Address Month, Day, Year Mr./Ms./Dr. FirstName LastName Title Name of Organization Street or P. O. Box Address City, State Zip Code Dear Mr./Ms./Dr. LastName: Opening paragraph: State why you are writing; how you learned of the organization or position, and basic information about yourself. 2nd paragraph: Tell why you are interested in the employer or type of work the employer does (Simply stating that you are interested does not tell why, and can sound like a form letter). Demonstrate that you know enough about the employer or position to relate your background to the employer or position. Mention specific qualifications which make you a good fit for the employer’s needs. (Focus on what you can do for the employer, not what the employer can do for you.) This is an opportunity to explain in more detail relevant items in your resume. Refer to the fact that your resume is enclosed. Mention other enclosures if such are required to apply for a position. 3rd paragraph: Indicate that you would like the opportunity to interview for a position or to talk with the employer to learn more about their opportunities or hiring plans. State what you will do to follow up, such as telephone the employer within two weeks. If you will be in the employer’s location and could offer to schedule a visit, indicate when. State that you would be glad to provide the employer with any additional information needed. Thank the employer for her/his consideration. Sincerely, (Your handwritten signature [on hard copy]) Your name typed (In case of e-mail, your full contact info appears below your printed name [instead of at the top, as for hard copy], and of course there is no handwritten signature) Enclosure(s) (refers to resume, etc.)
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(Note: the contents of your letter might best be arranged into four paragraphs. Consider what you need to say and use good writing style. See the following examples for variations in organization and layout.)

Cover letters generally fall into one of two categories:
1. Letter of application: 2. Letter of inquiry: Information-seeking letters and follow-up

To draft an effective cover letter, you need to indicate that you know something about the employing organization. Sometimes, even with research efforts, you don’t have enough information to do this. In such a case it is appropriate to write requesting information. After you receive the desired information you can then draft a follow-up letter that: Thanks the sender for the information; Markets why you would be a good job candidate for that organization based on the information; and Explains why you are sending your resume. ....which means it does what all cover letters should do, as explained at the start above! Your cover letter should be designed specifically for each purpose outlined above as well as for each position you seek. Do not design a form letter and send it to every potential employer (you know what you do with junk mail!).Effective cover letters explain the reasons for your interest in the specific organization and identify your most relevant skills or experiences (remember, relevance is determined by the employer's self-interest). They should express a high level of interest and knowledge about the position. Next, what to include, how to format your cover letter, and following up with prospective employers.

3.2.4 Cover Letters
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Cover Letter Format
To be effective, your cover letter should follow the basic format of a typical business letter and should address three general issues: 1. First Paragraph - Why you are writing 2. Middle Paragraphs - What you have to offer 3. Concluding Paragraph - How you will follow-up

Cover letters are generally one page at most in length, divided into a header, introduction, body, and closing.

Header. Cover letters use standard business letter style, with the sender's address and other information, the recipient's contact information, and the date sent after either the sender's or the recipient's address. Following that is an optional reference section (e.g. "RE: Internship Opportunity at Global Corporation") and an optional transmission note (e.g. "Via Email to jobs@example.net"). The final part of the header is a salutation (e.g., "Dear Hiring Managers").

Introduction. The introduction briefly states the specific position desired, and should be designed to catch the employer's immediate interest. Body. The body highlights or amplifies on material in the resume or job application, and explains why the job seeker is interested in the job and would be of value to the employer. Also, matters discussed typically include skills, qualifications, and past experience. If there are any special things to note such as availability date, they may be included as well.

Closing. A closing sums up the letter, and indicates the next step the applicant expects to take. It may indicate that the applicant intends to contact the employer, although many favor the more indirect approach of simply saying that the applicant will look forward to hearing from or speaking with the employer. After the closing is a valediction ("Sincerely"), and then a signature line. Optionally, the abbreviation "ENCL" may be used to indicate that there are enclosures.

3.3 RESUME PREPARATION
3.3.1 Introduction to Resume

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A resume is an advertisement of who you are in terms of your competencies, accomplishments, and future capabilities. It is your chief marketing tool or calling card for opening the doors of prospective employers. When writing a resume, always remember that you are advertising yourself for an interview and not for a job. Job offers only come after interviews. An effective resume should make a prospective employer want to meet you in person to discuss your qualifications and possible contributions to solving his or her problems. It should clearly and factually communicate to the employer what it is you can do for them. Above all, it should be honest, positive, concise, easy to read and truly reflect you. 3.3.2 MEANING OF RESUME A resume is a personal summary of your professional history and qualifications. It includes information about your career goals, education, work experience, activities, honors, and any special skills you might have. A resume written for an entry-level position should not be over one page long.

3.3.3 Types of resumes:

Chronological: This type of resume is used most frequently. With this format, you present information in reverse chronological order (most recent first) and give a detailed account of education, work experiences and other relevant skills.

Functional: This type of resume includes functional skill categories that highlight work experiences and transferable skills. A functional resume may be used if your experience and/or education do not support your professional objective. Many employers are suspicious when reviewing these resumes, as they may be used to hide evident gaps in, or a lack of, work experience.

Combination: This type of resume includes functional skill categories that highlight work experiences and transferable skills within the reverse chronological listing of work history.

3.3.4

HOW TO WRITE ARESUME

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Step 1: Before You Write Your Resume Before you begin constructing a resume, take the time to think about your experience and what type of job you're looking for. 1. If you're re-entering the workforce, you may pick a different format than someone who's been working continuously. 2. A recent college graduate will focus more on educational background than an experienced worker. 3. If you're changing careers, you may opt for a different format than someone who is remaining in his current field. Step 2: Use these Resume Writing Tips
o o o

Be Honest Be Professional Concise

Step 3: Write Your Resume's Objective Statement
o o o

An objective statement is the first thing listed after your personal information. The objective statement is a sentence or two that sums up your current career goals. An objective statement is not always a resume necessity, but it can be a beneficial summary of what you're looking for in a position. If you're starting your resume from scratch, write your objective statement first. This can help you decide what information to highlight on your resume, even if you ultimately decide not to include an objective statement. Step 4: Choose a Resume Style There are several types of resumes:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

o

Chronological Skills Functional Combination Video

Step 5: Tailor Your Resume 1. Make sure your resume will stand out in your chosen field. 2. It is common to have a resume tailored to each position you are applying for, instead of using a "one size fits all" model. Your resume should highlight why you are qualified for the position.
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3. Remove extraneous information. Do not detail every job experience you have had if it does not relate to the job you're pursuing. 4. Remember, you want your resume to be only one page (two if you have enough business experience that the extra information is important and relevant)! Step 6: Polish Your Resume 1. Now that you've entered your information and tailored it to your industry, it's time to polish your resume! 2. Always check for typos and grammatical errors. Then check again and have a friend proofread it. These types of mistakes are easy to fix, and make a big difference in whether or not an employer will consider you for a job! 3. Do not use "I" or "me" because the reader already knows the resume is about your accomplishments 4. Employers often scan or upload resumes into electronic databases For this reason, simpler formatting is the better route to take:
  

Try to avoid using tables. Use spaces instead of tabs to separate sections. Avoid italics, underlining and shadowed text.

5. On that note, perfumed paper, curlicue fonts, and pretty images are all no-nos. You want your resume to stand out, but not for these reasons. A simple left-justified resume is easiest to read. 6. Test how your resume looks saved as an RTF file. If it isn't pretty, it needs to be simplified. Only include college and graduate school when listing your education. The fact that you won a spelling bee in first grade will not help you land a job interview! 7. Do not include your height and weight this information is not necessary and will only irritate potential employers. Remove out-of-date terms and technology. Being able to change typewriter ribbons is not a hot skill today. 8. Unless specifically requested to do so by the job posting, do not include references on a resume. You can provide these later during the interview process.
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Conclusion
Though your new resume won't guarantee you a job interview, you've allowed your best attributes to be presented. Another useful tool is to write a great cover letter.

3.3.5 Resume Format
The perfect resume could land you the perfect job. Once you get your online degree, make sure you take the time to show off your new accomplishment through creating a fresh resume. The following format can help you organize your new resume: Contact Information Give your name, address, phone number, and email address. Objective this is the part where you tell what you want. Explain what kind of job you are looking for or what specific position you desire. Qualifications write a brief summary of what makes you the right person for the job. If you want to really impress your potential employer, write this description specific to the individual job for which you are applying. Education Give the dates, degrees earned, and colleges attended. If the school is obviously an online school, you may want to include accreditation information to let the employer know the school is legitimate. Also include any special credentials or certificates. Experience Give the dates, places of employment, and a brief summary of each of your previous jobs. Use active verbs and adjectives in your summaries and be sure to highlight the specific results you achieved rather than your day to day schedule. (“Raised $500,000 by designing fundraising events” is much better than “Participant in the fundraising team.”) If your work experience is sketchy or you have big gaps in between jobs, include information about your volunteer, leadership, or organization participation. Awards / Computer Skills / Language Abilities Each of these is an optional category in which you may explain more of your accomplishments. Choose to go into detail about qualifications that are relevant to the jobs you are applying to.
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3.3.6 EXAMPLES OF NORMAL RESUME

RESUME Prem Jacob
Email : premjacob2@gmail.com Phone : 0903570538

S/O Jacob MAPPILAKUNNEL HOUSE Kollad P.O KOTTAYAM-686037

OBJECTIVE

To excel and make a positive and meaningful contribution in my field of activity and create and conductive environment of team spirit to work with total commitment and sincerity.
PERSONAL PROFILE Name Date of birth Sex Nationality Father’s Name Languages Known Interests : : : : : : : Prem Jacob 03-Feb-1989 Male Indian Mr. Jacob M.R English, Malayalam, Hindi & Tamil Enjoying Music, Watching Movies, Playing cricket

EDUCATION

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ACADEMIC DETAILS SCHOOL /COLLEGE
SRI GANESH school of business management ST.MARY’S COLLEGE MANARCAD. ST .MARY’S HSS MANARCAD

COURSE

PERIOD

UNIVERSITY/ BOAR % OF MARK D
UNDER ANNA university Under , Mahatma Gandhi university H.S.E board Kerala 8.9CGPA

MBA

2009-2011

B.COM

2006-2009

75%

Plus two

2004-2006

79%

HOBBY
READING

DECLARATION I hereby declare that all the above information given by me is true to the best of my knowledge and belief Place: Yours Sincerely, Date: {Prem Jacob}

3.4 REASONING:
Reasoning means, the process of thinking about something in order to make a decision.
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To be an effective leader, it is essential to understand the limits and constraints on reasoning in this tech-heavy, time-critical world. In this course you will get a toolbox of methods, mechanisms, and guidelines for you to bring to bear on your daily encounters with the complex, dynamical and uncertain world of business.

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In an organization there are various aspects that make a person to think and we can make it out as questionnaire as,  How do people interpret situations and data as they do?  Why do people (and groups) make mistakes?  What role does knowledge play?  What about biases?  What are decision traps?  How can we avoid them?  What should we know about emotion, deception and lying?  What do we know of the psychological and neurological mechanisms underlying economic, risk, social and ethical decisions?  What influences us?  Is there a psychology of leadership, innovation & creativity?
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 What are the myths to be dissolved?  What is the psychology of thought?  What is the psychology of trust?  What is the psychology of expertise?  What is the psychology of technology –why do we yell at computers? These are all important questions regardless of whether you're trying to lead a team or a firm, to determine organizational processes or workflow, or to simply improve your own decision making capabilities.

3.4.1 Ethical Reasoning in Business

The above diagram shows how an Executive follows every aspects of the organization to develop a reasonable decision which is accurate, clear and relevant in productivity.

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3.5.GROUP DISCUSSION &INTERVIEW 3.5.1.INTRODUCTION:

A Group Discussion can be defined as a formal discussion involving ten to 12 participants in a group. It is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it desires in its members. In this methodology, the group of candidates is given a topic or a situation, given a few minutes to think about the same, and then asked to discuss the it among themselves for 15-20 minutes.

3.5.2.Why GDs:

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The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and an interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you will fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you function as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working in teams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you interact in a team becomes an important criterion for your selection.

3.5.3.Types of GD
GDs can be topic-based or case-based. Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:1. Factual Topics 2. Controversial Topics 3. Abstract Topics Factual Topics:Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socioeconomic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment. E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation. Controversial Topics:Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and emotional. E.g. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers

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Abstract Topics:Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle Twinkle little star, The number 10

3.5.4.Keep the following points in mind while summarizing a discussion
1. Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD. 2. Keep it brief and concise. 3. It must incorporate all the important points that came out during the GD.

4. If the examiner asks you to summaries a GD, it means the GD has come to an end. 5. Do not add anything once the GD has been summarized.

3.5.6.GD Preparation

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Preparing for a Group Discussion: While GD reflects the inherent qualities of an individual, appearing for it unprepared may not augur well for you. These tips would help you prepare for GDs: Reading:

Mocks:

During the Group Discussion: Leadership Skills:

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Communication Skills:

Interpersonal Skills:

Persuasive Skills:

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UNIT -4 SOFT SKILLS

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CONTENTS

4.1INTRAPERSONAL SKILL 4.2INTERPERSONAL SKILL 4.3NEGOTIATION SKILL 4.4PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL

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4.1INTRAPERSONAL SKILLS DEFINITION:
Intrapersonal is to do with self. The dictionary gives the meaning of Existing or occurring within the individual self or mind. In our home school efforts this means we want to train our children to be the best self they can be. This is not talking about a selfish attitude, of looking out after number 1 – far from it! It is looking at who the child is and making the most of the inner self. Another word, one that is becoming a popular term these days, is Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence is the ability to understand and manage your emotional life, which in turn will affect the life of others around you.

Intrapersonal learners are aware of their own strengths, weaknesses, and feelings. They are aware of self, being a creative and independent, and reflective thinker. They usually possess independence, self-confidence, determination, and high motivation. They may respond with
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strong opinions when controversial topics are discussed. They learn best by engaging in independent study projects rather than working on group projects. Pacing their own instruction is important to them. Entrepreneurs, philosophers, and psychologists are a few professions where strong intrapersonal skills are a benefit.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Research shows that Intrapersonal skills are connected to academic achievements. Intrapersonal intelligence has to do with the ability to think deeply and introspectively. It describes people who gravitate toward philosophical and metaphysical questions, who spend a lot of time alone seeking answers to some of life's most important questions. In contrast to their interpersonal cousins, they are often introverts. People with strong intrapersonal intelligence often have a deep sensitivity to the spiritual realm and make excellent philosophers, writers, theologians and counselors. Because they need a lot of time alone, they tend to learn best when they can work alone in the peace and quiet of their own rooms and offices.

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To activate this intelligence:

· In the midst of a routine activity, practice acute mindfulness (that is, intense awareness of every thing going on, e.g., thoughts, feelings, physical movements, and inner states of being). · Practice watching your thoughts, feelings and moods as if you were a detached, outside observer. Notice patterns that kick into gear in certain situations, for example the “anger pattern,” the “playfulness pattern,” or the “anxiety pattern.”

· Objectify your various thinking strategies and patterns, such as your problem-solving strategies, your crisis-thinking modalities, and your processes for analytical thinking. · In 25 words or fewer write your answer to the question “Who am I?” Keep working on it until you are satisfied. Look at it again each day for a week, making revisions that you feel are needed

To strengthen this intelligence:
Practice metacognition by using higher-order critical and creative thinking processes, the skills of “focusing and centering” the mind, mindfulness, exercises, and self-conscious emotional or affective processing techniques.

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What is difference between interpersonal and intrapersonal?
"Interpersonal" means something that occurs between or relates to several persons. For example, making a speech is an interpersonal action. "Intrapersonal" is something that occurs or exists within the individual self or mind. For example, thinking is an intrapersonal action.

What Are The Skills Required For Intrapersonal Communication?
Intrapersonal communication is a type of communication That a person carries with him or herself. That does not mean talking loudly and crazily in the literary context but figuratively it is a methodology of communicating to oneself that is important in the psychological development of a person, for developing openness to his/ her ideas and gaining access into the psychodynamic dimension of the personality. Its purpose is to think, reason, analyze and reflect the thought procedure. The skills that are required for effective intrapersonal communication are include enhancing self-esteem, along with increasing the extent of self-awareness (meaning knowing yourself well enough and being sensitive to your attributes). It also requires improving problemsolving skills and analyzing abilities. Moreover the need for increasing self-control and reducing the level of stress is a vital one. Lastly the effective management of intrapersonal conflicts (quagmires in general) is important in the carriage of a smooth intrapersonal communication

Intrapersonal communication:
Intrapersonal communications is the act of having an internal dialogue with yourself; or in other words, self-talk! Some examples of this include: "Asking yourself whatwant for dinner tonight"; or "Asking yourself if you should have or shouldn't have done something?"

4.2 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
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Interpersonal skills are the skills that a person uses to interact with other people. Interpersonal skills are sometimes also referred to as people skills or communication skills. Interpersonal skills involve using skills such as active listening and tone of voice, they include delegation and leadership. It is how well you communicate with someone and how well you behave or carry yourself. Also they help people further their careers. Interpersonal skills refer to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interaction to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations through social communication and interactions. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another. Having positive interpersonal skills increases the productivity in the organization since the number of conflicts is reduced. In informal situations, it allows communication to be easy and comfortable. People with good interpersonal skills can generally control the feelings that emerge in difficult situations and respond appropriately, instead of being overwhelmed by emotion. Some ways to improve interpersonal skills are to: • Think positively, and enter the mindset to work well with others and maintain good relationships. • Do not criticize others or yourself.
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• Be patient. • Learn to listen, experts recommend listening 80% of the time and only talking 20%. • Be sensitive to others, this includes not gossiping. • Have a sense of humour appropriate to your situation. Many people benefit from a good joke. • Treat others and their experience with respect. • Praise and compliment people when they deserve it. • When someone is telling a story, don’t interrupt or try to upstage them with a story of your own. • Smile – even when you don’t feel like smiling. • Be cheerful and try to make others smile.

Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) are language skills needed to interact in social situations, for example, when speaking to a friend on the telephone. BICS refers primarily to context-bound, face-to-face communication, like the language first learned by toddlers and preschoolers, which is used in everyday social interaction.
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This term is often credited to Jim Cummins research related to language acquisition and learning. The other term that is often used in conjunction with this term is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). CALP refers to the highly abstract, decontextualized communication that takes place in the classroom, especially in the later elementary grades. CALP involves the “language of learning”, which enables children to problem-solve, hypothesize, imagine, reason and project into situations with which they have no personal experience. It is a prerequisite for learning to read and write and for overall academic success. The implications of the BICS and CALP concepts for children are that the second language or language of the classroom needs to be sufficiently well developed for her or him to be able to meet the cognitive demands of the academic setting. Students typically are thought to acquire BICS in 2-3 years but take 5-7 years to develop the CALP needed to be on the same level with their native speaking counterparts in the classroom. Interpersonal skills are the skills that a person uses to interact with other people. Interpersonal skills are sometimes also referred to as people skills or communication skills. Interpersonal skills involve using skills such as active listening and tone of voice, they include delegation and leadership. It is how well you communicate with someone and how well you behave or carry yourself. Also they help people further their careers. Interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting to enduring. This association may be based on limerence, love and liking, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships take place in a great variety of contexts, such as family, friends, marriage, associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole. Although humans are fundamentally social creatures, interpersonal relationships are not always healthy. Examples of unhealthy relationships include abusive relationships and codependence. A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between two individuals, such as a romantic or intimate relationship, or a parent-child relationship. Individuals can also have relationships with groups of people, such as the relation between a pastor and his congregation, an uncle and a family, or a mayor and a town. Finally, groups or even nations may have relations with each other, though this is a much broader domain than that covered
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under the topic of interpersonal relationships. See such articles as international relations for more information on associations between groups. Most scholarly work on relationships focuses on romantic partners in pairs or dyads. These intimate relationships are, however, only a small subset of interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationships also can include friendships, such as relationships involving individuals providing relational care to marginalized persons.

Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history. Communication channels, the conceptualization of media that carry messages from sender to receiver, take two distinct forms: direct and indirect.

4.3 NEGOTIATION SKILLS

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Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth, for the purpose of reaching a joint agreement about differing needs or ideas. It is a collection of behaviors that involves communication, sales, marketing, psychology, sociology, assertiveness and conflict resolution. A negotiator may be a buyer or seller, a customer or supplier, a boss or employee, a business partner, a diplomat or a civil servant. On a more personal level negotiation takes place between spouse’s friends, parents or children. It is a process of interaction by which two or more parties who consider that they need to be jointly involved in an outcome, but who initially have different objectives, seek by the use of argument and persuasion to resolve their difference in order to achieve a mutually acceptable solution. Another important consideration is that negotiation implies acceptance by both parties that agreement between them is required before a decision can be implemented. . There are seven basic principles common to all forms of negotiation.

There are minimum two parties involved in the negotiation process. There exists some common interest, either in the subject matter of the negotiation or in the negotiating context that puts or keeps the parties in contact.
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Though the parties have the same degree of interest, they initially start with different opinions and objectives which hinders the outcome in general.

In the beginning, parties consider that negotiation is a better way of trying to solve their differences.

Each party is under an impression that there is a possibility of persuading the other party to modify their original position, as initially parties feel that they shall maintain their opening position and persuade the other to change.

During the process, the ideal outcome proves unattainable but parties retain their hope of an acceptable final agreement.

Each party has some influence or power – real or assumed – over the other’s ability to act.

The process of negotiation is that of interaction between people – usually this is direct and verbal interchange.

\5 Ways To Negotiate More Effectively 1) Learn to flinch The flinch is one of the oldest negotiation tactics but one of the least used. A flinch is a visible reaction to an offer or price. The objective of this negotiation tactic is to make the other people feel uncomfortable about the offer they presented. Here is an example of how it works. A supplier quotes a price for a specific service. Flinching means you respond by exclaiming, "You want how much?!?!" You must appear shocked and surprised that they could be bold enough to request that figure. Unless the other person is a well seasoned negotiator, they will respond in one of two ways; a) they will become very uncomfortable and begin to try to rationalize their price, b) they will offer an immediate concession. 2) Recognize that people often ask for more than they expect to get.

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This means you need to resist the temptation to automatically reduce your price or offer a discount. I once asked for a hefty discount on a pair of shoes hoping to get half of what I asked for. I was pleasantly surprised when the shop owner agreed to my request.

3) The person with the most information usually does better. You need to learn as much about the other person's situation. This is a particularly important negotiation tactic for sales people. Ask your prospect more questions about their purchase. Learn what is important to them as well as their needs and wants. Develop the habit of asking questions such as;
• • • • •

"What prompted you to consider a purchase of this nature?" "Who else have you been speaking to?" "What was your experience with…?" "What time frames are you working with?" "What is most important to you about this?"

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4) Practice at every opportunity. Most people hesitate to negotiate because they lack the confidence. Develop this confidence by negotiating more frequently. Ask for discounts from your suppliers. As a consumer, develop the habit of asking for a price break when you buy from a retail store. Here are a few questions or statements you can use to practice your negotiation skills:
• • • •

"You'll have to do better than that." "What kind of discount are you offering today?" "That's too expensive." Wait for their response afterwards. Learn to flinch.

5) Maintain your walk away power. It is better to walk away from a sale rather than make too large a concession or give a deep discount your product or service. After attending my workshops, salespeople often tell that this negotiation strategy gives them the most leverage when dealing with customers. However, it is particularly challenging to do when you are in the midst of a sales slump or slow sales period. But, remember that there will always be someone to sell to.

Qualities of Successful Negotiators
1. In negotiation one side is to let down but mostly successful negotiators try to find out new methods to generate options. The ability of thinking creatively does not come naturally but it can be polished with certain available tools. It saves parties to avoid loss at large scales.

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2. You should negotiate at high moral grounds by treating others with respect and dignity. It is a wrong notion that one needs to be rude to become a successful negotiator. Dignity is the key to success and don’t be aggressive to win the negotiation. 3. The success of negotiation depends on your preparation and its quality. You need to eliminate all misunderstandings to save time and negotiate at quality level. Spend proper time in preparing for negotiation and find out all the related issues and factors that can affect negotiation. 4. You should understand your weaknesses and strengths because they are necessary to reach an agreement. You should be able to negotiate under pressure. If you have your weaknesses and strengths in your mind then you can negotiate to improve the outcome. World class negotiators know that nobody is perfect so they upgrade their skills continuously because the world is very complex.

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4.4 PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL

Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills.[1] Problem solving occurs when an organism or an artificial intelligence system needs to move from a given state to a desired goal state. There are many approaches to problem solving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involved in the problem. The more traditional, rational approach is typically used and involves, eg, clarifying description of the problem, analyzing causes, identifying alternatives, assessing each alternative, choosing one, implementing it, and evaluating whether the problem was solved or not. Another, more state-of-the-art approach is appreciative inquiry. That approach asserts that "problems" are often the result of our own perspectives on phenomena, e.g., if we look at it as a "problem," then it will become one and we'll probably get very stuck on the "problem." Appreciative inquiry includes identification of our best times about the situation in the past,

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wishing and thinking about what worked best then, visioning what we want in the future, and building from our strengths to work toward our vision. The activities of problem solving and decision making are closely intertwined, so the reader will often find mention of the two topics together.

Problem Solving Terminology
A problem is decided by purposes. If someone wants money and when he or she has little money, he or she has a problem. But if someone does not want money, little money is not a problem.

For example, manufacturing managers are usually evaluated with line-operation rate, which is shown as a percentage of operated hours to potential total operation hours. Therefore manufacturing managers sometimes operate lines without orders from their sales division. This operation may produce more than demand and make excessive inventories. The excessive inventories may be a problem for general managers. But for the manufacturing managers, the excessive inventories may not be a problem. If a purpose is different between managers, they see the identical situation in different ways. One may see a problem but the others may not see the problem. Therefore, in order to identify a problem, problem solvers such as consultants must clarify the differences of purposes. But oftentimes, problem solvers frequently forget to clarify the differences of purposes and incur confusion among their problem solving projects. Therefore problem solvers should start their problem solving projects from the definition of purposes and problems Terminology of Problem Solving We should know the basic terminology for Problem Solving. This report proposes seven terms such as Purpose, Situation, Problem, Cause, Solvable Cause, Issue, and Solution. Purpose Purpose is what we want to do or what we want to be. Purpose is an easy term to understand. But problem solvers frequently forget to confirm Purpose, at the first step of Problem Solving. Without clear purposes, we can not think about problems.
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Situation Situation is just what a circumstance is. Situation is neither good nor bad. We should recognize situations objectively as much as we can. Usually almost all situations are not problems. But some problem solvers think of all situations as problems. Before we recognize a problem, we should capture situations clearly without recognizing them as problems or nonproblems. Without recognizing situations objectively, Problem Solving is likely to be narrow sighted, because problem solvers recognize problems with their prejudice. Problem Problem is some portions of a situation, which cannot realize purposes. Since problem solvers often neglect the differences of purposes, they cannot capture the true problems. If the purpose is different, the identical situation may be a problem or may not be a problem. Cause Cause is what brings about a problem. Some problem solvers do not distinguish causes from problems. But since problems are some portions of a situation, problems are more general than causes are. In other words causes are more specific facts, which bring about problems. Without distinguishing causes from problems, Problem Solving can not be specific. Finding specific facts which causes problems is the essential step in Problem Solving. Solvable Cause Solvable cause is some portions of causes. When we solve a problem, we should focus on solvable causes. Finding solvable causes is another essential step in Problem Solving. But problem solvers frequently do not extract solvable causes among causes. If we try to solve unsolvable causes, we waste time. Extracting solvable causes is a useful step to make Problem Solving efficient. Issue Issue is the opposite expression of a problem. If a problem is that we do not have money, the issue is that we get money. Some problem solvers’ do not know what Issue is. They may

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think of "we do not have money" as an issue. At the worst case, they may mix the problems, which should be negative expressions, and the issues, which should be positive expressions. Solution Solution is a specific action to solve a problem, which is equal to a specific action to realize an issue. Some problem solvers do not break down issues into more specific actions. Issues are not solutions. Problem solvers must break down issues into specific action.

Thinking patterns
This report lists fourteen thinking patters. Problem solvers should choose appropriate patterns, responding to situations. This report categorized these fourteen patterns into three more general groups such as thinking patterns for judgments, thinking patterns for thinking processes and thinking patterns for efficient thinking. The following is the outlines of those thinking patterns.

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Thinking patterns for judgments In order to create a value through thinking we need to judge whether what we think is right or wrong. This report lists four judging patterns such as strategic thinking, emotional thinking, realistic thinking, and empirical thinking. Strategic thinking Focus, or bias, is the criterion for strategic thinking. If you judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on whether the situation is focused or not, your judgment is strategic. A strategy is not necessarily strategic. Historically, many strategists such as Confucius in ancient China, Naplon, M. Porter proposed strategic thinking when they develop strategies. Emotional thinking In organizations, an emotional aspect is essential. Tactical leaders judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on the participants emotional commitment. They think that if participants can be positive to a situation, the situation is right. Realistic thinking
• •

Start from what we can do Fix the essential problem first

These two criteria are very useful. "Starting" is very important, even if we do very little. We do not have to start from the essential part. Even if we start from an easier part, starting is a better judgment than a judgment of not-starting in terms of the first part of realistic thinking. Further, after we start, we should search key factors to make the Problem Solving more efficient. Usually, 80 % of the problems are caused by only 20 % of the causes. If we can find the essential 20 % of the causes, we can fix 80 % of problems very efficiently. Then if we try to find the essential problem, what we are doing is right in terms of the second part of realistic thinking.

Empirical thinking
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When we use empirical thinking, we judge whether the situation is right or wrong based on our past experiences. Sometimes, this thinking pattern persists on the past criteria too much, even if a situation has changed. But when it comes to our daily lives, situations do not change frequently. Further, if we have the experience of the identical situation before, we can utilize the experience as a reliable knowledge data base.

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UNIT-V LEADERSHIP SKILLS

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UNIT-V
LEADERSHIP SKILLS Introduction to Leadership
Leadership is an ambiguous term; it is defined differently depending on cultural beliefs, organizational culture, generations and personal beliefs. To become an effective and efficient leader, it is important to take all of this into consideration. To help understand leadership styles, you can put leaders on a continuum and look at their strengths and weaknesses.

Definition of leadership
Leadership has been written as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.”

Types of Leadership
1. The Laissez Faire Leadership Style 2. The Autocratic Leadership Style 3. The Participative Leadership Style

Ten Basic Skills of Outstanding Leadership
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1. Integrity

Integrity (or lack thereof) is reflected in thinking, attitudes, and actions. People can’t directly see your level of integrity, but they judge it pretty accurately on a gut level based on your actions and your words. 2. Vision/strategy

A leader must have a clear idea where his or her organization and unit are going beyond this month’s results or this year’s budget. Where is it going in the long term? Even tactical leaders must be clear about this and need to refer frequently to the vision, mission, and values of the organization in their communications with other

3. Communication

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Communication in the context of leadership refers to both interpersonal communications between the leader and followers and the overall flow of needed information throughout the organization. Leaders need to learn to be proficient in both the communication that informs and seeks out information (gives them a voice) and the communication that connects interpersonally with others 4. Relationships

A leader who likes dealing with people issues, who can initiate and deepen relationships with others, has a great leadership advantage. This is a leader who can build a team and achieve impressive results.

5. Persuasion (influence)
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The ability to influence others and cause them to move in a particular direction is a highly important skill in leadership Your ability to be persuasive is directly related to how much people trust you and how good your communication and relationships are. 6. Adaptability

The leader must move easily from one set of circumstances (the plan) to the next (the plan is not going as expected) and take them all in stride, even when the circumstances are unexpected. The good leader has to embrace change and see it as opportunity. The leadership skill of adaptability is another example of a critical skill.

7. Teamwork

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A leader must know how to build and nurture such a team. A good leader knows when to be a leader and when to be a follower. 8. Coaching and Development

Encouraging others to expand their capabilities and take on additional assignments is part of the leader’s responsibility. Leaders who feel threatened by the capabilities of others are challenged in this area.

9. Decision-making
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A leader must be able to wade through information, comprehend what’s relevant, make a well-considered decision, and take action based on that decision. Making decisions too quickly or too slowly will impede your leadership effectiveness 10. Planning

Planning involves making certain assumptions about the future and taking actions in the present to positively influence that future.

Quotes Characteristic of Leadership
John Maxwell A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way. Leaders must be close enough to relate to others, but far enough ahead to motivate them. Winston Churchill The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty. Martin Luther King, Jr. The time is always right to do what is right

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5.1 GOAL SETTING What is a goal setting?
Goal setting in broad terms is the process of deciding on something you want, planning how to get it, and then working towards the objective. Goal setting is not wishing or dreaming. It is something that is progressively worked towards. Goal setting is a process; it is not something that decided on a whim. An example is when you want to go on a summer holiday:  You decide where you want to go to.  You make the reservations.  You get the car ready.  And then the day arrives.  Car packed, you depart on your journey, and keep going, until...  You arrive at your destination - and enjoy!

Definition:
Goal setting is the process of deciding what you want to accomplish and devising a plan to achieve the result you desire. This goal setting definition emphasizes that goal setting is a two part process. For effective goal setting, you need to do more than just decide what you want to do; you also have to work at accomplishing whatever goal you have set for yourself

Why Set Goals
Why set goals? Every one of us may spend countless hours to think about our present life and future. Almost everyone wishes to change our lives. Whether it is family life, friendship, career or finances. We all want to change something. The first step is to set goals. What are the benefits of goal setting? There are many of them and many reasons for why set goals. 1. You take control of your life Goal is like a GPS (Global Positioning System) in life. It gives you direction and helps you choose where to go in life. It makes you vision about your ideal future and to turn it into reality. When you have achieved the goal, you improve your life and become a better version of yourself.
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2. You focus on the important things Goals help us to sort out what is important and what isn't. You will only focus on the things that you want to achieve and spend precious time on them. 3. You will make good decisions Goals help you identify and establish your priorities and make the right choices based on the long-term view of what is most important to you. 4. You can finish the task efficiently You will focus and concentrate your time and energy on the task. Keep away all the distractions and this make you efficiently. 5. You will be self-confident and enthusiastic When you set a goal and measure the achievement, you are able to see what you have done and what you are capable of. This process of achieving goals gives you the confidence and a belief in yourself. And you become enthusiastic too. 6. You will make progress After you have achieved one goal, you will try to achieve higher goals. In the long turn, you will see big progress you have made when look back. 7. You are closer to success Goals are the starting point of success. A good start makes half the success

PRINCIPLES OF GOAL SETTING
Goal setting is mainly about giving motivation to yourself or others. Goals we usually set for ourselves are personal ones. For example, some people set goals to lose weight in a certain amount of time or by a certain day. Examples of setting goals for others could be a boss setting sales expectations or presenting desired attendance and on-time rates to employees. Either way, goals are set for success. Principles of goal-setting help with that. Clear Goals The goals should be clear, and they should be specific. There should be a start and finish time. Goals should never be vague. The goals should provide information of exactly what is expected. Sometimes it helps to write goals down in a place where it is easy to look at them and to remember. Timing

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Always think about the timing of the goals. Are there short-term goals? Are they long-term? Are there goals that fall in between? Give sufficient time for the goals to be accomplished. Be willing to adjust the timing in either direction to meet the goals that were created. One of the principles of goal setting, surely, is to have a successful outcome. Attainable Make sure that the goals that are set are actually attainable. For example, do people have the skills to accomplish the goal? People do not like goals that are totally unattainable. They will just feel frustrated, and they will feel not motivated to perform at their best. Attainable goals are good goals. Progress Check your progress from time to time. Learn to adjust the goals to make them more effective. It is good to measure the success of the goals you set. It is good to think about goal

TYPES OF GOAL SETTING
Goal Analysis or Priority Setting If you are involved in an Ag-Production operation or if you are married; then you are automatically involved in a family operation. If you are not married, but have an AgProduction partnership with a family member, then that too qualifies as a family operation. When there is a partnership of any kind then there is the possibility of goal conflicts, and it becomes necessary to prioritize goals. Goal Evaluation and Priority Setting Goal evaluation and priority setting is intended for use by those who do not want to use goal analysis, but are willing to invest a reasonable amount of time, thought, and discussion in priority setting. This approach is effective if there are a large number of goals, and only a few goal conflicts. Judgment Priority Setting Judgment priority setting is what most people use because it is easiest. There are usually no goal conflicts. It is used when a person is not willing to actually set goals, but instead prefers to use judgment calls, or is “flying by the seat of his pants” to get by. Key Elements Of Goal Setting Definition: the first thing we need to do is to define exactly what a goal is. Webster defines a goal as “an end that one strives to attain”; a goal is the end results that helps bring about a desired change. The key in this definition is “end” or result. A goal begins with a
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mission, a purpose, or a reason for wanting to achieve the end results. This mission is usually based on a need, want or a desire. Such as wanting to develop new friendships or desiring a better paying profession or a better marketing plan for our crop. These desires are not goals within themselves, yet individuals frequently begin with a mission and believe it to be a goal.

GOAL SETTING METHOD

Write down your goals. Goal setting helps you get what you want. By setting goals, you discover your own weaknesses, as well as your strengths. You make more and better decisions that lead toward outcomes you desire. You help yourself create a plan, a path, a guideline. Your actions become more deliberate. You waste less energy. You abandon wishful thinking and instead take positive action in your own life. Define Your Goals Write your goals as positive statements. The more clearly and precisely you define each goal, the better. "Pay off the loan by September" is a goal. "Quit getting bogged down in debt" puts a vague and negative spin on the goal, and that will defeat it. When you write your goals, you give them the power they need to move from being a dream or idea into reality. Set Parameters Include dates or windows of time. Set amounts or ranges. Achievement can only be measured if you make the goal a concrete one. If your goal is to save an amount of money by a specific date, and you achieve the goal, you will enjoy satisfaction. If you set landmarks in increments of time, you will see your progress along the way. Make sure your goals are

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related to your performance and not outcomes. You have greater ability to control your performance, so keep your focus there. Know Your Costs Every change has a price. Get a handle on what achieving your goal will mean in your life. It will cost money, energy and time. If there are sacrifices to make, outline them in writing. Being clear and honest with yourself will help you overcome the barriers that kept you from achieving your goals in the past. If a goal looms large, dissect it into smaller goals and reward yourself for the accomplishment of each. Let today's accomplishments shine light on tomorrow's tasks. Prioritize Among your goals, some may be contingent on the achievement of others. Be a realist. You will achieve greater success if you tackle tasks for which you are prepared. If you need to learn something new before you can achieve the goal ahead of you, make the education a goal. Set a priority for each individual goal. If the goal begins to get complicated, break it apart into smaller goals. Avoid being overwhelmed by the goals. Instead, make them small enough to be manageable. Once they are prioritized, you can focus on the ones that need to be achieved first. Create a Plan The next question is the how question. Ask yourself how you will achieve the goal. Break it into steps and write them down. If taking the steps from the plan to the achievement is too unwieldy, try backing into your plan. Write your list from the achievement of the goal in reverse through the steps that will lead to it, from end to beginning.

HOW TO SET GOALS
Many people struggle with setting goals. There's a simple acronym to help you set S.M.A.R.T. goals. Instructions Specific. Don't make a generalized goal. "I want to do good in my class." is not as good as saying "At the end of the semester I want an A in my class." Measurable. Your goal should have results that you can quantify. "I want to write more articles." lacks results that you can look at compared to "I'm going to write 5 articles a week."

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Achievable. Make sure your goals are practical and can be done if you apply yourself. Don't create a goal completely out of your reach. Reasonable. Take into consideration what exactly you can do. Ability, time, money, prior commitments, etc. are all important factors. Sure, I might want to write 100 eHow articles a week, but is that really feasible? Timely. Put a time frame to your goal. Make sure it is a reasonable amount of time to complete an objective, not too long or too short. That way at the end you can see if you completed what you set out to do. You'll have the motivation and drive to start, and a sense of urgency. This is shown diagrammatically as follows, where you can see that your ‘Big-Picture’ is achieved through a few long-term milestone goals, which are achieved through several medium-term goals, which are achieved through many short-term mini goals. GOAL SETTING QUOTES "A man should have any number of little aims about which he should be conscious and for which he should have names, but he should have neither name for, nor consciousness concerning, the main aim of his life." Samuel Butler "What you get by achieving your goals is not as important as what you become by achieving your goals." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe "Short-term goals are the stepping stones to the bigger ones." Beth Pugh What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him." Victor Frankl, Psychoanalyst & Concentration Camp Survivor "I have learned this at least by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours." Henry David Thoreau

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5.2 PUBLIC SPEAKING

Public speaking is talking to a group of people. Many of the schools and colleges arrange public speaking competitions to inculcate the art of verbal communication and to eliminate the fear of talking to a crowd. Public speaking becomes interesting when it is more like an interactive session. Moreover, public speaking also brings lots of improvement in one's personality. Choosing a topic for public speaking can seem to be a herculean task with so many options in front of you. But you can reduce the confusion, if you decide the type of topic you want to deliver. A public speaking topic can be informative wherein you provide information to the crowd regarding particular subject, while in persuasive topic you discuss some of the current social issues. Deciding the category of the topic can make your further task easy. To make your public speaking successful, it is necessary that you find out all the possible information related to your speech topic. So, if you are going to face one such competition in near future, then here are some interesting informative and persuasive public speaking topics for you. Definition of public speaking: The process of speaking to a few or many people with the purpose of informing, motivating, persuading, educating or entertaining the listeners.

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The five elements of public speaking are  who  Is saying what  To whom  Using what medium  With what effects Effective Public Speaking: Effective public speaking involves three pillars or the three V's. Verbalization, Vocalization, Visualization Verbalization is the choice of words you use to speak to the audience. It is what you say. Vocalization is how you deliver the words using various pace, pitch, power, pausing, modulations, and other vocal speaker skills. Visualization is how the audience sees you. This involves how you dress, grooming and carry yourself in front of the audience. Your posture, stance and movement in front of the audience are all part of how the audience visualizes you. The nonverbal communication they convey are an important part of a public speakers fulfilling their purpose. Implications for Public Speakers Although a basic concept, understanding what it is and having purpose is one of the essentials to be able to master public speaking. Anyone who has gone to college has sat through boring lectures where it would have been less mentally painful to just sit and read the text books. Conversely, we have sat through great speakers as well. Understanding this means taking the theory of public speaking and putting it into practice Public speaking Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners.

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In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos. Think of the last really memorable talk or presentation that you attended. Now, was that easy to do, or did you really have to rack your brains to remember one? Sadly, too many presentations are easy to forget. And that's a big problem because the only reason the presenter gave the talk was to communicate something to you! However, there are three basic things that you can do to ensure that your verbal messages are understood – and remembered – time and time again. Although somewhat obvious and deceptively simple, these are: Understand the purpose of the presentation Keep the message clear and concise Be prepared Be vivid when delivering the message
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Understand what you want to achieve Before you start working on your talk or presentation, it's vital that you really understand what you want to say, who you want to tell and why they might want to hear it. To do this, ask yourself: Who? What? How? When? Where? Why? Preparation becomes your own best teacher. This list gives you 20 tips to do that, but you must acquire your own. Learn how to analyze a presentation and you will be able to learn and improve every time you speak at a conference. If you hear someone speak and didn't even learn one thing, then you have wasted an opportunity. Everyone has something to teach and something to learn. Space and room set up are important to speaking. For example, in the Affiliate Summit Ask the Experts session, it's a casual, roundtable atmosphere, and this environment is ideal sitting when speaking. If you are giving a solo presentation in a classroom, it is better to stand, so that your voice can project better and because you command more presence, which you want to do. There is no substitute for preparation and practice. The best speakers practice each sentence in their head many, many times before they speak it. They try it over and over until the timing is just right, and it begins to feel natural. Often, it looks like they are sitting there thinking, but really they are practice speaking in their head. The cure for stage fright is to get emotional or tough. Allow yourself to feel very happy or very angry and your stage fright will go away. Allow yourself to laugh and it will also go away. Stage fright is like fog. A good breath of emotion or laughter will blow it away. Observe other speakers. Other speakers can be excellent teachers. Pay attention to what you admire and respect about other public speakers. At the same time, notice what distracts or bores you about other speakers. You can see previous speakers on video at affiliatesummit.tv.

Public Speaking as Expanded Conversation
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What are three characteristics of good conversation?
  

It preserves the natural directness of informal talk It's colorful and compelling It's tuned to reactions of listeners Swaying while you talk distracts the listener from what you are saying, so it is bad.

Make eye contact with the audience. Allow yourself to smile. Definitely use emotion when it is real and sincere. Real emotion and feeling allows your audience to relate to you. If you let your guard down and speak from the heart, then the audience will let its guard down and listen from the heart. Language Build in strong language to your presentation. Strong language is language that paints pictures in the mind of the listener. "Red" is regular language, but "fire engine red" is strong language. Strong language is more descriptive and helps your listener understand. Cursing is bad, because it stunts the speaker's mental growth. The definition of cursing is when "A feeble mind tries to express itself forcefully." Human beings do not have feeble minds. Every time somebody curses, they are stunting their own mental development. Instead of developing higher reasoning powers and the ability to communicate more complex thoughts, a curse poisons the brain in a tiny way, keeping a person from developing intellectually as fast as they could. Identify and eliminate weak language from your speaking. Weak language is any word or phrase that does not add anything to what you are saying. Any word that does not make your message stronger makes it weaker. Vary your tone. A person who speaks in one tone is monotone. That's what monotone means. One tone. Get a little loud sometimes and then get soft. Vary the tone. Don't be boring. Vary your speed. Mono-speed is as bad as monotone. It does not matter whether you talk more quickly or more slowly. What is critical is that you vary your speed and practice your timing. You don't actually speak in sentences. Phonetically, we speak in groups of words. Speed up some groups of words. Pause after important points. Practice improves timing.

The Significance Of Gestures In Public Speaking
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Should a speaker make gestures when speaking in public? That directly depends on the gesture and how it relates to what the speaker is saying. The impact of public speaking rests almost solely in the speaker’s ability to present their point in a clear and convincing manner. A gesturing speaker can either make their point with impact or take away from the message they’re trying to get across. For that reason, it’s vitally important that any student of public speaking learn how to gesture properly before they ever set foot on a podium. The speaker’s words, and senseless movements such as the jerky, agitated pokes and twitches that result from a severe case of nerves should be avoided completely. The grandiose flourishes that were so well received on the stage lose a great deal of their effect in public speaking, making the speaker appear more of a fool than an effective messenger. The location of the hands when the speaker is speaking is a tremendous indicator of the speaker’s feelings and motivation. Consequently, it is important that a speaker be aware of the position and movement of their hands at all times. The hands should not be on the hips, in the pockets, folded across the chest or tucked behind the back. Instead, they should be relaxed and visible.

Public speaking do’s and don’ts

As noted, at

Jerry Seinfeld once a funeral, most

people would rather be in the casket than giving the eulogy, since public speaking stresses people out more than death. But giving talks doesn't have to be such a frightening affair.
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Presentation format

Before you start planning your presentation, find out from the organizers how much time you have and what format they envision for your talk. Will you be part of a panel or will you be speaking alone? Will you be in a regular session or are you the dinner speaker? Do you have 15 minutes or an hour? Do they prefer to leave time for questions? If yes, does that come out of the allocated time you have been quoted? It is important to know what is expected of you so you can be well prepared and not have to scramble last minute to readjust your talk due to unanticipated logistics. Audience Get information about who will be attending your presentation. Will the head of the company be there or just co-workers? Are all participants experts at the topic or will there be novices present? Is there a mixed group of people representing different backgrounds or is everyone on the same page regarding technicalities? Depending on the audience, you will have to spend some time giving varying degrees of background on the material and explaining certain concepts. Location If you have the opportunity, take a look at the location before the time of the talk. It will help you visualize the context of the event and ensure that you are not caught off guard by peculiarities of the space. The take-away message If someone who missed your talk were to ask an audience member in the elevator to sum it up, what would you like that person to say? Focus on that message. Start out with this summary statement in mind and build your presentation around it. Outline Once you have an idea of your presentation's main message, spend some time thinking about the structure of the entire talk. All of the material you cover should contribute

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toward communicating your core message effectively. Start by writing an outline of the talk including main sections and subsections.

Strong start

The first couple of minutes of your talk should be the most prepared and polished. You want to get off to a good start. Those are likely to be the most nervous moments so it is best not to leave anything to chance. By being well prepared, you can convey your messages with confidence. It is important to establish early on that you are prepared and are worth people's attention. Motivation Spend a bit of time up front talking about the inspiration and importance of your message. Listeners should get a bit of background on what motivated your work or project in the first place. What may be a fascinating topic to you may not be to the next person so don't take for granted people's interest in the issues you are discussing. Explain why they should pay attention and why your comments matter. Timing People rarely want to listen to someone for longer than the allotted time. Few people are such amazing speakers that an audience can't get enough of them. Do not assume you are one of those few. Wrap up your talk on time. To achieve this goal, ask someone to give you time cues by indicating when you have five minutes left, two minutes and when you have run out of time. Once you get the last notice, you should stop talking. Flexibility Organize your talk and know it well enough to have the flexibility to skip certain parts or expand on others depending on the circumstances. For example, if you do add a lastminute introduction (as per the previous point), be flexible to skip a part of the prepared content. Confidence and enthusiasm

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You have been chosen as a speaker because you know your topic. Make sure that you exert confidence during your presentation. Don't apologize for what you don't have with you to present or what you do not know. Rather, focus on what you can talk about and discuss the material with confidence. This does not mean that you should be arrogant or patronizing. It means that you should look comfortable covering the material. Question-and-answer session

If there is a Q&A segment then be sure to keep a polite demeanor throughout. Thank people for their questions and feel free to praise them for good points. If you are not sure how to respond to a query then express your appreciation for the insightful comment and note that you will look into it. Practice makes perfect Practice the presentation a few times: more if you have less experience, less if you are a more seasoned public speaker. It can be especially helpful to give the talk to someone who is not in your field and is not intimately familiar with the material. This is helpful in seeing whether you have made the talk too narrowly focused or overly technical. Such a practice session does not have to involve the entire talk, it can consist of telling someone about your presentation outline. Contact information Finish by giving the audience some contact information, including an email address and Web site when applicable. Mention that you welcome people's feedback and they should feel free to ask you questions either after the session or by sending you email. Do you have any more tips for making one's next public speaking engagement less terrifying? Let us know in the comments or at tips at lifehacker.com.

5.3 TEAM BUILDING
What is Team? A group of people Who work together For a particular purpose
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Definition for: Team Building 'The selection and grouping of a mix of people and the development of skills required within the group to achieve agreed objectives.' 'Team is a group of individuals with complementary skills who work together for accomplishing common goals. Working in teams helps build synergy between its members and, as a result, the work, at hand, gets efficiently done.'

Types of teams:
1.Self Managed Work Teams 2.Cross Functional Teams 3.Problem Solving Teams 4.Virtual Teams 5.Project Teams 6.Informal Teams Self Managed Work Teams: Self managed work teams are groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Fully self managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate eachother’sperformance. Cross Functional Teams: Cross functional teams are group of employees who are from the same hierarchical level but from different work areas who come together to accomplish a task. Problem Solving Teams: In problem solving teams members share ideas or offer suggestions on how work process and methods can be improved, they rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggested actions. Virtual Teams:

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Virtual teams use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Project Teams: A team used only for a defined period of time and for a separate, concretely definable purpose, often becomes known as a project team Members of these teams might belong to different groups, but receive assignment to activities for the same project, thereby allowing outsiders to view them as a single unit. Informal Teams: Informal teams are generally formed for social purposes. They can help to facilitate employee pursuits of common concerns, such as improving work conditions. More frequently however, these teams form out of a set of common concerns and interests, which may or may not be the same as the organizations. Leaders of these teams generally emerge from the membership and are not appointed by anyone in the organization.

Methods for Team Building
Simple social activities To encourage team members to spend time together Group bonding sessions Company sponsored fun activities to get to know better the other team members (sometimes intending also to inspire creativity) Personal development activities – Individual programs given to groups members Team development activities – Group-dynamic games designed to help individuals discover How they approach a problem, how the team works together, and discovers better methods of working together Psychological analysis – Training in how to work better together

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Team Building Helps In
• • • • • • • • • • Improving communication Making the workplace more enjoyable Motivating a team Getting to know each other Getting everyone appreciate better the process of goal setting Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths & weaknesses) and develop continuously Discovering (and thus take advantage of) strengths of each individual team member Practicing effective collaboration with team members Self-regulation of a team Improving team productivity

Establish objectives Together

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Focus on contribution

Team Building

Develop a participatory role

Promote team responsibility

Key role in Team Building Activity
 Motivation  Spirituality & Love  Open mindedness  Determination  Goal Orientation

Importance of Team Building Activity
 Leads one’s mind to creativity.  Encourage one to take initiative.  Combined effort to single target.  Provide space for individual growth.  Broaden one’s vision.  Rewards and recognition moves side by side

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Team Vs Group
TEAM GROUP

Individuals assembled together or having Persons associated together in work or some unifying relationship Member’s determines results. ‘Synergy’ arises in teams administrative purposes only. collective activity. performance Members responsible for their own contributions Individualistic approach do not produces Members recognise their independence and

Members think they are grouped together for synergy. Members tend to focus on themselves because understand both personal and team goals are they are not sufficiently involved in planning best accomplished with mutual support. the unit's objectives. Members feel a sense of ownership for their jobs and unit, because they are committed to Members are told what to do rather than being value based common goals that they helped asked what the best approach would be. establish. Members distrust the motives of colleagues Members contribute to the organisation's because they do not understand the role of success by applying their unique talents, other members. Members find themselves in knowledge and creativity to team objectives Members work in a climate of trust and are conflict encouraged to openly express ideas, opinions, disagreements and feelings. Questions are
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situations they do not know how to resolve.

Their

supervisor/leader

may

put

off welcomed human interaction but they view such

intervention until serious damage is done, i.e. Members realise conflict is a normal aspect of a crisis situation Members tend to work in an unstructured situations as an opportunity for new ideas and environment with undetermined standards of creativity. They work to resolve conflict performance. Leaders do not walk the talk quickly and constructively. and tend to lead from behind a desk. Members work in a structured environment, they know what boundaries exist and who has final authority. The leader sets agreed high standards of performance and he/she is respected via active, willing participation.

Reasons for Team Building
Reasons for Team Building include
• • • • • • • • • •

Improving communication Making the workplace more enjoyable Motivating a team Getting to know each other Getting everyone "onto the same page", including goal setting Teaching the team self-regulation strategies Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and weaknesses) Identifying and utilizing the strengths of team members Improving team productivity Practicing effective collaboration with team members

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5.4 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Introduction to Conflict Management:
Conflict is inevitable and pervasive in all kinds of human interactions. How it is managed has strong effects on the individuals and organizations involved. This module summarizes some basic concepts, models, and suggestions about managing conflict effectively, grounded in and consistent with the literature. One colloquial definition of conflict is that it occurs when two people try to occupy the same "space" at the same time. This space could range from a physical space, such as the
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last open seat on a crowded bus, to psychological space, in which each party believes that there are incompatibilities in what the various parties want. How we deal with conflict is contingent on many factors, including the individuals involved, their roles and relationships, the issues, and the context. For a long time, many people, even professionals, considered conflict as "bad" ...something to be avoided and, if present, to be "resolved." There now is wide-spread acceptance (starting early with Mary Parker Follet in c. 1941) that conflict has functionality - that it can have both positive and negative effects. This view led to the present state of calling the field "conflict management," rather than conflict resolution. It is easy to identify potential negative consequences of conflict. However, it is instructive to brainstorm potential positive effects of conflict, e.g.: conflict can cause problems to surface and be dealt with, clarify varying points of view, stimulate and energize individuals, motivate the search for creative alternatives, provide vivid feedback, create increased understanding of one's conflict styles, test and extend the capacities of group members, and provide a mechanism for adjusting relationships in terms of current realities. Properly managed, conflict can help to maintain an organization of vigorous, resilient, and creative people. The goal of conflict management, then, is to increase the positive results, while reducing the negative ones.

Definition of Conflict management:

Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances—standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. ..
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Definition of conflict:

Conflict is a struggle between two or more forces that creates a tension that must be resolved (although in some stories, as in real life, it isn't). The traditional breakdown of conflict is:  Man vs. man (external)  Man vs. nature (external)  Man vs. self (internal) Conflict is important to literature because it provides the basic materials for the construction of the plot. Without conflict nothing would happen. Also, the conflict within a piece may be central to the author's view of life or the point he or she is trying to make.

What is a Conflict? What is Conflict Management?
Conflict is a fact of life, not only in the workplace but in personal life. Conflict often happens between people of differing opinions or as a result of different objectives. Conflict is not necessarily a bad thing; conflict can help initiate change in organizations and in people; and it can lead to personal and professional growth. It is important to have an understanding of that conflict perspective. Managing conflict through effective conflict management strategies and conflict resolution strategies will maximize the positive and minimize the negative aspects of conflict.

Sources of conflict:
 Personality clash or conflict  Competition for limited resources  Personal, self or group interest
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 Tension and stress
 Power and influence

TYPES OF CONFLICT:
Conflict may be broadly categorized as: (a) Intra-personal (b) Inter-personal (c) Group conflicts

INTRA-PERSONAL CONFLICT:

The self generates conflicts that lead to a variety of complications. Consider the following categories.

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Approach-avoidance conflict: A fresh MBA from Karnataka has been offered a managerial job in a leading bank in Mizoram. Here he has an attractive opportunity for a job in a reputed bank (an approach situation). At the same time he will have to live in a distant place that is not entirely peaceful (avoidance situation). The nature of conflict here is the approach-avoidance type. Approach-approach conflict: This happens when a person is faced with a situation where he has to choose between equally attractive propositions. For instance, a person faces such a conflict when he has to choose between going to the cinema to see an interesting film with his family and to a picnic organized by his best friends.

INTER-PERSONAL CONFLICT:

A conflicting situation may arise between spouses, parent and child, between relatives, friends or colleagues. Conflict due to personality differences: A woman comes into conflict with her husband who is excessively authoritarian in his dealings or imposes unreasonable restrictions on her. Similarly, a person faces a conflict situation if a relative/friend breaks a promise leading to inconvenience or loss (dishonoring a social contract). Task-related conflict: A conflict may arise between spouses regarding childcare or household duties. Among colleagues it may be a question of responsibilities not carried out by one that is blamed on another.

GROUP CONFLICTS:
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Conflicts between individual and a group: In a housing colony residents' association, one member suggests aggressive step against a water-supply official, but other members disagree. Conflict between groups: Conflicts may arise between two trade unions or between the union and management.

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Conflict Management Strategies :
There is a menu of strategies we can choose from when in conflict situations: Forcing - using formal authority or other power that you possess to satisfy your concerns without regard to the concerns of the party that you are in conflict with. Accommodating - allowing the other party to satisfy their concerns while neglecting your own. Avoiding - not paying attention to the conflict and not taking any action to resolve it. Compromising - attempting to resolve a conflict by identifying a solution that is partially satisfactory to both parties, but completely satisfactory to neither. Collaborating - cooperating with the other party to understand their concerns and expressing your own concerns in an effort to find a mutually and completely satisfactory solution (winwin).

A Good, Clean Joke:

Kid Quotes A mother and her young son returned from the grocery store and began putting away the groceries. The boy opened the box of animal crackers and spread them all over the table. "What are you doing?" his mother asked. "The box says you can't eat them if the seal is broken," the boy explained. "I'm looking for the seal."
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A father was reading Bible stories to his young son. He read, "The man named Lot was warned to take his wife and flee out of the city, but his wife looked back and was turned to salt." His son asked, "What happened to his flea?"

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