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:- Shekhar Sharma :-ORGANISATIONAL -BEHAVIOUR
Answer 2. (a) Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior: Every discipline of study has certain set of fundamental concepts. These concepts are a priori. The do not lend themselves to the question ‘why so’. They are something, which have to be accepted and not questioned. They are the foundation stones on which the entire edifice of the discipline is developed. In the discipline of Accountancy the fundamental concept is “for every debit entry there will be a credit entry”. In the natural sciences the fundamental concept is the concept of uniformity of nature. The concept states that if a certain phenomenon takes place under certain situations in Pune it should take place under the same situations anywhere in the world. The discipline of Organizational Behavior has fundamental concepts revolving round the nature of people and the nature of the organization. The concepts dealing with the nature of individual are four. They are: i) ii) iii) iv) Individual differences; Whole person; Motivation i.e. caused behavior. Human dignity.
Individual Differences: Inspite of all the humans being similar every one is different. Every one has a different gift of the nature; different quality of intelligence, different perception and the different ways or behaviour. The concept tells that every person is an entity in him. When it comes to human behavior there can not be a prescriptive solution. Every individual is to be treated differently even though two persons may have the same behavioral problems. The concept also tells the manager that he had better be aware of his own stereotypes. A stereotype is a tendency to attribute the traits of a group to an individual because he belongs to the said group. The Jew genocide can be attributed to this stereotyping. Unfortunately one is not aware as to how these stereotypes influence his behaviour. This concept, therefore, not only tells that a manager should treat every person as an entity in himself but he should also examine his own stereotypes. Whole Person: In the olden days employees were referred to as ‘hands’, implying that the organization hires only the hands of man. Nothing can be farther from the truth. An organization hires not only the hands of an employee but hires complete men with all his pluses and minuses. At the same since a person performs may roles at the same time the happenings in one role are bound to affect the behaviour in others roles of the person. The concept tells the manager than when it comes to behavioral problems, he must also take into account the other roles of the person. If the whole person is to be developed then only the benefits will extend beyond the organization to the entire society. In which the employee lives.
Caused Behaviour (Motivation): The concept reminds the manager of the law enunciated by Newton that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This means the manager, by his own behaviour, can cause and employee behave in a particular way. If he is respectful to his employees they are bound to be respectful to him not otherwise. Human Dignity: This concept is of a different order from the other three because it is more an ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It confirms that people are to be treated differently from other factors of production. Because they are of a higher order, they want to be treated with respect and dignity. When every one, the employee, the manager as the CEO of an organization are engaged in the same pursuit. The pursuit of enabling their organization to achieve the objections for it has come in existence. Thus they are on the equal footing. The concept tells that very person should be respected simply because he happens to be an employee just as the manager is.
Answer. 2 (b)
Freud reasoned that human behaviour is like an iceberg; only a small part of which is visible. However, the part of iceberg, which is not seen, controls the seen part. So is the case of human behaviour. To Freud human is constantly in conflict with the self, the three constructs of human personality are always conflicting. The final outcome, which is the observable behaviour, is the product of this conflict. According to Freud this is the reason why many a times a human can not verbalize his motivations. Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behaviour, but not in the sense implicit to Freud. They believe human behaviour is sparked by a motive. A motive is a felt need. Human behaviour is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They have five characteristics. They are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the need having the highest strength dominates the human behaviour; a need once satisfied ceases to influence behaviour; when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to a new need; needs are recurrent in nature; needs are ubiquitous.
Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. However, some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to whether they are unlearned or learned and whether they are psychologically or physiologically based. The following is the classification. The Power Motive – n pow The leading advocate of this motive was pioneering psychologist Alfred Adler. Power motive essentially is the desire to control others; to direct others’ behaviour. The power attaches to one’s personal competence. In an organization because of his competence a person comes to acquire power. His say influences the decisions of his superiors. In other words he comes to acquire extra constitutional powers. Person who has acquired such power must use it for the good of the organization. It is necessary that he recognizes that the power he has is because of the organization. In other words he be high on social inhibition also. The Acievement Motive – n ach David C. McClelland is most closely associated with the study of achievement motive. Out of his extensive research has emerged a clear profile of characteristics of the high achiever. Achievement motivation can be expressed as a desire to performing in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. The specific characteristics of a high achiever are a) moderate risk taking b) need for immediate feedback c) satisfaction with accomplishment and d) preoccupation with the task Affiliatin Motive – n aff This motive is indicative of the need belong to and be accepted by the others. The consideration of this motive is important in the discussions of group dynamics. The higher the need for affiliation among the members of the group; the higher is the group cohesiveness. In our discussion of the characteristics of motives we had said that motives are ubiquitous. If that is so the questions arises as to how a human satisfies his motive. The concept of coping behaviour says the human changes his behaviour until he gets what he wants. The behaviour continues on the way leading to need satisfaction. However, human life is not bed of roses. Many a tines situations arise in such a way that human being does not understand as to what he should do’ or many times his self image is
likely to be criticized by the world; or the need fulfillment gets continually blocked. When this occurs a phenomenon known as ‘intra personal conflict arises. Intra personal conflicts are three. They are a) Role conflict; b) goal conflict and c) frustration.
Answer. 3.(a) Defense Mechanisms : 1. 2. Rationalization is giving pseudo justification to explain one’s failures. The common examples are sour grapes or a bad workman quarreling with his tools. Regression is sliding back in terms of one’s chronological age, certain patterns of behaviors are learnt during the childhood that are subsequently, in the adult age, replaced by the behaviors acceptable by the society. At an unguarded moment, in the adult hood, in the flush of emotions, however, these childhood behaviors take charge of the personality of the person. A superior getting angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or a person throwing a pen because of the ink not flowing, are the examples of this defense mechanism. Aggression is also known as emotional transference. This is giving vent to the pent up feelings by an offensive behaviour towards a third object or a person unconnected with the source of frustration. The offensive behaviour is, almost always, against the third object or the person that can not retaliate. A superior scolding his subordinate because of something happening at home is the example of this defense mechanism. Fantasy is building castles in the air with a view to escaping form the problem situation. Fantasy is temporarily removing one self, mentally, from the problem situation and losing oneself in the imaginary world where things happen at his behest. As long as a person is in his imaginary castle he is happy but some time or the other he has to come down to the mother earth. When he comes out of the imaginary world the problem starts pinching him again. The increased frequency of fantasizing is a signal that one had better seek some help from a psychiatrist. Resignation, flight or withdrawal is a complete surrender to the problem situation. This is accepting a situation and ceasing any effort to deal with the problem.
The table on the page gives behavioral descriptions of various defense mechanisms. Defense Mechanism Rationalization Psychological Process Illustration
Justifying inconsistent or Padding the expense account undesirable behaviour, beliefs “because everybody does it.” etc. by providing acceptable explanation for them. Individual returns to an earlier a A manager shouting at his less mature level of adjustment subordinate. in the face of frustration. i.e. emotional Re-directing pent-up emotions towards persons or the objects unconnected with the source of frustration. Daydreaming or other forms of imaginative activity provide an escape from the reality and imagined satisfaction. Roughly rejecting a request from a subordinate after receiving a rebuff from the boss. Employee daydreams of the day in the staff meeting when he corrects the boss and is publicly acknowledged as the real brain of the company.
Active or passive resistance A manager saying that the operating unconsciously. recommendations of a committee are not implementable because he could
not become a member of the committee. Resignation, withdrawal. flight or Leaving the field where anxiety A student who could not pass an or conflict is experienced. examination quitting the course.
The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. The Maslow hierarchy theory, Fredrick Hertzberg’s two factor theory and Alderfer’s ERG needs theory fall in this category. Although such a content approach has logic, is easy to understand, and can be readily translated in practice, the research evidence points outs out limitations. There is very little research support for these models’ theoretical basis and predictability. The trade off for simplicity sacrifices true understanding of the complexity of work motivation. On the positive side, however, the content models have given emphasis to important content factors that were largely ignored by human relationists. In addition the Alderfer model allows more flexibility and the Herzberg model is useful as an explanation for job satisfaction and as a point of departure for job design. The process theories provide a much sounder theoretical explanation of work motivations. The expectancy model of Vroom and the extensions and the refinements provided by Porter and Lawler help explain the important cognitive variables and how they relate to one another in the process of work motivation. The Porter Lawler model also gives specific attention to the important relationship between performance and satisfaction. A growing research literature is somewhat supportive of these expectancy models, but conceptual and methodological problems remain. Unlike the content models these expectancy models are relatively complex and difficult to translate into actual practice, and, consequently, they have generally failed to meet the goals of prediction and control of organization behaviour. The process theories are concerned with identifying the variables that go into motivation and more importantly how they are related to one another. Abraham Maslow theory of need hierarchy: It was Abraham Maslow who thought that human needs that spark off an activity can be arranged in a hierarchy of pre-potency and probability of occurrence. Maslow based his theory that a need that is not satisfied dominates the behaviour sparking off an activity for its satisfaction. This need, when satisfied, in its turn activates the higher need. This sequence can be denoted as under. Deprivation – Domination – Gratification – Activation. As a theory of motivation Maslow reasoned that needs can be structured in a hierarchy. Self Actualization Realization needs Self Esteem i.e. Self worth needs Social i.e. belongingness needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Physiological Needs: The fulfillment of physiological needs, such as thirst, hunger, sex, sleep, etc. takes precedence over all other needs; nay, on the satisfaction of these needs, is dependent the very survival and continuance of the human race. Unlike other needs, the physiological needs have a tendency of recurrence. An individual may postpone the fulchers alike. Since a motivated employee is highly productive and highly quality oriented, the managers are also interested the cis one of the dimensions of money motive. Physiological needs are finite but are recurrent.
Safety Needs: Once physiological needs are met, ‘safety’ needs become important. While physiological needs have a reference to the present, the safety needs look to the future. The needs for food, clothing, etc. are satisfied today. But what about tomorrow? A man, so long as he is young and working and earning, is able to satisfy the physiological needs as and when they occur. But will he able to satisfy needs and fend for himself when he gets old? He must have reasonable ‘safety’ in his old age too. Implicit in the fulfillment of these safety needs is the origin of many labour enactments in India today. The pension plans, the payment of gratuity Act, the provident funds Act etc. and other retrial benefits, go, basically, to ensure security for the man in his old age. Too much security makes a man reckless and careless or lazy disobedient and underproductive. At the same time insecurity also makes a man under-productive. How much enough is enough security is an ever-present dilemma before the management providing security of jobs to their employees.
Herzberg’s two factor theory of motivation: Herzberg extended work of Maslow and developed a specific content theory of work motivation. In 1950’s he conducted a study nothing responses of Accountants and Engineers employed by the firms in and around Pittsburgh. In collecting data he used the critical incidental method. In this method, the respondent was asked to narrate one incident from his work life about which he was particularly unhappy and another incident from work-life about which he was particularly happy. On analyzing the data thus collected Herzberg came to conclusion that there are two sets of factors at the work life; one set he called “hygiene factors” while the other was called the “motivators”. The following are the hygiene factors and motivators.
Hygiene Factors i.e. dis-satisfaction 1. Company policies and administration; 2. Technical Supervision; 3. Inter Personal relations with superiors; 4. Inter Personal relations with Peers; 5. Inter Personal relations with Subordinates; 6. Salary; 7. Job Security; 8. Personal Life; 9. Working Conditions; 10. Status.
Motivators i.e satisfaction 1. Achievement; 2. Recognition; 3. Advancement; 4. Work itself; 5. Possibility of Growth; 6. Responsibility
Hygiene factors are those factors that by their absence inhibit performance but any addition in them does not increase efficiency or productivity. These are the job context factors that occur at the time of doing the job. Thus they are extrinsic to the job. These factors are also called as dis-stisfiers. Motivators are those factors, which by their absence do not inhibit performance, but any addition in them increases efficiency. These are the job content factors that make the job itself a tool of motivation. These factors are also called as ‘satisfies’. The Horizontal job loading is known as “job enlargement” while vertical job loading is known as “job enrichment”. Job Enlargement: The following are the principles of job enlargement: 1. Challenging the employees by increasing the amount of production expected of him; 2. Adding other tasks to the job; 3. Removing the more difficult parts of the assignment in order to free the worker;
4. Rotating the assignments. When talking about the theory of job enlargement in his article “one more time, how do you motivate your employee”, [Harvard Business Review; Jan-Feb’68] Herzberg talks in arithmetical terms and ultimately comes to conclusion that the theory of “job enlargement” does not gives dividends not for a long period of time. He, therefore, advocates job enrichment. Job Enrichment Principles of Job enrichment according to Herzber, are as under: Principle Motivators involved
1. Removing some control while retaining Responsibility and Personal Achievement; accountability; 2. Increasing Accountability for individual’s own Responsibility and recognition; work; 3. Giving a person a complete natural unit of Responsibility and recognition; work [Module, area etc.]; 4. Granting additional authority to an employee Responsibility and recognition; in his activity 5. Making periodic reports directly available to Internal recognition; the worker himself; 6. Introducing new and more difficult tasks not Growth and learning; handled previously; 7. Assigning individuals specific or specialized Responsibility, Growth and advancement. tasks, enabling them to become experts.
Answer. 4. (b)
According to Morris Viteles “Morale refers to the condition of a group where there are clear and fixed group goals that are felt to be important and integrated with individual goals: where there is confidence in the attainment of these goals and the confidence in the means of attainment in the leader, associates and finally in one self.” Morale indicates the happiness of the employees with the organizational environment. It also refers to the preparedness of the groups of the employees to subordinate the individual and the group goals to the goals of the organization. Morale essentially is akin to job satisfaction. It represents the integration of an individual with the team and the organization itself. Generally it can be said that morale has a positive relationship with productivity. The higher the morale the higher is the productivity. However, this need not always be so, as can be seen from the following graph:
Line B Line A- High Job Satisfaction only Line B- High Job Satisfaction Productivity Line C- High Productivity only Line C
Productivity In the above graph
Curve-A represents high morale; Low productivity; Curve-B represents high morale and high productivity; but low morale. And Curve-C represents high productivity. High productivity involves a combination of ability, training, work habits, performance goals etc. Curve ‘A’ above where morale is high but productivity is low indicates the management’s failure in the proper discharge of management functions: - chiefly the planning function. Productivity can be high in spite of morale being low because of the rigid systems and controls imposed by the management. The situations where productivity is higher inspite of morale being low or productivity being lower inspite of morale being high do not last long. In the first situation productivity is high because of the strict management controls and close supervision. It also happens in an atmosphere where the people are treated as machines. In this situation the management is apparently creating discontent in the organization which may blow up in its face. When this happens the productivity also dips. In the second situation when morale is high but productivity is low, slowly people distance themselves from the Organization because of the disillusionment about the management abilities. In this situation after sometimes the morale comes down. Thus in both these situations ultimately morale as well as productivity are at their nadir.
Every manager is always interested in curve ‘B’ indicating high morale as well as productivity. But morale is not a static phenomenon. Today the morale high but something may go wrong and the morale might start coming down. In words a manager must have his fingers on the morale in the Organization. No doubt a manager can know the level of morale in his organization by morale surveys. These morale surveys involve drafting of questionnaires, interview people, tabulate and analyze the data. This may be time taking process. Instead he may pay due attention to some of the morale indicators that give an idea about the status of morale at a particular time.
Answer. 5.(a) The Parent Ego State Sometimes parents treat their children in a loving way, speak kindly to them, offer shelter and protection or take care of them in other ways. All this is coming from the nurturing parent Ego State. It helps children grow. At other times parents criticize, make rules, give commands or punish their children. Since the main objective of these behaviors is to control the child, they are known to be coming from controlling parent ego state. Because children repeatedly see parents be having in these two major ways and they unconsciously copy these behaviors, their parent ego state also develops these two major aspects. We call these two aspects the Nurturing Parent (NP) and the Controlling Parent (CP). The Ego State: In this ego state the person acts like a mature adult. In the adult ego state people attack problems in a “cool-headed,” rational manner. They gather relevant information, carefully analyze it, generate alternatives, and make logical choices. In the adult state people do not act impulsively or in a domineering way. In dealings with other people, fairness and objectivity characterize the adult Ego State. Thus adult Ego State is that part of the human personality that makes him take decisions on the basis of facts, data and analysis of these facts and data. As a result we want all executives to be high on adult Ego State. Because it is only when they are high on adult Ego State that their decisions will be more objective and considered. The Child Ego State: Just as the parent Ego State has different aspects, so does the child, Ego State. They are Natural Child; Little professor also known as creative child and Adaptive child. The Natural Child is spontaneous, energetic, curious, loving uninhabited. It’s that part of us that feels free and loves pleasures. When we are in our Natural Child, we transact freely and openly with others. The Natural Child is the Ego State we came into the world with as a newborn baby. It’s what comes naturally. A person high on natural child is extrovert. He likes to make friends. He makes a success when put in charge of the work involving contracts or the dealings with the public. The Natural Child is not entirely without fault, however, It can be self centered, impatient and greedy. Behaviors associated with these feelings are also typical of the Adaptive Child. As a child we probably learned to adapt in different ways. For example, sometimes we may have done what we were told; at other times we may have sulked or avoided the situation (by withdrawing or procrastinating). As a grown up, we may still occasionally react the same way to a project deadline. From their Adapted Child, people often react to external demand by; complying; sulking, or creating unnecessary stress for them. It is the Adaptive Child that may; Try to please everyone in department; Turn back on people with problems; or Procrastinate by putting off work until the deadline passes. These actions can stand in the way of choosing success. Transactions between ego states: One thing must be borne in mind that there can never be a standard personality mix. Individuals always oscillate between these ego states depending on the situation. They
confront. We always change ourselves to suit the situational requirements. Introspection; and putting the Adult in charge of the personality and deciding the behavioral requirements of the situation can do this. This is what is known as putting the Adult as the Executive of the personality. Although we know that people generally exhibit all three Ego States, but one state may dominate the other two. The strong implication is, of course, is that the adult state is far superior to the child or parent state, at least for effective interpersonal relations. However, the T A authors generally stress that all three ego states are necessary for to a healthy personality. More important than the Ego State per se is how one Ego State matches or conflicts with another Ego State in interpersonal interaction the transaction. The transactions between ego states are at the heart of TA and can be classified into the following. Complementary Trasactions: Crossed Transactions: Ulterior Transactions: Strokes and ganes in TA: The Games People Play:
Personality factors are extremely important in organizational settings. Often the ‘wrong’ kind of personality proves disastrous and causes undesirable tensions and worries in organizations. The costs of such tensions and worries are enormous when we interpret them from the point of view of employee-employer relations, peer relations and superior-subordinate relations. Sometimes, the personality difficulties are the root cause of organizational conflicts and often lead to turnover and job dissatisfaction. A consideration of personality differences of focal persons is important for at least three reasons; Some people arouse hostility and aggression in their associates, while others invoke sympathy and supportive responses because of their personality features. Likewise, some people encourage and others discourage free and open communication in view of their personality traits as perceived by their subordinates and associates; Personality characteristics tend to produce differential emotional reactions to stress. Some people tolerate severely stressful situations, while tensions and anxieties and similar circumstances swamp others. Determinants of Personality: The major determinants of personality of an individual can be studied four broad headings (a) Biological, (b) Cultural (c) Familial (d) Situation. Biological Factors: Biological factors may be studied under three heads(a) the heredity (b) the brain, (c) Physical features. Heredity: The relative effects of heredity comprise and extremely old argument in personality theory. Certain characteristics, primarily physical in nature, are inherited from one’s parents, transmitted by genes in the chromosomes contributed by each parent. Research on animals has showed that physical and psychological characteristics can be transmitted through heredity. But research on human beings is inadequate to support this viewpoint. However, psychologists and geneticists have accepted the fact that heredity plays an important role in one’s personality. The importance of heredity varies from one personality trait to another. Brain: Another biological factor that influences personality is the role of the brain of an individual. The psychologists are unable to prove empirically the contribution of human brain in influencing personality. Preliminary results from the electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
research gives indication that better understanding of human personality and behavior migh come from the study of the brain. Physical features: Perhaps the most outstanding factor that contributes to personality is the physical stature of an individual. An individual’s external appearance is proved to be having a tremendous effect on his personality. For instance the fact that a person is short or tall, fat or skinny. Handsome or ugly, black or whitish will undoubtedly influence the person’s effect on others and in turn, will affect the self concept. A person’s physical characteristics may be related to his approach to the social environment, to the expectancies of others, and to their reactions, to him. These-in turn may have impacts on personality development. Cultural Factors: Culture is traditionally considered as the major determinant of an individual’s personality. The culture largely determines what a person is and what a person will learn. The culture within which a person is brought up is very important determinant of behavior of a person. Family and Social Factors: In order to understand the effects of a family on individual’s personality, we have to understand the socialization process and identification process. 1. Socialization Process: The contribution of family and social group in combination with the culture is known as socialization. In the words of Mussen “socialization is the process by which and individual infant acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioral, potentials that are open to him at birth, those behavioral patterns that are customary and acceptable according to the standards of his family and social group.” Socialization initially starts with the contact with mother and later on the other members of the family. 2. Identification process: Identification starts when a person begins to identify himself with some other members of the family. Normally a child tries to emulate certain actions of his parents. Identification process can be examined from three angles: (a) it can be viewed as the similarity of behavior between child and the mode, and (b) it can be looked as the child’s motives or desires to be like the model Researchers have developed a number of personality theories and no theory, at the outset, it must be pointed out, is complete in itself. Personality theories can be grouped under the five heads: I. II. III. IV. V. Intrapsychic theory; Type theories; Trait theories; Social Learning theory; Self-theory.
These theories differ markedly in the constructs they propose as forming the structure of the personality, and also the way they relate these constructs to behavior. They also differ in the methods they use to assess or measure an individual’s personality.
Perception Perception is much more complex and much broader than sensation. The perceptual process can be defined as a complicated interaction of selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli. Although perception depends largely upon the senses for raw data, the cognitive process may filter, modify or completely change the data. A simple illustration may be seen by looking at one side of a stationary object, for example, a statue or a tree. By slowly turning the eyes to the other side of the object, the person probably senses that the object is moving. Yet the person perceives the object as stationary. The perceptual process overcomes the sensual process and the person “sees” the object as stationary. In other words, the perceptual process adds to, and subtracts from, the “real” sensory world. A few definitions of perception are given below:    “It is the process of receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to sensory stimuli or data”. “I perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments.” “Perception includes all those processes by which and individual receives information about his environment-seeing, hearing, feeling, testing and smelling”.
Kolasa defines perception as the “selection and organization of material which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to provide the meaningful entity we experience.” There are two basic elements in this definition: (1) perception is a process of selection or screening which prevents us from processing irrelevant or disruptive information; and (2) There is organization of stimuli implying that the information that is processed has to be ordered and classified in some logical manner which permits us to assign meaning to the stimuli situations. The individual tends to recognize the information, assemble it is a well as compare it with earlier experience. This involves the entire history of events, which have taken place with him over his life span. It is the organization of inputs through a dynamic inner process, which shapes what comes in from the outside environment. Again, what comes in changes what is inside the individual. Thus, unlike the sensation process, which is concerned primarily with basic elementary behavior largely, determined by physiological operation, perception is a highly complex and comprehensive process. It involves a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation of data.
Attitude, Belief & Ideology. A belief is a judgment about something. For example, a belief that the world is round is a judgment about its form. Many of our beliefs, of course, are emotionally neutral; others are definitely favorable or unfavorable toward some object. For example, a favorable attitude toward the religion may involve beliefs that the religion helps to curb delinquency, those worshippers are better citizens than are non-devotees, that people who stay away from temples are unhappy and immoral, and so on. When beliefs become organized into systems, they are called ideologies. The capitalist ideology, for example, is a set of beliefs that a free enterprise economy is maximally productive; that competition in the long run brings down prices and raises quality; and those events in the marketplace do and should determine what is produced. Related to this is a disbelief system the set of beliefs, which one rejects. An individual committed to capitalist ideology would disbelieve that industry can be run efficiently without the profit system; that people will work primarily out of a desire to serve others; or that public ownership of all utilities is necessary for the common good. There are ideologies pertaining to all the major institutions of society, such as the family, the law, the government, and the economic system. Although these ideologies are difficult to verify, we feel strongly about them and, as long as things go well, have great confidence in them. They give us an interpretation and a justification for our practices. Like religion, they are matters of faith. They give us an interpretation and a justification of reality. It is a interesting thing about human behavior that some of the beliefs that we hold most tenaciously with the strongest feelings are not readily subject to proof or disproof.
Stress & State of Exhaustion. Adaptation energy is exhausted, signs of alarm reaction reappear, and resistance level begins to decline irreversibly the organism collapses. A diagrammatic view of these stages is shown in the figure below.
Level of Resistan
One of the major shortcomings of this theory is that thte related research was carried out on animals where the stressors are usually physical or environmental and this is not always the case in relation to human organisms. The concept of General Adaptation Syndrome is, therefore, not given weightage in relation to human organisms. The concept of General Adaptation Syndrome is, therefore, not given weightage in the present days. Whenever a superior scolds a subordinate, the latter’s body chemistry acts in the same way it did in the cave man when he was threatened by a tiger. Even all his body functions race up to meet the emergency. However, physical emergency there is none. This additional burst of energy is not only useless for him but is harmful. He can neither fight physically with the superior nor leave the place of work. The adrenaline in metabolized. These metabolic changes act on various balancing and self-correcting mechanisms of the body. The result is the psychosomatic diseases. Stress Definitions: Different definitions of stress occur. Dr. Seyles, an expert in stress management, gives the best definition an expert in stress management. According to him “stress is a non specific response of the body to situation”. It is important to remember that the body chemistry does not distinguish between the anxiety causing, pleasant or unpleasant situations. In any of these situations, the body response is the same, resulting in fight or fly mechanism. The other definitions of stress are “Stress is a physiological abnormality at the structural or bio-chemical level caused by overloading experiences.” “Stress is an adaptive response to and external situation that results in physical, psychological and or behavioral deviations.”
Leadership & its styles. Leadership Styles: Leadership is practiced by leadership style, which is the total pattern of leaders’ actions in relation to followers. It represents their philosophy, skills, and attitudes. The styles that are discussed hereunder are used in combination, not separately; but they are discussed separately to clarify differences among them. Negative leadership gets acceptable performance in many situations, but it has high human costs. Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. To get work done, they hold over their personnel such penalties as loss of job, reprimand in the presence of others, etc. They display authority in the false belief that it frightens everyone into productivity. They are bosses more than leaders. Autocratic, participative, and free rein leadership styles: The way a leader uses power establishes the type of style. Each style has its benefits and limitations. Leader behaviour is the mixture of all three styles over a period of time, but one style tends to be the dominant one. Autocratic leadership style: Autocratic leaders centralize power and decision making in them. They structure the complete work situation for their employees, who are supposed to do what they are told. The leaders take full authority and assume full responsibility. Leadership behaviour typically, is negative, based on threats and punishment; but it can be positive, because an autocratic leader can choose to give rewards to employees, in which the style becomes “benevolent-autocratic”. Some employees have expectations of autocratic leadership. The result is that they feel a certain amount of security and satisfaction with this type of leader. Participative leadership style:
Participative leadership style is expression of leadership style is expression of leader’s trust in the abilities of his subordinates. The leader believes that his people are as desirous of contributing to the organizational efforts as well as they have requisite capacities. Participative leaders decentralize authority. Participative decisions are not unilateral, as with the autocrat, because they arise from consultation with followers and participation by them. The leader and group are acting as one unit. Employees are informed about conditions requiring decisions, which encourage them to express their ideas and suggestions. Whereas autocratic leaders control through the authority they possess, participative leaders exercise control mostly by using forces within the group. Free-rein leadership style: On the continuum of leadership style free rein style is the extreme. Free-rein leaders avoid power and responsibility, They depend largely upon the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. A free rein leader is the one who abdicates all his decision making responsibilities and prerogative in favor of his follower; The leader plays only a minor role. In an organizational setting such a leader happens to be a bystander, He happens to be there because of his organizational appointment. He fails to guide, motivate and develop his subordinates. Managerial Grid Styles: One very popular approach to identifying leadership styles of practicing managers is Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid. The following figure-shows that the two dimensions of the grid are concern for people along the vertical axis and concern for production along the horizontal axis. Answer.6.(e) Path Goal Theory of Leadership. Robert House, of the University of Toronto initially developed this theory, and House and Mitchel later refined it. It is called ‘path-goal approach’ because its primary concern is the leaders ‘influence on his followers’ perception of their work goals, personal goals and paths to achievement of these goals. It is based on the notion that a leader ‘behaviour motivates and satisfies his followers to such an extent that it promotes the attainment of the follower’s’ goals and clears the path to attainment of these goals. It uses expectancy framework work from motivation theory of Vroom. Leadership, according to this path-goal theory is closely related to motivation, on the one hand, and the power, on the other. In essence, the theory attempts to explain the impact that leader behaviour has on followers’ motivation, satisfaction and performance. According to the authors of the theory there are four basic or major styles of leadership behaviour: 1) Directive Leadership: Here the subordinates know exactly what is expected of them and the leader gives specific directions. There is no participation by the subordinates. When the demands of task on hand are ambiguous or when organizational procedures, rules and policies are not clear, a directive leader may complement the task by providing the necessary guidance and psychological structure for his followers. When the demands of the task are clear to the followers, high level of directive leadership may impede effective performance. 2) Supportive Leadership: The leader is friendly and approachable and shows a genuine interest for subordinates. This style of leadership has its most positive effect on the satisfaction of followers who perform tasks that are full of stress, and are frustrating and unsatisfactory or unsatisfying.
Participative Leadership: The leader asks for and uses suggestions from subordinates but takes the decision by himself.
Achievement-oriented Leadership: The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and shows confidence in them to attain these goals and perform well. For followers performing ambiguous, non-repetitive tasks the higher the achievement orientation of the leader the more confident they would be that their efforts would pay-off in effective performance. Contrary would be the case, when followers perform unambiguous and repetitive tasks. The path goal theory suggests that these various styles can be and actually are used by the same leader depending on the characteristics of the subordinates and the environmental pressures.
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