Revision Guide | Water Resources | Energy Security

A2 GEOGRAPHY REVISION GUIDE EDEXCEL B

Topic 1: Energy Insecurity

What do I need to know?
 How energy sources can be classified and the advantages and disadvantages of these  Reasons for global variations in energy access and consumption
 Factors effecting energy security – California Case Study

 Impact of growing global energy demand e.g. China case Study  Impact of geopolitics on energy security
 Energy pathways  problems with these – Trans-Siberian Pipeline  How energy supplies can be disrupted e.g. Russia

 Environment impacts of looking for more energy e.g. Tar Sands in Canada, Arctic Oil
 Who they key players are in supplying future oil – OPEC, TNCs - Gazprom

 Why we are uncertain about the future of energy  The advantages and disadvantages of the possible futures  How energy insecurity will lead to geopolitical tensions e.g. USA involvement in Middle East, China and India  How can meet our future energy needs?

Key Terms
Energy Pathways Supply routes between energy producers and consumers e.g. pipelines or shipping routes

Energy Poverty Energy Security Energy surplus Geopolitics Low-carbon standard OPEC Peak Oil Security Premium Strategic Supply shock Tar Sands Energy crisis Environmental impact assessment Fossil fuels Renewable resources Strategic Petroleum Reserve Energy infrastructure Energy TNCs Resource nationalisation Carbon credit Carbon Trading Coal gasification Green taxation Microgeneration

When a country or region has insufficient access to reliable sources of power This is vital to the functioning of any economy – any country that is self-sufficient in energy resources will be secure When a country or region has more than enough sources of power for its needs and is able to export its surplus power to other countries Political relations among nations, particularly relating to claims and disputes regarding boarders and resources Initiative introduced in California in 2007 aimed to reducing the carbon intensity of transportation fuel by 10% by 2020 The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries e.g. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait The year in which the world or an individual oil-producing country reaches its highest level of production, production declines after The extra cost built into the price of oil to allow for any disruption in supply Something that is done as part of a plan that is meant to achieve a particular purpose or to gain an advantage A significant interruption to supply due to an environmental, economic or political event Naturally occurring mixtures of sand or clay, water and dense form of petroleum called bitumen A serious shortage of energy which interrupts domestic supplies and impacts on all sectors of the economy Details all of the impacts on the environment of an energy type or another project above a certain size Fuels consisting of hydrocarbons (coal, oil and natural gas) formed by the decomposition of prehistoric organisms Sources of energy such as solar and wind power that are not depleted as they are used The USA’s reserve supply of oil which should last for about 3 months in the event of severe interruptions to imported oil The built environment constructed for the exploration, development and production of energy, and all the networks Transnational corporations that specialise in the exploration, development, production and sale of energy products When a country decides to place part or all of one or a number of natural resources e.g. oil under state ownership A permit that allows an organisation to emit a specified amount of greenhouse gases A company that does not use up the level of emissions it is entitled to can sell the remainder to another company A process which converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation Taxes levied to discourage behaviour that will be harmful to the environment Generators producing electricity with an output of less than 50KW

How energy sources can be classified and the advantages and disadvantages of these
The main way to classify energy is between renewable, non-renewable and recyclable sources RESOURCES) Renewable = can be used over and over again e.g. wind and solar power (also known as FLOW

Non-renewable = these are finite resources so as they are used up the stock that remains behind is reduced (also known as STOCK RESOURCES) Recyclable resources = fuel that has been used once can be used again to generate power e.g. nuclear reprocessing can make uranium waste reusable Energy source Coal Type Non-renewable Issues  Releases large amounts of Co2 contributing to climate change e.g. 2 billion tonnes from USA plants per year  Carbon capture technology to remove Co2 is unproven  Releases Co2 on use  Issues of security of supply  Health risks and accidents e.g. Chernobyl  Disposal of radioactive material an issue  Global supplies may have reached their peak  Release Co2 when burnt  Availability varies across the globe  Expensive compared with fossil fuels  Only certain locations suitable  Technology for large-scale generation unproven  Only certain locations suitable  Wind energy is variable so hard to manage power supply  Acts as a carbon sink so combustion releases carbon dioxide  Limited potential for large sale generation  Availability limited to a few locations e.g. Iceland  Large scale schemes are expensive  Dam building creates wide scale flooding

Natural Gas Nuclear Oil Solar Tidal Wind Biomass Geothermal Hydro-electricity

Non-renewable Non-renewable (may be recyclable) Non-renewable Renewable Renewable Renewable Renewable Renewable Renewable and recyclable

HEP: WIND NATURAL GAS: COAL: OIL: China, Canada,USA 41.1% of 40% of Germany worldMiddle East global Russia and China produced produce = 30.8% In 2007 the Brazil and USA leader production world’s coal in 2007 of oil attotal account for 46% 23.6% USA produces 18.7% N. America = 16.5% of global total Germany, USA Saudi Arabia dominates and Spain production  12.6% of world’s account for total 58% globally Russia accounts for over ½ of production for Europe and Eurasia

Reasons for global variations in energy access and consumption Distribution of energy reserves: Why energy supply varies: 1) Physical:  Deposits of fossil fuels are only found in a limited number of places  Solar power needs a large number of days a year with strong sunlight  Large power stations require flat land and stable foundations 1) Economic  Onshore deposits of oil and gas are cheaper to develop then offshore deposits  In poor countries foreign direct investment is essential to develop energy resources  Most accessible and low cost deposits of fossil fuels are developed first 1) Political  Countries wanting to develop nuclear power need to gain permission from the International Atomic Energy Agency NICs:  International agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol can influence energy decisions ➢ China accounts for 1/3rd  HEP schemes on ‘international’ rivers require the agreement of all countries that share the of the growth in global oil river demand since 2000 ➢ Demand for oil in China is expected to rise by 5Energy consumption 7% year .

Intensity – the degree to which the economy of a country is dependent on oil and gas The higher the index. This is based upon: . the lower the risk and therefore the greater the energy security .Availability – the amount of a country’s domestic oil and gas supplies and its level of reliance on imported resources .Diversity – the range of energy resources used .Developing Countries: MEDCs: ➢ The USA shows huge demands for energy resources ➢ Germany and UK have improved their energy efficiency resulting in a modest increase in demand compared with NICs ➢ Most are struggling to pay for their energy requirements ➢ Energy demand is influenced by rate of economic development and rate of population growth ➢ In the world 2 billion people lack access to household electricity ➢ Traditional biomass in these countries accounts for 90% of total energy consumption It is important to note that the use of energy in all countries has changed over time due to: Technological developments  nuclear power only been available since 1954 Increasing national wealth  incomes increase resulting in increasing use of energy Changes in demand  Britain’s trains were powered by coal Changes in price  Electricity production in UK switched from coal to gas power stations are they are cheaper to run Environmental factors/public opinion  can influence decisions made by governments Factors effecting energy security Energy security has a number of risks: 1) Physical – exhaustion of reserves or disruption of supply lines 2) Environmental – Protests about environmental change caused by exploitation of energy resources 3) Economic – sudden rises in costs of energy forcing increased imports of higher-priced energy 4) Geopolitical – political instability in energy-producing regions The energy security of a country can be measured using the ‘Energy Security Index’ (ESI).

but only 3% of gas reserves Produces 5% of USA total electricity More motor vehicles that any other state Why is the USA in energy crisis? 1) Consumption  In 2007 USA consumed 23.g. Limited capacity of power lines to important more electricity c. China accounted for 10% of global energy demand. Between June 2000 and May 2001 California experienced a series of blackouts due to various factors: a. Eron  used supply and demand to ensure energy prices remained high enough when supply was good Therefore the two major power companies in California were forced to shut off electricity supplies to conserve limited stocks Impact of growing global energy demand e. 1990s became more of a capitalist economy allowing individuals to accumulate wealth = still not a free-market economy as most companies are state owned (LINK TO SUPERPOWER UNIT) . 2. In 2008 the oil was $140 2) Reserves of fossil fuels are being to run out  reserves should last for between 40-65 years 3) Global sources of energy are unevenly distributed  most are concentrated in politically unstable parts of the world 4) Demand for energy is increasing  the growth of economies in China and India has meant more competition for resources So why is California suffering an energy crisis? Due to the fact that the US energy market is privatised the market is driven by the desire to make most profit. China case Study Background: • • • In 2001. Insufficient generating capacity strong anti-pollution laws in the 1970s meant energy companies were unwilling to build new power stations that were expensive b.8% of the world’s oil 2) Reliance on imports  Between 1960 and 2003 USA’s reliance on imported gas and oil increased by 18% to 58%  9/11 terrorist attack highlight concerns on dependence on imports from the Middle East 1) Price  In 2006 the price of oil had risen from $20 to $60 per barrel . in 2007 it was 15% Per capita energy demand is still relatively small due to its huge population (e. 2006 consumed less than 7 million barrels/day a 1/3rd of USA) Controls 3% of world oil reserves (enabled China to be self-sufficient until 1995) Causes of rising demand: 1. The weather:  2000 was the 3rd years of drought so less surplus energy due to lack of hydro-electricity from surrounding states  Summer was very hot so increased demand for air-conditioning  Winter was unusually cold so increased need for heating a. however in 1986 the government developed an ‘Open-Door Policy’ to overseas investment. Since 1949 China has been a communist country separate from the rest of the world.g.Case Study: Energy Security Issues: California Case Study Facts: Largest state in the USA Lowest per capita energy consumption rate in the USA due to mild weather 16% of USA oil reserves.

Canada and South and Central America TO the USA. For example.g. Beijing Olympics. but the bulk of its exports now head to Europe. Gas pathways are different in that they tend to be localised and regional rather than global. to 267 cars per 1000 people in 2030 (by 2020 expected to have 140 million private cars on the road) • Only uses 10% of its energy for transport currently but will need huge amounts in the future Where does the energy come from? Coal – Relies on coal for 70% of its electricity generation and the huge demand means China is building on average 3 coal-fired power stations a week. Energy pathways  problems with these Energy pathways between producers and consumers highlight the considerable levels of risk involved in the energy industry. • Russia supplies some oil to CHINA.5 million people per year (45million expected to move to the cities by 2012) • Car ownership to grow from 16 cars per 1000 people in 2002.g. It can be affected by geopolitics because there is little excess capacity to ease pressure on energy supplies if supply becomes disrupted. Physical and human causes of disruption: • Long running tensions in the Middle East e. HEP – Accounts for 16% of china’s energy production e. Rising energy demand is due to both economic growth and the demands of the new industry but also rapid urbanisation and growing car ownership • Rural-urban migration in China is 8.g. mainly to Japan. both domestic and foreign. • The Middle East exports around 15 000 barrels per day. however territorial disagreements in the South China Sea is making this difficult  importing more oil Future: China’s energy security problems matter to the rest of the world due to its size and the impact that an increase in demand would have on everyone else. However is energy dependency is only 12% compared with USA of 40% and Japan of 80%. and security of supply. A possible future is that as movement through pipeline becomes less dependable (for political reasons). following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. destruction of oil wells during Iraq war consumed 6 million barrels of oil a day for 8 months • Hurricane Katrina in 2005 affecting oil production and refining in the Gulf of Mexico causing oil and petrol prices to rise . Traditionally gas is transported through pipelines. Creates environmental problems for them e. Three Gorges Dam and China aims to build HEP dams on all of its major rivers Oil – Oil production has now peaked and exploration into offshore fields has begun. Europe and CHINA. whilst industry is located in the south and east. Majority of the coal is located in the north and west. there will be a switch towards shipping gas in tankers as LNG. Patterns: Oil has a complex global pattern of PATHWAYS and PLAYERS (exporters and importers). the Arab nations reduced the supply of oil to the USA and Western Europe to reduce their support for Israel – this created a serious energy shortage.3. • Substantial amounts flow from Africa. Potential Exam Question: Discuss how far economic development can be affected by energy security (15 marks) Impact of geopolitics on energy security Energy security demands on resource availability. Since then in 1977 the USA construction a ‘Strategic Petroleum Reserve’ with the initial aim to store 1 billion barrels of oil which could be used in the event of supply issues. whereas oil has been transported by ship.

demanded immediate restoration and entered into shuttle diplomacy between Kiev and Moscow. The pipeline runs from Siberia's gas field to Uzhgorod in Western Ukraine.g. In these areas there are issues of permafrost and to avoid this pipelines are build above ground How energy supplies can be disrupted e. the natural gas is transported to Central and Western European countries. a Moscow ally. The pipeline was constructed in 1982-1984. after Russia accused Ukraine of siphoning off gas meant for European customers. but by midnight on 31 December 2008 they had failed to agree on the price Kiev should pay in 2009. This has happened 3 times before but this year. when pro-Western forces led by President Viktor Yushchenko won control of the government over Viktor Yanukovych. Trans-Alaskan pipeline crosses 3 mountain ranges and several large rivers. The European Union called the supply cut "completely unacceptable". . Trans-Siberian Pipeline The pipeline project was proposed in 1978 as an export pipeline from Russia to Europe.• • In 2005 – explosions and fires at Buncefield Oil Storage Depot destroyed fuel worth £10 million. • The EU gets a quarter of its gas supplies from Russia 80% of which passes through Ukraine What sparked the crisis? • • • Ukraine and Russia have faced negotiations over the renewal of gas supply contracts every year. It supplies Heathrow and as a result had to ration fuel 2006 and 2008 disputes between Russian and Ukraine disrupted gas supplies to Western Europe. Russia also opposes Ukraine’s desire to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the EU. From there. Russia Background: • Tensions between Russia and Ukraine have been high since 2004. leaving more than a dozen countries without their expected supplies of Russian gas. gas supplies were completely halted from 7 January.

bypassing Russian territory altogether • Press Russia and Ukraine to sign long-term contracts.• • A deal reached on 12 January. water and a hydrocarbon tar called bitumen. The EU said both sides had failed to meet its terms. By 2030 they aim to produce at least 5 million a day and export the surplus. Impacts: • Some. Schools were shut and people had to revert to using log fires to heat their homes. The two countries also failed to agree on a price Russia would pay Ukraine for gas transit to Europe. • In the meantime European countries had to shut down industrial plants and domestic heating systems. Since the rising oil prices and technological advances they have now become more feasible to extract.g. Problems:  Oil in the shale is not easily separated out so immense amount of heat is needed usually through burning natural gas  Process uses huge amounts of water e. Alberta’s tar sands produced a million barrels of oil a day in 2003 and expected to reach 3. Europe’s energy security – should they be worried? Yes: The amount of gas Russia supplies to Europe means that any disruptions have large-scale impacts No: Even during the Cold war the supply of Russian gas was stable and the Europe is now looking to enhance its energy security through: • Reducing its dependence on Russia—building of the South Caucasus pipeline supplying gas from Azerbaijan via Turkey. are almost completely dependent on supplies via Ukraine and so were left with major shortages. something that it must do anyway if it is to meet its ambitious climate-change targets. find alternative sources of gas or switch energy plants to oil. The water then also becomes polluted where is can damage ecosystems  Issue of disposing of the shale once the oil has been removed  Very expensive and only viable when oil costs over $30 a barrel (costs $15 per barrel compared with $2 for convectional crude oil)  Processes tar sands are a large source of greenhouse gas emissions  470km2 of forest have been removed and lakes of toxic waste cover 130km2 Benefits: ✔ Alternative source of oil during times of political or access issues ✔ By 2030 the tar sands could meet 16% of North America’s demand for oil ENERGY SECURITY ✔ Provide additional source of energy until more renewable sources can be found . similar to those that Gazprom already has with most EU countries. with accepted pricing formulae. • Diversify its sources of energy. during a very cold spell in Europe. Serbia and Bosnia. Potential Exam Question: Russia uses its oil and gas as a political and economic weapon. Discuss Environment impacts of looking for more energy Tar Sands in Canada This place contains up to 2. like Bulgaria. whereby EU and Russian observers would monitor supplies across Ukraine collapsed within hours.5 million a day by 2011. every barrel of oil produced requires 4 barrels of water.5 trillion barrels of oil – that is more than Saudi Arabia’s reserves Oil sands are made of sand.

Local people 4. Shell and BP Alberta Energy Research Institute Environmental groups e. 3. Arctic States – USA.g. Issue regarding who can lay claim to which parts of the ocean – Russia has claimed nearly half of the Arctic but other interested parties e. Sweden and Iceland 2. Problems:  Oil companies have already destroyed large parts of Alaska and Siberia so should be kept out of the Arctic  New oil rush in the Arctic is only possible because of the increased shrinking of the polar ice cap due to global warming  The Arctic is a pristine environment containing over 45 species of land and marine animals  Issue over who has the right to claim ownership of the natural resources – countries who have been conflicting over this have now agreed to sign the UN Law of the Sea Convection stating the 8 Arctic states are allowing to exploit offshore resources within 200 nautical miles of their territory Benefits: ✔ At around $70 per barrel it makes drilling in the Arctic viable. Norway. ✔ Contains up to 25% of the world’s undiscovered oil and natural gas Players involved: 1. Norway failed to uphold their claim. USA.g. 5. (2007 prices reached $100). Environmental Pressure groups Who they key players are in supplying future oil Energy TNCs e. 2. UN – will decide the control of the Arctic by 2020 3. Canada and Venezuela (countries containing Tar Sands TNCs e. This is due to the fact that TNCs have come under attack from environmental groups and companies like BP have worked hard to establish a positive public image through investments in renewable energies.g. 4. Denmark. Shell Historically the energy industries have been dominated by large TNCs such as Shell but the power of the TNCs has been challenged by OPEC and recently national energy companies. Finland.✔ Mining companies are required to replant land disturbed by mining ✔ Oil is vital to Canada’s economy (2007= 20% of exports) Players involved: 1. Russia. Canada. . Shell consists of a global group of energy and petrochemicals companies with a strategy to reinforce their position as a leader in the oil and gas industry in order. Greenpeace Local people (those employed by the companies or those affected by pollution) Arctic Oil This place is estimated to contain up to 25% of the world’s undiscovered oil and natural gas.g. One of their focuses has been to explore for new oil and gas reserves.

whilst USA Geological Survey predicted it is at least 50 years away. The advantages and disadvantages of the possible futures Business as usual If we do nothing forecasts predict that by 2030:  Global primary energy demand will rise by 53%  Fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy worldwide  Emissions from electricity generation will account for 44% of energy-related emissions  Over 70% increase in the energy demand will come from developing countries due to rapid economic growth and population growth Nuclear      By 2008. 439 nuclear reactors were supplying 15% of the world’s electricity Does not produce greenhouse gas emissions Uranium is relatively cheap to mine and reserves should last around 150 years Very cost effective to transport as only used in small quantities Produces 1% of global electricity supply . At the end of 2006.1 million barrels of gas and oil every day  $2 billion spent on CO2 and renewable energy technologies over the last 5 years. OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent intergovernmental organization of 12 oil-exporting developing nations OPEC was formed in 1960 to protect the interests of oil-producing companies and have formed what some view as a CARTEL. OPEC is criticised that it controls the price of oil as it is worried that increasing the supply of oil would mean investors would stop investing causing a collapse in the price. Its sets oil production quotas for its members in response to economic growth rates and demand-and-supply conditions. It is thought that world oil demand will grow by 32% by 2020 and global gas demand by 48%. the OPEC members had over 78% of the world’s total oil reserves and they produce around 45% of the world’s crude oil and 18% of its natural gas. conservation of resources and the pace at which the world can switch to renewable sources of power. Why we are uncertain about the future of energy It is hard to predict energy demand as it is strongly affected by economic growth rates.Key Facts:  Produce 2% amount of world’s oil  Produce 3% amount of world’s gas  3. It therefore aims to ensure fair and stable prices for its members.  In 2009 greenhouse gas emissions were approximately 35% below 1990 levels. The issue of Peak Oil: The International Energy Agency predicted peak oil production to occur between 2013 and 2037.

How energy insecurity will lead to geopolitical tensions USA Involvement in the Middle East In March 2003 USA and allied forces invaded Iraq (4th largest oil reserves in the world). Iraq. China vs. China and Iran and is fighting hard to secure oil by means of energy pathways running through friendly countries. road tax increase in 2010 will see 9. lack of energy-efficient technologies.5nillion in overseas exploration compared with $40 billion made by China. In 2005 oil imports accounted for 2/3rds of India’s oil consumption and China is seen to be much more energy secure than India. The USA hoped that its involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan would democratise the Middle East. India has strained relations with energy suppliers and the countries that the supplies have to pass through. 1986 Chernobyl incident highlights the issues  Very expensive to build – several billion pounds  Nuclear waste disposal is an issue as it remains radioactive for 10. America is excluded from deals between Russia. the then leader was considered to pose a threat to the security of Western oil supplies in the Middle East as he was making deals with Russian and Chinese oil companies. Before the invasion the USA put pressure on Iraq to admit it had stockpiled weapons of mass destructions or faces military action. reliance on heavy industry and widespread power stealing.4 million motorists pay more road tax aimed to punishing heaviest polluting cars. E.g. How can meet our future energy needs? . The USA goal in invading Iraq was to reduce its dependence on Saudi Arabia for oil and increase its energy security by introducing a new supplier. However. The government will receive more that £1billion in additional revenue. India India’s demand for energy has grown due to high economic growth rates. In terms of investment India is also behind with only $3.000 years Renewable energy with the emphasis on wind power  Costs of generating wind today are about 10% of what they were 20 years ago  In some areas first generation wind turbines are being replaced with modern turbines which give better performance  NIMBY – people are concerned that the turbines could blight their homes and views  Turbines can kill birds  Suitable areas are often near the coast where land is expensive Energy Conservation a) Combined Heat and Power (CHP)  power stations waste 65% of the heat they generate but CHP plants can be up to 95% efficient as they can use different fuels in the same boiler including biomass but also cut emissions and reduce fuel dependency b) Green Taxation  aimed at cutting the use of natural resources and encouraging recycling. Various policies have been introduced:  India will have to rely on imported oil and gas in the short term  required increased diplomacy with South Asia etc  Investing in offshore gas fields in Vietnam However.

Under the Kyoto Protcol carbon emissions are now tracked and traded like a commodity so that any excess reductions can be sold in the ‘carbon market’ Green taxes – Taxes on individuals for using air transport and pollution charges on companies. the heat is often too deep to be economical. crops e. but it is not proved that the carbon dioxide will actually stay underground and it is very expensive. trees and algae. Geothermal – In the Philippines 25% of the electricity is generated from underground heat which is free and available all day. What types of questions have been asked? Study Figure 1. sugar. However. Countries are required to achieve specific reductions in their greenhouse emissions (average of 5% against 1990 levels by 2012). Bio fuels – algae – There are 3 main types. (10) . Carbon storage – this involves capturing the carbon dioxide released by burning coal and burying it deep underground. The USA refused to sign Emissions trading – EU emission Trading Scheme meant that heavy industrial plants have to buy permits to emit greenhouse gases over the limit they are allowed by government. Other ideas are aimed to reduce energy consumption such as removing stamp duty on carbon neutral homes Offshore wind turbines – Building offshore costs at least 50% more than on land but wind speeds are generally double those on land so they can generate more electricity.Emissions controls – Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997 aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are hard to grow but produce oil that requires less refining before it becomes a bio fuel.g. (Explain why oil exploration in the areas shown could lead to high economic and environmental costs. grasses.

Assess the possible costs and benefits of this approach. economic and political risks in exploiting new energy resources (15) .Assess the relative importance of named players in the global supply of energy. (15) The development of alternative energy sources is a possible response to future energy demands. (15) Explain how the world price of oil has a major impact on oil exploration by TNCs and governments (10) Assess the potential environmental.

Suggest the possible environmental consequences of the changes in electricity consumption shown.Suggest how the contrasting distribution/pattern of major oil exporters and importers shown in Figure 1 could affect the energy security of some nations. (10 marks) Assess the degree of uncertainty over future global sources of energy supply (15 marks) . (10) Study Figure 1.

g. Learn the pros and cons of 2 of China transfer. drip irrigation.Topic 2: Water Conflicts What do I need to know?  Physical factors affecting water supply – Climate. over extraction and salt water incursion How water supply is linked to development Water Poverty Index – examples of Canada and Ethiopia Aral Sea case study – role of different key players here and impacts Conflicts over the same water source – examples of Middle East. China. Ebro River. Snowy Mountain or Turkey to Israel How Restoration can solve the problems – example of River Kissimmee and Aral sea Role of Water Aid ( NGO) in solving problems How we can conserve water Role of technology in solving future problems e. Domestic use and supply  Examples of China and India to support 3 How Human activity can make water stress worse – pollution. desalinisation. Impacts of these Water transfer schemes as a solution. GM crops . river systems and Geology  Example of               California to support How water stress can occur – Agriculture. Ganges and Nile Geopolitics of water supply within a country – example of Colorado River Basin USA and Helsinki Rules What water future are going to be How different key players opinions on future water usage may conflict Dams as a solution – example of 3 Gorges Dam. Industry.

A drought starts when total rainfall is well below average for several months. hail.Key Terms Aquifer Arid and semi-arid Desalination Drought El Nino Groundwater High pressure Infiltration Irrigation La Nina Percolation Potential Evapotranspiration Precipitation Prevailing Privatisation Rain shadow Relief Rainfall Riparian Spatial imbalance Stream flow Surface runoff Urbanisation Virtual water Water rights Water Scarcity Water Stress Water wars World Water Gap A rock. rivers and other channels. Globally La Nina means that parts of the world that normally experience dry weather will be drier and those with wet weather will be wetter. otherwise known as an anticyclone The process of the water entering rocks or soil The supply of water to the land by means of channels. The incoming air has been forced to rise over the highlands causing precipitation on the windward side This forms when moisture-laden air masses are forced to rise over ground. a river Can be divided into ‘apparent scarcity’ which exists when there is plenty of water but it is used wastefully. The air is cooled. most common The sale of a business/industry so that it is no longer owned by the government An area of relatively low rainfall to the lee side of uplands (sheltered from winds).700m3 per person International conflict as a result of pressure on water supplies. frost or sleet Most frequent. and ‘real scarcity’ which is caused by insufficient rainfall or too many people relying on a limited resource Measured as annual water supplies below 1. but not including underground streams A region of high atmospheric pressure. Owners of land crossed or bounded by a river have ‘riparian’ rights to use the river The uneven distribution/location across a landscape or surface of e. river systems and Geology . The filtering of water downwards through soil and through bedding planes.g. which will hold water and let it through Describe conditions where rainfall is less than 250mm and 500mm of precipitation per year respectively The conversion of salt water into fresh water An extended period of abnormally dry weather that causes water shortages and crop damage. and precipitation occurs Relating to a river bank. such as chalk. it is associated with major variations in tropical climates All water found under the surface of the ground which is not chemically combined with any minerals present. The difference between those people. snow. which develops off the coast of Ecuador. streams and sprinklers in order to permit the growth of crops An extensive cooling of the central and eastern Pacific. The movement of over ground of rainwater. population The flow of water in streams. It occurs when the rainfall is very heavy and when the rocks and soil can absorb no more The migration of rural populations into towns and cities. who live in water poverty and those who have ready and reliable access to water for drinking and sanitation Physical factors affecting water supply – Climate.g. the water vapour condenses. The amount of water used in the production of a good or service The legal right of a user to use water from a water source e. A southerly warm ocean current. joints and pores of a permeable rock The amount of evaporation and transpiration that can occur given a sufficient supply of water The deposition of moisture from the atmosphere onto the Earth’s surface in form of rain.

7 million in 2007  Spatial imbalance as three quarters of demand for water comes from areas south of the Sacramento – 75% of the rain falls to the north  Increasing demands for water exceed natural supplies . ➢ In recent years extended droughts have meant groundwater and surface storage levels have decreased Threats: a) Precipitation  Much of California is arid with annual average precipitation of between 200-500mm  65% of precipitation is lost through Evapotranspiration.Case Study: Factors affecting California’s water supply Geographical Controls on water supply: ➢ Mountain chains run parallel to the coast and prevent moist air reaching inland ➢ Most rainfall falls in a coastal zone no more than 250km wide ➢ South and far east of California receive under 100mm of rainfall due to the rain shadow cast by the Sierra Nevada mountains ➢ High pressure systems over the Pacific ocean block moist air currents reaching southern California ➢ Most of the major rivers are fed by snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 13% flows out to sea = only 22% for human use  50% of the rain falls between November and March = seasonal shortages a) Population  Has grown from 2 million people in 1900 to 37.

Industry is generally a more efficient user of water then farming. c) Industrial waste – every year the world generate 400 billion tonnes of industrial waste which is pumped untreated into rivers. . Industry. seas etc. China India ➢ 4% of the world’s freshwater but 16% of the population ➢ Demand will exceed supply by 2020 ➢ Water tables are falling rapidly as 21 million wells are used China ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ 8% of the world’s freshwater but 22% of the population 2/3rds of cities do not have enough water all year round Stress levels expected to occur by 2030 Annual population growth rate is about 2. or when poor quality restricts its use. Industry  21% used for industry but rapid growth expected since the development of countries such as India and China. Named Examples: India vs. a kg of beef is 10x more water costly to produce then a kg of rice. Agriculture  some forms of farming are less water efficient than others e.How water stress can occur – Agriculture. Domestic use and supply Water stress occurs when demand for water exceeds the amount available during a certain period. d) Dams – trap sediment in reservoirs which reduces floodplain fertility and the flow of nutrient from rivers into seas. Domestic  Only 10% of world’s water is used for this purpose but this varies from country to country. These add nutrients to the water leading to an increase in the growth of algae downstream. 17% of the global area used for growing crops is irrigated. compared with 578 litres in the USA This has lead to the development of a world water gap with 1. Domestic demand seems to be doubling every 20 years.400 million litres of sewage to our rivers daily although most of it has been treated b) Chemical fertilisers contaminate groundwater as well as river and water supplies.4 billion lacking clean drinking water and 12% of the world’s population consuming 85% of the world’s water. Therefore when a country’s water consumption is more than 10% of its renewable freshwater rate it is said to be water stressed. over extraction and salt water incursion Key factors: a) Sewage disposal in developing countries is expected to cause 135 million deaths by 2020.g. During the 20th Century water consumption has increased by 600% due to population growth and economic development: • Farming uses 70% of all water and in LEDCs this is up to 90% • Industrial and domestic use has to compete with farming needs as a country develops • Daily domestic water use on average is 47 litres per person in Africa.5% in Beijing Water table has been lowered in some areas by 40m How Human activity can make water stress worse – pollution. In the UK we add 1.

Improved water supply can increase food production. . bring better health and provide better standards of wellbeing. Water scarcity occurs for 2 main reasons: 1) Physical scarcity – shortages occur because demand exceeds supply 2) Economic scarcity .people cannot afford water. and its quality  Access – the time and distance involved in obtaining sufficient and safe water  Capacity – how well the community manages its water  Use – how economically water is used in the home and by agriculture and industry  Environment – ecological sustainability (green water –freshwater taken from rainwater stores in the soil as soil moisture) Each of these is scored out of 20 to give a maximum of 100 How water links to poverty: Lack of water hampers attempts to reduce poverty and encourage development. How water supply is linked to development Water Poverty Index Water insecurity means not having access to sufficient.e) Abstraction – removing water from rivers and groundwater sources can cause issues that in some arid areas rainfall can never recharge these underground stores and the removal of freshwater from aquifers in coastal locations can lead to salt water incursion. Around 20 developing countries are classified as ‘water scarce’. safe water. even when it is readily available The Water Poverty Index was established in 2002 and uses 5 parameters:  Resources – the quantity of surface and groundwater per person.

pollution and risk pools of disease  Issues of rising water bills and leakages  Water poverty index = 45  Water poverty index = 78  Water use agricultural = 93%  Water use agricultural = 12%  Water use industrial = 6%  Water use industrial = 69%  Water use domestic = 1%  Water use domestic = 20%  GNI ($ per person) = 170  GNI ($ per person) = 33.9  Population in 2000 (millions) = 30 What problems can the use of water sources create? . Ethiopia These 2 countries are at the opposite ends of the spectrum when looking at water and development.170  Population in 2000 (millions) = 62. parks and swimming  Issues of water shortages. Canada Ethiopia  Each household uses 800 litres per person  Each person uses 1 litre per day per day  Water is fetched daily from a shared source  Water used for lawns.Named Examples: Canada vs.

However the use of water resources can lead to various problems. Government officials ordered the additional amount of needed water to be taken from the two rivers that feed the Aral Sea. Causes: In the early 1960's. manufacturing and energy generation. the climate has become more extreme. and its salt content increased. the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s. the Soviet central government decided to make the Soviet Union self-sufficient in cotton and increase rice production. 7) Respiratory illnesses including tuberculosis and cancer. E. which use to employ 40. killing the plants and animals. containing these toxic chemicals.000 and reportedly produced one-sixth of the Soviet Union's entire fish catch. salty sludge. and the water is contaminated with pesticides and other agricultural chemicals as well as bacteria and viruses. 4) Drinking water supplies have dwindled. the Aral Sea experienced a severe drop in water level. The water level has dropped by 16 metres and the volume has been reduced by 75% 2) The marine environment became hostile to the sea life in it.Secure water supplies are needed to support irrigation and food production. Aral Sea case study – role of different key players here and impacts Location: north-western part of Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan Background: Formerly. 3) The sea has shrunk to two-fifths of its original size and now ranks about 10th in the world. the fishing industry suffered.000 newborns and maternity death of 12 in every 1. has been ruined The stakeholders involved:  The former soviet government – began the irrigation scheme designed to develop fruit and cotton farming  Fishing community – use to be a prosperous industry but now huge unemployment  Local residents – health problems and highest infant mortality rates in the world  Scientists – climate has now changed and extinction of species in the area  International economists – people can no longer feed themselves as the land is infertile. its shoreline receded. Impacts: 1) Over 30 years. and an 850-mile central canal with a far-reaching system of "feeder" canals was created.g. the depletion of underground aquifers and salinisation of the soil. 5) Highly toxic pesticides and other harmful chemicals are blown from the dried-up sea creating dust 6) As the Aral Sea has lost water. one of the four largest lakes of the world with an area of 68. digestive disorders and infectious diseases are common ailments in the region. As the marine life died. 8) There is a high child mortality rate of 75 in every 1.000 square kilometers. 9) The Aral Sea fishing industry.000 women. could create 10 million environmental refugees Conflicts over the same water source . All 20 known fish species in the Aral Sea are now extinct. Large dams were built across both rivers. unable to survive the toxic.

Water conflicts occur when the demand for water overtakes the supply and several stakeholders wish to use the same resource. Conflict is more likely where developing countries are involved as water is vital to feed their growing populations and promote industrial development. The UN reports there are around 300 potential water conflicts in the world. Some examples include:  China vs. India due to the Brahmaputra River  Turkey vs. Syria and Iraq due to the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers  India vs. Pakistan due to the Indus River

Case Study: Middle East Water conflicts
The Middle East is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. Due to population growth, increasing affluence (demands for swimming pools etc) and the development of irrigated farmlands there are increasing pressures on the water supplies. Further instability is created due to: - Overall scarcity of water but also poor access - Declining oil reserves with future drop in oil revenues - rising youthful population and increasing demands At the moment the Middle East uses revenue from their oil exports to pay for expensive desalinisation plants to provide extra water, but also pay for water and food imports. No single country in the Middle East can resolve its water problems without impacting on another country. Potential conflicts: 1) The Euphrates and Tigris rivers originate in Turkey but supply Syria and Iraq with water. Turkey wants to dam these rivers to improve incomes in Anatolia (south-east turkey) 2) In 1967, Syria and other Arab states objected to Israel’s National Water Carrier Project and tried to destroy it. Israel then bombed their attempts to divert the River Jordan from Israel 3) Droughts across the whole region between 1990-2005 increased fears of conflicts 4) Bombing of Lebanese water pipelines by Israel in 2006

Geopolitics of water supply within a country
Often when countries compete for water resources international agreements and treaties have to be drawn up on how best to manage shared water supplies. Under the Helsinki Rules there is an agreement that international treaties must include concepts such as equitable use and share. Therefore the criteria for water sharing should include: ➢ Natural factors – rainfall amounts, share of drainage basin ➢ Social and economic needs – population size, development ➢ Downstream impacts –restricting flow, lowering water tables ➢ Dependency – are alternative water sources available? ➢ Prior use – existing vs. potential use ➢ Efficiency – avoiding waste and mismanagement of water

Case Study - Geopolitics with the USA: The Colorado River
Background – The basin of the Colorado River is the most heavily used source of irrigation water in the USA. Original water rights were allocated in 1933. Since then a series of treaties between the 7 US states with water rights and between Mexico have been signed. A series of dams has been built to serve the water needs to 30 million people. Agreements: 1920s ‘Law of the River’ = divided the water between upper basin states or Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and New Mexico and their responsibility to supply the lower basin states. California was given highest proportion of water due to its large population and political power. (Around this time was a period of higher rainfall and water surpluses) Stakeholders and conflicts

Issues of developing water pathways

In some areas with a shortage of water one of the solutions is to divert water from one drainage basin to another. However these can produce political risks

Case Study: The Snowy Mountains Scheme
This scheme involves 16 major dams, 7 power stations and a network of pipes and aqueducts. Problems created:  Creation of storage lakes has destroyed wildlife habitats  Snowy River flow has fallen to 1%  Groundwater salinisation results from low flow  Water scarcity has lead to competition between users  Political fallout meant governments had to restore some of the flow in the Snowy River and invest in water-saving projects  Record droughts due to El Nino have used up the water allocations

Water future s?
The issues of future projections are that climate change is occurring but its exact impact cannot be predicted. Also continued economic growth may not be inevitable e.g. credit crunch, finally political and religious conflicts can create further issues. Alternative scenarios for water by 2025 Scenario Water Changes by 2025 Wider impacts Busine  Water scarcity will reduce food production  Developing countries will rely on ss as  Consumption will rise by +50% food imports but increased usual  Household water use rise by +70% hunger  Industrial water demand in developing countries  In parts of western USA, China will increase etc water will be pumped out faster than can be recharged Water  Global water consumption will increase  Food production will decline and Crisis  Demand for domestic water will fall food prices increase  Demand for industrial water will +33%  Conflict over water between and within countries will increase Sustai  Global & industrial water use will have to fall  Food production could increase nable  Global rain-fed crop yields increase due to slightly Water improvements in water harvesting and  Investment in crop research and sustainable farming technology would increase  Agricultural and domestic water prices double  Unsustainable pumping of groundwater would end

How different key player’s opinions on future water usage may conflict
Different players and decision makers have key roles to play in securing future water supplies but their aims may conflict.

Category Political Economic (Business) Social (Human welfare) Environmental (sustainable Development)

Players International organisations e.g. UN, regional and local councils, pressure groups World Bank, governments, utility companies e.g. Thames Water, agriculture, industry, TNCs Individuals, residents, farmers, consumers, NGOs e.g. Water Aid Conservationists, planners, NGOs e.g. WWF

Alternative Strategies for managing water supplies in the future
Hard engineering projects to increase water shortage and transfer

Case Study: China’s Three Gorges Dam
Location: Yangtze River and is the world’s largest hydroelectric scheme Benefits Costs ✔ 18,000MW of electricity generated  Dammed waters will down 100,000 hectares ✔ Will supply water to the region responsible for  1.9 million people will be displaced 22% of China’s GDP  Pollution increases as abandoned mines and ✔ Flood protection will save lives and cut financial factories are flooded losses  Dam failure, earthquakes and heavy rain could ✔ Navigational improvements could open up cause serious issues China’s interior to development  Ecological impacts on fishing and habitats

Case Study: China’s South-North Transfer Project
Project began in 2003 and involves building 3 canals to run across the eastern, middle and western parts of China and link the country’s 4 main rivers. Benefits ✔ Transfer 44.8 billion m3 per year ✔ Central government to pay 60% of the cost ✔ Water conservation, improved irrigation, pollution treatment and environmental project ✔ Will supply big cities like Beijing Costs  Significant ecological and environmental impacts along the waterways  Resettlement of people will be needed  Declining water quality  Will cost $62 billion  Will take 50 years to complete

Restoration At a local scale this can involve restoring meanders, replanting vegetation and using sustainable methods to manage watercourses for people and the environment.

Case Study: Restoring the Aral Sea
In 2007 the Kazakhstan government secured a $126 million loan from the World Bank to help save the northern part of the Aral Sea. The government has already built a dam to split the sea into 2 parts and the new loan is to be used to build a dam to bring the water back into the deserted port of Aralsk. ✔ Fisherman have been able to resume fishing ✔ Rain has returned  The southern part of the sea is still shrinking  The waters from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya are controlled by other countries

g. Examples include: 1) Reducing domestic consumption .g.installing more efficient systems to reduce water costs . assess the potential for water conflict in areas where demand exceed supply (15) Referring to examples. Water Aid .installing water meters in every home .reducing the amount of water used in lavatory cisterns . explain why future water supplies for many regions are increasingly insecure (15) .Water collection e.g. Examples include: ➢ Desalination – provides 70% of Saudi Arabia’s water but it is the most expensive option for water supply due to its energy use ➢ Towing flexible polypropylene bags will with freshwater has been propose e.using grey water to flush the lavatory or water the garden 2) Reducing industry consumption .Wells built by NGOs e.Water conservation This involves reducing the amount of water used (demand) rather than trying to increase water supplies. In the UK around 22% of water does not reach the end user due to leakage.Using plastic or glass bottles filled with contaminated water exposed to the sun for 6 hours destroys micro-organisms What questions have been asked? Using named examples assess the role of different players and decision makers in trying to secure a sustainable ‘water future’ (15) Referring to examples. catching rainwater or building small dams . Kielder to Essex ➢ USA uses reverse osmosis membrane technology to filter salt from brackish water ➢ In developing countries ore intermediate technology is more appropriate: .Agricultural irrigation = use of micro-irrigation techniques using drip irrigation from tubes reduces the volume of water used Role of technology in solving future problems Technology can help increase both water supply and access.planting drought resistant species in ‘water-wise’ gardens .

assess the validity of the statement that ‘water conflicts are as much to do with water quality as quantity’ (15) Suggest how water resources and human wellbeing might be affected by the data in Figure 2 (10) Explain how physical and human factors have contributed to the variation in water scarcity shown (10) Jan 2010 Using named examples.Referring to examples. assess the contribution of large scale water management projects in increasing water security (15) Jan 2010 .

(15) Topic 3: Biodiversity under Threat  Ways in which biodiversity can be defined  Key processes and factors that influence biodiversity  Global distribution of biodiversity and biodiversity hotspots  The value of ecosystems  The distribution of threatened areas  Global factors threaten biodiversity  The impact of these threats on ecosystem processes  The link between economic development and ecosystem destruction/degradation  The concept of sustainable yield  The role of different players in managing biodiversity  Spectrum of strategies and policies for managing biodiversity  The future of biodiversity What do I need to know? . assess the potential for water supply to become a source of conflict.Study Figure 2. (10) Using named examples. Explain how human interference in the water cycle can affect water availability.

Key Terms: .

An area containing a huge number of species. biomass and litter. The protection of natural or man-made resources for later use. Endemic species tend to have a high conservation value.Biomass Biome Ecosystem Succession Net primary productivity (NPP) Biotic Abiotic Goods and services Energy flow Nutrient cycle biodiversity conservation Habitat Endemic species Sustainable Yield Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecosystem diversity Biodiversity Hotpot WRI (World Resources Institute) MEA (millennium ecosystem assessment) Destruction Degradation The total amount of organic matter A major terrestrial ecosystem of the world.that surrounds.at least the physical environment.these components are linked together by flows and are separated from the outside by a boundary. Exclusively native to a particular place of region. marine and other aquatic systems. and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species. It represents the ‘safe’ level of harvest that can be hunted/caught/utilised without harming the individual ecosystem The diversity of genes found within a species The variety of plant/animal species in a given area (habitat) The variety of different ecosystems and the habitats surrounding them in a given area. The variability amongst living organisms from all sources including terrestrial. A system of which both the living organisms and their environment form components (elements) . The place where a particular species lives and grows. It is essentially the environment. for example bare ground is colonised by plants and there is a series of sequential replacements as one set of dominant plants replaces the other The difference between the rate of conversion of solar energy into biomass in an ecosystem and the rate at which energy is used to maintain the producers of the system Living components of an ecosystem The non-living parts of an ecosystem ‘goods’ are direct products that can be derived from an ecosystem and ‘services’ are the benefits that the ecosystem provides The movement of energy through a community The movement of nutrients in the ecosystem between the three major stores of the soil. a large percentage of which are endemic An economic scorecard which shows the condition of the world’s major ecosystems and their ability to provide future good and services. The gradual and predictable change in plant and animal species over time. between species and of ecosystems. A multi scale assessment commissioned by the UN Loss in quantity Loss in quality Ways in which biodiversity can be defined . it includes biotic and Abiotic components. Key part of sustainable management of ecosystems. influences and is utilised by a particular species.

species and ecosystems in a given area. Variation within genetic makeup makes it easier to adapt to changing environments Species Diversity – variety of plants and animal species present in an ecosystem Ecosystem Diversity – number of different ecosystems within a given area Advantages  Allows accurate picture of the diversity within a population  Helps explain how isolated groups have adapted to new environments  On a basic level areas can be compared  Involves the interaction of species with each other and their environment = complex Disadvantages  Difficult to assess without high-level biological skills as DNA has to be analysed  Many species are yet to be discovered  Need to compare similar size areas for it to be fair  Hard to know where to place the boundaries for each area  Needs a consistent set of criteria Key processes and factors that influence biodiversity Higher altitude = lower biodiversity Latitude Temperature extremes = low biodiversity Altitude The rate in which plants photosynthesise is measured.Biodiversity is the total genes. It can be investigated by looking at diversity within species and also between ecosystems. Definition Genetic diversity – range of genes found within a particular species. As human population increases = decrease in biodiversity The level of recording of species within the region Found particularly on islands. pollution Endemism Humans are in competition with other species for space and resources. species that are found nowhere else and this increases biodiversity Global distribution of biodiversity and biodiversity hotspots .g. TRF have high GPP = high biodiversity Temperature Amount of light BIODIVERSITY Lower latitudes = warmer climate – rapid nutrient cycling Hunting and direct exploitation of flora and fauna Size of the area and topography More species can live and interact in a larger area Rate of nutrient cycling Human effects e.

Malaysia and Indonesia Coral Reefs: Corals with the greatest species are found in the Pacific Ocean and eastern edge of the Indian Ocean Main patterns: The top 5 countries with the highest diversity index are found around the EQUATOR or the TROPICS. They are divided into 3 categories: 1) Continental hotspots – richest in terms of biodiversity 2) Large island hotspots – have distinctive species 3) Small island hotspots – low in species number but contain a high proportion of endemics Named Example: Continental Hotspot – Fynbos. Madagascar.Tropical Rainforests: Found in South and Central America. Countries with the lowest diversity index are found in either cold countries or ones with large areas of desert. South Africa . although they cover only 7% of the earth’s surface. Greatest biodiversity is found in areas of TROPICAL RAINFOREST with +1/2 the world’s species. They cover less than 2% of the earth’s surface but contain 44% of the world’s planet species and 35% of the animal species. Biodiversity Hotpots This is an area containing a huge number of species. a large percentage of which are endemic.

Corals are extremely sensitive and the greatest concentration of coral reefs is found in South-east Asia (30%). It is the smallest and richest area with the highest known concentration of plant species at 1.Coral Reefs Coral reefs are located in shallow seas (no deeper than 25m) with an average annual temperature about 18°c. However there are a number of threats: ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Spread of alien plants Commercial forestry using non-native species e.Fynbos is the major vegetation type of a small region in South Africa known as the Cape Flora Kingdom. Home to +7700 plant species.g. (TTF = 400 per 10.000km2). European pines Frequent bush fires Construction of housing estates around Cape Town Increased farming The value of ecosystems Value can be looked at through direct use values e.300 per 10. reef fisheries feed 1 billion people The distribution of threatened areas . topography and a distinctive fire regime.000km2. This hotspot was created due to unusual geology and soils. Case Study: The Value of a global ecosystem .g. Indirect uses include the services that biodiversity provides such as soil formation. breaking the ✔ Medicine – algae and sponges easily accessible from the power of the waves before contain bioactive compounds shore they reach the land used by the pharmaceutical ✔ Coral and shells are used for ✔ Highly diverse ecosystems industry traditional crafts ✔ Building materials – coral ✔ Recreational use reefs are mined for lime and stone in developing countries ✔ Tourism – some Caribbean countries gain ½ of their GNP from tourism ✔ Food – in the far east. 70% are endemic. medicines etc. Ecological Value Economic Value Cultural/Aesthetic Value ✔ Coral reefs act as protection ✔ Aquarium trade ✔ Education and research – for the coastal. Uses humans put biodiversity to in terms of consumption or production and include food.

Poleward’s migration of species by an average of 6km per decade b) Deforestation – clearance of forest cover results in loss of biodiversity and resources but also has knock-on effects on the food web and nutrient cycling c) Pollution can cause various issues: .laying and fruiting have been advancing by several days each decade . minerals or urban growth e. Controlled fire as a management option is useful but large-scale burning for soya bean production causes loss of biodiversity b) Habitat change – developing natural habitats for agriculture.nitrate pollution of lakes d) Human population growth – this is forcing people to spread into more areas and is encroaching onto areas with high biodiversity Local Factors a) Fire – was used widely in Europe and N. overfishing in the North Sea c) Recreational use – plants are vulnerable to trampling and animals to disturbance .g. Factors threatening biodiversity Global Factors: a) Climate Change – expected that the climate will change so quickly that species will be unable to adapt.There are various ways of measuring threatened ecosystems: 1) Economic Scorecard shows the ability of ecosystems to produce goods and services 2) The Living Planet Index monitors changes over time in the populations of representative animal species in various ecosystems 3) Ecological footprint measures the human impact on the planet 4) Red List of endangered species shows species at risk of extinction 5) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is a multi-scale assessment by the UN The majority of areas under threat are located with the tropics and areas of lower biodiversity tend to have lower threat levels as these regions are not in demand for agriculture due to unsuitable climates. Recent climate changes have shown impacts on the ecosystems: .Ocean acidification caused by rising levels of carbon dioxide .Ozone depletion due to CFCs . America to clear forests for development.Coral bleaching due to warming seas has increased since 1980s .

These were brought into the Great Lakes where the multiplied to 70. The extra nutrients cause increase growth in plants but also the growth of algal blooms which block out the light causing plants to die out. Zebra mussel arrived in North America from the Caspian Sea by clinging on the sides of ships.g. the amount of biomass at each trophic level decreases. and by degrading the soil. Once deprived of nutrients. In hot climates of the tropics there is faster nutrient cycling then in cold regions.g. This uses up the oxygen in the water leading to further deaths and the food chain collapses The extra nutrients cause increase growth in plants but also the growth of algal blooms which block out the light causing plants to die out.000 per km2 2) Air transport was responsible for introducing snakes to the Pacific Island of Guam which had huge impacts on the food web Nutrient Overload Excess nutrients are washed into the lakes and rivers but this has been increased by the human use of fertilisers etc. Precipitatio n Biomass Litter Growth or uptake pathway Runoff Soil Leaching Movement of species Weathering The movement of species can occur by accident or deliberately but has a serious threat to ecosystems. by reducing the biomass through overharvesting and deforestation.Not susceptible to native diseases Deliberate introductions include: 1) Game species such as pheasant and rainbow trout for hunting 2) Hedgehog was imported from the Scottish mainland to the Outer Hebrides to deal with a plague of garden slugs but have since effected the populations of ground nesting birds whom they eat the eggs of Accidental introductions include: 1) Alien species can arrive by ship e. . Human action on one level of the chain has an impact on the others that are dependent on it e.lack any native predator .The impact of these threats on ecosystem processes Energy Flow Primary producers (green plants) convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis. Alien or exotic species can become established at any trophic level and often have: . This uses up the oxygen in the water leading to further deaths and the food chain collapses  Eutrophication. as energy is lost through respiration at each stage. soils are vulnerable to erosion.enhanced survival rates as they are more efficient competitors . People can impact upon the cycle by adding nutrients via fertilisers. the catching of tertiary consumers Nutrient cycling This occurs alongside the flow of energy through an ecosystem and involves the feedback of miners from decomposed organic material back into the plants so that they can grow and continue the cycle.

The link between economic development and ecosystem destruction/ degradation The shift of countries from economies based on primary industries. . The Tanzanian National Park authorities therefore decided to involve the local people in sustainable bottom up strategies for example. to mixed industries including manufacturing and industry has put huge pressure on their ecosystems as natural resources are extracted Less development near pristine environments in which indigenous people live mainly due to lack of access and technology A country with a stable economy and education has the freedom to choose to support biodiversity without compromising its people’s ability to be fed and housed Rapid industrial development e. In 2008 a private organisation called Mara conservation took over control and runs on a non-profit basis uses 50% of revenue to build roads and anti-poaching patrols and 50% to the local tribes. This is needed as the local people have to give up cattle grazing land for tourism but are having a hard time seeing the benefits. medicines and food. China has led to air pollution such as acid rain. Named Example: Masai Mara game reserve: a degraded area This reserve experienced a breakdown in management which has led to the decline to the grassland ecosystem. The local villages are also reliant upon it for watershed protection. setting up tree nurseries and promoting ecotourism. which has an impact on forests. The park fees from tourists were meant to go towards management of the area and providing social services to the local tribesman. Expansion of agricultural land due to population growth Named Example: Udzungwa Mountains National Park: a pristine area This national park has huge amounts of biodiversity with 276 tree species and 50 endemic species. instead the local people become responsible for the area.g. This was the best way forward due to the issues of policing a vast area with a skeletal ranger force. However the park rangers were not paid properly and lacked basic equipment so could do little to stop illegal hunting. However their access is limited and highly controlled due to increasing pressures on the park such as population growth.

WTO . 2.very topc) CITES 1973 . Some schemes made money from big-game hunting at sustainable yield levels and this was then fed back into the communities.g. The role of different players in managing biodiversity GLOBAL TNCS .protect outstanding International agencies e. Optimum sustainable yield (OSY) – best compromise achieve in the light of all economic and social factors. It is measured through: 1.g.to how environmentally friendly conserve wetlands they are. Zimbabwe This was developed in the late 1980s aimed to long-term development. Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) – the greatest harvest that can be taken indefinitely while leaving the ecosystem intact. WWF and Greenpeace . management and sustainable use of natural resources. cultural and natural sites World Bank. Carrying Capacity Zone of overharvest – population begins to be threatened by overharvesting MSY is halfway between 0 and the carrying capacity OSY is lower than MSY as it enabled the ecosystem to have a high aesthetic value Named Example: Campfire Project. b) World Heritage Convention 1972 . The responsibility for the area was placed in the hands of local people and therefore an example of a bottom-up approach.g. Scientists and researchers – work for variety of organisations and monitor the state of the biodiversity .aim to stop degradation of the planet's natural environment NATIONAL Governments: Regulation – establish and enforce laws to conserve and protect various areas and species. In order to manage wildlife etc models estimating carrying capacity have been developed – the maximum human population that can exist in equilibrium with the available resources. Environmentalists disagreed with this approach as how was hunting endangered species helping to protect them? The scheme was then undermined by the economic collapse of Zimbabwe and lack of funding.The concept of sustainable yield Sustainable yield represents the ‘safe’ level of harvest that can be hunted/caught/used without harming the individual ecosystem. dolphin friendly tuna. spiritual In the developed views ethical Farmers – strong world.controlled down and often favour large trade in a range of species short-term projects NGOs e. Preservation – preserve areas of biodiversity often through taxes and subsidies LOCAL Communities: Indigenous groups depend on biodiversity for basic survival Individual: significance e.about consumerism has conflicts conservation as itled to people choosing to buy with their aims environmentally friendly products e.g.determine which goods International Treaties: and services are produced and a) Ramsar Convention 1971 .

economic factors etc . Biosphere Reserves – identifies a core area which is heavily protected with buffer zones around it. However some countries do not have finances to fully monitor or mange these reserves and the pressure from development may be difficult to control. Conservation – this can involve ex-situ conservation where an endangered species establish a captive population away from its natural habitat.Many protection schemes are based around political boundaries and not the ecosystem natural boarders . Total Protection – was the main focus of conservation during the 1960s. Restoration – this can include recreating wetlands or linking up small fragmented reserves to produce a large reserve.In developing countries there is a conflict between conservation and cutting people off from biodiversity . On a national level they aim to inspire further conservation e. National Parks.Spectrum of strategies and policies for managing biodiversity Conservation strategies follow the idea of a spectrum from complete protection through to commercially exploited areas where limited parts are protected for publicity purposes.Totally protected reserves are often narrowly focused for scientific purposes so may fail to take into account social.These strategies rely on the co-ordination of outside agencies which often forget about the local people’s needs. Globally the biosphere designation of the Galapagos Islands helped implement a zoning strategy to solve the problems the area faces. This includes captive breeding with release schemes and . community conservation schemes. locally they involve local people and the landscape they know in order to better serve the community and ensuring continued biodiversity e. These act at a number of different levels.g.g. These can be very expensive and much of the success depends on how readily plants will reseed and how polluted the land is. Total protection has been criticised as: .

For example – giant panda Named Example: The Galapagos Islands Zoning Strategy (Hot-Spot Management Strategy) Location: found on the Equator 1.found nowhere else on earth There are 13 large islands and six small. ➢ absence of a quarantine system to avoid the introduction of foreign species ➢ illegal fisheries that apply great pressure on the islands’ marine resources (until 1990s only a few hundred fishers were involved but by 1999 660 were registered as global over-fishing grew due to demand for seafood and speciality products e.000.$75 million was generated through tourism. However out of this only around 1% is used to support conservation. which were formed by oceanic volcanoes some three to five million years ago Threats facing the islands: ➢ Extensive migration from mainland Ecuador – from 1982-1998 population growth was around 6% but in the last 10 years the number of people on the islands has more than doubled to take it to 16. effective park administration began 1984: Recognized as a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program 1986: The Galápagos Biological Marine Resources Reserve (GMRR) established to include all waters within 15 nautical miles 1992: Zoning plan for Marine Resources reserve – included 4 zones:  General Use Zone for sustainable use of the reserve . In 1998 .biodiversity banks such as genetic and seed banks in zoos and botanical gardens.g. shark fins) ➢ lack of an adequate legal framework to ensure the long-term preservation of the islands ➢ Tourism – since 1969 charter flights began bringing people to the islands and it became the main economic activity employing 70% of the active population. Conservation 1936: the Galapagos National Park (GNP) established 1968: Boundaries finally established.000km off the coast of Ecuador Key facts: Nearly one fourth of the Galapagos marine life is endemic .

2002: Poza de las Diablas on Isabela I. Recreational Fishing Zones for the benefit of residents  National Marine Park Zones for human activities where natural resources are neither damaged nor removed  Strict Nature Reserves where human access is not permitted. Global Orchestration  All trade barriers and subsidies are removed to allow for free trade  Economic growth is high and standard of living in developed countries improve  As wealth increases there will be more money to deal with environmental problems = too late?  High biodiversity loss Adapting Mosaic  Will manage ecosystems locally and regionally = more sustainable  Lower biodiversity loss than 1 and 2  People working together to develop economically but also maintain ecosystems Order from Strength  Protection of national boundaries will see rich countries close their boarders to protect their own standard of living  Problems of ecosystem degradation in developing countries  Ecosystem collapse – huge biodiversity loss Techno garden  Using technology to help provide ecosystem services  Excellent sharing of ideas at a global level  May become over reliant on technology  Wealth increases in poor countries as knowledge and technology is shared WWF’s Living Planet Report – looked to model ways of ending ecology ‘overshoot’ (the amount by which the ecological footprint exceeds the biological capacity of the space available to that population). They also showed 4 possible scenarios: 1) Business as usual – increased ecological footprint and no reduction in overshoot 2) Slow shift – gradually reducing the ecological footprint by developing many sustainable policies so that ecosystems can recover by the year 2100 3) Rapid reduction – radical policies to control ecological footprints lead to elimination of overshoot by 2040 4) Shrink and share – breaking the world into regions in order to share responsibility for controlling the overshoot problem . The future of biodiversity The Millennium Ecosystems Assessments (MEA) identified 4 scenarios predicting rapid conversion of ecosystems to farmland and urbanisation. declared a Ramsar Site of International Importance .

Daintree Tropical Rainforest Location: North east coast of Australia in Queensland Why is Daintree so special? ➢ World Heritage site measuring ½ the size of Wales ➢ 135 million years old ➢ Greatest number of threatened species of plant and animals in the world ➢ ½ of Australia’s bird species ➢ 65% of all butterfly and bat species Threats 1) Tourism .g.Case Study: Named Global Ecosystem.In 1983. tarmac roads Australian heritage lost Increase in population = increase in house prices = local people move out Tourism could decline . 17000 tourists visited Daintree but by 2002 this had grown to 436000 visitors 2) Destruction of ecosystem to cope with demand .Occupied plots are often bulldozed and turned into cattle ranches 3) Development . The rainforest acts as a carbon store so the removal of these releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere adding to the greenhouse effect Impacts Economic Social Short-term Money spent by tourists Impact on tribes Local people suffer from congestion and overcrowding Increase in population Medium-term $147 million per year 3500 jobs created Destructive of native tribes as they lose their land and move away Cultures westernised Long-term Infrastructure improved e.tarmacking of roads has lead to small areas of forest being divided into plots for sale .Increased numbers of tourists had lead to the development of Port Douglas changing the village’s character 4) Climate Change – a global temperature increase could threaten the distinctive ecosystems environment 5) Logging – the commercial timber industry in began in Daintree in the 1930s.

Aims to recognise the rights of native people to own land and promote their culture in the forest.aimed to gradually reduce population in Daintree. Increased ferry costs to reduce number of visitors and rejected plans for a bridge across the river as more people would endanger the rainforest. e) Australian Tropical Rainforest Foundation – build visitor centres and education facilities to highlight the global importance of the tropical rainforest ecosystems.Environmental Soil erosion from deforestation Loss of habitats Disruption of native species Litter Breeding patterns affected Food web disrupted Release of C02 from trees Extinction of species Invasion of alien species Management of Daintree Key players: a) Wet tropics Management authority = formed in 1990 to research and monitor the state of the wet tropics. c) Australian Rainforest Foundation – operation ‘BIG BIRD’ – the cassowary given a wildlife corridor to protect it. They are for a ban on development in the area. . Looks to identify hotspots for conservation where no development is allowed. f) Rainforest co-operation research council – community development allowing up to 1400 people to live in the area but must conserve the land. Money given to buy back land from developers and return it to rainforest d) Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland – community based looking at a sustainable future for people and wildlife. b) Cairns Regional council. Looks at developing management agreements with land holders and native tribes.

discuss the threats to biodiversity hotspots and why these threats could prove critical (15) Explain how human activities have contributed to the condition of ecosystem goods and services.What kinds of questions have been asked? Explain the distribution of the world’s terrestrial and marine hotspots (10 marks) Evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the ‘hot-spot’ approach to biodiversity management (compared with other strategies) (15 marks) Evaluate the relative importance of global and local threats to one named global ecosystem (15 marks) Assess the role played by different players in managing areas in which biodiversity is under threat (15 marks) How far is it possible to reconcile the desire for development with the need to manage biodiversity (14 marks) Referring to examples. (10) .

evaluate the success of global actions designed to protect biodiversity. (10) . and suggest the possible impacts of alien species on ecosystems. (15) Explain the pattern of alien species invasions.Using named examples.

Topic 4: Superpower Geographies What do I need to know?  How to define the idea of superpower  How patterns of power change over time  Theories for the growth of Superpowers  How power can be maintained  Role of superpowers on international action and decision making  Nature of trade and who controls it. Does this maintain global power?  Superpowers cultural influence  The impacts on Water. energy. environment and land demand of the rising superpowers  The impacts of the rising new superpowers on the old superpowers  Implications for the Majority world (Less developed countries) of the new superpowers – good or bad?  Shifting power may lead to tensions Key Terms .

Capitalism Cold War Colonialism Communism Cultural Imperialism Dependency theory Development theory Direct influence Disparity International Monetary Fund Market economy Modernisation theory NATO Neo-colonialism Privatisation Purchasing Power Parity Superpower Tariff USSR World Bank World Trade Organisation An economic system in which all or most of the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated in a relatively competitive environment A state of political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of full-scale war e. Promoting the culture of one society into another e. USA and USSR .g. Soviet Union following World War II The system or policy in which a country maintains foreign colonies A form of political development that aims to create equality and a classless society. How to define the idea of superpower e.g. international trade and stability An economy in which prices are determined by buyers and sellers with a relatively high degree of freedom The socio-economic development and process that evolves from a traditional society to modern economies e. Was dissolved in 1991 UN agency created to assist developing nations by issuing loans Set up in 1995 to open up and ensure fair play in international trade. US vs. Tea to India Notion that resources flow from a ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states into a ‘core’ of wealthy states A number of theories outlined how desirable change is best achieved The power of persons or things to affect others by means of power based on wealth The inequality or difference An international organisation established by the UN to promote monetary cooperation. Describes the ways in which rich countries dominate the economy of poorer countries through economic imperialism rather than political control The process of moving from a government controlled system to a privately run system The value of gross national income related to local prices A nation that is able to project its power and influence anywhere in the world A government tax on imports or exports Soviet Union – a former communist country in eastern Europe and Northern Asia established in 1922.g.g. USA North Atlantic Treaty Organisation founded in 1949 for the purposes of opposing communism during the Cold War.

Criteria Size – countries with a large land area tend to have greater natural resources and extend their influence over a larger number of neighbours Economic strength – in 2007.determine economic policies which effect the globe Culture – spread of Americanisation across the globe Religion – religious leaders can influence politics through their beliefs e. metals. music and art. Very tight censorship so no criticism allowed.cheap workers can help promote economic growth .g. the 12 largest economies earned around 2/3rds of the world’s GDP and control investment .large populations encourage economic growth through markets Resources – countries with resources necessary for economic development should have significant power Military strength – countries with a large military force are seen as more power but also the types of weapons are important e. nuclear weapons USA USA is the 3rd largest country with land over 9 million km2 Managed as a democracy and had a free-market (capitalist) approach to the economy Contains 776 of the largest TNCs Dollar is the world reserve currency Rapid growth in film and television industry helped to convey a positive image on USA and its high standard of living. 250 million live in USA USSR World’s largest country with land area over 22 million km2 Promoted communism and the economy was state controlled Tried to sell itself as high culture with ballet. contraception Population – countries with a large population are important as economic growth cannot be sustained without sufficient number of workers . World’s 3rd largest with over 285 million at the time of its breakup Land contained valuable minerals.g. forests and a modern agricultural and industrial system (World’s greatest economy) The world’s largest and most powerful navy and one of the two most powerful air forces in the world Huge amounts of oil and gas (2nd largest economy) Had the largest land based army and the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear weapons How patterns of power change over time Named Example: The rise and fall of the British Empire .

fossil fuels . Russia. Rostow believed that as these were the first countries to experience the Industrial revolution this gave them an initial advantage over other regions. Named Example: The Rise of the BRICs These are Brazil. cricket.g.The British Empire was founded on exploration and sea power as its royal navy dominated the seas from 1700-1930s. Britain still maintains a superpower legacy and has control over 14 overseas territories e. India – some colonies granted independence.Regional power and influence It is expected that the USA will see a decline in its power. There were 3 key phases: Phase 1: Mercantilist (1600-1850) = small colonies set up on coastal islands e.g.Access to key resources e. Named Example: collapse of Communism The causes of the collapse were reforms in the USSR in 1985 by President Gorbachev which increased freedom of speech and allowed private ownership of small businesses.g. He believed that countries moved through 5 stages of develop. especially in relation to China Theories for the growth of Superpowers Modernisation theory – Rostow 1960s Aimed to explain the dominance of the British Empire and USA. The USSR collapsed in 1990 when the communist party gave up its monopoly on power. . India and China as they show: .Market economies . Jamaica with focus on trade including slaves. Phase 3: Decolonisation (1945 . The Commonwealth contains 53 states (former British colonies) that cooperate in common interests. Phase 2: Imperial (1850-1945) = whole conquest of territories. Falkland Islands.g.g.) = After 2nd World war the UK was bankrupt and could not support the empire as before. This led to the breakup of the entire country as countries such as Latvia and Georgia broke away into independent nations. Governments set up to rule the colonies and complex trade networks. As these reforms spread there was soon an open revolt against the communist system and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 ended the symbol of separation of the Cold War superpowers.Strong economic growth . Growth of anti-colonial movements e. religion and culture spread e.Large populations .

periphery (LEDCs) and the semi-periphery. the rise of the NICs argues against this as they are examples of countries that have developed. Path to development: . frequently colonial powers. as a result in interaction and development. This is because the colonial power often exploits the resources of its weaker colony as the colony becomes more dependent upon it. however some of these did receive huge economic support and aid from the USA. It also allowed change to take place as countries began to develop. World Systems Theory – Wallenstein 1974 This treated the whole world as a single unit broken down into the core (MEDCs). Named Example: China vs. However.Dependency Theory – Frank 1971 Countries become more dependent upon more powerful. Dependency theory however would see the current growth as a shift back to an older world order when India and China were powerful economic forces as Frank believed Britain and other European powers were the first NICs. India World Systems theory would suggest that industrial capitalism was born in Europe and that the rise of India and china is another stage of the growth and spread of the global economy.

decolonialisation occurred but brought about conflict rather than immediate freedom for 3 main reasons: 1) Colonial boarders did not match religious or ethnic boundaries 2) Colonies had a government but indigenous people were excluded from running them so therefore when the colonial rule was removed there was not enough experience 3) As colonial powers left. However Ghana is still very much influenced by external factors.Competition with Ivory Coast for cocoa. perhaps identifying an example of neo-colonialism? External factors: 1) Commodity markets in London and New York .Cocoa prices depend on global demand which may vary .Economic dominance of multinational companies – foreign direct investment e.g.India In India today there are still symbols of colonial power such as the residence of the governor-general of India in Delhi.7 billion to $14. still however mainly a rural society.Aid – often given with ‘strings attached’ Named Example: Neo-colonialism in Ghana In 1957 Ghana gained independence from British colonial rule and in recent years has been seen to be making progress in economic and social indicators. For example GNP has risen from $5. In this direct political control decreased whilst economic control increased through: . India – Home-grown technology with high import tariffs. How power can be maintained Superpowers have shifted the maintenance of their power from colonial rule to indirect neo-colonial rule. This means Ghana is better off exporting raw cocoa beans as import costs are lower and they would make more money . Culture was also spread through British traditions such as cricket.Impact of foreign aid and debt – developing nations pay huge sums in interest which often exceed aid receipts .g. tea drinking and the English language.Strategic alliances – USA for example allied with many developing nations to spread their global influence. most of them former colonies. India became modernised so that the economy could serve Britain more effectively e.Means that Ghana is unable to develop its own processing industries as most of this is done in Europe = loses out on value added 3) WTO . the building of railway system improved transport and trade but allowed efficient military transport to put down rebellions. If prices in Ghana are too high. Independence was granted in 1947 but this plunged India into a period of chaos. manufacturing located in developing world allows for big profits for TNCs but low wages and skills for the developing world . insurgents pushed them out = violence Named Example: Colonialism.China – state-led industrialisation and intensification of agriculture but largely cut off from the rest of the world.EU import tariffs are much higher for processed cocoa than for raw beans. buyers will purchase for lower-priced countries 2) Overseas Tariffs .9 billion in the last 20 years.Economic dependence on primary goods – issues created with trade as these goods have low export prices compared with high prices the developing world must pay for manufactured goods . often by means of foreign aid . Neo-colonialism refers to a form of indirect control over developing countries. Following the end of the colonial rule.

Lends money to countries facing difficulties Gives advice. Allows subsidies for USA and EU! Represents 65% of global GDP but 14% of population. Can impose conditions Similar to IMF. Superpowers cultural influence Americanisation . Does this maintain global power? The WTO established a series of trade agreements since the 1950s which have resulted in huge growth in trade and wealth: • Removal of taxes and tariffs on imports • Removal of quotas on imports • Removal of subsidies for domestic producers This has therefore seen the growth of areas such as Asia e. Media. agreements and settling disputes. USA = 16%. 75% of fees/royalties go to three main powers. China and India but the decline in Africa’s share of world trade as the international trade is mostly in the hands of TNCs who have decided not to invest in Africa and in Asia they have developed free trade zones which attract more investment.Ghana then joined the WTO in an attempt to increase its global trade . Africa =1% Reflects USA concerns so lent to countries threatened by communism. celebrities No official status but attended by presidents Nature of trade and who controls it. EU=25.WTO imposed joining condition that the Ghanaian farmers could no longer be subsidised .. Thos countries not a member of a trade bloc still have to pay tariffs and quotas etc.Before 1995 Ghanaian government subsidised its farmers to encourage them to stay on the land and grow food for their growing cities . USA = 17%. USA. Most influential international alliance in the world All countries get 1 vote but votes never actually just through mutual consent with biggest markets deciding outcome.g.7%. EU tomatoes are cheaper to buy then home-grown ones Role of superpowers on international action and decision making Organisation International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Bank United Nations (UN) World Trade Organisation (WTO) North Atlantic Treaty Organisation The G8 Davos Group Function Monitors the economic and financial development of countries. However the idea of free trade for some countries is an illusion as trade takes place between trade blocs e. MDGs! 192 members in 2008.Farmers could no longer compete with imports of heavily subsidised foreign food e. Trade policy. Promotes global free trade Military alliance between European countries and the USA Meetings about global policy direction for western democracies Swiss based non-profit foundation to discuss business and profits Members 44 governments originally now 185.g. Finally developed nations also control innovation and technology which are not shared with developing nations. Bad reputation in 1970s for financing projects that caused environmental damage and created debt.g. loans and grants to reduce poverty and promote economic development Prevents war and arbitrates on international disputes. Very restricted membership Business CEO’s. EU and Japan. EU and NAFTA. political leaders.

The USA is seen as the most powerful force in cultural globalisation. All meat is halal  China – all drinks were in china cups Problems: 1) Encourages developing nations to export their crops when most children are undernourished . Named Case study: McDonaldisation Opened in Des Plaines in 1955 with a profit for the 1st day at $366.12 and has grown to having $41 billion in sales Adapting to different cultures:  Portugal – only country where soup is served  Pakistan – McArabia and the spicy chicken burger  Saudi Arabia – no pork products sold as against Islamic law.Global culture has been seen as a way to spread a superpowers influence.

2 billion tonnes (increase of 9%)  70% of China’s rivers and lakes are polluted  Beijing’s pollution levels are 3x higher than safe Social Costs Rural population still in poverty 20% of population live on less than $1 a day Child labour used in some factories Housing in some parts of Beijing were demolished to make way for Olympic facilities (300. energy. beggars. McDonalds have also donated over $180 million to McDonald’s Children charities and claim to donate more money than any other commercial enterprise in the USA ($50 million each year) The impacts on Water.g.2) Use lethal poisons to destroy vast areas of the Central American rainforest to create grazing pastures for cattle (800 square miles of forest per year needed to keep McDonalds supplied for paper for 1 year) 3) Workers in catering do not have a specific union so little help with disputes 4) Forcing indigenous tribes from their native lands However. China Impact on resources:  Energy – rapid rise in oil prices in 2007 and 2008 leading to oil being pumped out quicker than new reserves can be found = PEAK OIL  Environment – China and India’s ecological footprint may be similar to those of the EU and USA by 2040 Named Case Study: China – an emerging superpower Rapid economic growth in China has been achieved at high environmental and social costs: Environmental Costs  China is going through industrial revolution in a compressed timeframe resulting in it being the largest contributor to C02 emissions  16 of the top 20 most air-polluted cities  2003 – air pollution blamed for 400.g.000 evicted)  During the Olympics the authorities banned nonresidents from being in the city e. mental illness  1/12th of people rely on the polluted Yangtze river for drinking water     . environment and land demand of the rising superpowers e.000 deaths  30% of China suffers from acid rain due to emissions from coal-fired power stations  C02 emissions in 2006 more than 6.

rapidly increasing their forest cover. Named Example: China’s investment in Africa – Colonisation or development? The growth of the emerging powers has been seen by many to provide the developing world with new opportunities to develop.g. the top five best selling cars in the USA were Japanese.Around 30% of all used in China comes from Africa . China is however one of the few countries trying to tackle their issues e. The impacts of the rising new superpowers on the old superpowers Recently the emergence of the new superpowers has been seen as an opportunity as the EU. Chinese companies are investing in Africa to help exploit and export raw materials: . Russia currently supplies 25% of EU gas and is the largest producer of natural gas in the world. Chinese car industries are also beginning to launch themselves onto world markets and it is thought that by 2015 Geely will produce 1. in the future that the USA will become less dominant and that shortage of fuel. Russia has also developed links with China as Asia’s cities need to switch to less polluting natural gas.g. This means they control the amount of crude oil they export to avoid flooding or squeezing the international marketplace. OPEC Named Example: OPEC – an oil cartel The organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created in 1960 to counter oil price cuts from American and European oil companies. The profits made from oil have allowed member countries to invest and diversify their economies and to generate wealth over the past 40 years. the OPEC countries produced 65% of the world oil but only 35% by 2007. car sales in the USA were at 17 million but this has declined in 2007 to 13 million. It has also ensured that countries maintained favourable relationships with the OPEC countries and that the Middle East would be involved in economic cooperation and development with industrialised countries. In 2008. Russia’s nature resource reserves have also allowed it to growth in confidence: ➢ In 2006 Russia cut off gas supplies to the Ukraine for 3 days and in March reduced supplies by 25% ➢ In August 2007 Russian submarines planted 2 flags on the Arctic seabed claiming sovereignty over a large area ➢ Russian gas supplies to Ukraine and EU cut off in 2008-09 Named Example: USA car industry The USA car industry has shrunk since 1970s due to lack of investment and a failure to compete with Japanese car technology. It is thought however. Implications for the Majority world (Less developed countries) of the new superpowers Some periphery nations have gained economic independence through 2 ways: 1) Nationalisation – state has taken control of the company or its land owning 2) Cartels – formation of cartels e. Named Example: Russia – the rebirth of a superpower In the past 20 years Russia has uncovered significant reserves of both oil and gas which adds to Russia’s global power. wind turbines and solar panels.WHO levels Although China’s stature and power are growing it needs to look to resolve some of its environmental and social costs to ensure long-term sustainability. Japan and USA have experienced economic growth and falling consumer prices due to the explosion of economic activity in NICs and RICs. food and water will lead to conflicts. In 1979. There were concerns that they had reached peak oil but it has allowed them to control the price of oil within a range of $22-28 per barrel. In 2000.7 million cars per year.

the Islamic world and Chinese Confucianism. Much of the infrastructure has also been built by Chinese nationals and not local people. more liberal attitudes and is more family orientated. and not to the local people. Many people in the world believed the USA deserved the attack as they ignored international agreements for example the world criminal court in which they refuse to have its own citizens stand but wanted war criminals prosecuted. TNCs and Chinese companies.45% ownership of oil field in Nigeria . Kuwait.$175 million invested in copper mining in Zambia Shifting power may lead to tensions Although the USA and Europe are allies there still remain cultural tensions between them. with the biggest attack being the 9/11. USA attitudes tend to focus on individual provision of healthcare and education. are more overtly religious and are concerned about being number one! Europe has a stronger emphasis on the welfare state. functioning government in Iraq undermined the USA’s international status. The USA drawn-out attempt to restore a form of peaceful.Minerals investment in Zimbabwe ..In 2007 Chinese investment in Africa totalled $30 billion However many believe that China has little interest in developing Africa. American corporate capitalism. Terrorism This is a growing feature of the 21st Century and tends to be located in areas where the involvement of the USA and other countries are seen as directly opposed to the interests of Islam and Muslims by extreme Islamic groups. This is because most investment goes to the governments. They had reduced its aid to the poorest nations and supported political regimes where it suited them e. The Future There are 4 main cultural world views which are present in the emerging powers. China now has: . It is mostly directed toward the USA. Middle East) will challenge the political and economic order . European liberalism. they are just wanting its resources. War In 2002 the invasion of Iraq was thought by many Europeans to be less about removing Saddam Hussein and this alleged weapons of mass destruction but about ensuring the USA had access to Middle East oil supplies.g. There are various possible scenarios 1) Multi-polar world – USA remains the most powerful but less dominant superpower but rise of China and India 2) Arms race – possibly nuclear in the middle east and east Asia if tensions cannot be resolved 3) Resource nationalisation – rising tensions as oil and water run short and there is a dash for new resources 4) Decline of Europe and Japan – due to rapidly ageing populations 5) Resource –rich powers (Russia.

assess the view that the relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one (15) Assess the view that economic development in not possible without causing environmental degradation (15) Using figure 4 .explain how membership of International Organisations gives some countries political and economic power (10 marks) .What questions have been asked? ‘The tensions between today’s superpowers are economic rather than political’ Discuss. (10) To what extent have the ways of maintaining power changed over time (10) Suggest and justify a set of criteria for defining what a superpower is? (10) Examine ways in which superpowers exert their influence (10) Evaluate the factors which lead to superpower status (15) Using examples.

Referring to examples discuss the factors that cause power to shift between superpowers over time (15) To what extent is the USA’s superpower status threatened by the emerging power of the BRICs (Brazil. Russia. McDonalds and military bases US overseas aid: the top 20 receiving countries McDonald’s restaurants . (10) Figure 3 The USA abroad: aid. explain how the USA maintains its superpower status. India and China)? (15) With reference to Figure 3 and your own knowledge.

economic and environmental impacts of the development gap  Impacts on minority groups  Impacts on Megacities . political and social causes of the gap  Role of trade and investment in the development gap  Social. economic.around the world USA military presence around the world Topic 5: Bridging the Development Gap What do I need to know?  How the development Gap can be measured  Theories on why the gap exists  The role of different Key players on development  General physical.

 The positive and negative impacts of countries trying to close the gap on migration and the environment  Theoretical ways of reducing the development gap  The advantages and disadvantages of methods of closing the development gap Key Terms: .

education and GDP for every country in the world. Does not take into account the way in which the cost of living may vary between countries. used to describe a political and legal system used in South Africa to separate different ethnic groups Foreign aid (in the shape of money. State interventions are minimized including the obligations for the state to provide for the welfare of its citizens The employment of people overseas to do jobs previously done by people in the home country Per person Shows what per capita income will purchase when the cost of living is taken into consideration Re-scheduling loans to make them more affordable Where foreign aid benefits the donor in the shape of interest repayments. when TNCs invest in a factory Agreed at the UN summit in 2000. removing barriers such as duties or customs How the development Gap can be measured  Gross Domestic Product – total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. 8 goals were agreed to provide a set of development goals for the world to reach by 2015 Aid given from alliances for several countries or organisations to another An effect in economies in which an increase in spending produces an increase in the national income and consumption greater than the amount originally spent Idea that market exchange is capable of acting as a guide for all human action.g.Aid Apartheid Bilateral aid Bottom-up development Capital-intensive Debt service Development Development gap Formal economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross National Product (GNP) Human Development Index (HDI) Informal economy Investment Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Multilateral aid Multiplier Effect Neo-liberalism Out-sourcing Per capita Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) Tied Aid Top-down development Trade liberalisation Refers to gifts or repayable loans made by one country to another Meaning segregation. Development projects are made by governments or large organisations Also known as ‘free trade’. which are required in order to pay back a debt over a given period of time Means ‘change’ and implies change is for the better The social and economic disparity between the wealthy and the poor The economy that is regulated by the state so is taxed and monitored by the government. Also only . Created by the UN to provide a measure of life expectancy. expertise. Like GDP but includes overseas investment such as shares and earnings for overseas companies and branches. All economic activities that are neither taxed or monitored by the government Refers to repayable loans used to develop a country but with an expectation of a share of the profits e. access to new markets or political allegiance. plus a proportion of the original loan. The value of goods and services produced in a country over a year. education or technology) from a single donor to a country Occurs at a community level – people’s needs are indentified and local projects are designed to meet them High-cost industries such as mining where machines do most of the work and few jobs are created Payments of interest.

These are converted to an index which has a max value of 1.    average figures which do not tell the way in which wealth is distributed within a country or how the government invests the money it has. ➢ Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger ➢ Achieve universally primary education ➢ Promote gender equality ➢ Reduce child mortality ➢ Improve maternal health ➢ Combat HIV/AIDS. He thought that capital should be transferred from developed to developing countries to . Measurement of progress is based on 1990 figures. educational attainment and GDP per capita.0 Gender related development index (GDI) – measurement of overall achievement for both men and women in the 3 factors measured in the HDI Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – established in 2000 to reduce global poverty substantially by 2015. malaria and other diseases ➢ Ensure environmental sustainability ➢ Develop a global partnership for development Development Cable – identified that in order for a country to develop there are key developmental factors that interact. Human Development Index (HDI) – measures life expectancy. The outer strands are the outcomes of development and are integral to development Theories on why the gap exists Rostow’s model (Modernisation Theory) Stated that a country passes from underdevelopment to development through a series of stages of economic growth.

This produces a relationship of dominance and dependency which can lead to poverty and underdevelopment. Global flows that connect places involve the movement of people. ideas and information. technology. many poor countries accepted loans from rich countries and interest payments on loans affect development as they put pressure on the financial situation in the country. Debt In the last 50 years. Did not take into account factors such as high rates of population growth or political changes Poverty Cycle Idea that less developed countries are trapped in a continually cycle of poverty because of a lack of money and low incomes. Debt is also an issue due to corruption within developing countries’ governments which divert loan money from the intended target and trade barriers imposed by developing countries which make it hard for poorer countries to export their goods. capital. Did not take into account the rapid economic growth of countries like China. Also does not consider the amount of foreign aid or loans from international banks. India and South Korea. The role of different Key players on development Type International organisations Example International Monetary Fund Impact on development in developing countries Aim to prevent the disruption of international financial system so countries can renegotiate through the IMF the terms of debt and impose conditions called ‘stabilisation programmes’ which often hinder the . Dependency Theory (Frank) Countries like the USA control and exploit less developed areas of the world.assist development. Globalisation Countries are becoming increasing connected and interdependent at a global scale.

This means that any countries exporting natural resources and importing manufactured goods will have declining terms of trade.g. Can encourage trade dependency and create barriers to free and fair trade agreements Provide employment and investment in a country/region. Leakage of funds back to parent company Regulate the economy to make the most of market opportunities and attract inward investment. Globalisation has led to large increases in trade in places such as China. 1 16. Conditions attached to the loans hinder development and promote dependency and increased poverty Can promote trade between developed and developing nations.g. Traditionally north-south trade flows have focused on developing countries exporting primary products. Bottomup approach takes account of local peoples needs.7 m  2001 = Mali lost $343 million due to American subsidises  = 6% of GDP  25. economic.000 cotton producers receive $4 billion/year in subsidies Impacts of cotton  Breathing problems due to cotton fibres  Farming cotton gives a farmer 3x the average annual income  Plans to privatised the cotton industry  4% of population driven into poverty  Large scale production e.g. Rely on funding that may not be available General physical.5%  Reduced cotton prices by 15%  Law passed banning USA Cotton . Decisions can be affected by politics and existing alliances Non-biased help to development projects or relief programmes. Named Case Study: Cotton Background information Mali Cotton  10 million small-scale cotton growers suffering from falling prices  Small scale farmers can earn up to $1000/year  3 million Malians rely on cotton to survive  2001 US aid = $37. May exploit workers to maximise cheap labour and stay competitive. Importantly ‘terms of trade’ is the ration between currencies earned from its exports and the prices of imports. In the last 20 years developing countries have moved into manufacturing (80% of exports now manufactured products). political and social causes of the gap Role of trade and investment in the development gap Investment Some NICs have benefited from high levels of foreign direct investment e. roads and public services e.g. China and South Korea. India. Oxfam development Provides investment for economic and social projects to improve standards.g.World Bank World Trade Organisation International Commercial National Political NGOs TNCs e. However there are 2 billion people who live in countries that have become less globalised as trade has falled iin relation to national income including most of the African countries. 5x the amount it receives in aid. Trade Africa in 2002 if it increased its share of world trade by just 1% would earn an extra $49billion. Provide physical infrastructure e. Nike Governments Unicef.000 acre farm Link to the development gap  Subsidies lea to overproduction of cotton  forces cotton prices down  Mali cotton farmers earn less  decline in living standards  If cotton subsidies to USA farmers were scrapped prices would have risen for African farmers by 3. education.

tobacco. coffee. debt was $1. export subsidies on cotton  WTO ruled in March 2007 that cotton subsidies were unfair Social.8 children per woman public services by 20%  10% more of the population now have access to clean water Impacts on minority groups The development gap can create differences between groups such as castes in India or between males and females in the same country. Up to 20% of cotton farmer’s makes enough cotton income comes from for 200. where . cobalt and hydro-electric power. economic and environmental impacts of the development gap Urban and rural areas are effected differently by the development gap.g. removal  First government in Africa to attract  2000 the World Bank of trees for international aid for a HIV/AIDs education cancelled most of the debt agriculture programme = only 6% of population infected through the HIPC scheme  Only 17% of girls attend secondary school totally $1.5 billion   Women marry at the age of 15 increased spending on  High fertility rate – 6. rural communities are often the worse effected due to an inability to produce enough food. The caste system is a religious and social class system in India. Named Case Study: The impact on the development gap in Uganda Key Facts:  Population of 31 million  Resources – copper.000 t-shirts subsidies  The slack in world  USA spends 3x as much on production of clothing subsidies for cotton then it has been taken up by does on aid for China and Pakistan  whole of Africa  In countries that  The US is the second largest subsidise their cotton producer farming.9  Raw material healthcare and education billion exploitation has led  2005 life expectancy was 49. mining. sugar cane and tea Social Economic Environmental  Infant mortality rates 106 per 1000 live births  In 2005 – GDP per capita  Widespread malaria for the poorest and 20 per 1000 live births was $1454 and cholera for the wealthiest  Economy based on export  At risk from droughts  24% of families are undernourished sale of primary goods = especially linked to  Lack of money from exports means low prices climate change government has limited funding for  In 1992.7 years  Early 1990s debt to destruction of the  Only 60% have access to safe water repayments exceeded natural environment  Only 43% have access to sanitation export earnings e. only 5% of  US currently accounts for the population are more than 50% of the worlds farmers exported cotton.

Housing: • New migrants don’t have any money so end up in ‘temporary’ settlements on unwanted land e. improved medical facilities etc. Impacts on Megacities . better education.– General examples and 1 in detail e. power plants that are old and badly maintained Water pollution  leaking sewers. population pressure. housing. poor housing. This enables them to discriminate positively in education and jobs for the most disadvantaged. 64% of adults are illiterate women and 57% of children who receive no primary education are girls. Women in developing countries are more likely than men to be unpaid family workers or occupy low-status jobs and have lower earnings. marshy. In developing countries a variety of push factors in the countryside have encouraged out-migration to the cities.g. Scheduled tribes consist of tribal groups (7% of population) and other backward classes (52% of population). famine etc. They are not allowed to obtain water from the same source as other people and must have their own segregated area. landfill sites and lack of sewerage systems Waste disposal  contamination and health hazards due to waterborne diseases Water supply  aquifers become depleted due to huge population demands Deprivation: • • • • • Limited access to employment and income Reliance on informal economy Overcrowded housing Limited access to health and education Unhealthy environments FACTORS AFFECTING MEGACITIES Location of megacities .g. polluted. People are then attracted to the urban areas due to pull factors. unemployment. along transport routes  Environment: • • • • Air pollution  due to traffic. polluting jobs and suffer from social prejudice and extreme poverty.classes are defined by birth and family. Mumbai from AS or Dhaka in book 8% of the world’s urban population live in ‘megacities’ which have populations over 10 million. The Dalits or untouchables (16% of population) work in unhealthy.

business. Challenges created: Challenge Employment  Unemployment of 23%  33% of city workforce is self-employed  Child labour high in poorest households  Home to 80% of the 2 million garment industry employees Urban Poor  28% of population classed as poor.Named Case Study: Dhaka. technicians and out of the country as they seek a better life) and internal flows from rural to urban areas. 12% extremely poor  Only 5% live in permanent housing  4. .2 million live in slums Environment  Only 27% connected to public sewer al quality  Poor water management cost $670 million each year  Poor air regulation = air pollution above national standard 100 days per year  Polluted water sources = disease spreads quickly Solution/recent developments ✔ 2 export zones created to encourage export of goods ✔ Bashundhara City created with hightech industries and businesses ✔ Improvements in drains and sanitation ✔ Back to home programme encourages people to return to villages with help ✔ Local community health volunteers ✔ Ban on leaded petrol ✔ Work in improve water quality. supply and sanitation cost $100m ✔ Public information on causes and impacts of poor air and water quality ✔ Promoted clean gas-powered cooking stoves The positive and negative impacts of countries trying to close the gap on migration and the environment Migration: increased migration flows are a vital part of development and include both international (into the country e.g. Bangladesh: a megacity under stress Key facts: • By 2015 population expected to reach 21 million with one of the highest population densities in the world • Caused by high rates of natural increase and large volumes of rural-urban migration.

Economic development raises demand for resources and countries tend to exploit them as quickly as possible without thinking of the environmental costs e.g. This allowed countries to develop through trade and governments should look to privatise and reducing state intervention in the economy. world Trade Organisation Marxism – idea that capitalism is based on the exploitation of workers by the owners and that history has mainly been a conflict between these 2 classes.g. NGOs Non-development – some people are against the idea of development as it creates and widens inequalities. Populism.g. .Neo Liberal. Also known as ‘grassroots action’ it is an important element of ‘bottom-up’ planning e. World Bank. tended to make the rich richer and the poor poorer. Examples e. Non development Neo-liberal 1980-1990s – looked to remove tariff barriers to encourage international trade. This however. Marxism. only males  Increased pressure on resources Environment: as a country develops its environmental pollution and ecological footprint becomes larger. Sought to replace existing class structures with a system that managed society for the good of all Populism – idea that supports ‘the people’ in the struggle against society’s ellite.Benefits Costs Source area/country ✔ Natural increase slows as young adults leave ✔ Less pressure on resources ✔ Remittances sent home  Populations become older  Loss of skilled workers  Westernisation of returning migrants Host area/country ✔ Declining populations boosted by migrants ✔ Labour force filled ✔ Multicultural society  Racial/social tensions  Gender concentrations e. undermines local cultures and is environmentally unsustainable.g. SYNOPTIC LINK TO CHINA CASE STUDY Theoretical ways of reducing the development gap .

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In 2008 able to sell their sesame seed crop for 3 xs than in 2007. This means that their cash flow isn’t always guaranteed  Criticised as inappropriate way of helping poor countries  Aid often fought over by different interest groups = lack of investment in productive business activities  Often money diverted to rich people rather than the poor  They rely on the generosity of the public as well as donations from governments for their funds. However most countries do not get close to reaching that target See Pergau Dam example Bilateral ✔ Fosters links between countries ✔ Often the country receives more aid in this way Voluntary Top-down Run by NGOs or charities such as Oxfam. Enables all farmers to share the cost of hiring a truck to transport their goods to market. Uganda Supported by national and international NGOs local farmers have formed a democratically run cooperative. . Action Aid Capital intensive and government lead. This means that their cash flow isn’t always guaranteed Example Brandt Report suggested each country should give 0. Malaysia around the same time bought £1 billion worth of arms from the UK Only £234 million in aid actually given = ‘tied aid’ Barlonyo. UN Given directly from one country to another Benefits ✔ Enables overview to see where the money will be best used ✔ Equal share of aid can be given to a number of different countries Negatives  Fails to reach the poorest people  Benefits are short-lived  Often a number of disasters occur in a short period so people give less money  The WB notorious for implementing conditions that consequences for recipient countries  Often ‘tied’ to the purchase of goods and services from the donor country  Use of aid on large capital intensive schemes can worsen the conditions of the poorest people  Can create a culture of dependency  Interest repayments  They rely on the generosity of the public as well as donations from governments for their funds.7% of its GNP towards. Malaysia Began in 1991 and set up without consulting local people.g. ✔ Work with communities to provide for their long-term needs ✔ Often help during natural disasters ✔ Major disaster areas benefit from short-term aid ✔ Areas with historic ties between the donor and recipient countries receive lots of aid ✔ Countries often use the aid to support their existing systems ✔ Involve the local people in the decision making ✔ Analyses the local’s needs and looks for solutions ✔ Uses appropriate technology See Barlonyo example Bottom-up Pergau Dam.The advantages and disadvantages of methods of closing the development gap Solution Aid Multilateral Definition Provided by many nations and organised by international bodies e.

health and education  Privatisation of state assets to cut debt often sold to TNCs  Increases pressure on countries to generate exports to pay off debts  Some developed countries accused to protecting their own interests  TNCS control tourism so leakage of money  Can spoil the natural environment  Local culture can become westernised  Too much pressure on local resources  Exploitation of cheap labour  Access to technology is limited in many areas of the world due to the lack of funding  Should money be spent on phones Mongolia The Asia-Pacific Development Organisation Programme (APDIP) has developed ‘citizen information . Uganda Biggest export crop is coffee worth $350 million in 2007. have not been cancelled  Reduces government spending by cutting social programmes e.g. Cadbury’s so there is a reluctance to buy them Extra income gone into schooling and healthcare. the UK government agreed to cancel debts owed to the UK by 26 countries. high-yield seeds to improve efficiency. Money helps pay for school fees and raise the standard of living In December 2000. HIPCs initiative Belief that the biodiversity and scenery in many poorer countries can attract longhaul tourism from developed countries Debt cancellation Tourism Technology Access to mobile phones in the developing ✔ Obtains a fair price for a wide variety of goods exported from developing countries to the developed world ✔ Works with small-scale producers and makes them more economically secure ✔ Fair-trade sales valued at $2.g.g.3 billion worldwide in 2006 ✔ 14 heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) have had their debts written off ✔ Allows countries loans to be rescheduled to make them more manageable ✔ Improves FDI by removing trade or investment restrictions ✔ Reduces government debts through cuts in spending ✔ FDI and technology brought in by TNCs ✔ Mass tourism from wealthy nations ✔ Tourism needs the development of infrastructure e. roads which benefit the local people ✔ Generates local employment and wealth ✔ Multiplier effect – profits from tourism trickle down to the local economy ✔ Does not require the same levels of literacy as a computer ✔ Cheaper way to access information  The products sold in the developing world are more expensive than other brands e. such as the InterAmerican Development Bank. NGOS gave ox ploughs.Fair Trade Aimed to improve the terms of trade between North and South through the Fair Trade Foundation Examples include ‘make poverty history’ in 2005 or Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). Gumutindo Coffee cooperative has 3000 members – 91% depend on coffee for their main income. but debts owed to other creditors.

China hopes that by doing this it will open up new markets and find new raw materials. Remote rural areas can connect to the central government and apply for grants. Africa has 50% of the world’s gold and is also rich in diamonds. cancelled $10 billion debts. low cost and sustainable solutions could be developed ✔ Encourages recipient governments to spend aid more effectively ✔ Workers are learning new skills ✔ Employing local people ✔ New trading links developed  Economic migration to recipient countries to earn higher wages  Wages often remain low in recipient counties  Large-scale projects can lead to displacement of people  Ignoring health and safety regulations  Over 500.4% increase 3) Gender equality = gap in education levels closed 4) Reduce child morality = reduced by 2. 41 more children enrolled in primary education ✔ 2 million more receiving aid treatment ✔ 6% economic growth in subSaharan countries in 2008 centres’ which function as training centres which visitors can learn basic computer skills and access the internet.2% a year 2) University primary education = 3. China now buys 1/3rd of its oil from Africa Bangladesh Progress 1) Eradicate poverty = poverty reduction rate of 1.000 women died from treated.8% . Aims to encourage business and collages to use IT and counteract the issue of the periphery China in Africa China increased its aid to African governments.g. preventable conditions of pregnancy and childbirth  980 million still live on less than 1$ per day MDGs Provide a framework for monitoring the development gap and measuring any progress towards reducing it ✔ Success stories e.countries could help bridge the digital divide ✔ Africa now the fastest growing mobile phone market in the world ✔ Allows leapfrogging of technology when there are larger issues to be addressed? South to South Links Hope that more appropriate.

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explain why some groups of people within a country have a lower level of development than others. (10) . (15) Using Figure 4 and your own knowledge. (10) Evaluate the role of different global organisations in narrowing the development gap. explain why it is difficult to measure development.What questions have been asked? Study Figure 4. Using information in Figure 4. and your own knowledge.

sustainable future  What will have to technology in the future? .Using named examples. assess the advantages and disadvantages of top-down and bottom-up development strategies (15) Evaluate the role of trade in bridging the development gap (15) Examine the role played by debt in maintaining the global development gap (15) Examine the barriers that exist against the expansion of trade in some developing countries (15) How far are patterns of global trade responsible for maintaining the development gap? (15) Assess the view that economic development is not possible without causing environmental degradation (15) Topic 6: The Technological Fix  What is technology and how has it developed and spread?  Geographical distribution of technology use  Reasons for inequality of access  Link between economic development and technological change  Technological leapfrogging – a way to overcome barriers to development?  The impacts of technological innovation  Externalities of technology  Different types of technological solutions  Technology vs.

to their disposal Third-party effects that can be positive or negative. through the manufacturing process and product use. organisation or individual affect the standard of living or quality of life of another party without direct interaction between the two The manipulation of DNA by splitting the DNA module and then rejoining it to form a hybrid molecule Transfer of manufacturing from western Europe and North America. from extraction of natural materials. They occur when the actions of one group.Key Terms Biotechnology Digital Access Index (DAI) Digital Blackout Digital Divide DNA Environmental determinism Extended polluter responsibility Externalities Genetic modification Global Shift information and communications technology (ICT) Intellectual property Intermediate technology Any technological application that uses biological systems. television and telephone connections. determines culture Holds manufacturers and traders responsible for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product life-cycle. This can be due to either a malfunction or because of a switch to new technology The gap between the richer and poorer parts of the world in terms of ICT access. email. to newly industrialised countries and the growth of trade around the Pacific Ocean Blanket term to cover all technologies involves in the manipulation and communication of information Cover the ownership of creations of the mind both artistic and commercial Labour intensive and small scale technology . living organisms to make or modify products or processes for specific use The gap between the digital ‘haves’ and ‘have not’s Where people are without some or all of the following. internet. The chemical in the cells of animals and plants that carries genetic information The view that the physical environment. rather than social conditions.

an umbrella when it is raining. Techies embrace new developments to the ‘luddites’ who are .Pandemic Patent Polluter Pays Principle Technological Leapfrogging Technology poor Technology rich A disease that spreads over a whole country or over the whole world Sole and exclusive rights for a number of years to the proceeds from the sales of an invention Intended to make those who cause pollution pay for the damage they do to the environment Describes how some newer technologies. It is generally believe that for every problem there is a technological fix: Technological fix examples include geo-engineering to reduce incoming solar radiation to reduce global warming and pharmaceutical research to find a vaccine for HIV/AIDS Attitudinal fix examples include education and tax incentives to reduce people’s carbon footprints and public health education to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS Development of Technology Over time people have used technology to control nature.g. such as mobile phones and the internet. It also increases the ability of people to satisfy their own needs. Generally people will accept new technology if they think it will improve their quality of life. so that their lives are less controlled by environmental factors e. are penetrating developing countries much faster than older technologies such as landline telephones Places and people who lack access to a regular and reliable source of electricity Places and people who have access to reliable electricity and to a good communications infrastructure What is technology and how has it developed and spread? Technology results from innovation and the ability of people to innovate and find new and better ways of carrying out a task.

North America and EU.g. as it is found in some form or other wherever you find people living on the planet When comparing the HDI and DAI North America. Countries with scores less than 15 are mainly in Africa and they will be slow to move forward as a range of other technologies need to be in place first e.Western powers that used military force. Saudi Arabia. In the USA Amish Christians reject modern technology for religious reasons. Geographical distribution of technology use The Digital Access Index (DAI) was introduced in 2003 to measure the access to ICT of people in 178 countries. Iran Link between economic development and technological change Countries with higher levels of development tend to have greater access to communications technology.opposed to technological change. It outlined that technology can be seen as pervasive. economic sanctions and tied aid to prevent countries gaining access to nuclear technology e.In some developing catholic countries access to contraception in severely limited Wealth .31 countries operated nuclear power plants in 2007 .In North Korea the government banned people from having private phones and mobiles since 2004 Religion . Reasons for inequality of access Communications . This clustering and relationship is not unexpected. . Those counties with a high HDI score but middle/low DAI scores include Cuba.The Catholic Church bans the use of contraception on religious grounds . Maldives. Those countries with a digital access index of over 75 are hyper connected and these include the triad of economically wealthy countries  East Asia. Iran. Western Europe. Japan. reliable power source.g. and Australia countries are high in both human development and digital access. Thailand and Turkey.2/3rds of all those infected by HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa but cannot afford the annual treatment costs Politics .

g. Technological leapfrogging – a way to overcome barriers to development? This can help countries to develop by providing a quick fix such as the use of mobiles has allowed places to develop as they are wireless and nodes such as mobile phone masts and solar power systems can be built quickly and almost anywhere. rice and maize grew by 2% year between 1967-1996 1 ) Solar polarisation – larger farmers could afford fertilisers etc so benefited the most 2) Monocultures – HYVs are vulnerable to new strains of disease 3) Dependency – needs high inputs Gene Revolution TNCs and bio-tech companies Bt maize and Bt cotton and herbicide resistant soybean GM soya bean most widely planted USA. The developed world has also gained an ‘initial advantage’ through continual technological innovation. This has brought many benefits to the people: ✔ Families separated by rural-urban migration can stay in touch ✔ Farmers can now check prices before going to market to buy fertilisers or sell crops ensuring they get the best prices ✔ Small businesses can keep in touch with customers and services ✔ Information such as weather forecasts and hazard warnings can be sent to remote areas The impacts of technological innovation Who developed the crops? Which crops are grown? Where are the crops grown? Benefits? Green Revolution Research institutes e.5 mobiles to 230 per 1000 people.g. Golden rice contains vitamin A ✔ Crops are resistant to herbicide so weeds can be killed without crop damage Most GM crops are fed to animals 1) Led to export boom which helped Argentina to recover from serious crash in 2001 2) Number of farms has fallen by 60. The USA accounts for nearly 40% of technology patents.Also linked to this is the developing world’s ability to access technology to exploit and burn fossil fuels.000 as area of GM soybean x3 3) Decline in areas of maize and Have they increased food production? Unforeseen consequences . Mobile phones were introduced in 1994 and since 2000 mobile phone use has grown from 3.g. International Rice Research Institute First crop ‘IR8’ was rice but other varieties now replace it as more resistant HYV rice grown in Asia HYV wheat grown in Latin America HYV crops in Africa ✔ Rapid growth allows 2 crops per year ✔ Yields 10xs traditional rice ✔ Now bred to be disease and pest resistant ✔ India been self-sufficient in rice since 1980s Yields of wheat. solar and wind power. This therefore restricts their development. This therefore allows long-distance communication to develop in places that were in the past on the periphery. meaning they are reliant upon capturing energy directly e. China. Named Example: India In 1998 India had 22 telephone landlines per 1000 people and was seen as excluded from global communications due to the expense and waiting list for telephones to be installed. Latin America and Canada have large areas of GM crops ✔ Some varieties have been bred for nutrient e. This has meant that the use of patents and copyright has enabled the funds from these innovations to be returned to the developed countries.

Pollution Sink – the carbon dioxide we produce from burning fossil fuels is released into the atmosphere. It was assumed that the sink was large enough to cope but the WWF living Planet Index suggested that using the environment as a sink for pollution has serious consequences that will need to be addressed Capturing pollutants – for single-point polluters such as power stations the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be used. In the USA all cars built since 2004 must be fitted with a catalytic converter to reduce their emissions 2) Market based – governments introduce pollution controls. carbon trading permits and product labelling e. . Externalities of technology For every technology there are unexpected consequences of its use which can be both positive and negative. DDT was ingested by creatures and restricted their ability to lay viable eggs. DDT was banned in the USA in 1972 and the UK in 1984. There are various different approaches to externalities and their impacts: Polluter Pays Principle – way of accounting for the pollution which is a negative externality. It quantifies the cost of pollution and passes it back to the producers. In 1964 environmentalists Rachel Carson publish ‘Silent Spring’ which blamed DDT for a growing toll of wildlife deaths. or user of a technology. This aims to encourage people to drive cars which produce less carbon dioxide. It can be implemented through 2 approaches: 1) Command and control – new technologies are introduced to limit pollution.of fertilisers. British government introduced Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) bands based on the amount of C02 that a vehicle emits. water and machinery to maintain yields 4) Environmental problems – widespread use of agrochemicals lead to Eutrophication sunflower by 5 million hectares reducing food security among the poor Named Example – DDT From 1938 the synthetic pesticide was used to control malarial mosquitoes and became a farm pesticide.g.

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g.g. weather forecasts and hazard warnings. The gases produced within the landfill can be collected and flared off or used to produce heat or electricity. especially in the developing world Also known as largescale megaprojects which reflect a topdown approach Benefits ✔ It is appropriate to the level of income.g. pollution and flooding of land  Social impacts e. China ✔ Can help solve issues such as energy production and flood control  Very expensive e. skill and needs of the local population ✔ Fewer resources are needed ✔ Easier to maintain ✔ Less impact on the environment See above Negatives  Takes tremendous study of the region’s climate. Water is then collected from the tap at the bottom of the tank.g. dries. usually labour intensive technology that can be mastered by local people. social. ethical. The City of Sioux Falls. Increases independence and access of critical information in isolated rural areas Sri Lankan Pumpkin Storage system Gutters collect rainwater and it is stored in a tank built from locally available materials (cost to build £200). Three Gorges Dam cost $25 billion to build  Huge environmental impacts e. Gained a 8% GDP annual growth rate e. and people to ensure it fits in with local cultures etc  long term effects are unknown  Pose more problems for large scale applications See above Example Free play wind-up radio Cost around $40 which is human powered so no pollution or energy costs. supply clean fresh and regular water supply China Have favoured megaprojects as a quick way to modernise the Chinese economy and most of the leaders are trained engineers. and compresses the gas into an 11-mile Intermediate Civil engineering ✔ Provides quick path to development e. and economical aspects of the community it is intended for. Refer to relatively low.4 million people displaced .Different types of technological solutions Type Appropriate Aim Designed with special consideration to the environmental. Has an integrated torch and can be used to hear news. lifestyle or environment Alternative Refer to technologies that are more environmentally friendly than the functionally equivalent technologies dominant in current ✔ Control energy costs and reduced greenhouse gas emissions ✔ Collect methane gas which if released into the atmosphere is 20x more global warming potential than carbon dioxide . displaced people  Often money comes from tied aid or loans which have conditions or high interest repayments  Issues over practicality of widespread use  Are they cost-effective?  Will widespread adoption would produce negative impacts on the economy. resources. political.Increased pollution as the river can no longer regulate itself .g. cultural.Several species threatened with extinction Landfill gas – South Dakota Landfill gas is approximately forty to sixty percent methane. Three Gorges Dam . South Dakota installed a landfill gas collection system which collects. cools. location.

The gas is then used to power an ethanol plant operated by POET Biorefining. ✔ Enables developing countries to become part of the globalised network of communications ✔ Leapfrogging of old technologies enables fast development in certain areas See GM/Green revolution table  Is this an effective way to spend aid money? See India Named example Micro Technology Includes providing developing nations with connections to ICT and mobile phones Nano technologies See GM/Green revolution table See GM/Green revolution table See GM/Green revolution table . pipeline. This energy production offsets almost two million tons of coal per year.practice.

 Techniques that do not remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere may control global warming. such as volcanic eruptions. El Niño. Maldives Building of a $32 million artificial island of Hulhumale between 1997-2002.Geoengineering Looks to engineer our own planet than rather attempting to find a new one ✔ Could provide long term.g. It is built 2 metres above sea level and it designed to reduce overcrowding on existing islands and also replace them if they are drowned by rising sea levels Space mirrors Attempt by Russia in 1999 to launch giant mirrors into orbit to reflect solar radiation away from Earth to create a cooling effect. Costs expected $1 trillion  The full effects of various  Performance of the systems may become ineffective. unpredictable or unstable as a result of external events. but do not reduce other effects from these gases geoengineering schemes are not well understood. land degradation and energy demand  The effectiveness of the schemes proposed may fall short of predictions. solar flares  The techniques themselves may cause significant foreseen or unforeseen harm . large scale solutions to some of the world’s most serious issues e. global warming.

solar Producing bio fuels from crops Using natural gas in place of coal to generate electricity Constructing greener buildings e. reducing distances travelled by goods Extending renewable sources e. land degradation and water shortages.g. hydrogen cars and bio fuel cars. The commitment to development technology index shows the developed world’s willingness to allow this technology transfer. lifestyle changes. tidal. sustainable future In order to judge whether technologies we use might help to solve global environmental and resource problems. Also leads to other problems such as increases in Co2 emissions. wind.5 million and aims to encourage technological breakthroughs.g.Solving global issues with technology Named Example: Fixing Global Warming ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Improving energy efficiency in vehicles and machinery Changing transport patterns from air and road to rail.g. Technology transfer – IMF report concluded that education was the key to ensuring people in less developed parts of the world could benefit from new technologies. electric cars. The launch of the Tata Nano in India priced at $2500 will allow the poorer people to access transport. Countries such as Bangladesh face the added issue of climate change impacts as there are 10m people who live on land less than 1m above sea level. the sustainability quadrant allows us to assess technology against well-know criteria What will happen to technology in the future? Business as usual – likely to lead to further increases in greenhouse gas emissions. tax credits for electric cars International agreements e. double glazing. Technology transfers do occur but often rely on NGOs to provide the funding required to purchase and install the technology e. road transport which is key in development as it allows markets and networks to operate and transport in an industry accounts for up to 10% of the GNP providing jobs and income growth. Global inequality will grow leaving some areas of the world technology poor. Energy efficiency – The Automotive X Prize is a global competition to find a 100mpg four-passenger car. Kyoto Protocol Named Example: Fixing land degradation ➢ Increasing organic content in the soil by adding manure and crop wastes to improve structure and drainage ➢ Leaving land fallow allows soil to recover ➢ Crop rotations balance out the nutrient budget and prevents pest taking long-term hold ➢ Planting shelterbelts – prevents soil being washed or blown away ➢ Alley-cropping alternates crops with trees and bushes providing shade and reducing water loss by evaporation ➢ Magic stones – used to slow runoff and prevent soil erosion Technology vs. Practical Action . The winner will receive $7. Therefore a country like Bangladesh can only use technology to cope with the frequent flood disasters that afflict it but longer-term solutions to prevent the disaster lies in the hands of the developed world Technological Convergence – the spread of the motor vehicle is an example of this and they allow individual mobility. Other examples include.g. solar panels etc Carbon sequestration – storing carbon underground Seeding oceans with iron to encourage growth of phytoplankton Injecting sulphate particles into the upper atmosphere to reflect solar radiation Constructing giant mirrors in space to reflect sunlight Social controls – population control.

What Questions have been asked? Using information in Figure 5. (10) . and your own knowledge. explains how farming technologies might have different consequences for human and ecosystem wellbeing.

discuss the extent to which there is a widening technology gap between the developed and developing world. (15) Technology can be seen to have unforeseen consequences. assess the validity of this viewpoint (15) Examine the importance of technological leapfrogging for developing countries (15) The development of technology is a possible response to future resource shortages. Referring to examples. Discuss this with reference to examples (15) Some are able to access new technology to solve environmental problems while others are left to suffer from environmental determinism. (10) . Assess the possible costs and benefits to this approach (15) Assess the view that economic development is not possible without appropriate technologies (15) Explain how both taxing and subsidising petrol can have impacts on human and ecosystem wellbeing.Evaluate the contribution technology might make to tackling global environmental problems such as land degradation and global warming. (15) Using named examples.

Technology transfers do occur but often rely on NGOs to provide the funding required to purchase and install the technology e. The commitment to development technology index shows the de veloped world¶s willingness to allow this technology transfer. road transport which is key in development as it allows markets and networks to operate and transport in an industry accounts for up to 10% of the GNP providing jobs and income growth. Therefore a country like Bangladesh can only use technology to cope with the frequent flood disasters that afflict it but longer -term solutions to pr event the disaster lies in the hands of the developed world Technological Convergence ± the spread of the motor vehicle is an example of this and they allow individual mobility. Countries such as Bangladesh face the add ed issue of climate change impacts as there are 10m people who live on land less than 1m above sea level. Other examples include. electric cars. land degradation and water shortages. h ydrogen cars and bio fuel cars.What will happen to technology in the future? Business as usual ± likely to lead to further increases in greenhouse gas emissions.5 million and aims to encourage technological breakthroughs. Practical Action . Also leads to other problems such as increas es in Co2 emissions.g. Energy efficiency ± The Automotive X Prize is a global competition to find a 100mpg four -passenger car. Technology transfer ± IMF report concluded that education was the key to ensuring people in less developed parts of the world could benefit from new technologies. The winner will receive $7. The launch of the Tata Nano in India priced at $2500 will allow the poorer people to access transport. Global inequality will grow leaving some areas of the world technology poor.

assess the validity of this viewpoint (15) Examine the importance of technological leapfrogging for developing countries (15) The development of technology is a possible response to future resource shortages. and your own knowledge. (15) Technology can be seen to have unforeseen consequences. explains how farming technologies might have different consequences for human and ecosystem wellbeing. Discuss this with reference to examples (15) Some are able to access new technology to solve environmental problems while others are left to suffer from environmental determinism. discuss the extent to which there is a widening technology gap between the developed and developing world. Assess the possible costs and benefits to this approach (15) Assess the view that economic dev elopment is not possible without appropriate technologies (15) Explain how both taxing and subsidising petrol can have impacts on human and ecosystem wellbeing. (10) Evaluate the contribution technology might make to tackling global environmental p roblems such as land degradation and global warming. (15) Using named examples.What Questions have been asked? Using information in Figure 5. (10) . Referring to examples.

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