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# Kathmandu University

School of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Metrology Laboratory

Submitted to Er. Shanti Prajapati Department of Mechanical Engineering Kathmandu University

Submitted by Amod Panthee (41071) Mechanical Engineering Year: 4 Semester: I

28 November 2010

Metrology Laboratory 1 To find the least count of Vernier Caliper and Micrometer Screw Gauge

Apparatus Required: 1. Vernier Caliper 2. Micrometer Screw Gauge Theory (Vernier Caliper): The Vernier Constant (VC) of the calipers is the value of the difference between a Vernier division and a main scale division expressed in terms of the value of 1 main scale division (S). Hence, if n vernier divisions coincide with (n-1) main scale divisions, then 1 vernier scale division coincides with main scale divisions.

Difference between a main scale division and 1 Vernier scale division Therefore, Vernier constant (VC)

Figure 1 Vernier Caliper Image Source: http://www.technologystudent.com/images3/vernier5.gif

Procedure: 1. Thoroughly clean the apparatus. 2. Calculate the vernier constant.

3. Check instrumental error, if found found correct. 4. Take the reading. 5. After taking at least, 3 reading, take the mean. Observation: Value of 10 divisions of the main scale = 10 mm Value of 1 division of main scale (S) = 1 mm 49 Vernier Divisions coincide with 50 main scale divisions (n) 1 vernier scale division coincide with Vernier constant (VC) S.N. Internal Diameter External Diameter Height M. S. Reading 2.5 2.5 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.8 V. S. Reading 1 2 6 8 4 6 LC 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Total 2.52 2.54 4.32 4.36 4.88 4.92 Mean 2.53 4.34 4.9 main scale division (V)

Figure 2 Test specimen Result: The least count of given vernier caliper, internal diameter, external diameter, and height of given test specimen is obtained 0.02 mm, 2.53 mm, 4.34 mm, 4.9 mm respectively.

Theory (Micrometer Screw Gauge): Micrometer is the instrument used to measure the diameter of the sphere. The pitch of the screw is defined as the linear distance travelled by the screw in the complete rotation of the circular scale. It is denoted by letter P. The least count (LC) is the smallest distance measurable by means of the apparatus. In the screw gauge, it is the distance travelled by the screw gauge when the circular scale is rotated through only one of its circular scale division. Hence, if P be the pitch of the screw and N be the number of number of circular scale divisions, then the least count (LC) is given by LC If x be the linear scale of the rod, y be the circular scale reading then, Required diameter of the O ring, (d)

Figure 2 Micrometer Screw Gauge Image Source: http://image.wistatutor.com/content/measurement-and-experimentation/micrometer-screw-gauge.jpeg

Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Thoroughly clean apparatus Calculate least count for micrometer screw gauge Avoid parallax error Calculate final reading by adding both linear and circular scale.

Observation: Value of 10 smallest divisions of the main scale = 10 mm

Value of 1 smallest divisions of the main scale = 1 mm In 4 complete circular rotations, the circular scale moves through 2 divisions of the main scale. In 1 complete circular rotation, the circular scale moves through 0.5 divisions of the main scale. Pitch (P) = 0.5 mm Least count (LC) = Instrumental error = S.N. 1 =0 LC1 0.01 0.01 V.S. 2 Reading 6 7 LC2 0.001 0.001 Total 16.316 16.347 Mean 16.3315

M.S. V.S. 1 Reading Reading 16 31 16 34

Result: From test we found that the diameter of given test specimen is 16.3315mm. Conclusion: Parallax should be avoided while measuring the test specimen.

Metrology Laboratory 2 To use a Micrometer Depth gauge and determine depth of a metal O-Ring

Apparatus Required: 1. Micrometer depth gauge 2. Metal O-Ring Theory: The pitch of the screw is defined as the linear distance travelled by the screw in the complete rotation of the circular scale. It is denoted by letter P. The least count (LC) is the smallest distance measurable by means of the apparatus. In the screw gauge, it is the distance travelled by the screw gauge when the circular scale is rotated through only one of its circular scale division. Hence, if P be the pitch of the screw and N be the number of number of circular scale divisions, then the least count (LC) is given by LC If x be the linear scale of the rod, y be the circular scale reading then, Required diameter of the O ring, (d)

Procedure: 5. 6. 7. 8. Thoroughly clean apparatus Calculate least count for micrometer screw gauge Avoid parallax error Calculate final reading by adding both linear and circular scale.

Observation: Value of 10 smallest divisions of the main scale = 10 mm Value of 1 smallest divisions of the main scale = 1 mm In 4 complete circular rotations, the circular scale moves through 2 divisions of the main scale. In 1 complete circular rotation, the circular scale moves through 0.5 divisions of the main scale.

Pitch (P) = 0.5mm Number of circular scale divisions = Instrumental error = =0 mm

Figure 3 Micrometer Depth Gauge Image Source: http://www.technologystudent.com/images3/micrm11.gif S.N Surface MS Reading 4 4 4 4 14 14 CS reading 37 37 19 19 4 7 Value of y*LC 0.037 0.037 0.019 0.019 0.04 0.07 Total 4.37 4..37 4.19 4.19 14.04 14.04 Error 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 4.37 4.19 14.055

1 A 2 3 B 4 5 C 6 Result:

The mean depth for surface A, b and C is determined to be 4.37mm, 4.19 mm and 14.055mm respectively. Conclusion: Parallax error should be avoided while measuring test specimen.

Metrology Laboratory 3 To study the Vernier Height Gauge and find the height of given object

Apparatus required: 1. 2. 3. 4. Theory: This is a type of vernier caliper equipped with a special base block and other attachment which make the instrument suitable for height measurements. Along with the sliding jaw assembly, arrangement is provided to carry a removable clamp. The upper and lower surfaces of the measuring jaws are parallel to the base, so that it can be used for measurement over or under the surface. The vernier height gauge is mainly used in inspection of parts and layout work. With a scribing attachment in place of measuring jaw, this can be used to scribe lines at certain distances above the surface. However dial indicators can also be attached in the clamp and many useful measurements made as it exactly gives the indication when the dial tip is just touching the surface. For all these measurements, use of surface plates as datum is very essential. Least count of a vernier height gauge is calculated Figure 4 Vernier Height Gauge using the same principle as of vernier caliper. If n vernier divisions coincide with (n-1) main scale divisions, then 1 vernier scale division coincides with main scale divisions. Vernier Height Gauge Slip Gauges Test piece Precission graphite table

Difference between a main scale division and 1 Vernier scale division Therefore, Vernier constant (VC)

Observation: For given vernier height gauge, 49 main scale division = 50 vernier scale division Therefore, 1 vernier scale division We get, Least Count (LC) = Surface A A B B C C D D M.S. Reading 41 41 27 27 22 22 5 5 V.S. Reading 80 78 44 80 0 10 22 14 main scale division mm LC 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Total Mean(mm) (M.S. + V.S.*LC) 42.6 42.58 42.56 27.88 28.24 28.6 22.0 22.1 22.2 5.44 5.36 5.28

Figure 2 : Test Specimen Result The height of surface A, B, C and D was determined to be 42.58mm, 28.24 mm, 22.1 mm, and 5.36 mm respectively. Conclusion While measuring the height of surfaces, the surface of the test specimen at which it is kept should have same datum level as the base of the vernier height gauge. The vernier scale and main scale should be adjusted using adjusting key in the vernier height gauge before any reading is taken.