8|rth of I|||p|no Nat|ona||sm and the 8|rth of I|||p|no Nat|ona||sm and the

5trugg|e for Nat|onhood 5trugg|e for Nat|onhood
8CLl8CLţ lA1lMA ÞŦ
lvŴ2
8Ik1n CI NA1ICNALI5M 8Ik1n CI NA1ICNALI5M
Iactors that gave r|se to Nat|ona||sm Iactors that gave r|se to Nat|ona||sm
W 8rlLlsh lnvaslon
W Cpenlna of Lhe Þhlllpplnes Lo World
Commerce
W lnflux of Llberal ldeas and Llberallsm ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes
W SecularlzaLlon ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
W 8lse of Lhe Mlddle Class and Þrlnclpalla
W CavlLe MuLlnv
1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope 1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope
and Amer|ca and Amer|ca
W 8rlLlsh lnvaslon
1hev were Lhe onlv forelan power who succeeded
ln defeaLlna Lhe SpanlardsŦ
Lncouraaed Lhe llllplnos Lo revolL aaalnsL spanlsh
auLhorlLles
Þhllť Sllana Ǝ Þolarls revolLŴŴŴ uemonsLraLed Lhe
capablllLv of Lhe realon Lo unlLe Ǝ expel Lhe
Spanlards from Lhelr LerrlLorles
1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope 1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope
and Amer|ca and Amer|ca
W Cpenlna of Lhe Þhlllpplnes Lo World
Commerce
1834ť ended Spaln's Lrade monopolv and marked Lhe openlna
of Manlla Lo world LradeŤ vears afLerţ oLher porLs were also
opened for Lhe same purpose
lncrease Lhe value of exporL
ManufacLurlna Ǝ aarlculLure developed Lo answer Lhe
demands for local producLs
CpporLunlLv Lo communlcaLe wlLh oLher counLrvmen and
forelanersŦ
Lxchanalna ldeas broadened llllplno knowledae and creaLed an
awareness amona Lhe llllplnos LhaL oLher people share Lhe
same LhouahLsţ feellnas and senLlmenLs ln pollLlcsţ socleLvţ
rellalon and culLureŦ
1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope 1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope
and Amer|ca and Amer|ca
W Cpenlna of Suez Canal (1869)
1ravel Llme beLween Lurope and Asla was areaLlv
shorLened
Lncouraaed manv Luropeans Lo Lravel Lo Asla and
facllllLaLed communlcaLlon beLween peoples and
counLrles
Lxposed Lhe llllplnos Lo modern ldeas of llberLv
W lnflux of Llberal ldeas
Lhrouah Lhe openlna of Lhe ÞhllŦ 1o world Lradeţ llberal
ldeas of Lurope and Amerlca Lrlckled lnLo Lhe counLrvŦ
1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope 1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope
and Amer|ca and Amer|ca
ldeas of Llberallsm from Lh lrench 8evoluLlon (moLLoť
llbettvţ £ooolltv ooJ ltotetoltv)
8ooks and Maaazlnes LhaL conLaln Lhe ldeas of lrench
and Amerlcan 8evoluLlonť
W Soclal ConLracL (!ean !acques 8ousseau)
W 1wo 1reaLlses of CovernmenL (!ohn Locke)
W Common Sense (1homas Þalne)
ƋLhese soclal phllosophers belleved LhaL people had Lhe rlahL
Lo chanae and esLabllsh a new aornmenL lf Lhe exlsLlna
aovernmenL no lonaer meeL Lhelr needsŦ
ulrecLlv brouahL bv men of llberal orlenLaLlon who
came Lo Lhe counLrv and bv Lhe lllusLrados who
lmblbed Lhem durlna Lhelr sLlnL abroad
1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope 1he koots of Nat|ona||sm |n Lurope
and Amer|ca and Amer|ca
W Llberallsm ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
Govcrnor-Gcncral Carlos dc la Torrc
Abolishcd ccnsorship ol prcss
Abolishcd whippina as punishmcn|
Solvcd |hc aararian unrcs| in Cavi|c
Lduca|ional Dccrcc ol 1870 and Morc| Dccrcc: callcd lor
limi|cd scculariza|ion ol cduca|ional ins|i|u|ions and |hc
aovcrnmcn| supcrvision and con|rol ol ccr|ain schools in |hc
Philippincs
5ecu|ar|zat|on |n the Þh|||pp|nes 5ecu|ar|zat|on |n the Þh|||pp|nes
W 2 klnds of prlesLsť
8eaularsŴ Spanlsh prlesLs who belonaed Lo anv of
Lhe rellalous orders (lranclscansţ AuausLlnlansţ
!esulLsţ 8ecollecLs or uomlnlcans)
W Maln Lask was Lo esLabllsh rellalous mlsslons and
propaaaLe CaLhollc falLh
SecularsŴ prlesLs who obLalned Lhelr rellalous
Lralnlna ln Lhe ÞhllŦ and who were ln Lhe dlrecL
conLrol of Lhe blshops and archblshopsŦ
W Asslaned Lo serve ln Lhe parlshes Lo susLaln Lhe splrlLual
wellŴbelna of Lhe parlshloners
5ecu|ar|zat|on |n the Þh|||pp|nes 5ecu|ar|zat|on |n the Þh|||pp|nes
W 1774Ŵ roval decree lssued orderlna Lhe
secularlzaLlon of parlshes
Manv complalned aaalnsL lncompeLenL prelsLs
W 1776Ŵ anoLher roval decree resLorlna Lhe reaulars
Lo Lhelr old parlshes and orderlna Church offlclals
Lo provlde furLehr Lralnlna Lo llllplno prlesLs
W ulspuLes over Lhe appolnLmenL Lo parlshes
W SecularlzaLlon MovemenL
AaalnsL raclal dlscrlmlnaLlon
LaLer called ºllllplnlzaLlon"
k|se of the M|dd|e C|ass and k|se of the M|dd|e C|ass and
Þr|nc|pa||a Þr|nc|pa||a
W A aroup of people below Lhe arlsLocraLlc
Spanlsh offlclalsţ famllles Ǝ rellalous orders
buL hlaher or above Lhe massesŦ
W 8uslnessmenţ farmersţ Leachers and oLher
professlonals who were areaLlv beneflLLed bv Lhe
lmproved economv
W Able Lo send Lhelr chlldren Lo sLudv ln excluslve
colleaes ln Manlla and Lurope
W Crowlna wealLh and presLlaehlah poslLlon ln
socleLvlnfluenLlal capalan peaceful reforms
Lhrouah wrlLlna an dpubllc speaklna
Lmergence of the I|||p|no 5ense of Lmergence of the I|||p|no 5ense of
Nat|onhood Nat|onhood
W CavlLe MuLlnv
!une 20ţ 1872 durlna Lhe helahL of Lhe secularlzaLlonţ Lhe
CavlLe MuLlnv occurredŦ 1he muLlners were workers Ǝ
some marlne deLachmenL
Cause bv Lhe revocaLlon of Lhe prlvlleae of shlpvard
workers Lo be exempLed from force labor Ǝ pavlna
LrlbuLesŦ
Led bv La Madrld
lrŦ Comezţ 8uraosţ Zamora were lmpllcaLed Lhrouah a
false LesLlmonv of lranclsco ZalduaŦ 1hev were found
aullLv ln Lhe ºmock Lrlal" and were senLenced Lo dle bv
aarroLeŦ
Lmergence of the I|||p|no 5ense of Lmergence of the I|||p|no 5ense of
Nat|onhood Nat|onhood
W 1he LxecuLlon of Com8urZa
lurLher aaaravaLed Lhe haLred of llllplnos aaalnsL
Lhe SpanlardsŦ
8eaan Lo Lhlnk LhaL unless Lhev were unlLedţ Lhev
would noL be able Lo flahL back and sLop Spanlsh
aLLroclLles aaalnsL llllplno
8ecome a rallvlna polnL of Lhe naLlonallsL
movemenL
kLVCL15 AND kL8LLLICN kLVCL15 AND kL8LLLICN
8evolLs and 8ebelllon 8evolLs and 8ebelllon
W Causes of llllplno earlv revolLsť
ueslre Lo reaaln Lhe losL freedom of Lhelr
ancesLors (ÞollLlcal)
8ellalous lnLolerance of Spanlsh auLhorlLles
(8ellalous)
Abuses of Lhe Spanlards (Þersonal)
1he haLed LrlbuLe and oppresslve forced labor
Loss of ancesLral lands
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
LakanduIa 1574 Tondo,
Navolas
IaiIuio of Cov.
Lavozaios lo
fuIfiII Logazpis´
pioniso lo
LakanduIa
LakanduIa IaiIod
Ianpanga 1585 Ianpanga Alusos of
Spanish
Lnconiondoios
IaiIod. A
vonan
loliavod lho
iovoIl.
Todo 1587-
1588
Tondo,
Cuvo,
CaIanianos
Dosiio foi
Indopondonco
Magal
SaIanal,
Mailin
Iangan,
Iuan
ßanaI,
Iodio
ßaIingil
IaiIod
locauso lho
pIol vas
discovoiod.
Loadois
voio
oxoculod.
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
Cagavan-
IIocos
1589 Cagavan,
IIocos Noilo
RofusaI lo pav
liilulos,
lviannv of
liilulo
coIIoclois
IaiIod.
LasiIv
suppiossod.
MagaIal 1596 Cagavan Alusos of lho
Tiilulo
CoIIoclois
MagaIal IaiIod. Hiiod
Assasins
kiIIod lho
MagaIal.
Igoiol 16O1 Noilhoin
Luzon
Dosiio foi
ioIigious
loIoialion
IaiIod
Iiiavas 1621 Cagavan
VaIIov
Oppiossion of
lho Indios lv
lho Spanish
officiaIs
IoIipo
Culalav,
CaliioI
Davag
Il vas nol
naloiiaIizod
duo lo Ii.
Iodio Slo.
Tonas
pioaching.
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
TanlIol 1621-
1622
ßohoI Dosiio lo
alandon
Chiislianilv and
ioluin lo oId
ioIigious failh
ßalavIan
TanlIol
Il vas
suppiossod
lv lho
Spaniaids
and
Coluanos.
ßankav 1621 Lovlo Dosiio foi
RoIigious
ToIoialion
ßankav
IagaIi
IaiIod
Cagavan 1625,
1627,
1639
Cagavan Dosiio foi
indopondonco
and punishnonl
of a vonan
vhon
dispIoasos
coilain Spanish
officiaIs
MiguoI
Lanal,
AIdalan
IaiIod.
Loadois
voio
paidonod
and Ialoi
kiIIod vhon
lhov
iovoIlod
anov.
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
Caiaga 1629-
1631
Caiaga,
Noilhoin
Mindanao
Dissalisfaclion
of lovnspoopIo
lo Spanish iuIo
IaiIod
Cagavan 1639 Cagavan Dissalisfaclion
vilh Spanish
iuIo
Il vas
suppiossod.
Ladia 1643 MaIoIos,
ßuIacan and
Soulhoin
Luzon
Woaiinoss fion
Spanish
oppiossion
Iodio
Ladia
IaiIod
Visavan/
Sunuiov
1649-
165O
Lasloin
Visavas,
Noilhoin
Mindanao,
Zanloanga
Causod lv Cov.
Iajaido´s oidoi
lo sond Visavan
Ialoiois lvo
Cavilo foi
shipluiIding
Iuan Ionco
Sunoiov
and Iodio
Caanug
Loadois
voio
capluiod
and voio
lohoadod.
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
Ianpanga 166O-
1661
ßacooi,
Cavilo and
Ianpanga
IaiIuio of
officiaIs lo pav
iico puichasod:
iopoalod
ioquiiononls
foi poIo v
soivico
Iiancisco
Maniago
ConoiaI
annoslv
gianlod lo
ioloIs. IniliaI
pavnonl foi
soivicos.
Iangasinan
/ MaIong
166O-
1661
ßinaIalongan,
Iangasinan
OuaiioI
lolvoon Ii.
Coiospo and
MaIong
Andios
MaIong
and Iodio
Cunpaos
IaiIod
IIocos 1661 San NicoIas,
ßacaiia,
Laog, IIocos
Spanish
aggiossion
Iuan
Magsanop,
Iodio
AInazan
and
Caspai
CiislolaI
IaiIod.
Loadois
voio
oxoculod.
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
Ianav /
Tapai
1663 Olon, Ianav Dosiio lo pul up
a nodifiod foin
of Chiislianilv
Tapai Il vas
suppiossod.
Agiaiian 1745-
1746
ßuIacan,
Moiong
(RizaI),
Cavilo,
Laguna
Usuipalion of
IiIipino Iands
lv ioIigious
oidois
Malionza IaiIod
Dagohov 1744-
1828
ßohoI RofusaI of Ii.
MoiaIos lo givo
Dagohov´s
liolhoi a
Chiislian ßuiiaI
Iiancisco
Dagohov
IaiIod lul
ioloIs voio
paidonod.
SiIang 1762-
1763
IIocos Dosiio lo oxpoI
lho Spaniaids
fion IIocos
Diogo
siIang and
CaliioIa
SiIang
IaiIod.
Diogo vas
assasinalod .
Nano of
RovoIl
Dalo IIaco Causo Loadoi RosuIl
IaIaiis 1762-
1765
Iangasinan
Donand foi iofoins
ospociaIIv lho
changing of IocaI
officiaIs
Iuan DoIa
Ciuz
IaIaiis
IaiIod.
IaIaiis vas
oxoculod
ßasi 18O7 IIocos
Covoinnonl
nonopoIv of lasi
nanufacluiing
Iodio
Maloo
IaiIod.
RoloIs voio
ciushod lv
govoinnonl
lioops.
Hoinano
IuIo
184O-
1841
Ouozon
Iiovinco
ßoing a nalivo, IuIo
vas doniod lo lo
adnillod as a nonk.
Ho foundod lho
ioIigious
liolhoihood,
Confiadia Do San
Ioso, vhich lho
govoinnonl
oulIavod and
oidoiod lo lo
dissoIvod.
ApoIinaiio
doIa Ciuz
IaiIod
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W Moros
W ConLlnous mlllLarv expedlLlons falled Lo
subdue Lhe Musllms who were bound bv Lhe
coheslve force of Lhelr rellalonţ lslam and a
beLLerŴoraanlzed pollLlcal svsLem
W Musllm wars (1378Ŵ1898) were characLerlzed
bv perlodlc punlLlve expedlLlons Lo Mlndanao
and Sulu whlch were lnlLlallv folled bv Lhe
Musllm defenders
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W 1378 (1sL Spanlsh expedlLlon ln Mlndanao)
LsLeban 8odrlauez de llaueroa
!olo
SulLan Þaaarlaan 8uddlmon (1ausua)
!olo was Laken afLer flerce flahLlna
Spanlsh forces were forced Lo sall awav when
mosL of Lhe soldlers fell lllŦ
LefL !olo afLer exacLlna LrlbuLe and Lhe pledae of
obedlence from 8uddlmon
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W 1396
llaueroa obLalned excluslve rlahL Lo colonlze
Mlndanao
SeL Lo esLabllsh Spanlsh rule ln CoLabaLo
ln 8uwavanţ Spanlards were flrecelv repulsed bv
8a[ah Slronaan
uaLu ubal (broLher of 8a[ah Slronaan) kllled
llaueroa
Spanlsh reLreaLedŦ LsLabllshed a aarrlson ln La
Caldera aL Lhe Llp of Zamboanaa
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W lorL Þllar
MlllLarv base ln Zamboanaa was esLabllshed bv
CovŦ !uan Cerezo de Salamanca
1636ť a forL was bullL under Lhe supervlslon of
laLher Melchor de vera (!esulL)ŴŴŴŴ nuesLra Senora
del Þllar
1o some dearee deLerred musllm offenslve
acLlvlLles aaalnsL Spanlards and ChrlsLlans
1aaal (broLehr of kudaraL) ralded vlsavasŦ Pe was
pursued bv Lhe Spanlards and was kllled
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W SulLan kudaraL
Son of uaLu 8ulsanŤ SulLan of Maaulndanao ln 1620
1rled Lo fosLer frlendshlp wlLh Spanlards and uuLch unLll
hosLlllLles broke ouL beLween Musllms and Spanlards
Spanlards beaan Lo aaln vlcLorv and almosL defeaLed SulLan
kudaraLŦ Poweverţ Lhe SulLan and hls wlfe were able Lo
escape
kudaraL fouahL Lhe Spanlards wlLh Lhe ald and supporL of
Lhe Maranwas and oLher musllm aroups
!une 24ţ 1643ť LreaLv was slaned bv kudaraL and lranclsco
ALlenLzaţ commandanL of ZamboanaaŦ
W recoanalzed kudaraL's lordshlp over Þulanal area exLendlna from
Slbuauev rlver Lo Lhe Culf of uavaoŦ
W allowed !esulL mlsslonarles ln kudaraL LerrlLorv
llrsL Lo declare ©lboJ
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W Sulu and Maranaw reslsLance
CovŴCen Corcuera
!olo (!an 1638)
SulLan 8unasu
Aprll 1638ť !olo was capLured
1639ť Maranaw were Lhe nexL LaraeL
AlmosL annlhllaLed a second Spanlsh expedlLlon
launched aalnsL Lhem
WlLh encouraaemenL of kudaraLţ Maranaos fouahL off
successfullv everv aLLempL of Lhe Spanlards Lo lmpose
rule ln LanaoŦ
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W Lease of Sabah
CapLure of !olo forced SulLan !amalll A'lam Lo sue for
peace and relocaLe hls caplLal Lo Malmbuna
1o aaln fundsţ he leased on !anŦ 1878 hls LerrlLorv
Sabah ln norLh 8orneo Lo 8aron CusLav von Cverbeck
and Alfred uenLţ proprleLors of 8rlLlsh norLh 8orneo
1radlna CompanvŦ
Annual renLal of 3ţ000 Malavan dollars
Sabah was prevlouslv owned bv SulLan of 8runelţ who
ln 1704 ceded lL Lo Lhe SulLan of !olo ouL of araLlLude
for Lhe ald alven bv !olo warrlors ln quelllna rebelllon
ln 8runelŦ
Musllm 8eslsLance Lo Spanlsh 8ule
W Slanlflcance of Moro warsť
Þroved LhaL even lf on Lhe several lnsLances Lhe
Musllms were defeaLed Lhev were able Lo
consolldaLe Lhelr forces and reLallaLedţ as
opporLunlLv wanLed lL aaalnsL Lhelr enemles
Moro's responseť MuSLlMS Þ8LlL88Lu 1C
ÞL8lSP AS l8LLMLn ln 8A11LL 1PAn 8L
Su8!LC1Lu 1C vASSALACLŦ
ÞkCÞAGANDA MCVLMLN1
Þropaganda Movement
W (19Lh cŦ)A movemenL launched bv a aroup of
llllplnos llvlna and sLudvlna abroad
W 1here were also reform movemenLs ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes where members meL secreLlv Lo
dlsLrlbuLe pamphleLsţ booksţ newspapers and
oLhe rpubllcaLlons of Lhe movemenL form Pk
and SpalnŦ
W Worked for reforms Lhrouah speaches and
puballshed arLlcles
Þropaganda Movement
W 1he CreaL 1rlumvlraLe
Led Lhe Þropaaanda movemenL
!ose 8lzal (Lhe CreaL Lhlnker)
W ¨NoII Me Tungere¨ & ¨EI ¡IIIbusLerIsmo¨
Marcelo PŦ uel Þllar (Lhe CreaL ÞollLlcal analvsL and
[ournallsL)
W W ¨ ¨CuIIguL Cuvo¨. CuIIguL Cuvo¨. ¨DusuIun uL ToksoIon¨ ¨DusuIun uL ToksoIon¨ & ¨1o
KuuLusun ng mgu PruvIe¨
Craclano LopezŴ!aena (Lhe CreaL CraLor)
W ¨¡ruv BoLod¨, ¨Esperunzu¨ & ¨¡u HIju deI ¡ruIIe¨
Þropaganda Movement
W CLher acLlve membersť
!uan Luna
AnLonlo Luna
lellx 8esurrecLlon Pldalao
!ose MaŦ Þanaanlban
Lduardo de LeLeŴ £spooo eo llllploos
Þropaganda Movement Þropaganda Movement
W Almsť
1Ŧ LquallLv beLween Spanlards and llllplnos before Lhe law
2Ŧ CranLlna Lhe Þhlllpplnes Lhe sLaLus of a reaular provlnce
of Spaln
3Ŧ lreedom of Speech and of Lhe press
4Ŧ 8esLoraLlon of llllplno represenLaLlon ln Lhe Spanlsh
Assemblv
3Ŧ SecularlzaLlon of Lhe parlshed and Lurnlna over Lhe
conLrol of all vacanL parlshes Lo llllplno prlesLs
6Ŧ Leaal reforms
La 5o||dar|dad La 5o||dar|dad
W Cfflclal newspaper of Lhe reform movemenL
W LsLabllshed ln 8arcelona ţ Spaln ln 1889
W Craclano LopezŴ!aenaŴ flrsL edlLor
W leb 13ţ 1889Ŵ 1sL lssue
W nov 13ţ 1893Ŵ lasL lssue
W Appeared Lwlce a monLh and was funded bv llllplno
naLlonallsLs ln Spaln and ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
W Able Lo express Lhelr ldeals and deslre for reforms
La 5o||dar|dad La 5o||dar|dad
W Þennamesť
osc Rizal osc Rizal -- Dimasalana a| Laon-Laan
Marcclo H. dcl Pilar arcclo H. dcl Pilar-- Plaridcl
Mariano Poncc Mariano Poncc - Nanina, Tikbalana a| Kalipulako
osc Ma. Panaaniban osc Ma. Panaaniban - omapa
An|onio Luna - Taaa-iloa
Asoc|ac|on n|spano Asoc|ac|on n|spanoŴ ŴI|||p|na I|||p|na
W !an 12ţ 1889Ŧ Madrld
W ÞresldenLť uCn MlCuLL MC8A?1A
vlce ÞresldenLť 8lvAS MC8LnC
SecreLarvť uCMlnAuC8 CCMLZ
1reasurerť An1CnlC LunA
W 3 ulvlSlCnSť
ÞollLlcalŴ Marcel PŦ uel Þllar
LlLerarvŴ Marlano Þonce
SporLsŴ 1omas Are[ola
Asoc|ac|on n|spano Asoc|ac|on n|spanoŴ ŴI|||p|na I|||p|na
uemandsť
W Compulsarv Leachlna of Spanlsh ln all schools
W LsLabllshmenL of a clvll realsLer and realsLer of
deeds
W LsLabllshmenL of secondarv schools
W ConsLrucLlon of aovernmenL roads and rallwavs
W AbollLlon of lnhuman punlshmenL ln all [alls
W LllmlnaLlon of Lhe Lax on land's harvesL and Lhe
Lax on malnLenance of churches
La L|ga I|||p|na La L|ga I|||p|na
W Clvlc oraanlzaLlon founded bv !CSL 8lZAL on !ulv 3ţ
1892 ln 1ondoŦ
W ÞresldenLť AM88CSlC SALvAuC8
vlce ÞresldenLť ACuS1ln uLLA 8CSA
SecreLarvť uLCuA1C A8LLLAnC
1reasurerť 8CnllAClC A8LvALC
W Alms (based on lLs consLlLuLlon wrlLLen bv 8lzal ln Ponakona)ť
unlflcaLlon of Lhe enLlre archlpelaao for evervbodv's
welfare
CooperaLlon ln Llmes of need nad emeraencv
ÞromoLlon of educaLlonţ aarlculLure and commerce
uefense aaalnsL all forms of vlolence and ln[usLlces
SLudv and lmplemenLaLlons of reforms
Mason|c Crgan|zat|ons Mason|c Crgan|zat|ons
W evoloclooŴ 1sL masonlc lodae ln Spalnţ founded bv
CracloanoŴLopez !aenaŤ followed bv 5ollJotlJoJ
W -lloJŴ 1sL Masonlc lodae ln Lhe ÞhllŦ
W uemandsť
Make Lhe ÞhllŦ a provlnce of Spaln
Allow llllplno represenLaLlon ln Lhe Spanlsh Assemblv
LsLabllsh a democraLlc aovernemnL
1ransform ÞhllŦ ln Lo a dlanlfled and proaresslve counLrv
Þrovlde llberal admlnlsLraLlon ln Lhe aov'LŦ
Counter CounterŴ Ŵkeform Movements keform Movements
W CalnaaL kavo bv lrŦ !ose 8odrlauez
Warn Lhe lll noL Lo read 8lzal's novels
W AnLlŴlll wrlLersť Wenceslao 8eLanaŤ vlcenLe
8arranLesŤ Þablo leced lll had no clvlllzaLlon before
Spanlards came
W lo lolltlco Je £spooo eo llllploos
lnfluenLlal newsaper of Lhe flarsŤ counLeracL whaLever
lmpresslons Lhe Sol made
W 8lzal's deporLaLlon Lo uaplLan and Lhe arresL of Lhose
wrlLlna or expresslna supposedlv submerslve ldeas
aaalnsL moLher counLrvŦ
Þropaganda Movement
W 8LSuL1S Cl ÞMť
lAlL due LoŤ
W lrlars and busslnessmen
W Lack of funds
W Members were dlvlded bec of dlsaareemenLsţ confllcLs
and env
W Slanlflcance
8rouahL aLLenLlon of Spanlards llvlna ln Spaln Lhe
corrupLlon of Lhelr leaders ln Lhe ÞhllŦ
Aroused a areaLer splrlL of naLlonallsm amona lllŦ
Culdlna llahL for revoluLlon
kLVCLU1ICNAk¥ MCVLMLN1 kLVCLU1ICNAk¥ MCVLMLN1

W kaLaasŴLaasanţ kaaalanaaalanaana
kaLlpunan na maa Anak na 8avan
W !ulv 7ţ 1892
W Andres 8onlfaclo
W Þrlnclpal ob[ecLlveť
unlLe Lhe llllplno people and sLruaale for
separaLlon from Spaln Lhrouah a revoluLlon
Þo||t|ca| 5tructure of the at|punan Þo||t|ca| 5tructure of the at|punan
W Copled Lhe oraanlzaLlonal sLrucLure of La Llaa llllplna
W Supreme Councll (kaLaasLaasana Sanaaunlan)
CenLral oraan of Lhe kaLlpunan
W ÞresldenL or Supremo (ueodaLo Arellanoţ 8oman 8asaţ Andres
8onofaclo)
W llscal
W SecreLarv
W 1reasurer
W Þrovlnclal Councll (Sanaaunlana 8avan)
W Þopular Councll (Sanaaunlana 8alanaav)
W !udlclal Councll (Sanaaunlana Pukuman)Ŵ declded
cases abouL vlolaLlons of Lhe rules of Lhe kaLlpunan
bv lLs members and seLLled dlspuLes amona Lhem
at|punan Membersh|p at|punan Membersh|p
W 1rlanale svsLem
W Andres 8onlfacloţ 1eodoro ÞlaLaţ Ladlslaw ulwa
W Slow and compllcaLed
W 8eplaced bv fasLer and slmpler svsLemť use of secreL
rlLes copled form Lhe Masonrv
neophvLe LhaL passes Lhe LesL on couraae and love for
counLrv swore Lo auard and defend Lhe secreLs of Lhe
kaLlpunanţ and slaned hls name ln Lhe socleLv's rosLer wlLh
hls own blood (Sanduauan) and wlll Lhen adopL a
kaLlpunan name
at|punan Membersh|p at|punan Membersh|p
W 3 arades of membershlp
kaLlpun Ŷwore black mask wlLh a Lrlanale formed
bv leLLers and whlLe rlbbons
W Þasswordť Anak na 8avan
kawalŴ areen mask and sash
W Þasswordť Comburza
8avanlŴ red mask and sachţ boLh llned wlLh areen
W Cfflclals of kaLlpunan
W Þasswordť 8lzal
Jomen of at|punan Jomen of at|punan
W Wlfeţ slsLer or dauahLer of a kaLlpunero
W Creaorla de !esus (Lakamblnl na kaLlpunan)Ť !osefa
and 1rlnldad 8lzalŤ Marla ulzon (cousln of Lmlllo
!aclnLoŤ 8enlLa 8odrlauez (made Lhe kaLlpunan flaa)
W 1asksť
8ecrulLmenL of new members
keepers of secreL documenLs and papers
ln meeLlnasţ Lhev sana and danced wlLh some of Lhe men
ln llvlna room Lo mlslead Lhe Spanlards
k|za| and at|punan k|za| and at|punan
W uld noL aaree on launchlna a revoluLlon due Lo
lack of armsţ manpower and able leader
W Also opposed Lo Lhelr plan of resculna hlm
W SuaaeLsed Lo aeL Lhe supporL of Lhe rlch and
lnfluenLlal llllplnos ln Manlla and make
AnLonlo Luna as Lhe leader of Lhe mlllLarv
operaLlons of Lhe revoluLlon
at|punan L|terature at|punan L|terature
W Andres 8onlfaclo
ÞaaŴlbla sa 1lnubuana 8avan
Ana dapaL MabaLld na maa 1aaaloa
Ana kaLunakulan Caaawln na maa Anak na 8avan
Þahlmakas (1ranslaLlon of 8lzal's Ml ulLlmo Adlos)
W Lmlllo !aclnLo º8ralns of Lhe kaLlpunan"
karLllla
Llwanaa aL ulllm
A La ÞaLrlaŴ resLaLed 8lzal's senLlemenLs ln hls LasL larewell
W º8lzallne Soul"
W Þlo valenzuela
MakaLwlran?
Sa Maa kababavan (ln collaboraLlon wlLh 8onlfaclo)
Pelped !aclnoL ln edlLlna kalavaan (kaLlpunan's newspaper)
D|scovery of at|punan D|scovery of at|punan
W 1eodoro ÞaLlno
W Apolonlo dela Cruz
W Ponorla
W Madre ÞorLera
W laLher Marlano Cll
Cry of Þugad|aw|n Cry of Þugad|aw|n
W 1earlna of cedula
W ºLona llve Leh Þhlllpplnes!"
W Marked Lhe sLarL of revoluLlon
aaalnsL Lhe Spaln ln 1896
8att|e of 5an Iuan 8att|e of 5an Iuan
W San !uan del MonLe on AuausL 30ţ 1896
W 8aLLle of Lhe Þlnaalabanan
W 133 kaLlpuneros dledţ abouL 200 were
Laken as prlsoners
Þer|od of Mass Arrest and Lxecut|on Þer|od of Mass Arrest and Lxecut|on
W CovŦ 8amon 8lanco
W MarLlal law
W Manllaţ CavlLeţ 8aLanaasţ Laaunaţ 1arlacţ nueva Lcl[aţ
8ulacan and Þampanaa
W ºanv person accused of Lreacherv and Lhose aaalnsL Lhe
presenL form of aov'L would be arresLed and Lrled ln
mlllLarv courL"
W Þromlsed pardon Lo Lhose who wlll surrender wlLhln
48hrs afLer Lhe declaraLlon of marLlal law
W valenzuela and oLhers surrender buL Spanlards dld noL
honor Lhe promlse and LorLured Lhose who were
cauahL and Lhose who surrendered
Þer|od of Mass Arrest and Lxecut|on Þer|od of Mass Arrest and Lxecut|on
W 1hose suspecLed as members of kaLlpunan were
lmprlosned ln lorL SanLlaaoţ oLhers were exlled ln Lhe
Carollnes or ln AfrlcaŦ
W 8ulacanŴ rebels were massacered
W SepL 4ţ 1896Ŵ 4 rebel leaders capLured ln Lhe baLLle of
Þlnaalabanan were execuLed bv flrlna squad aL luneLa
W SepL 12ţ 1896Ŵ º1he 13 marLvrs of CavlLe"
W uec 30ţ 1896Ŵ execuLlon of !ose 8lzal
W !an 4ţ 1897Ŵ º12 MarLvrs of 8lcol"
W Week laLerŴ º13 MarLvrs of 8aaumbavan"
W vlsavasŴ º19 MarLvrs of Aklan"
1he kebe| Iact|ons |n Cav|te 1he kebe| Iact|ons |n Cav|te
W 2 facLlons of kaLlpunan
MACuALC
W 8aldomero Aaulnaldo
W 8ased ln kawlLţ CavlLe
W 8elleved ln Lhe leadershlp of Lmlllo Aaulnaldo
MACulWAnC
W Marlano Alvares
W PC ln noveleLaţ CavlLe
W lollowers of Andres 8onlfaclo
Imus Convent|on Imus Convent|on
W lssueť Lvpe of aovernmenL Lhev would
esLabllsh
W Aaulnaldoť kaLlpunan was no lonaer effecLlve
as Lhe aov'L durlna Lhe revoluLlon
8evoluLlonarv CovernmenL
W 8onlfacloť kaLlpunan Lo remaln as Lhe aov'L
W lmus convenLlonť falled
1e[eros Convent|on 1e[eros Convent|on
W March 22ţ 1897
W Aareed Lo esLabllsh a revoluLlonarv aov'L +
elecLlon
W ÞresldenLť LMlLlC ACulnALuC
vlce ÞresldenLť MA8lAnC 18lAS
CapLŦ Cenť A81LMlC 8lCA81L
ulrecLor of Warť LMlLlC 8LlCC uL ulCS
ulrecLor of lnLerlorť Anu8LS 8CnllAClC
1e[eros Convent|on 1e[eros Convent|on
W uanlel 1lrona
ÞroLesLed 8onlfaclo's elecLlon as ulrecLor of Lhe
lnLerlor
W 8onlfaclo felL lnsulLed and declared Lhe
elecLlon null and voldţ and as Supremo he
dlssolved Lhe newlv esLabllshed revoluLlonarv
aov'L
Na|k Dec|arat|on Na|k Dec|arat|on
W AcLa de 1e[eros
uocumenL expallnlna Lhe reasons whv Lhev
nulllfled Lhe elecLlons held ln 1e[eros
W nalk mlllLarv aareemenL
LsLabllsh an lndependenL aov'L and separaLe from
Lhe aov'L of AaulnaldoŦ An armv of Lhls aov'L was
Lo be oraanlzed and Þlo del Þllar was deslanaLed
as Lhe mlllLarv commander
Slanedť Andres 8onofacloţ ArLemlo 8lcarLeţ Þlo del
Þllar and Severlno de las Alas
1he 1r|a| and Lxecut|on of 8on|fac|o 1he 1r|a| and Lxecut|on of 8on|fac|o
W Aaulnaldo learned of Lhe nalk declaraLlon and ordered Lhe arreLs of
8onlfaclo and hls men
W Charaesť sedlLlon and Lreason
W Þedro LlpanaŴ !udae advocaLe
W !ose LllsesŴ llscal/ prosecuLor
W 1eodoro Conzales and Þlacldo MarLlnezŴ defense counsels for
8onlfaclo broLhers
W Councll of War
Chalrmanť Marlano noel
CenŦ 1omas Mascardo
LsLeban lnfanLe
CrlsosLomo 8lel
Sulflclo AnLonlo
Þlacldo MarLlnez
Marlano 8leao de ulos
1he 1r|a| and Lxecut|on of 8on|fac|o 1he 1r|a| and Lxecut|on of 8on|fac|o
W LasLed from Aprll 29ŴMav 4 1897
W CullLv and senLence Lo deaLh
W Mav 8Ŵ aaulnaldo converLed Lhe deaLh
punlshmenL Lo banlshmenL buL mlllLarv
advlsers persuded Lo pursue Lhe orlalnal
verdlcL
W Mav10Ŵ 8onlfaclo and hls broLher Þrocorplo
were shoL aL MounL 1ala ln CavlLe
Lstab||shment of the 8|ak Lstab||shment of the 8|akŴ Ŵna naŴ Ŵ8ato 8ato
kepub||c kepub||c
W CavlLe was reLaken bv Lhe Spanlards
W Aaulnaldo and hls men was forced Lo Lransfer Lo
1allsavţ 8aLanaas where he [olne dforces wlLh
CenŦ Mlauel malvar
W 8aLLle of Þurav
8elnforced bv CenŦ Llcerlo Ceronlmo
AfLerţ Lhe ueparLamenLal CovernemnL of CenLral
Luzon (manllaţ Moronaţ 8ulacanţ Laaunaţ nueva Lcl[aţ
8aLanaasţ 1arlac and Þanaaslnan) was esLabllshed
headed bv lrŦ Þedro uandan
Lstab||shment of the 8|ak Lstab||shment of the 8|akŴ Ŵna naŴ Ŵ8ato 8ato
kepub||c kepub||c
W Pe Lhen wenL Lo 8ulacan and esLabllshed hls PC ln 8lakŴnaŴ
8aLoţ San Mlauel de Þavumo
W nov 1ţ 1897Ŵ Lhev raLlfled Lhe conslLuLlon wrlLLen bv lellx
lerrer and lsabelo ArLacho copled from Lhe Cuban
ConsLlLuLlon of 1893Ŧ
W Accordlna Lo Lhe conslLuLlonţ a Supreme Councll would be
formed
ÞresldenLť LMlLlC ACulnALuC
vÞť MA8lAnC 18lAS
Sec of lorelan Affalrsť An1CnlC MCn1LnLC8C
Sec of lnLerlorť lSA8LLC A81ACPC
Sec of Warť LMlLlAnC 8lLCC uL ulCS
Sec of 1reasurvť 8ALuCML8C ACulnALuC
Þact of 8|ak Þact of 8|akŴ Ŵna naŴ Ŵ8ato 8ato
W Þedro ÞaLerno
AcLed as medlaLor beLween revoluLlonarles and
Lhe Spanlsh auLhorlLlees
W ÞacL provlded for cessaLlon of revoluLlonŦ
Þact of 8|ak Þact of 8|akŴ Ŵna naŴ Ŵ8ato 8ato
W 1he pacL provlded Lhe ffť
1Ŧ Aaulnaldo was free Lo llve ln Pk wlLh
companlons who mlahL wlsh Lo follow hlm
2Ŧ Aaulnaldo be pald Þ800ţ000 lndemlnLv ln Lhree
pavmenLsť
W Þ400k upon recelpL of all flrearms Lhere were ln 8ŴnŴ8
%os sooo os AooloolJo ooJ compoov left tbe cooottv)
W Þ200k when num of arms reached 800 %mo©otltv of tbe
otms wete sotteoJeteJ)
W Þ200k when all arms surrendered be compleLed Lo 1k
arms %oftet oll bostllltles ceoseJ ooJ oeo omoestv wos
ptoclolmeJ)
Þact of 8|ak Þact of 8|akŴ Ŵna naŴ Ŵ8ato 8ato
CovŦŴCen Þrlmo de 8lvera should send Aaulnaldo 2
Cen of Lhe Spanlsh Armvţ who should remaln
hosLaaes unLll Aaulnaldo and companv reached Pk
and Lhe flrLs pavmenL recleved
CovŴCen would pav Lhe addlLlonal sum of Þ900k
Lo Lhe famllles of nonŴcombaLanL lll who suffered
durlna Lhe war
ÞnILIÞÞINL INDLÞLNDLNCL
5pan|sh 5pan|shŴ ŴAmer|can Jar Amer|can Jar
W Amerlcan Look Lhe slde of Cuba (revolLed aaalnsL
Lhelr colonlzersţ Spaln)
W Cn lebŦ 13ţ 1898 Lhe Amerlcan baLLleshlp uSS
Malne exploded aL Pavana Parbor ln Cubaţ Spaln
was blamed for Lhe mlshap
W uS passed several resoluLlons demandlna Spaln
Lo leave Cuba
W Aprll 24ţ Spaln declared war on Lhe uS
W Aprll 23ţ uS declared war aaalnsL Spaln
W uS lnLenLlonsť Lo colonlze all Spanlsh LerrlLorles ln
case a war broke ouL beL uS and Spaln (Cubaţ
ÞuerLo 8lcoţ Pawallţ Cuam and Þhll)
8att|e of Man||a 8ay 8att|e of Man||a 8ay
W Mav 1ţ 1898
W Commodore Ceorae uewev (uSS Clvmpla) vSŦ
Admlral ÞaLrlclo MonLo[o (8elna CrlsLlna)
W Amerlcan won wlLhouL loslna a slnale shlp or llfeŦ
W Spanlards losL 167 men wlLh 214 oLhers wounded
W 1hls slanalled Lhe end of Lhe pollLlcal alorv of
Spaln and ushered Lhe enLrv of uS as a world
powerŦ
I|| I||Ŵ ŴAm A|||ance Am A|||ance
W uS consul ln Slnaapore (Spencer ÞraLL) assured
Aaulnaldo LhaL Lhe uS would recoanlze Þhll
lndependence
W Aaulnaldo belleved and pledae Lo cooperaLe
wlLh Amerlcans ln case war broke ouL beL uS
and Spaln
W 8ounsevllle Wlldman (uS consul ln Pk)
advlsed Aaulnaldo Lo reLurn Lo Lhe Þhll and
esLabllsh a dlcLaLorlal aovL
kesumpt|on of the kevo|ut|on kesumpt|on of the kevo|ut|on
W Aaulnaldo wlLh 13 oLhers reLurned Lo Lhe Þhll
aboard Lhe McCullochţ uewev's dlspaLch
vessel
W Pe uraed lll Lo resume Lhe sLuraale for
lndependence and help uS aaalnsL Spaln
W ln a shorL perlodţ Aaulnaldo was able Lo
consolldaLe all Lhe revoluLlonarv forces under
hls command
8att|e of Man||a 8att|e of Man||a
W Spanlards enLer lnLo a secreL neaoLlaLlon wlLh Lhe
Amerlcans reaardlna Lhe surrender of Manlla
W 1hrouah Lhe lnLercesslon of Lhe 8elalan Consulţ a
secreL neaoLlaLlon beLŦ uewevţ Cen Weselv MerrlLL and
CovŴCen lermln !audness was made such LhaL afLer a
ºmock baLLle"ţ whlle lll were kepL ouL of Lhe sceneţ
Manlal would be surrendered Lo Lhe Amerlcans
W 1he ºbaLLle" Look place on Aua 13ţ 1898
W 1he Amerlcan flaa was holsLed over forL SnaLlaao and
Lhe Spanlsh flaa was brouahL downţ slanlfvlna Lhe end
of 333 vears of Spalnsh domlnaLlonŦ Also amrked Lhe
bealnnlna of Lhe Amerlcan ruleŦ
1reaty of Þar|s 1reaty of Þar|s
W uec 10ţ 1898
W 1reaLv provldedť
1Ŧ Cesslon of Lhe Þhll Lo uS bv Spaln
2Ŧ ÞavmenL of $20M Lo Spaln bv uS for
lmprovemenLs Lhe former made ln Lhe colonv
3Ŧ Cesslon of Cuam and ÞuerLo 8lco Lo uS bv Spaln
4Ŧ WlLhdrawal of Spanlsh soverelanlLv from Cuba
3Ŧ 1he deLermlnaLlon bv Conaress of Lhe clvll and
pollLlcal rlahLs of Lhe lnhablLanLs of Lhe ceded
LerrlLorles
D|ctator|a| Government D|ctator|a| Government
W Whlle ln Pkţ Aaulnaldo advlsed Marlano Þonce Lo wrlLe a
conslLuLlon for Lhe new aov'L
8evoluLlonarv form
W When he brouahL back Lhe consLlLuLlon Lo Lhe Þhllţ hls
pollLlcal advlser Ambroslo 8lanzares 8auLlsLa uraed hlm
lnsLead Lo esLabllsh a dlcLaLorlal aov'L
W Mav 24ţ 1898Ŵ Aaulnaldo formallv declared Lhe
esLabllshmenL of a dlcLaLorlal aov'L
W 1emprarv ln naLureŴŴŴ onlv unLll ºpeace and llberLv be
aLLalned"
W Aaulnaldo's Clrcular on Mav 29ţ 1898Ŵ
Cne of Lhe flrsL offlclal acLs
uralna Lhe humane LreaLmenL of Spanlsh ÞCW
All crlmes musL be prosecuLed bv mlllLarv courLs
Þroc|amat|on of Þh|| Independence Þroc|amat|on of Þh|| Independence
W !une 12ţ 1898
W kawlLţ CavlLe
W 1he AcL of Lhe ueclaraLlon of lndependence
was read bv Ambroslo 8lanzares 8auLlsLa
W Cfflclal unfurllna of Lhhe Þhll flaa sewn bv
Marcela Aaonclllo asslsLed bv Lorenza
Aaonclllo and uelflna Perboza
W Þlavlna of Lhe Þhll naLlonal AnLhem composed
bv !ullan lellpe
kevo|ut|onary Governement kevo|ut|onary Governement
W 10 davs afLer Lhe declaraLlon of Þhll (!une 23)
W upon Lhe advlce of Apollnarlo Mablnl
W ulcLaLorlal 8evoluLlonarv
W ulcLaLor ÞresldenL
W !ulv 13Ŷ flrsL CablneLť
Sec of warť 8ALuCML8C ACulnALuC
Sec of llnanceť MA8lAnC 18lAS
Sec of lnLerlorť LLAnu8C l8A88A
LaLerţ Sec of lAť AÞCLlnA8lC MA8lnl
nong ong Iunta nong ong Iunta
W 8ecoanlLlon bv forelan powers ls necessarv for Lhe
8evoluLlonarv aov'L of Lhe Þhll Lo be consldered
lealLlmaLe
W 2 separaLe decreesŴŴŴ Aua 24 and Aua 10ţ 1898
CreaLed Lhe LxecuLlve 8oard of Lhe Pona kona
8evoluLlonarv commlLLee or Lhe Pk !unLa
W SubcommlLLees based ln forelan counLrles were also
creaLed
W 1asksť
ulrecL all propaaanda campalans abroad
1ake charae of all dlplomaLlc neaoLlaLlons wlLh forean aov'L
Þrepare and oraanlze expedlLlons necessarv Lo Lhe success
of Lhe revoluLlon
nong ong Iunta nong ong Iunta
W ulplomaLlc 8epresenLaLlvesť
lLLlÞL ACCnClLLCŴ uS
MA8lAnC ÞCnCL and lAuS1lnC LlCPAuCCŴ
!apan
An1CnlC 8LCluC8Ŵ Lnaland
!uAn LunA and ÞLu8C 8CxASŴ lrance
L8l8L81C ZA8CALŴ AusLralla
**forerunners of Lhe presenL dav ulAƋ
Ma|o|os Congress Ma|o|os Congress
W SepL 13ţ 1898 aL 8arasoaln Church
W lellpe CalderonŴ chosen bv Lhe deleaaLes Lo
wrlLe Lhe consLlLuLlon
W LlecLed offlcers of Lh eMalolos Conaressť
ÞresldenLť ÞLu8C ÞA1L8nC
vÞť 8Lnl1C LLCA8uA
Secť ÞA8LC CCAMÞC Ǝ C8LCC8lC A8AnL1A
Ma|o|os Congress Ma|o|os Congress
W Accompllshed
lssues perLalnlna Lo aovernanceţ flnanceţ educ and
lA
8aLlfled Þhll lndependence (SepL 29)
LnacLed several laws deslaned Lo solve Lhe
flnanclal prob of Lhe aovL
Þrovldlna for Lhe esLabllshmenL of schools ln Lhe
elemţ 2ndarv and collealaLe level
ApproprlaLed Þ20M for aovL expendlLures
urafLlna of Lhe Malolos CCnsLlLuLlon
Ma|o|os Const|tut|on Ma|o|os Const|tut|on
W lellpe Calderon headed a commlLLee composed
of 19 members Lo drafL a consLlLuLlon
W 3 ConsLlLuLlonal Þlansť
Mablnlť ConsLlLuLlonal plan of Lhe Þhll 8epubllc was
overruled flrsL bv Conaress Lhen bv Lhe consLl
commlLLee
ÞaLernoť ConsLl plan based from Lhe SpanlshŴ
8epubllcna ConsLl of 1898Ŧ was alos seLŴaslde
Calderonť chosen bv Lhe commlLLee and submlLLen Lo
conaress for approval
Ma|o|os Const|tut|on Ma|o|os Const|tut|on
W !an 21ţ 1899
W ÞaLLerened afLer some Luropean and LaLln
Amerlcan counLrles
W ConslsLed of a preambleţ 14 LlLles and 101
arLlcles
W 8epubllcan form of aovL
Ma|o|os Const|tut|on Ma|o|os Const|tut|on
W Lmodles Lhe followlna prlnclpleť
1Ŧ SeparaLlon of Lhe Church and SLaLe
2Ŧ 8ecoanlLlon of lndlvldual rlahLs
3Ŧ lree elemenLrav educaLlon
4Ŧ LxecuLlve and [udlclal powers
3Ŧ ÞroLecLlon of llfeţ abode and properLvCollecLlon
of Laxes ln accordance wlLh law
Ma|o|os Const|tut|on Ma|o|os Const|tut|on
W 8ecoanlzed Lhe prlnclple of separaLlon of
powers of 3 branches of aovLť
LxLCu1lvL
W Lxerclsed bv Lhe presldenL of Leh Þhll wlLh asslsLance
from 7 cablneL members
LLClSLA1lvL
W vesLed ln Lhe heands of an assemblv of represenLaLlves
elecLed bv Lhe people
!uulClAL
W vesLed ln Lhe Supreme CourL and oLehr lower courLs
Ma|o|os Const|tut|on Ma|o|os Const|tut|on
W LealslaLlveţ however was superlor Lo elLher
Lhe execuLlve and [udlclal due Lo Lhe creaLlon
of Þermanent Leg|s|at|ve Comm|ss|on Lo conLŦ
LnacLlna laws even when conaress was ln
recess
W ConsLl also provlded for Lhe 8lll of 8lahLs for
lll and allens and lnsLlLuded safeauard aaalnsL
abuses and rlahLs
W 1he llrsL Þhlllpplne 8epubllc
IILIÞINCŴAMLkICAN JAk
8enevo|ent Ass|m||at|on 8enevo|ent Ass|m||at|on
W ÞresldenL Mcklnlev
W lll found ouL LhaL Lhe were decleved Lhrouah
Lhe ffŦ lacLsť
lll Lroops ere barred bv Lhe Amerlcans from
eneLrlna Lhe clLv afLer Spaln's surrender
lll reps were noL allowed Lo aLLend Lo Lhe peace
conference ln Þarls
uS dld noL recoanlze Þhll lndependence
Cutbreak of Jar Cutbreak of Jar
W leb 4ţ 1899
W San !uan 8rldae
W lll soldler was shoL bv an Amerlcan senLrvţ
Wllllam WŦ Cravson
W 1he llllplnos answered wlLh rlfle flre Ǝ Lhe
Þhlllpplne Amerlcan War beaunŦ WlLhln an
hourţ all Amerlcan unlLs were effecLlvelv
deploved Ǝ moblllzed LhrouahouL Manlla Ǝ
Lhe Suburbs
Amer|cans V5 I|||p|nos Amer|cans V5 I|||p|nos
W Amerlcans wonť
8aLLle of La loma (McArLhur vs Ma[or [ose 1orres
8uaallon)
8aLLle of Caloocan (McArLhur vs AnLonlo Luna)
W lll wonť
8aLLle of Þulo Ŷ Cn March 23ţ 1899ţ Ma[or 8ell of Lhe
Amerlcan cavalrv was kllled ln Lhe combaLŦ
8aLLle of Culnaua (now Þlarldel) Ŷ Cn Aprll 23ţ 1899Ŧ
Colonel SLoLsembera was kllled
8aLLle of San MaLeo Ŷ uecember 18ţ 1899ţ Ceneral
LawLon was kllled ln Lhe baLLleŦ
Amer|cans V5 I|||p|nos Amer|cans V5 I|||p|nos
W AnLonlo Luna
W CenŦ Creaorlo del Þllar
8aLLle of 1lrad Þass
W Dcl Pilar was iaslcd io inicrccpi iIc Amcricans wIo wcrc
iracling Aguinaldo.
W Aficr iIc dcpariurc of Aguinaldo, Dcl Pilar cIosc io dclay iIc
cncmy ai Pasong Tirad, only onc narrow irail lcading io ii iIai
only onc man ai iimc could climl.
W Ai firsi Amcrican Iad no rccoursc lui rcircai
W An Igoroi guidc Iclp iIc Amcricans slowly & quicily wcni up io
irail & surpriscd iIc Filipino Troops.
W A ficrcc laiilc cnsucd and Dcl Pilar was lillcd ly a lullci iIai
passcd iIrougI Iis nccl.
W TIc Amcrican soldicrs rusIcd io Iis lody & looicd Iis pcrsonal
lclonging for souvcnirs.
W TIc Amcricans lcfi iIc lody iIcrc & for iwo days ii rcmaincd
unluricd,on iIc 3
rd
day, iIc Igorois luricd Iis rcmains in a
sIallow gravc.
|ram |ramŴ Ŵ8ates 1reaty 8ates 1reaty
W 1he Amerlcan dealL wlLh Lhe Musllm ln a
dlplomaLlc wav ln order Lo neuLrallze Lhelr
offenslveŦ
W Ceneral !ohn CŦ 8aLes Lrled Lo wln Lhe frlendshlp
of Lhe Musllm bv neaoLlaLlna wlLh Lhem Ǝ
LreaLlna Lhem as equalsŦ
W AuaŦ 20ţ 1899 an aareemenL was slaned bv
Cenneral 8aLes (represenLlna Lhe uS) Ǝ uaLu
klram (SulLan of !olo) Ǝ hls daLus (represenLlna
Lhe Sulu SulLanaLe)
|ram |ramŴ Ŵ8ates 1reaty 8ates 1reaty
W SoverelanLv of Lhe unlLed SLaLes over Lhe whole
archlpelaao of Sulu Ǝ lLs dependencles ls declared
acknowledaed
W 1he rlahL Ǝ dlanlLles of Pls Plahnessţ Lhe SulLan Ǝ hls
daLus shall be fullv respecLed
W 1he Amerlcans promlsed noL Lo lnLerfere ln rellalous
maLLer Ǝ noL Lo persecuLe anvbodv on accounL of hls
rellalous bellef
W Amerlcans also aareed Lo pav Lhe SulLan Ǝ hls
leadlna daLus monLhlv salarles
Amer|can Crue|ty Amer|can Crue|ty
W Amerlcans used cruel meLhods Lo persuade Lhe
llllplnos Lo cooperaLe wlLh LhemŦ
W uone bv forclna waLer lnLo Lhe sLomach of a
person unLll lL aeLs fllledŦ 1he person would be
ask Lo lle on hls back Ǝ an Amerlcan soldler
would [ump on hls sLomach
W AnoLher form of LorLure was placlna a rope
around a person's neck Ǝ Lhen LwlsLlna lL Lo
choke hlm
W AnoLher form of LorLure was beaLlna Lhe vlcLlm
unLll he become blue ln Lhe faceŦ
Amer|can Crue|ty Amer|can Crue|ty
W ln Samarţ Lhe Amerlcans also resorLed Lo massacre Lo
avenae Lhe deaLh of Lhelr comrades who were kllled bv
Lhe llllplno auerlllas under Lhe command of
Ceneral vlcenLe LukbanŦ
W 1he Amerlcans also burned down Lhe whole Lown of
8alanalaa Ǝ kllled all men Ǝ even bovs over 10 vears
oldŦ
W 1he Amerlcans burned housesţ blockaded food from
aeLLlna Lo Lhe auerlllasŦ
W Manv surrendered because Lhev could noL Lake anv
more of Lhese bruLallLlesŦ
Capture of Agu|na|do Capture of Agu|na|do
W Lazaro Seaovla (Spanlard who [olned Lhe llllplno)
helped Lhe Amerlcans Lo capLure AaulnaldoŦ
W Seaovla preLended LhaL he had capLured
Amerlcan soldlersŦ
W When Lhev arrlved aL Lhe house where
Aaulnaldo was sLavlnaţ he Ǝ hls men slanalled
Lo Lhelr comrades Lo sLarL flrlnaŦ
W Aaulnaldo was rushed Lo Lhe wlndows and Lhe
Amerlcans Lold Aaulnaldo Lo surrenderŦ
Capture of Agu|na|do Capture of Agu|na|do
W Aaulnaldo was brouahL Lo Manlla on Aprll 1ţ
1901 Ǝ Look an oaLh of allealance Lo Lhe
aovernmenL of Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ
W Cn Aprll 19 he appealed Lo Lhe llllplno people
Lo accepL Lhe ºsoverelanLv of Lhe unlLed
SLaLes"

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