" The

spirit of antiquity,


In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, In picture speaking with heroic tongue,


with devout solemnities entwined

Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along, Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,


an harmonious decency confined,

As if the streets were consecrated ground, The city one vast temple, dedicate To mutual respect in thought and deed."












- 15 CENTf






THE TREE OF ARCHITECTURE, main growth or evolution of the various


The Tree must be taken as suggestive only, for minor influences cannot be indicated in a diagram of this kind.















(Formerly Professor of Architecture in King's College, London)






(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture

Formerly Lecturer on Architecture,

King's College, London





Bursar, 1893,

Tite' Prize Medallist,

1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallist for Design, 1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association ; Hon. Corr.

Member of the American Institute of Architects ; Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works,"














IN the Preface to the Fourth Edition

explained the


important additions

publication of this the present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an even more extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greater While much new matter has been introportion of the work.

which had been made since the original book in 1896, and I desire to point out that in

duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that already existing has not been overlooked, the utmost care having been

taken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplify such descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarks
as to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have been increased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up to

about 2,000. Many of the subjects shown in the previous have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of the

most recent discoveries.

The sale of four large editions in the space of a few years affords strong evidence that the book has been of service not only
to the strictly professional student and those connected with design in its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to that

body of amateurs to by year becoming a matter


Architectural History






It is gratifying to of lively interest. has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schools

in the leading Colleges

and Technical Institutions of Great

Britain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is upon these centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivated

and the future growth of interest in the Arts. causes have combined in helping towards the proper appreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts of design, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel, the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the general


interest in

The History

photography are undoubtedly important factors. of Architecture has, however, until recent years



been a sealed book to many who have wandered amongst the most beautiful creations of the building art without being able to understand their meaning or appreciate their quality a Grecian temple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling to them none of the evidences which render each a reflection of its own period in history, and which give to each ancient building
a special attraction, besides adding greatty to the interest and enjoyment of its examination.
of all ages,

Architecture has been described very truly as the printing press and it appears probable that in these days of enlightenof Architectural History will soon take its proper

ment the study

It is surely remarkable that place as part of a liberal education. it should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art with

which everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters us from the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines and illuminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcome

bound up with the history of the human not the mother of all other arts, since race, and, finally, from it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative crafts
of conditions intimately

of the succeeding ages


The time


in the

study of the architecture of the past


therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the history of other days, and enables the character and conditions of men


past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to all students and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem-

plating forms which will then have for

them a meaning and a






for helpful criticism in this edition,

lisher for his care in

Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher, and to my pubthe revision of the bibliography and in the



general production of the book. It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death of Professor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of the
present edition has been carried out by me.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1905.

in clear

Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to give and brief form the characteristic features of the archi-

tecture of each people and country, but also to consider those influences which have contributed to the formation of each
special style. They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject, Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround-

and that the main points of the physical geography, social progress, and historical development of each country require to be understood by those who would study and comprehend its

particular style.

In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and also
the qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analytical method has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities the
differences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the special character of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put in comparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles and, further;

more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases of each, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparative


styles themselves are then analysed

and the parts conthe analysis being carried out on the basis of the essential

As this system pervades parts which every building possesses. the whole book, either the influences, character, examples, or comparative features of each style, can be contrasted with those
in any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, which has been divided into five sections in each period, as follows



Geological, Climate.







v. Social




A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. B. Walls, their construction and treatment.



C. Openings, their character and shape. Roofs, their treatment and development.

E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration. F. Mouldings, their form and decoration. G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.




divided into the six leading influences that



expected to shape the architecture of any country or people, the first three being structural, the next two the civilizing

and the


containing those external historical events



alter or

vary the foregoing.
is, its


2 describes the character of the architecture, that

special quality,

and the general


produced by the buildings

as a whole.


the chief buildings in each described, being the corpus, which the style, briefly influences affect and from which the subsequent preceding

3 contains the

named and

comparative analysis is deduced. SECTION 4 is this comparative analysis,



in which every style of regarded as the solution of certain fundamental each building must have all or most of the parts



G, and consequently there is both interest and instruction be gained in learning and comparing how each style has
5 gives authorities and more especially directs the reader wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.

solved these points of the problem.



In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 the authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are



necessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow, even by those who have had the technical training, and have
either the building or complete

drawings of it before them. They have therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations, and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of the special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to. It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students who require an outline of architectural history as part of their artistic and professional education, but also to the increasing number of art workers who are interested in architecture in its relation to it is those accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly believed that a work in which architecture is treated as a result and record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasing public which interests itself in artistic development.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1896.


List of Illustrations

Prehistoric Architecture

General Introduction

Egyptian Architecture

Western Asiatic Architecture Greek Architecture



Early Christian Architecture Byzantine Architecture

Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) Italian Romanesque French Romanesque German Romanesque Gothic Architecture in Europe (General Introduction)
English Architecture

.......... PART THE HISTORICAL ........... .......... ..... .... ........... .......... .......... .......... .......... ....






1 1 1






















228 246
258 267
3.2 7



.....>...... ......... ....
. . . .




Early English Gothic Decorated Gothic
Perpendicular Gothic













. .








35 6

Scottish Architecture


. .

Irish Architecture







French Gothic Architecture Belgian and Dutch Gothic German Gothic Italian Gothic Spanish Gothic















424 437
^446 "446 45 6



Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) Italian Renaissance Architecture
. .






The Florentine School The Roman School The Venetian School
Vicenza and Verona









. 605 612 .. . Saracenic Architecture Arabian Syrian . . \ . ... The Buddhist Style The Jaina Style The Hindu Style (a) Northern Hindu ... .. . . ... .. . . General Introduction Indian Architecture 1. continued. PART II. ..... .652 . THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. 1851 to present time . . . V German Renaissance ... .. U Milan and Genoa The Rococo Style French Renaissance Architecture i- . . . . . . 614 618 618 \... . . .... . . . (b) (c) Chalukyan Dravidian .527 533 545 551 f . . . . .. .. 589 593 597 598 . . ... .. . Architecture in the United States . ...XIV Italian Renaissance Architecture \s CONTENTS.. . . . \ .. A . 567 . Belgian and Dutch Renaissance Spanish Renaissance English Renaissance Architecture The Elizabethan Style . . . . .. . . .. 603 .. . . .687 697 Index . ../. . Egyptian Spanish Persian Turkish Indian Glossary of Architectural . The Jacobean Style The Anglo-Classic (Seventeenth Century) Style The Queen Anne (Eighteenth Century) Style/ The Nineteenth Century Style (1800-1851) .. . . British Colonial Architecture . .. . 3. . . ... . .. .. . . .. .. Chinese and Japanese Architecture Ancient American Architecture . 623 628 .. ... . . .. .. . . . . . ... PAGE 495 496 497 5^7 .. .. . .. \ ..671 Terms . . 2. . . . . . . .... . .... 578 . '.. . \.. .. 561 \ . ... . . . \. . 634 653 657 659 659 663 667 669 . . .\ /"A . . .. ..

Greek Examples III. L f Plan of the Acropolis Greek Examples II.. section .. D K F . plan . ... of (The Theseion). 19.. Perrot and Chipiez. Authorities. Chipiez. . .. . f . A B c Gailhabaud. Treasury of Athens.. . S.. . K.. Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter .. . transverse section longitudinal section ^y. Cockerell.. 14. . . Cockerell. . west pediment east elevation . plan Portion of shaft of column ' . half elevation half transverse section . 20. Greek Examples IV..R. . ^5. . Lions.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. XV11 GREEK ARCHITECTURE.A.W. The Doric OrderTemple of Ceres at Paestum Temple of Neptune (the Great Temple) at Paestum Temple ^Egina of Aphaia of Temple Theseus Athens The Parthenon (Temple of Athena). . ^Cockerell. Penrose. of upper Acroterion Acroterion ridge tile.. Map of Greece.......... I .. E. . angle 17.. Capital of a column D E F Perrot and { The Gate of 16.. . Island A B c Stuart and Revett. Athens Penrose and others... j f ( . . part plan angle of Parthenon as restored . . I Comparative plans of various forms of Temples. F G. .. S. No. . of Parthenon as at present at .. . Greek Construction Portico of Parthenon. 18. . Penrose.. Restoration of a Doric entablature ." Temple of Apollo. at Delos . . view >C. Mycenae Acropolis at Tiryns. A B c D. Greek Examples I.. . . Pelasgic System of Construction. . Antefixse F. .... plan I Gailhabaud. . Athens . H. Panhellenius) at JEgina. ...^ " . on the ... W.. Name. View of lower Acroterion . .

cornice looking up . 21. Greek Examples VI. .. .. .. ambulatory ... longitudinal section .. .. west .. View of angle Comparative Restorations of the Methods of Lighting the Interiors of Greek Temples Method of lighting by Method of lighting by 26. . ./ . plan of existing Lacunaria north and Metopes. or Temple ' ? of Hephaestos east elevation . end view of angle plan . . . half se Opist . . Athens. .... LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. up . Name. The Parthenon. . . .. plan (. The so-called Theseion. Order i. . .. transverse section half south elevation.. . . view fror sectional . . .. The Propylaea... 25... . half longitudinal section of . Greek Examples VII. .. Athens. statue of Parthenos 24. : J Photo. Naos . Stuart and Revett. ..... . >n through (half se Michaelis. method columns . Athens . The Theseion. .XV111 No...... . south sides setting out of flutes section of entablature frieze of west cella wall plan of cornice looking . Athens . east fa9ade ... . . .. Greek Examples V. . . The Parthenon.. Greek Examples VIII. fa9ade longitudinal section details of Interior . . . . . 23. .. . Authorities. . . clerestory skylight .. | detail elevation of enta- blature 22.

. . Order . A B L ) east elevation S--'} - **<"' . Temple at Eleusis Greek Examples XII. section detail of Interior .. Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum. detail of single Corin- thian column . . B. elevation. o. j. IV. . . Mauch.. . Stuart ' (and Revett's Athens. Greek Examples VIII. D ) G J Stuart and Revett.. . . The Erechtheion. . F > Cockerell.. plan elevation .') 29. Athens Plan. . . of Jupiter Olympius at AgrigenSicily. No.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. plan . .. Mauch. The Ionic OrderTemple on the Ilissus The Erechtheion. plan long. . . . Athens..... Name. w /. and section Tower of the Winds. of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae... c.E... H. The Propylaea... section through mutule ' . . .. section Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum. E F \ Penrose.. .... . . .. . elevation section .w.. plan ... elevation Durand. . F. . plan 27. . Choragic monument of Lysicrates.. . . transverse section G J Greek Examples IX. . plan long. E Interior plan of .. Stuart and Revett... plan. M. Cockerell. P Q.. . Greek Examples XI. . N. Gailhabaud. Ephesus Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae ~ -\. N j Greek Examples X. 30.. details of capital Corinthian column . Athens. . . elevation . . Temple Temple at . Psestum. .. Temple of Apollo Epicurius. Sicily. ' ) . I (Vol. Middleton and others. mouldings 28. The Temple of Neptune. . J . . . at Bassae north elevation transverse section . . . . setting out of flutes details of large K L. section elevation .. XIX Authorities... G of H. . Temple tum. . 26. continued. A.. sketch from N. K M R Murray.. L. east portico The Archaic Temple of Diana. section . Inwood. Paestum (the Basilica). Order . . .. Cockerell. Cockerell. . . ..

32. transverse section half plans of basement and peristyle . . Lion Tomb. . elevation section north elevation pl an .. "Tomb of the Weepers' . Authorities. . .. elevation . Cnidus. Rome ... .. at Olympia.. .. looking up Typical example of Greek Acanthus leaf 34. . . Inwood. .. south . plan Heraion . side elevation 1 . enlarged elevation of Caryatid Porch 6? \. Athens of capital from the . elevation section west elevation half plans of peristyle roof '.. ... Lysicrates.. plan through base Sarcophagus from a tomb at Cnidus. . . H 36. G. Diagram Capital of Corinthian Capitals. Greek Examples XIII. Roman Pantheon. and > Society of Dilettanti.. Orange Typical Greek theatre Roman 35. G H Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Theatres. ..XX No.. ... E . Name.. Greek Examples XV. theatre at Greek Examples Mausoleum at . column to portico. the Stoa.. Greek Examples The Erechtheion. ... Taylor and Cresy. and Angle view Athens . Newton and Pullan.. . Cockerell. west . Typical Roman Acanthus leaf Plans of capital (A) looking up of relative sizes of Pantheon. . . . . Choragic Monument of Athens 33- Comparative Examples of Greek and The A * B C D. . F Plans of capital..... .. Photo. . . XIV... . plan section . and Revett. ... . 30. [ 31. Halicarnassos. base and entablature south fa9ade three other restorations: D E F.. Stoa. . Temple of Diana at Ephesus. Murray. Stuart Rome. . continued.. . Middleton and others. west fa?ade enlarged capital. .. XII. end . view front fa9ade . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Rome... Doorway of the Pantheon. ) M j" to V Taylor and Cresy.. . elevation of the Pantheon.. . Cyprus . .. Rome. Doorway.. Dr. elevation details .. . elevation of piers .-.. . Ionic. Temple of Theseus the . Comparison of Greek Mouldings I Comparison of Greek Mouldings II Greek Ornament The Ionic Volute I..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Athens Sanctuary of the Bulls.. Mauch. . looking up Temple of Nike Apteros. . .. .. Stuart and Revett. . Greek Ornament Scroll II. side view front view . Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Doorways. . Erechtheion. Stuart and Revett and Cockerell.. Delos enlarged triglyphs... A B.. Taylor and Cresy.. . at } | Stuart and Revett.... Canephora . N.. Mauch. . Greek Doric Athens Roman Doric.. half section half front view ... Stuart and Revett.... Ward... key plan Monument J.. and and Roman Roman A N to Various. 1 40... . } j Greek Corinthian Corinthian Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.... Athens Stuart and Revett. ornament from roof of choragic of Lysicrates. . . Capital from Neandria Capital from the Heraion at Olympia Ionic Lycian tomb Goldman's method of describing Ionic . . \ J Temple on Ilissus. XXI Authorities. Comparative diagrams of the Greek and Roman Orders of Architecture. .. plan of piers . Doorway . Volute Ionic Volute described by a whelk-shell Angle capital. Richter. side view front view . side view . . Athens... . 37. Pantheon... portico of Erechtheion. Volute from Cyprian tomb Capital from Egyptian wall painting Bronze armour plate from Tamassos. by Vignola Greek Ionic Athens Roman Roman 39- . . . plan. Rome .. Chambers.. D E to H 38. Durand. sketch of angle 42.. .. details c Mauch and Donaldson.. .. 41. by Scamozzi Mauch. No. . Name. enlarged capital.

42. Stuart and Revett. from . Rome.. Athens Half elevation of Stele Head 44- . Choisy. f 48. Authorities.. .. D. J. Capital. . . ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. .. Greek Ornament II. . Temple of Fortuna . continued. C. A B I Athens Sculptures. . Roman Examples I. c Tower . Rome. Tower . E . . Map of the Roman Empire. .Watt. Athens . Stuart and Revett. . .... plan elevation .. Honeysuckle ornament Lion's head. . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... F Greek Ornament IV. of Jupiter Olympius.. plan section elevation . Temple Athens of the Winds. ..XX11 No. section ... front side . 4546. The Forum Romanum restored Joseph Gatteschi.. H j \ j Stuart and Revett. . . plan . \ II. . .. view from the south-west . . Roman System of Roman walling Construction of concrete with brick . D E F Anta capital from Erechtheion Portion of frieze from Parthenon G Metope from the Parthenon Acanthus ornament Console from Erechtheion . . of the Winds. Roman Examples . Watt. Titus. A B c J. III. Crowning ornament. Roman 47- facing and methods of heating vaulting and domes of concrete A I to H 1J. Cockerell. choragic Monument of Lysicrates Stele head . L Portion of caryatid figure Antefixa ornnment M N C. . .. to M Plan of the Roman Fora 1 A.. K. . j Henry Middleton. Name. Caryatid figure from Erechtheion Greek Funeral Stele Typical with | Anthemion 43- Stuart and Revett. Arch of Goldsmith's or Cresy. . . j Greek Ornament Capital. front fa9ade flank facade Arch of . 49.. Rome. Taylor and Cresy and others. Virilis. .. ./ Capital.. . choragic Monument of Lysic rates.. Taylor and Silversmith's.

III. Roman Examples Tomb ... . . . detail of to cornice corbel. . . at Nimes. plan front facade . . Nimes. perspective view half plans of base.. . . . Roman Examples Temples . fa9ade . M N Palladio. { j half-plan Bronze mouldings round the " eye r . fa?ade section through . J. K Photo. Society of Dilettanti. . Roman Examples . near Tunis.-contimted. . Rome. Asia Minor.... G Tomb at S.. VI.. at Mylassa. J^Dawkins.. entrance . Roman Examples Temple . at Rome. D E F Palladio. G Maison Carree. .. Temple of Venus and Rome. . ... . . No. Syria. Remi in the Temple of .... ... part . 54. cross section . . Rome Tomb at Wadi-Tagije. . plan . section . . Rome. . North Africa Tomb at Dugga. Great Temple . H j '.. XX111 Name. N o P . 49. at Baalbec. 50. G A B c.. half .. . .. plan 53. V. half section A B half long. . plan . plan and view . .. cross section . . . Middleton. . Temple . K L ^ Temple of Mars flank facade Ultor.. Tomb of Caecilia Metella. . . 51.. IV. Authorities. and D E F Wood. ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . .. . . 52. ment style and . . . J Taylor and Cresy. Maison Carree. . . enclosing wall detail of main cornice .. . . plan .. A B c plan part front elevation long. . elevation half section A B c . \\. .. plan of Jupiter. . D H. .. ... H I Rome. . . Rome. section . section front elevation part side elevation . part long.. .. .section . Nimes . Temple of Diana . . Taylor and Cresy... transverse section. of Saturn.. j view of remains .. E F Sketches... . peri- D . South of France and Faustina. . . Great Temple . c | Durand. L . Antoninus . ... Roman Examples The Pantheon . front fa9ade details of entablature . . .

H J detail of capital to coffer peristyle .. . . ceiling .. . Arch of Septimius Severus. . .. . Rome Plan (restored) Palace of Diocletian at .. long... 61. elevation Circus of Maxentius. . . . 64. .. Tivoli. plan Trajan's Column.xxiv No. . ... LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. the order and G key plan . The Colosseum . Basilica Ulpia. ..... Interior view . . Roman Examples The Colosseum. 59- ...... Middleton. Pont du Gard.. 5556... Authorities The Pantheon. Baths of Diocletian. ..... half plan details of capital .. Nimes. section ... plan Circular Temple of Baalbec.. arch the order and key plan . ... elevation . VII. plan . . D E F . . Roman Examples VIII. Nlmes . D B E J.. from central / B C The Pantheon. . . detail of capital keystone of arch coffer . K A c 58. Taylor and Cresy. . Photo. . Basilica of Maxentius. Temple .. 57- Roman Examples .. and .. . H. section transverse section . of Vesta. . ... A B c . Piranesi. ' .. . .. Name. plan .. Pont du Card. . Rome. . near Rome. .. section .. . A B 60 Roman Examples . capital. Verona . X. . XI. plan 63. . % .. A . Rome. . Roman Examples Spalato IX. .. The Pantheon. . part elevation section. . the order and key plan .. .. 62.. Rome. section elevation .. . section . Amphitheatre. . elevation . plan interior view .. .. Rome... .. . elevation . Baths of Caracalla..

. Name.... keystone.. M Durand... Rome Figures : Pompeian candelabrum ... key elevation . Pantheon. cornice .. ... [ plans .. C Arch of Trajan. C.. . Temple of Jupiter at Rome. Pisa Proportions of mediaeval cathedrals Section of Henry VII. looking up of Antoninus and Faustina. .. capital Arch of Titus. Windsor Section of King's College Chapel K L . M . Arch of Titus. Chapter House at Wells S.. . Principles of Proportion.. Photo. Meyer. Pompeii chariot Typical Roman tomb ... F. v E G.. .. C B D. Jupiter Stator. . Roman Ornament Temple of . Rome .. A. Rome. No. B D. hexastyle. B. Rome Bronze candelabra Typical Roman tripod altar Typical Roman baths Rostral column Roman 70. Pan- theon. j Pilaster Villa Medici. .. of Mars Ultor.. elevations Gailhabaud. .. in span: K L.. . H J Etruscan candelabrum . plan of coffer .. Forum of Nerva. Rome u section .. G H J Gwilt. H K L C. . of frieze '. and E Cresy. . Roman gladiator's helmets Roman arm chair Roman Ornament III.- XXV Authorities.. N M drels of main arch Baths of Titus. portion .. H. Rome Baptistery. > i\ plan Gailhabaud.. II. Watt. F G .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. F 66. J Durand.... details of cornice . F Durand. A. Mosaic pavement. 's Chapel . Rome. Cresy.. Wall fresco . Taylor and [ Temple Rome. . Arch of Septimius Severus Roman Ornament I. Temple 68.. * .. ) Taylor C.. Beneventum Arch of Septimius Severus. capital . >. Tetrastyle. . 69. . Roman Examples House of Pansa ? XII. S. George's Chapel. and j Cresy... Corinthian pilaster capital. 67. and octastyle form of Temple A. C D'Agincourt. . D F . E . ... . . at Pompeii . A B I Arch of Septimius Severus. . . Rome Roman altar Pilaster capitals . . j) section.:.. Watt. C D. F G ) H Taylor Tatham. J. J. 65. Roman console. panel .

concave curves. Optical Corrections in Architecture. G A. Pennethorne. F. prevent appearance of sagging Optical illusions caused by convex and . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. E. Choisy. when diawn to parallel straight lines in relation H. Authorities. The Parthenon Inclination of columns Method of drawing entasis of column The Parthenon Optical corrections to : : ViolleMe-Duc.XXVI No. 72. 71. Correction of apparent proportions Effect of color on proportions Pennethorne. . J EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. Name.

mosaic frieze cloister S... Clemente. Cattaneo. . longitudinal section '. Giovanni... 85- 86. [ E F. Constantinople... mosaic. 82... . interior Photo.' _ H . Maria Maggiore. view view 80. .. .. elevations section of Theotokos. plan .. 84- Byzantine Examples S... j.. plan A . .. D E F Dehio and Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle. S.... S.. .. Name. Constantinople. Perigueux... J . . .. section . plan ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Giovanni. A c B \ . Front. . Constantinople. .. plan . . Comparative Examples of Early Domed Structures.. Gailhabaud. Digby Wyatt. .. and S. Tomb S. ... . . 78. .. Constantinople. .. S. D'Agincourt. Ravenna. . Rome. Church and E. Sophia. 79- Byzantine Examples Byzantine System of Construction. section Mark. Constantinople. section . . S. Choisy. Early Christian Ornament continued. D Gailhabaud. Byzantine Examples Sophia. S. .. o plan . B c S.. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. Sophia. section . Sophia. . .. longitudinal 81. No. .. D j E F exterior G H y A. c.. . Mark. plan . S.. . Constantinople. Vitale. W.. . Gailhabaud.". . .. 83. Constantinople. II.: r .. section S.. . S. Sophia.. plan of Galla Placidia. Rome. . interior Byzantine Examples IV. Constantinople. . view Sergius. . . . section Sophia.. . elevation section Sophia.. c Gailhabaud.. S. S.. . Venice... elevations . . plan D . sectional . . sketch .. The Minerva Medica. Von Bezold. Perigueux... Dome Method S.. Constantinople. W.. mosaic floor .. Constantinople. XXV11 Authorities... . exterior S. Venice. . Rome. ground plan Photo. I. III. exterior Mark... A. A B C. north-east A \ Salzenberg. Rome. exterior K Constantinople. in Digby Wyatt. .. construction to find outline of pendentive interior Sergius. Photo. B ) Lethaby and Swainson. parapet and pilaster S. Cathedral at Athens. Front. .. Mark. Photo. ... B Isabelle. S. Sergius. S. 87. S. view S.

Sophia.. Byzantine Corinthian j capital S. S. Gynaeceum. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 90. Demetrius. f { Lethaby and Swainson. .. Texier and Pullan.. Sophia. Gynaeceum. window from the section . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Bowl and tile capital S. Map The of Europe at the Death of Charles the Great. Name. Authorities Byzantine Capitals Venice Byzantine Ornament. f- Salzenberg.. Mark. Ionic capital . 89.XXV111 No: 88.. S. S.. window from the elevation S. capital from S. . Sophia. Photo... bird and basket capital . 91.. Texier and Pullan. Cathedral and Leaning .. Sophia. Baptistery.. Thessalonica. . Demetrius. Bird Corinthian capital J ( Salzenberg.

. capitals .. Cologne.. .. frieze S. Fleac.. plan 107. . Angouleme Cathedral... dome 101. .. . plan Worms . Church of the Apostles. towers Worms Cathedral. 99. cornice . Trophime.. doorway . . . part elevation . Abbaye-de-Montmajour. . 102. .. S. elevation part section . capital and base G H J Limburg Cathedral. A B Paul-Trois-Chateau.. Worms Cathedral .. Caen French Romanesque Examples.. Name The Abbaye-aux-Dames. German Romanesque Examples.. capital Plans of piers 104. Limburg Cathedral. Caen Porch of S.. exterior transverse section interior Pugin. Cologne 105.. corbel table Vaison. Photo..... 106.. Photo. capitals Church of S. .. Cologne. ... capital Pontorson. S.. . section .. . archivolt frieze . Laach Abbey Church. plan . . . double capital Limburg Cathedral. Cologne. capital S. capital and base Cathedral... plan . ... XXIX Authorities. . corbel Angouleme Cathedral. 100... D'Ouezy.'. Ilsenburg Cathedral. Church of the Apostles. part . No. 103. corbel . . Cathedral.. A. Pantaleon. Photo. Abbaye-aux-Hommes..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. French Romanesque Ornament. capital . The Abbaye-aux-Hommes.. Aries . . part section transverse section . . .. section through Sharpe. .. capitals ... window Worms Cathedral.'... B c Gereon. German Romanesque Ornament. Trophhne. D E F Worms Gereon. K . column ... .

.. D 1 10. . with inter- L others.. ... . A Chapel.. . . Perpendicular fan vaulting . Early English groined vaulting Westminster Abbey. tie-beam .. . . . Waggon . Thatcher. - B Brandon. .. Southwark. showing progress of Gothic Vaulting.. ... . of Vaults A B C Photos- by D E T. Parker. E English Gothic Examples I. No. Name. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. s 113. .. . Bristol Cathedral.. A B c stilted showing and transverse groins D sexpartite vaulting external view Abbaye-aux-Hommes. Redcliffe. collar. . Stowe Bardolph Church.. .. A B ( Viollet-le-Duc. ... Notes. . K.-. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. mediate ribs ... Saviour. . Mary Magdalen. . . groined. R.. . Mary. G plan . Comparative Examples.-. A. Norman . . Pulham. hammer-beam roof D .. . .. Chartres in. .. p. trussed rafter roof Trinity roof S. N. H j. vaulting compartment . . Authorities. Thirteenth Century. Comparative Diagrams and A B c Domes. Principles of Gothic Construction. .. . ... Comparative Views of Models of Continental Cathedrals. . . .. braced roof . . ... .. Cathedral. c Trunch Church. R.... . W... .. vaulting . vault . diagonal . . . Decorated Lierne vault S.. 109.. Purchase. English Gothic Examples II.... . u .. Milan Evreux Cologne Vienna . C. M o Q Gloucester.. Cirencester.. 108. plan . . Perpendicular stellar vault interior view . Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs. . Roman cross Romanesque vault cross vault Byzantine and Renaissance domes Gothic vault Renaissance cross vault 112. and f Salisbury. .. setting out of groined vault A.. Map of Mediaeval Europe. E F Peterborough... . . Amiens Cathedral S.

. ............. Norwich Durham .. . Thatcher.... continued..... .... III. ....... III.. I IV..... Loftie. A 1 I Builder Cathedral Series. . Middle Temple Hall.... A B C L> Photos by T.. 113.. Storer. .. ... .. . G Brandon.... English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Worcester Canterbury 7 Gloucester .. aisle roof Westminster Hall.... H J Thomas Morris.. Lichfield English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Ely York Winchester Salisbury Peterborough Lincoln 118. . E F i.. ..... Durham Ely Worcester Rochester Oxford ..... . Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals Chichester I. .... Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs continued. . A B c 1 'Builder Cathedral \ I D E Series.. ... . . . Ixworth Church...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... .. D E F Photos by T.. ... XXXI Authorities. ' Murray.. Storer..... . aisle roof New Walsingham. Willis..... . .. 2... . . J Murray. Name.... .. . Photos by T. . . .. . double hammer- beam roof . Carlisle Bristol . .. ... English Gothic Examples II. E F G H Comparative Views Cathedrals Salisbury of Models of English A B C * i> Lincoln Canterbury Norwich Ripon 117.... .. .. ... Willis... II... No. ..... . ... hammer-beam roof Evolution of hammer-beam 114.... . Thatcher. Thatcher.. Loftie... Brit on... .. Britton.. Gloucester 116.. G H 115 Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals York Chester Peterborough Exeter Winchester Hereford Wells . .. . . E F Weale... . c .. ..


.... view interior . English Gothic Examples Buildings : XI. Westminster Abbey. elevation of great hall section of roof . 130. general plan Palace. XXX111 Authorities. impost Sompting. Lambeth . window . plan and longitudinal section G H. plan elevation section . Mary's Hospital... . J K Chiddingstone. Chichester.. I Bowman and Crowther. : Neale. George's Chapel.. Earls Barton. . Heckington.. . cross sections . . Saxon Architecture. Typical English Parish Church S. . Kerr. 127. Deershurst. 129. English Gothic Examples Westminster Abbey : IX.. 134. . Photo. window Corhampton. Rickman. Exterior Section Interior Plan 128. Andrew.. ... S. Henry VII. chimney stack section of hall roof C.A. Kent. plan . . D -Dollman. D..... capital .. doorway Repton. N Photo... . [-J..... plans H. . G ( " Vitruvius Britannicus. ' . timber houses S. : English Gothic Examples English Gothic Domestic Examples Penshurst Place.... . Windsor. Chevening House. Photo... Kerr.. E F ) Gotch and Brown. No. J ( Holkham Hall 32. capital Wickham. Kerr.. .. K XII. y Parker and Bloxam. . Lines. L M. . plans Longford Castle Stoke Park . Westminster Abbey. F.. capital S.. . Comparative Plans of English Domestic Tower of London Oxburgh Hall Kenilworth Castle Hat field House.. Name..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. tower . ... . ........ .... . . . sections 133. .. E F . h j 131. Earls Barton.. Chapel. Cambridge.. Fan Vaulting English Gothic Examples X.. Chapel. Henry VII. Benets. .. ....

.. exterior Ely choir. The Evolution of Gothic Spires in England S. . nebule H J man. Contest. A B c . . Kettering. Peter. S. interior and .... S. . interior and exterior 138. . Wulfran. billet . .. chevron D E F Pr. Ely. Lines. The Evolution of the Gothic Buttress Norman. S. double cone S. Oxford Perpendicular. . . Coventry.. nave. Lichfield Cathedral. . choir.XXXIV No. L Lincoln. S.. . John's Chapel. Hunts. A B c Caen. . . . Name. Divinity School. Oxford Detached Flying Buttress. Chapter Ho. D E F } C. 136. interior and exterior : Photo. .. Oxon. ... . Amiens and Kheims Constructive principle of the Mediaeval . n Sketches E F. . Tower of London XIII. . chevron . .. Southwell Minster Decorated. Bloxham. English Gothic Examples A B c hSharpe. Comparative Examples showing progress of Engh'sh Gothic Cathedral Architecture (continued). Church. . c Flying Buttresses. A . : . K . Salisbury Cathedral S..rker. James. .. S. G . Peter. English. . Northants.... Winchester. interior and exterior . North Hinksey Abbaye aux-Dames. Raunds. Lincoln . English Gothic Examples XVI. Louth. Rick- billet G Stoneleigh. nave. Lines. embattled 140. . 135- LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Canterbury Westminster. . interior and exterior Iffley G Photo. .. Oxon. . Grantham. .. Peters-at-Gowts. . / D English Gothic Examples XIV.B E. nave. Northants Keystone. Fountains Abbey . flower North Hinksey. Comparative Examples showing progress of English Gothic Cathedral Architecture Ely Cathedral. Mary Magdalen.. E F [ . M : English Gothic Examples XV.. John.. . Peterborough Ripon. S. Winchester. presbytery 137. . . . zigzag S. Sharpe. Oxon Norman Mouldings. Bloxam and others. Mary. Wickes. S. Warwickshire H 141. Michael. . . Authorities. . Church G .. beaks head Iffley. Lincolnshire. . 139.

elevation . Mary. . E. . Suffolk Decorated Piscina.. Sussex Norman Piscina. Kent E.. Name. Colling... . Dorchester. Sedilia. . D E F Headington. S.. . L . . Bedwin. . No.. . and base jamb moulding John. Coleshill. Warmington. Parker. I. English Piscina. . . H j Merton Colle e Chapel.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . Rushden. . A B c . Gt. . Comparative Examples of English Gothic : Clare Church. . King's College Chapel . K Pugin. English Gothic Examples XVII. . ClympingCh. G Perpendicular Piscina.. Oxford. . Cowling. G . . S. Oxon Perpendicular Sedilia. Crowmarsh. rectilinear tracery. .. Norman A B c Parker. curvilinear tracery . plate tracery Wimborne Minster.. Exeter Cathedral E. Cley half exterior and interior capital and base . . Cobham. English Font. Oxford. . Herts Perpendicular Font. - A B c J.. Warwickshire E. . Bowman and Crowther . . New Duston. Lackford. English Sedilia.. Oxon K L M N o C 2 .. M N o p College Chapel. bar tracery . 142. Flamboyant example 143. : . Merton.. and base jamb and arch moulds capital . Northants Decorated Sedilia. Font. English Gothic Examples XIX. grouped lancet lights . arch mould jamb and arch mould capital and base . S. Wiltshire . Mary Magdalen.. . K. . . plate tracery Woodstock . D E F . jamb mould .. grouped lancet lights Warmington. Suffolk Decorated Font. English Tabernacle. clerestory windows Great Milton. Comparative Examples showing progress of Gothic Tracery Development Lynchmere. G Long Wittenham.. Northants Norman . M 144. S. curvilinear tracery . bar tracery Minster Lovel. XXXV Authorities. Leicester Decorated Tabernacle. ' D E F Braddon. elevation capital .. geometrical tracery S. . H j Parker. . H j . Mary. Mary. K. . Dinan. . shire ... English Gothic Examples Doorways XVIII.. . .. Offley. .

o. ' . Sketch Book. Steeple Aston. Handborough. Ch. Eagle Upwell S. Early English Ferrers Higham j. Pugin.. H L - Bloxam. Worcester English Gothic Ornament : I. Colling. Geddington Parker. III.. Oxon... Comparative Mouldings of the Periods of Gothic Architecture " Norman" " capitals. . and Colling. K. .. . G crocket . . I to 13 Early English . Name. piers '" . . . . Norfolk Coll. 141025 . D K N E F ) R.XXXVI No. crocket parapet " Decorated " four-leaved flower ball flower . Pew. spandrels M. Peter.. tablet flower . . A j Parker.. . I Perpendicular capitals. . B. Roodloft. capitals " capitals Early English " 'jDecorated capitals and A. [ Parker. Authorities. : IV. . c i " and spandrel ornament .. parapet " " Perpendicular vine leaf and grapes cornice flower . parapet o 148. Parker. Oxon. 39 to 54 English Gothic Ornament in Different Periods : II.. . \ M B c . Parker. . 145.. Bloxam. Prince Arthur's Cathedral 146. Lectern.. Parker. English Gothic Ornament Gable Crosses ... Glazier. cresting rose . Pulpit (External).. . H. Decorated Haslingfield ) Church . English Gothic Examples XX. * Parker. English Gothic Ornament : Comparative Examples of Gothic Capitals and Carved Foliage " Norman " " " . Magdalene Oxford Pulpit. . .261038 . . J.. . . . .P 149.. bases. Colling. . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. L . Comparative Selection of Gothic Ornaments Early English dog-tooth ornament. E. Chantry. [ Northants J. Perpendicular Ferry Church Stoke . j A.. "Decorated" "Perpendicular 147. .. typical crocket . Wolvercot. Tudor Tudor flower. Parker and Paley. D. K.. Oxfordshire Parclose Screen. . . . . N. F G. . -Brandon. I A. . K L..

. . Paris.. section through nave ... . S. Finials : Early English dral .. dral . XXXV11 Authorities.. ground plan view from the . entrance gate. . FRENCH GOTHIC. porch Tower. Colling. plan Nash..E.. plan Doune Castle. Bury St. P>om a Photo. A c . Compton Wynyates. . Cowane's Hospital.. sketch from S.. No. 149. . .. . F ) Notre Dame.E.... } Arthur Hill.. sanctuary N. .. plan Castle Frazer. . Decorated . . . Fergusson. section section through .. 150. plan view from the south-east . Warwickshire Examples of Scottish Architecture... Drum . Evesham Early English . section plan . Cormac's Chapel..... Cashel... . .. Decorated dral . Name.. : . : Pendant Perpendicular York Minster All Perpendicular.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Rothesay Castle. way ... K... Devenish Kilree.. Oxon.. K Gailhabaud. Norfolk Winchester Cathedral . Southwell Minster. . Arthur Hill. Stone Bosses . Kilkenny . . E. . 153.. j- plans of buttress D..the Grangepans. plan Glamis Castle. . Perpendicular Mary's Church. Sanctus Bell Bloxham Church. Beauvais Cathedral.. continued. Alban's Abbey Early English Poppy-heads Paston Church. French Gothic Examples I. Examples of Irish Architecture. .. plan Castle.. .. : . long.. . 152. George Heriot's Hospital. Lincoln Cathe- Winchester Cathe- Saints. Edmunds bracket: S. . wheel window . }]. . Fergusson. Lincoln Cathe- Westminster Abbey . \ Bulges..... . . S. plan .. English Gothic Ornament IV.. . ^ f MacGibbon and Ross.. plan of crofts. 151. .

163. Comparative Views Amiens Rouen Antwerp Notre Dame. . 166. .. plan Interior . exterior . . ..... . Name.. Paris . . . French Gothic Examples Rouen S. Mont S. . Michel. ...... Chartres... Notre Dame.. figure sculpture .. . 159. open parapet stone pulpit . capital and crocket Exterior Antwerp Cathedral.. 161. . capital .. Paris . Amiens. .. 162. .. Interior .. Notre Dame. Salisbury Cathedral Amiens 160. . .. Paris.. 156. Chalons sur-Marne Piers in Northern and Southern France . . Comparative Plans of English and French Types of Cathedrals. A B C D E . French Gothic Examples Notre Dame. .. Paris. ....... 154... Bourges 164.... Notre Dame. \ *'_ Semur.. . bay . II.. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Coutances Cathedral.. Authorities.. fleche ... Rouen Chartres Rheims S. . Paris. . cross section interior bay .. : Comparative plans of cathedrals Evreux Oaen.. grotesque figure Paris. .. Amiens Cathedral. ... . View of west front of west front . .. 165. View of west front III.. . Strasbourg Beauvais of Models of Continental Cathedrals. Notre Dame. 157...... Palais de Justice. foliage .. . View House of Jacques Cceur. /F 155.XXXV111 No.. Rouen . Rheims Cathedral. Chapelle... .. . .... . French Gothic Ornament... . 158...... ..

A. capitals . section ... interior elevation - plan ... canopy capitals S.. . 178.. 176. 168. .. section . plan . L F Boisseree.. piers H Photo. Examples Milan Cathedral. Bruges Hall. . \ . . Exterior Italian Gothic . . . Moller. Venice. long. section. ) '- corbel capital J gargoyles doorway K. Maria-dei-Fiori.. 167. Gelnhausen.... exterior . doorway Bruges. S.. Marburg. B I) M oiler. Photo. . elevation .. Gailhabaud. . . Antwerp . . 173.. Paul. Interior .. Belgian Gothic Examples. exterior section interior . Boisseree.. 172. 174. .. Cicognara.. 179. J E G. Moller. King. Name. 169.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Ghent . Stephen. .. Worms.. S. Florence. parapet . F Ratisbon Cathedral. .. ... Town Town Hall. II. Venice.. German Gothic Ornament. plan I. Vienna.. King. . section interior . German Gothic Examples S.. fa?ade Palazzo Pisani.. . .. I.. No. plan . The Doge's Palace. plan . . Photo. . Brussels. .. XXXIX Authorities. Venice Italian Gothic Palazzo della Examples Ca d'Oro. II. Photo. Stephen. Cathedral. German Gothic Examples Cologne Cathedral. . 177. tomb Milan Cathedral. Milan Cathedral. S.. Vienna Freibourg Cathedral. E. C Norman Shaw... section interior . elevation . . A B C D. plan long. miserere 175. H Norman Shaw. M Photo.. . Doge's Palace. fa9ade Siena Cathedral. 170. S. .. G. Cologne. Photo. Eliz heth. plan . Marburg.. section transverse section Gailhabaud and others. Photo... . Exterior. plan 171. Gudule.

. balcony sculptured pier plan window of dome elbows of sedilia Miraflores. .. Photo. Gil. canopy . plan Barcelona Cathedral.. capitals S. Monreale Cathedral. A \- Raschdorff. . Exterior cloisters . 180. angle window Palazzo Scaligeri. plan E F ( (Grandjean Famin. Photo. candelabra Campo Snnto.. Ca d'Oro Palace. 187. .. . . . Burgos Cathedral.. . plan .. Venice. Venice Exterior .. . Photo. ) Ducal Palace. Naples.... window Pisa Cathedral. Reyes. Photo. Pisa. Burgos Cathedral. ... 182. pulpit Florence. tomb . Photo.. Photo. Infante's tomb base of Infante's . capital Cicognara. . Barcelona. Interior Spanish Gothic Examples. Name.. . ornament from tomb Gonzalo . capital . 189. Verona. H L J K D G M. Raschdorff.. Authorities. main cornice section and elevation of . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Photo. . . Exterior Burgos Cathedral.. . 190. .. The Italian Gothic Ornament. Rohault de Fleury. 181.. N -Waring.. Palazzo Strozzi.... . . . Valladolid Spanish Gothic Ornament. Norman ") Shaw... 191. Photo. c ... . keystone . ... . .. Las pier of Huelgas... plan of pulpit .. Maria del Mar. A B c .. Toledo S. Gregorio.. . S.. . 1 86. [ I Rohault Fleury. L Street.... S.... . Florence Cathedral. Venice. 88. 184. campanile 185. Florentine Renaissance Examples I. portion of pulpit lion and base of column . Baptistery at Pisa. detail of capital from pulpit . . .. . Juan de los . Siena Cathedral.. Gerona Toledo Lerida 1 .. E F RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. .. de . et court . 183.xl No.

. . Authorities. D'Agincoiirt. Duomo of Fiesole. Rome II. ..... . .. Cancellaria Palace. 196... section 194.. Grandjean Famin. plan Massimi Palace. Roman Renaissance Examples Farnese Palace. plan . Lorenzo.. D G / ( Grandjean et Famin.. Xli Name. plan .. bronze fountain Palazzo Guadagni. . Palazzo Riccardi. .. plan 197. . B C D E F G..... Florentine Renaissance Ornament.. . . section. Photo.. . Farnese Palace. A. 191. Rome . . capital . elevation . . . . Details of main cornice Front fa?ade Elevation of cortile Plan Section and plan through loggia Upper plan . plan elevation .. . main cornice . 198. Santa Croce. S. window pilaster . . . . I section S. console from tomb Palazzo Vecchio. ... capital Medici Chapel.. No.. window . Roman Renaissance Examples . plan . Mercato Nuovo. Pandolfini. Florence Florentine Renaissance Examples Pazzi Chapel.. II. plan .. lamp bracket 195. ....LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Florentine Renaissance Examples Palazzo Riccardi. . . Palazzo Giraud. .. niche Banner bracket Piazzo Annunziata. long.. I.. . B / ( elevation . 193. long.. J ( 192. corbel Palazzo Strozzi. . Rome . . et j D'Agincourt. Grandjean et Famin. I. . elevation . . continued. . Waring and Macquoid.. Gondi.. S. J H .. Spirito.. Mantua. Andrea. .. A B porch .


Peter..section plan .. . long. section S. . S.. cornices Doge's Palace.. . .. Palazzo Zorzi. . . . capitals . III. . Venetian Renaissance Examples Mark's Library.. The Pesaro S... ...... .. Maria della Salute. 213. S. . half fa?ade .. . 210. Giorgio Maggiore. . Venice Palazzo Grimani... fa?ade ... Mark. Venetian Renaissance Examples . Window S... cornices . pedestal of flagstaff Equestrian statue of Colleoni... . . S. elevation Half plan.. doorway . London Rome Pantheon. . Venice Plans of Comparative S. capital and pilaster Greci. . 208..... Palazzo Vendramini... . to ditto ditto . section long.. Venetian Renaissance Ornament.. Venetian Renaissance Examples S.. Marco. plinth . 214. .. elevation of half fa9ade .. Paris Cologne Cathedral S. . . section S.. plan 5 j .. . . Palace. plan Palazzo Vendramini. No. fa9ade . facade . . Maria dei Miracoli. panel and balustrade . fa?ade . . 207.. cornice.. campanile 215. . I. capital M. Scuola di S. Maria della Salute .. Entablature and capital . The Basilica at Vicenza . xliii Name.... dei Miracoli. . plan Giorgio dei Greci. . Paul.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . cornices and capital 209... pers . ... Various Cathedrals. doorhead cornice . . .. .. Venice II...

. section through . F Genoa and A B Palazzo Gambaro. ... . . Chateau de Blois. . L Reinhardt. .... Palace. .. . Chateau de Maisons. angle of cornice to doorway plan of cornice . . . D . . ... Paris. Verona. dome plan Paris.. . Examples Les Invalides... . . .. H Durand. . .. plan Villa Capra. part elevation . Paris French Renaissance.. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS... J. Eustache. . . plan . Sanmicheli's house. .. . . Chateau De Chambord S. Chambord. Paris. . Reinhardt. Verona. key sketch .. . E f plan . Carega. elevation .. . . .. . . .. Escalier Francois Premier French Renaissance Examples I. .. lavabo . fa9ade .. D E F Durand. . Sauvageot.. 217. . Genoa. . . . plan . The Louvre. . The Pantheon. A B C . . . . . . . A B c f Waring and Macquoid.. . . G K. Authorities Renaissance Examples The Basilica at Vicenza. J. 216. Photo. . A B C .. section through . coffered ceiling . pilaster ... D E. .. angle cornice key sketch Old Convent. Genoa. . . section . II. } . Chateau de Bury. .. Renaissance Verona... .. \ Reinhardt. by Palladio. . . D E F Palladio... . 223. G plan . . - Kinross. dome plan . 218. C \ Durand. . fa9ade . doorway .. . . section long... Villa Cambiaso. . M 220. .. elevation . H J ) j" Kinross.. Vicenza. Palazzo Pompeii. Paris.. elevation . Photo. .. . . . . Name... section . plans Ornament in . Municipio.. . G / ' . Renaissance Examples in Genoa . F ( Luxembourg . Sauvageot and Durand. 222. fa9ade . block plan 221. Typical cap Doorway 219.. . .. Palazzo del Capitanio.. Verona. Photo. Waring and Macquoid. elevation Palazzo Porto Barbarano. . ...xliv No. plan . elevation section . D c E F - Reinhardt.. A B Gailhabaud. elevation .. H and .

. Zalt Bommel. J D. 224... .... xlv Authorities. Cologne German Renaissance Examples. ornament Musee Plantin.. statue . doorway Gable end Enghien. H } L J. dormer window 231. C. . bench-ends Antwerp... Antwerp. E F G. capital Erfurt. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 227.. U Photo.. D Lycee Napoleon. capital . . c D E F.. console Versailles. B E Pfnor.. .....) Versailles.. J The Pellerhaus. . .. style of decoration .. French Renaissance Ornament Palace at Fontainebleau.. Lemgo Town Solothurn Town Hall. cartouche Munich. I. Photo. B D E F Lambert and Stahl. dormer . N.. French Renaissance Ornament Keystone Balcony (Louis XV. C .. elevation 233234- ... . figures ... 225.. window Heilbron. . . Antwerp and Dutch Ornament. capital . J 226.. .. Heidelberg Castle The Rathhaus. O.. . .. H J L'Eglise des Capucins. pilasters Leyden Town Hall. pinnacles Antwerp. Paris ...... gable Freiburg. staircase . . . Switzerland. door and window Palais Royal. cornice and balustrade T. P Q. A. fountain (Louis XV. L. Heidelberg Castle. B Dordrecht. capital Heilbron.. M 'rBerty. C. A.) . wellhead Weimar.. dormer window Paris. . Doorway . S Paris. G . Cesar Daly.. Photo. . B. lead fountain ... G ' Lambert and Stahl. .. gable Utrecht. 228.. C.. Nuremberg German Renaissance Ornament. E The Town Belgian Hall. Freiburg. 229... G H J Renaissance A.. Name. doorway 232.. Chenonceaux... Photo. windows and niche .. . doorway II. . Belgian and Dutch Examples.. . elevation Ober-Ehnheim. . Renaissance A... arcade Nuremberg. Photo. K R. . . panel Chateau de Chamborcl........ . elevation Hall. .. H. C D E F VEwerbeck.. A B.. ornament K .F K. door .. capital Brussels.. Haarlem. .. The Pantheon.

. . Palladio. Oxford .. . 240. Toledo the Alcazar. I.. the II. F Kc rr. of the House of Photo. Greenwich The Rotunda. 243. N. Kirby Hall. Prentice.. Knole. 238. 248. } A. Photo. 249. House . elevation plan . \ P. Nash. Moreton Hall. Comparative Plans of Various Buildings.. Long Gallery . Courtyard Miranda .. ..... Nash. . Norfolk. side of drawing-room Blickling staircase Hall. Vicenza The Escurial. 244. Prentice. D [ great Henry Shaw.. Photo. portion of facade Avila.. 247. . Nash. Northants Little . Cheshire of the old Schools.. Northamptonshire. Europe at the Time of 241. Map of Western Elizabeth. Rome . 242. 236. Seville Photo.. F. .. Hardwicke Hall. Thompson. south elevation j i 1 it plan . N. The Tower Hatfield Photo. 237. Letarouilly. the Casa Polentina courtyard . . Spanish Renaissance Examples.. The Hall .. . Siguenza Cathedral. iron screen Alcala De Henares. iron pulpit . Photo.. Blenheim Palace . English Renaissance Examples Holland House. Cuenza Cathedral.. C D E -A.. door from cloisters A B. ( A B C D.. English Renaissance Examples Castle Ashby. Princess of Lichenstein. Name. Hatfield House. A B. . . window Avila.. Authorities Town Hall. ( Stockton House.. 239. 235.xlvi No. . Spanish Renaissance Ornament. ground floor plans C f Richardson. Burgos. Spain Villa of Pope Julius. Staircase Haddon Hall. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Kent. 246. elevation . Robinson. E 245. E Campbell. . The King's House. .

.. Mary Le Bow.. .. .. junr.. elevation . A B 1-6 c J-Clayton.. . . . . London Bookcase.. transverse section ... . .. York Water-Gate. water L Richardson.. oriel . stalls. Museum Tablet.. Kent. . .Tanner. rain . .. S. plan Whitehall Palace.. elevation . chimney piece Church.. junr. balustrade Hatfield House... . Gotch.... Tanner. '. Name. .A. Campbell. English Renaissance Ornament . xlvii Authorities. entrance . S. H. . Bramshill House. .. 250. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Campbell. elevation .. A B c plan Banqueting House. Norfolk. Doorway in Broughton Castle Bay window. A.. English Renaissance Ornament II. I.. Oxford North Cray Church. C. western fa$ade .. J. Cambridge Tomb of Lord Burghley. V. plaster ceiling .. .... . S. Hants. Paul... . Paul.. Kent Lead cistern. Kent. Whitehall... plan sketch of peristyle . .. Gotch. Somersetshire. . ground plan . junr. .. . plans . 254.. Richardson. . Tanner. section D . .. Hinchingbrooke Hall Chapel screen.Richardson.. newel Blickling Hall. section .. London. D E F . .. G H j Cambs. arcade . H j Aston Hall. head 251.. . .. English Renaissance Examples S. . No. Triggs. frieze . H.. . London. Stamford Throne and Pulpit. Bride. 253. . M B j Duke's House. D E F H. .. London Photo. . . plans . Bradford.. . G I Henry Shaw. I. A E . H. 252. Peterhouse College Chapel. . ... c .. . . A Clayton and Gailhabaud dome . . . 7-12 . 255. . . Convocation Room. Charterhouse. ... English Renaissance Examples IV. . D E ... . S. Pembroke College. Claverton.. elevation .. balustrade . Martin. wall D K } All Hallow's at (Barking) frieze Henry Shaw~ tablet F House Yarmouth. Wren's original plan section through . c . . A B c }J.. Victoria and Albert . J. English Renaissance Examples III.. .

. Bride... 256. elevation cross section long.. ... typical window Aston.. . C Stephen. C Horse Guards.. 258.. Long.. archway S. .. ... .. Martin's Church. III. . .. VIII... Name. . A. English Renaissance Examples S.... . London English Renaissance Ornament Doorway . . English Renaissance Examples Castle Howard. . Somerset House. A Venetian Doorway Casino at Doorway window . . elevation section ... A. Photo... section B j- Clayton. section London. without pedestals . monument . plan D VII. . .. I Campbell.. section .. No.. window .. James.. 257.. . 260.... elevation section central portion Kedlestone Hall.. Walbrook.. English Renaissance Examples Examples by Sir William Chambers... wall tablet Wilton. ... piece Westminster. thorities.... . ... .. ..... . with arcades and pedestals . London.. . details . section . VI. London.... plan .. London ' Plan Elevation Cross section S. . Piccadilly. Gate piers Chimney 261.. or portion of Ionic colonnade without pedestals Marino. . I j Woolfe and Gandon.. Pedimented gateway IX. .. .. plan 259....xlviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. j-Clayton. near Dublin Doorway or portion of Corinthian colonnade with pedestals Superimposed orders.. - . . . English Renaissance Examples S. . with Venetian and arcades pedestals .

Ajunta.. compound pillar Bindrabund. Mandura. 277.. ARCHITECTURE 264.. Karli... Umber. 266. Agra. Elephanta. ... London Photo. Comparative diagrams of the proportions of the Orders after Sir W. gateway Indian roof construction A Kanaruc Sanchi. Vellore. Interior of rock-cut cave 268.. Gwalior. Greek Doric Tuscan . Entrance to the old Temple 279. 265. The West Gateway and Gopura Tarputry. Roman Doric .. Garwan Hullabid. plan . . 278. 269..E. Garrick (formerly Schiller) Chicago. Palitana.. pagoda . .. 271. 274. Composite 263.. . in Orissa. Indian Examples and Ornament. . Theatre. The Hindu Temple . . The "rath" (Temple of Kailos) . INDIAN ARCHITECTURE.. pillar Baillur.. Map of India. Chambers. Name. xlix Authorities. of Tagat- Tanjore. 262. plan . No. 276. . 275. 273. 272. compound Stone ornaments 267. The Houses of Parliament. rail Seringham. . . 270. Ionic Corinthian Chambers. 280. Fa$ade of rock-cut cave Interior view of rock-cut cave Interior of Dilwana Temple The great Chawmukh Temple The great Sas Bahu Temple Mount Abu. The East door of the double Temple Ellora. .. pillar . Greek Temple. The Great Temple from the N.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. IN THE UNITED STATES. Sanchi.



A. Openings. GEOGRAPHICAL. their construction and treatment. Columns. 2.DIAGRAM TABLE OF THE SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION FOR EACH STYLE. RELIGION. F. CLIMATE. n. as applied general to any 5. vi. in. their form and decoration. Reference Books. Architectural Character. Walls. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL. their character and development. and shape. in G. 1. Mouldings. i. c. structure. 4. Plan. or general distribution of the building. E. their treatment D. - Roofs. Influences. Examples. iv. . and decoration. HISTORICAL. v. 3. Comparative Table. GEOLOGICAL. building. Ornament. B. their position.

"When just the substituting osier lithe : ***** ! fit fit No For To brittle bulrush. According to Vitrtivius. man in his primitive savage state began to imitate the nests of birds and the lairs of beasts. ! . must have been connected intimately with the endeavours THE origins of architecture. . nor too a workman step by step to one task. The work marched Took each. even the worst just house them Any cave Suffices . further loam-and-rough-cast work a stage. . But that descendants' garb suits well enough . commencing with arbours B . sound wood for soft withe. of twigs covered with mud. now for him. PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. and him Nay. just escapes The mystery of hinges.A. although lost in the mists of antiquity. exacts an age. ! ! . dreams and shapes His dream into a door post. . F. . throw out earth A loop hole ? Brave But here's our son excels At hurdle weaving any Scythian fells Oak and devises rafters . one time leaping o'er the petty to the prime. Other writers indicate three types of primitive dwellings the caves (No. then huts formed of branches of trees and covered with turf (No. 2 H) or rocks or those occupied in hunting or fishing. . Exacts an architect.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. A portico-contriver. It has been truly said that protection from the inclemency of the seasons was the mother of architecture." BROWNING. " Study mere shelter. The goodly growth Of brick and stone Our building-pelt was rough. 2 c). of man to provide for his physical wants.


Structures of the prehistoric period. and will only i. Brittany. as in Egypt. 2 j) for those such as shepherds leading a pastoral or nomadic life. 2 B). 1894. " L' Habitation Humaine Pre(C. as at Stonehenge (No. etc. The remains may be be lightly touched upon. and weighing 260 tons. and are merely mentioned here to show from what simple beginnings the noble art of architecture was evolved. also known as menhirs. Persia. 14 feet in diameter. 2 F) and India. Bucknall. Another example is at Locmariaker.PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. Northern France. E) for the agriculturist. as discovered in the lakes of Switzerland. REFERENCE BOOKS. 15). Remote Ages. Tumuli. Grange (Ireland) resembles somewhat the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. Lake Dwellings. the Channel Islands. a well-known example 63 feet high. Italy (No." Folio.. Ammann (A. classified under : Monoliths. and elsewhere. These foregoing primitive or prehistoric remains have little constructive sequence. Italy and Ireland consisted of wooden huts supported on piles. cloth. a table.) Paris. consisting of one large flat stone supported by upright stones. Lineham (R..). E. etc. iv. 1892." Translated from the French by B.). and were so placed for protection against hostile attacks of all kinds. B. Assyria. historique et Historique. 4) and the beehive huts found in Wales. 3 the hut (No. 2 A. S. also in Ireland. D. Gamier and : Stone Monuments. belong to a high state of civilization.). a stone). and in Ancient Egypt. " The Street of Human Habitations An Account of Man's Dwelling-places. India. B 2 . and the tent (No. and maen. or circles of stone. 8vo. Tumuli. also in Brittany (No. Customs. being at Carnac. " 1870. Dolmens (Daul. have little or no architectural value. although unfortunately the stages of the evolution cannot be traced. Ireland (No. although interesting for archaeological reasons." 4to. 2 D. in Prehistoric Times. ii.). consisting of a series of upright stones arranged in a circle and supporting horizontal slabs." 8vo. That at New Cornwall. Avebury (Wilts). owing to the fact that the oldest existing monuments of any pretension. v. and Ornament of Waring (J. Examples are to be found near Maidstone and other places in England. Japan. or burial mounds. E) and elsewhere. "The Habitations of Man in all Ages. Cromlechs. were probably prototypes of the Pyramids of Egypt (No. with Remarks on the Early Architecture of Ireland and Scotland. 1876. iii. Viollet-le-Duc (E. 2 G). or single upright stones.

and some form of temple for his god. given under the heading of Prehistoric Architecture. there prevailed in Egypt a system of architecture which consisted of a massive construction of walls and columns. As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature. place with the History of Law and of Language. / v THE HISTORICAL STYLES. in which the latter closely spaced. " Deal worthily \vith the History of Architecture and it is worthy to take FREEMAN. ment of brick construction with the consequent evolution of the arch and vault was due to the absence of more permanent The influence of Egyptian and Assyrian building materials.PART I. which in their turn In Babylonia. 2 H) or grottoes. the greater habitations of man were undoubtedly those that such as caves (No. The first nature afforded. which demanded little labour on his part to convert into shelters against the fury of the elements. . Architecture raised may be said to include every building or structure human hands. and attacks from his fellows or wild animals. the developsupported the flat beamed roof. architecture on that of Greece is apparent in many directions. he naturally began to build more commodious habitations for himSuch early forms are self. and is here denned as construction with by : the more the latter artistic motive being the value of the result. however. and massive carried lintels. short. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. an is developed. To pass. a general this that development. at once into Historic times. such as Egypt and Assyria." its Comparative treatment of Historical Archioutline sketch is given of the course which the art has taken up to the present time in Europe. and also in those countries. which have influenced introducing IN tecture.

that is to say. so the column as a decorative feature disappeared. 62 and the Triumphal Arches (Nos. such practical people as the Romans could not but discard a feature which was no longer utilitarian. and the beauty and grace with which they were treated. and the arcuated system it had masked was exposed. and the artistic and mathematical skill with which they were constructed. meant certain methods of proportioning and decorating a column. The above "orders" are characteristic of Greek architecture. the actual work of support being performed by the piers of the wall behind. as will be seen. however. 65 and 66). Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans who. and Corinthian (No. it will be noticed that the column has.GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. the qualities of refinement in detail and proportion were perceived. i. it eventually ended in the exclusion of the beam altogether. While borrowing this trabeated architecture. however. 38) came into existence. By the word " order " . This timber architecture. It should be noted. which they had probably already learnt to construct from the Etruscans. Columns were. so this feature of the semicircular arch was introduced in every part. was soon felt. when the permanence and value of stone aided in the growth of the art. Ionic. and the different orders of architecture Doric. however. 45). This dualism is a very important fact to remember. good examples being the Colosseum at Rome (Nos. because. was naturally at first very simple and rude the influence of the material. whole of the then known world. throughout the entire constructive system of the building. used constructively. In the numerous buildings which the Romans erected.e. most of what is now known as Europe (No. in the generality of cases. Grecian architecture 5 is considered by many to have had its origin in the wooden hut or cabin formed of posts set in the earth. become merely a decorative feature. The column and arch were used conjointly by the Romans for is some time. illustrate the keen artistic temperament of the Greeks. that many writers hold that Greek architecture is developed from an early stone type. and 63). and in many cases employed Greek artists in the erection of their buildings. and in the employment of the arch alone. connected together by semicircular arches. advanced. As civilization and technical skill. As time went on. in which the semicircular arches spring As the Romans conquered the directly from their capitals. moreover. however. copied in marble or stone. however.. the ancient inhabitants of Central Italy. they added the use of the arch. as in many of the great basilicas. and this was the type which was developed in the early Mycenaean period into the pyodomus of the Greek house. the entablature. adopted their architecture. and the part it supports. by its use in the settlements . and covered with transverse beams and rafters.

Its latest works were tinged by the coming change. both in construction and decoration. when the later Romanesque. The early styles. fourteenth. It was a style. hitherto been achieved in previous architecture. The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century was a fresh factor in the history of architecture. ancf (2) Gothic. Europe in a more or less debased form up to the tenth century of our era. including the Greek. It was left to the Gothic style to formulate a complete system of arcuated construction. to the introduction of the pointed arch. aided largely by inventive genius. The transition commenced. viz. if unchecked. during which period were erected those magnificent cathedrals and churches. in which a decorative system was closely welded to the constructive. and any style may be placed under one or other of these types. whose goal. structive principle. Roman architecture is a composite transition style. The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the Gothic or pointed style. Roman architecture was prevalent in which they founded. whether in architecture or in civilization regarded as a whole. whether of art or literature. perhaps. and fifteenth centuries. the working out of which was marvellously alike in all countries. and twelfth centuries. or showed signs of becoming stereotyped by the mechanical repetition of architectural features. moreover. led. The past styles of European architecture may be broadly summarized as being divided into two great types. or the architecture Each of these types depends on an important conof the arch.6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The new force was the belief that the old Romans had been wiser and more experienced than the medievalists. or the architecture of the beam. Constructive necessity. and is the basis on which European architecture is founded. in the latter part of the twelfth century. led to many variations of this semicircular arched style. (i) Classic. may fairly be said to have culminated. The condition of Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a great change. both uniting to reflect a more intense expression of its age than had. which form the most emphatic record of the religious feeling and character of the Middle Ages. : . so called as being derived from the Roman style. for the Gothic system. The gradual breaking up of the Roman Empire. which prevailed throughout Europe during the thirteenth. and the result was the earnest study of every Roman fragment. would seem to have been the combination of the round arch and dome that are seen in the great examples of the Byzantine style. in the tenth. the formation of separate European states. that had been preserved or could be recovered. belong to the former. and other causes which we shall enumerate separately. was in vogue. eleventh.

This second phase had not. . or the State. in the church. In acquainting himself with the buildings therein mentioned. he may feel that few of the diverse elements of our complex civilization. conscious effort was then made the most earnestly in England to modify the current that had been flowing since the year 1500. till by the opening up of Greece to travel and study towards the end of the eighteenth century. art. and some of the results of this attempt may be traced by the student wise enough to follow up the clues indicated in the concluding pages of the English Renaissance style. have failed to find some ideals. beside or even above those of Rome. at the beginning of the twentieth century. an equal success for a reaction was at' hand in favour of mediaeval divers reasons .GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. the tradition was modified by the admission of Grecian remains to an equal or supreme place. whether A architectural expression. 7 For some three centuries this belief held good. however.

etc. Viollet-le-Duc. Darmstadt.. 1899. " Parallele des Edifices de tout genre. Brault (E. Paris. 1791.. Architecture Religieux. An edition by J. York.). Folio." 7 3 vols. Gailhabaud (J. Handbuch der " 1826. 2.. 1848-1892. Architektur.." 2 vols.). ." There is an English translation by B. Durand (J. 1877-1880.). N. Merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance." 1 1 vols... Svo." Edited by Blashfield. 410.).) and Bezold (G.. 1897. Vitruvius (Marcus Pollio). History of Ancient Art.Newton. 1901. i. 1901. 1850. Abendlandes. Paris. L' Architecture du V. "A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance.. Lives of Celebrated Architects. Sturgis. " Les Architects par leurs ceuvres. Paris. (B. Perrot (G. Encyclopedic d'Architecture et de la Construction. Svo. 1867-1904." 2 vols. " Glossary of Terms used in Architecture. Dehio (G. 1893.' 1853 ct scq. " Planat." 10 vols.. Lists of Reference Books for special periods throughout the book." 2 vols. Translated by i3?6. Gailhabaud (J.). Gwilt " (J.). " Viollet-le-Duc (E. Paris. A. "Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Choisy " (A. " Dictionnaire raisonne d'Archi lecture. Paris. 8vo. New Vasari (G. 1847.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. au XVII. 1884. 410." 2 vols.). v. folio Imperial Svo. Architecture Civile. Svo. 8vo. Svo. Gwilt." With Detached Essays and Illustrations. Sculptors and Architects. " Fergusson (J. 18921893.). from the Italian by Owen Jones. 1883-1894." Comprising a number of volumes upon the History and Practice of Architecture. Stuttgart.). " 12 vols." Folio. "The Architecture of. issued by the Architectural Publication Society..). Milizia (F. "Monuments Anciens et Modernes." Svo. GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS.).). The Influence of Material on Architecture.).B. F. Dictionnaire de 1'Architecture. 4 vols. Paris. Cummings (C." W.). " Royal Institute of British Architects' Transactions. " entitled Lectures on Architecture. " Entretiens sur 1'Architecture." 3 vols. History of Architecture in all Countries. 1800. Paris. Parker 3 "A 4to. " Lives of the most Eminent Painters. Histoire de 1'Architecture. Svo." " Folio. Paris. 1859. D'Agincourt (S." Svo. Bucknall." 2 vols. 1877-1881. Dictionary of Architecture and Building. Bosc (E.. C." Paris." 1850. Svo. siecle. 3 vols.-"History of Art by its Monuments. and styles are given "Architectural Association Sketch Book." and 410." 3 vols." 5 vols. " Manuel d'Archeologie Fran9aise depuis les temps Eulart (C. 1863.). N. "Encyclopaedia of Architecture. Dictionary of Architecture.). (J." Translated Folio. folio...). 6 vols. 4to. 1900.). 1869-1872.) and Chipiez (C. Fletcher " 1897. 1902." 4 vols." 5 vols. L. etc.

Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast. that fear rivalled nature most. moreover. as will be shown. or Mediterranean Sea. . On referring to the map (No. or Arabian Sea for by way of the Red Sea. as well as to the Eastern. -The civilization of every country has been. Or winds on mountain steeps. was of immense advantage. The possession pf the Nile. " Those works where man has Those Pyramids. The consequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own productions and inlets for those of foreign nations. largely determined by its geographical conditions. not only on . Egypt always commanded an access to both these highways. Egypt was the only nation of the ancient world which had at once easy access to the Northern. Geographical." INFLUENCES. for the characteristic features of the land in which any race dwells shape their mode of life and thus influence their intellectual culture. i. and like endurance i. 3) it will be seen that Egypt consists of a sandy desert with a strip of fertile country on the banks of the Nile.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. no more decay boast.

as well as the brute creation. brick. . This hard and lasting building material largely influenced the architecture of the country. are found the chief remains of the Tombs. and even rain are rare. and as a means of communication. attained to a very high degree of learning in astronomy. possessed of almost unlimited authority. The climate is equable and of warm temperature. . The climate was thus of importance in developing the qualities of the architecture. A close_^ojonectioji_h. were traditional. . but in practice it became polytheistic gods was created by personifying natural phenomena./ only small forests of palm and acacia existing. therefore. and Pyramids. . or MSS. and philosophy preserved to us in the papyri. such as the sun. and to its durable Bricks qualities is due the fact that there are so many remains. and is called Syenite. and of granite in the south. spring and summer. In Egypt there existed an abundance of limestone in the north. while storm. unchangeable. for though it demanded some protection against heat there was no necessity to provide against I inclement weather. fog.etween religion and archiis everywhere manifest at this epoch. mathethe remains of their literature have been matics. but also because its waters were the fertilizing agents that made desert sands into fruitful fields. but were generally faced with some harder material. determine to a large extent its style of art. The Egyptians were strong believers in a future state hence their care in the preservation of their dead. tecture Religion. a multiplicity of theistic.IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Wood of a kind suitable for building was not available. and stars.! of sandstone in the central region. or stone. wood. Geological. Temples. and The religious rites equipped with all the learning of the age. The priesthood was powerful. which accounts to a large extent for the good preservation of the temples. It was on the banks of this ancient river that from time immemorial the cities of the Egyptians were naturally placed here. ii. Egypt has been said to have but two seasons. account of its value as a trade route. I The latter is principally found near Assuan (Syene). In this section throughout the volume an endeavour will be made to trace that influence on architectural style which the materials at hand in each/country had in its The natural products of /a country such as development. moon. Climate. iv. admitting of simplicity in construction. and mysterious. J iii. were also employed. snow and frost being wholly unknown. and the erection of such Herodotus mentions everlasting monuments as the Pyramids. . written on paper made In theory the religion was monofrom the pith of the papyrus. A tinge of mystery is one of the great characteristics of the Egyptian archiThe Egyptians tecture as well in its tombs as in its temples.

and many imposing buildings were erected at Karnac. This period had Thebes as the capital.were put to enforced labour upon the public works. 4777-2821. 4. Luxor. and in the first chapter of the book of Exodus the natives are said to have viewed with alarm the growing numbers and power of these strangers. The Pyramids are thought to be a thousand years older than any building which has yet been discovered in Western Asia. 332. On v.C. Egyptian civilization is the most ancient of any of which there is a clear knowledge its history is partly derived from Holy Scripture and from Greek and Roman authors. . an Egyptian priest who lived about B. Memphis. by which it can be traced back for more than 4. prosperous period in which much building was carried This period includes the dynasties of the " Hyskos" or shepherd kings. and may be divided down into the following periods 1. During the reign of Rameses II. vi. A vast population was available employment on public works.-X. . Sakkara. the tombs of this period : 3. "great house ") have been arranged in thirty dynasties.C. 300.C.C. B. that the dwelling-house II was looked upon by them as a mere temporary lodging. Gizeh and Abusir. Historical. are at Abydos.000 years B. and elsewhere. perhaps more than any other. out.C." for Social and Political. 23000 (?)-47772. 2821-1738.).C. Nakadeh. and compiled a history of Egypt in the Greek language. The New Empire (Dynasties XVII.). Thus a state of cheap labour existed which was eminently favourable to the execution of large and important structures. B.). The Middle Empire (Dynasties XI. It is assumed by some that the spare time which occurs during the annual floods enabled the population to be employed on these state buildings.C. who had largely increased. but more particularly from the Egyptian buildings.-XX. 1738-950. the subject of the next " division. The Ancient Empire (Dynasties I. . The capital being at Memphis. extending to B. It is also possible that the transport of stone required for the great buildings was effected by means of rafts floated down at this season. These have been based on the list of Manetho. Prehistoric Period. the tomb being the permanent abode. B. B. -XVI. the captives and foreigners. favoured the execution of monumental works.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. "What availeth thee thy other buildings? Of thy tomb alone thou art sure. A . despotic In addition there existed a centralized government which. The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title " Peraa = . the earth thou hast nought beside Nought of thee else is remaining. the workmen probably receiving no other pay than their food.

and that of his grandson. 6. the land which is the gift of a great and the seat of the most ancient civilization. were laid horizontally other bundles. The Roman Period. 31. Egypt passed to Ptolemy.C.C. This formed the which formed the framework of the walls. On Alexander's death and the division of his empire. the angle bundles being of greater strength. Egypt was conquered by the Arabs.C. iii. Egypt passed.D. Medieval Egypt (Mahometan Period). 332 by the Grecian general. is to be seen in the Temples of Thebes and elsewhere. B.C.D. pay be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian aft. Rameses II. 323 to B. slightly projecting cornice.12 5. which bound the The origin of the characteristic heads of the uprights together. of which the primitive roofs were constructed. This section of the book deals with the architecture comprised For periods 8 and 9 see pages 653. at the top. 'COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Grace-Roman Period. A^. B. The Byzantine Period.C. 638. Thie evidence of his greatness. 640-1517. a primitive architecture of mud or puddled clay and bundles of reeds changed in later times to a style of stone and granite. into the hands of the conquering On the spread of Romans. 332. 395-640. 1400-1366). who founded a dynasty that ruled from B. is held to be due to the pressure of the clay. Mahometanism. ii. time. 527.C. In the valley of the Nile.C. 2. (B. 10 j). B. founded by Rameses I.D. Modem Egypt (Turkish Domination).C. 7. Joining these reeds. of Foreign 950-663. as did nearly the whole of the then known world. Alexander the Great.C.D. in Periods 1-7. After the wars which ended in the death of Cleopatra. as builders. on the upright reeds. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.C. one of Alexander's generals. 3O-A. 8. Alexander the Great and Ptolemaic Period. 332-A.). 1333-1300). Domination (Dynasties XXI. who left important monuments (see Saracenic Architecture. -XXV. 9. 332-30. 395. in A. A. B. bound together and placed vertically in the ground at intervals. The Late Egyptian Period (Dynasties XXVL--XXX. 1517 to the present Penod B. 640: i. The jambs and . 663This period includes the Persian Domination.D. (B. 1517 it became a part of the Turkish dominions. In A. A. cornice (No. During the twenty-sixth dynasty the country was conquered by the Persians in B.).C.D. 659. and became a Roman province. from whom it was wrested in B. r The nineteenth dynasty. The primitive structure was composed of bundles of reeds river. the reeds keeping the rammed clay in a projecting position and allowing the curve to be terminated by a flat fillet which gave the level of the terrace. page 659).

lintels 13 of the doors and windows were made of reeds in the humbler dwellings and of palm trunks in those of more pretension. a very distinct reminiscence of the primitive reeds tied together at intervals. Here. This type of column was largely used in later Egyptian times in a more substantial lithic form (No. this instance. Proceeding to the internal architectural features of the style. 10 M). and in conjunction with the hollow-formed capital of the bell type (No. represents a light wooden construction having the slight slope necessary in the dry Egyptian climate. an important point remains the batter or slope which is invariably given to the walls. granite. in imitation of a lotus Such a pier must evidently have been originally employed in wooden architecture and the roof which it supports. The surfaces of such walls could not be modelled or carved with projections of high relief. ligature. is seen a fair and likely prototype of the construction of an Egyptian wall.Hasan some pillars represent a bundle of four frequent. the forms of the early reed and clay construction were adhered to and the endeavour of the conservative Egyptian was to reproduce in stone . 3000-3. During the Theban kingdom especially (B. In fact. in only. which were found to remain undisturbed during earthquakes. 10 L. superimposed in layers. the appearance assumed in the early reed and mud type. more reasonable to attribute it to a mud origin. He infers the custom to have been derived from the Pyramids. and this feature is alleged by him to have been introduced at a later stage. 10 p). owing to their walls being more easily overturned.C. 2100). than to slightly tilt the bundles of reeds towards the interior. reeds or lotus stalks bound together near the top and bulging above the bud. when plastered. a treatment which in any other material scarcely seems to be feasible. c. the form of which is more suitable to a structure of rushes overlaid with mud or puddled clay than to one consisting of large stones. and . Still. while straight-sided houses were upset. then. having been promulgated by a royal decree. but their flat surfaces. Viollet-le-Duc's theories as to the origin of this batter do not point to the influence of material. forming as it were an arch. It seems.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. is found in the later granite column and capital (No. examples in stone of capitals and columns derived from timber and reed originals are At Beni. in order to strengthen such buildings. M). although materials changed. throughout. 10 L). however. provided an admirable field for decoraThe tion and for instruction through the use of hieroglyphics. so as to form a capital. and crowned with the lotus bud. apparently came from the sgraffito" (incised plaster) work on the earlier mud walls. of which the earliest example appeared in the eighteenth dynasty. The surface decoration executed on the later granite buildings " (No. for nothing would be more natural.


bronze implements and utensils. and when necessity dictated a change in the methods of construction. although M. polished and fitted. is even now uncertain. or in the materials. The finishing and fitting of such large masses of granite is remarkable. and which is distinctly. which is all comprised within one "order" of columns. The Pyramids (Nos. The buildings decrease in height from front to back. but in clothing it with a kind of drapery more or less rich. presenting a disconnected collection of various sized structures. are at least 20 feet long by 6 feet wide.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. . and the temples. perfectly squared. where the palaces of the kings are the chief remains. 5. jewellery. both in appearance and reality. but was perpetuated in spite of novel conditions. page 30) has produced many probable theories. 15 Egyptian system of decoration consisted in not contravening the form adopted. covered with paintings and hieroglyphics. 7 and 8). The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Pyramids. As regards the architecture. one building. Remarkable then as were the arts of Egypt. contenting itself with enveloping the geometric form as would an embroidered stuff. and usually of grand uniformity. the immutable form was not thereby affected. The Architectural Character of the temples is striking and characteristic (Nos. and the raising of these blocks of stone into position. expense. character of the tombs consists in the planning of their mysterious chambers and corridors. it is clear that the and that spirit of criticism and logical method were wanting traditional forms. The method of quarrying and of transportation for long distances by land and water. sculptures. The Egyptian wali-paintings. which never presented a projecting outline. and thus forming a direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek temple. or a diapered covering. a contrast in this respect with Assyria. were clung to and reproduced when the method of building which suggested them had been replaced by other systems. often built at different times. and material used in their erection. Egyptian art proceeded on an uninterrupted line or course of tradition. which. for many of the blocks. produce an effect of gloom and solemnity on the spectator. The . the impression given to the mind of the spectator is that these buildings were erected for eternity. Choisy in his latest work (see Reference Books. 4 and 5) are the most extravagant of all ancient buildings in many The relative return in ways. which have been unearthed from their temples or tombs. hallowed by long use. all the remains having a character of immense solidity. impressiveness and the higher beauties of the art is small when compared with the amount of labour. show that the race had attained to a high degree in art. or royal tombs of the kings.


with rough masonry added in parts. : THE PYRAMIDS near Cairo. or more rarely a woman. The Great Pyramid F. The passage to which it known examples. including Herodotus. 4). London. The Great Pyramid each way. the governing idea being to secure immortality by the preservation of the mummy. twice the extent of S. the soul would once more return to the body. . 760 feet area being about 13 acres. 3. Rome. it is still a marvel. 3633) the Third Pyramid by Mycerinos (Menkhara) (B. These were built by the kings as their future tombs. by 3733-B. c. and probably ever will be. Abusir. all erected during the fourth dynasty (B. . is 47 feet 6 inches above the base. its (Nos. 4). in the centre of an ancient stone quarry.C. sloping and meeting in a point. 3666-6. whose date is unknown. as it has been throughout the ages. south. The original height was 482 feet. a mystery. who found a temple between the paws. 3998-B. Peter. are the best (B.Aryan. on the body of a lion. 5 c). and they make an angle with the ground of 51 degrees 50 minutes. form one of several groups within the necropolis of the ancient capital city of Memphis. according to their belief. a ram. c .C. An Egyptian Sphinx (No. and it has since been examined by Mariette and Maspero. 10 o) had the head of a king. The entrance (No. D). 3633-6. 4 and 5 c.A. and Dashur. as in all the pyramids. and the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long. Their construction has been described by many writers. 3600). of Gizeh. the face is 13 feet 6 inches wide.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. The faces of the pyramid are equilateral triangles laid The sides face directly north. east and west. are as follows it is 65 feet high by 188 feet long. Zawiyet-el. by Cheops (Khufu) the Second Pyramid (No. when.C. is situated near the great pyramids.c.c. The other groups are those of Abu-Roash. It was excavated in 1816 by Captain Caviglia. Greatly mutilated. Sakkara. and rank among the oldest monuments of Egyptian architecture. 17 EXAMPLES. a hawk. and is now reached by means of an earthen embankment. or equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields. till that time should have passed. The symbol for an insoluble problem. 3721). i.C. c. THE SPHINX (No.e. which is on the northern side. of Cheops is square on plan. The dimensions of the Great Sphinx.. which represents a recumbent lion with the head of a man. and is a natural rock cut to resemble a Sphinx. 3700) Cephron (Khafra) (B. it is.

and the other below the ground. " ii. led to the outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. Inner secret chambers. It consists of a small vestibule. and having flat roofs. which is 34 feet 6 inches by 17 feet situated. known as the serdabs. was placed the sarcophagus of the king containThe upper part is elaborately coning his embalmed body. which are generally considered the best specimens of their kind. They were divided into three parts i. where the King's Chamber is In this chamber. Sakkara. ~? The TOMBS.) In the from rude heaps of stones piled up over earlier mummy holes. 22 feet 9 inches by 23 feet 9 inches and 12 feet 6 inches high. and was erected to Thy. scenes representing the arts and crafts of the . structed with stones one above the other (No. The principal reliefs are in a second tomb chamber. exterior of this pyramid was originally cased with a sloping face of limestone. is well preserved and has been restored. beyond which is a large court where offerings to the deceased took place. probably derived (a. but this has now disappeared. in " " The Ka or chamber. and members of his family. and the entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a portcullis. These reliefs represent harvest operations. and from which a mummy shaft led through a passage to a tomb the " outer chamber. afterwards re-ascends gives access first slopes downwards. from 50 to 60 tons." having its walls decorated with representations of festal and other scenes. Besides the Pyramids or royal tombs are others for private individuals. 5 D). fitting into a rebate or recess. It dates from the fifth dynasty. The masonry of this tomb is carefully jointed and covered with flat reliefs." containing statues of the deceased. one known as the Queen's Chamber. and which still exists in the Pyramid of Mycerinos.l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Ancient Empire the Mastabas. leading to the chamber containing the sarcophagus with its mummy. The Mastaba of Thy. A well of great depth. and 19 feet high. who in his day held the position of royal architect and manager of pyramids. iii. each about 8 inches by 6 inches. connected with a passage leading off that to the King's Chamber. on which the casing was placed. which are valuable from an historical standpoint. 'showing the original stepped surface in tiers of 4 feet. There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid. with sides sloping at an angle of 75 degrees. and towards the heart of the pyramid. and weighing Two air channels. : which were placed the offerings to double. were rectangular structures. shipbuilding scenes.

o - O Ll 6 o C 2 .

(c.) or were rock-cut. in a row in the rocks as shown (No. sometimes considered to be a fluted prototype of the Greek Doric order. The purposes for which they were used and their component They were sanctuaries where only the king parts are important.20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. indicating a derivation from a The Tombs wooden origin.C.) During and in many cases accompanied by sepulchral temples. . able group of these rock-cut examples. In the Middle Empire tombs \vere either of the Pyramidal (b. beyond which is the sepulchral chamber. The structure of all is very similar. the slaughtering of the marshes in a boat with a surrounding papyrus sailing through thicket. as at Abydos. consisting of three corridors cut in the rock leading into an ante-room. IV. and IX. and in which mysteries and processions formed a great part of the religious services. 2778-^565). Thebes. form a remarkThere are 39 in all. were utilized for offerings and other funereal rights for the dead. sacrificial animals. TEMPLES.in Upper Egypt. and others. These are slightly and have an entasis. a period which was particularly remarkable for the progress of the arts of peace. and priests penetrated. 6). 3. They differ. 6). the New Empire. The entrance to the Tomb of Khnemhotep. The texts were mostly taken from various books relating to the ceremonies which were essential for insuring the immortality of the departed.. from the entrance to the sarcophagus chamber. and Thy himself period.tombs were rock-cut and structural. They were arranged made during the twelfth dynasty (B. where the granite sarcophagus was placed in a hollow in the floor.. The mortuary or sepulchral temples. Medinet-Habou. Amongst the most important of these are those of Rameses III. and were intended only for the reception of the sarcophagi. as in the vertical cliffs form. the Ramesseum. which for a time was the necropolis of the Egyptian kings. The walls. and forming a contrast to the pyramids which formed These tombs consist of a series the graves of the earlier kings. and that of Sethos L. usually known as Belzoni's tomb from its discoverer in 1817. has a large number of tombs dating mostly from the New Empire. and the deeply projecting cornice has stone beams carved out of the solid rock. were sculptured with hieroglyphics of pictures and texts necessary to the deceased in the future life. at Beni-Hasan. of chambers connected with passages hewn in the rock.. bounding the Nile valley (No. known as Tomb No. and mostly representing him sailing through the under-world accompanied by the sun god. has two sixteen-sided columns. such as those of Der-elbahri.


Beyond this is the sanctuary. and led up to the hypostyle hall. and in front of these an avenue of sphinxes.). was the capital of Egypt during the New Empire (Dynasties XVII. on the eastern bank. consisted of chambers for the priests. The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was surrounded by a great wall as high as the buildings themselves. imperfectly lighted. which included those of Der-el-bahri. / ( . surrounded by a passage. . which was open to the sky in the centre. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and at the rear is a smaller hall both the last chambers must have been dark or only Mahometan mosque. and also the Temple of Khons (twentieth dynasty). from the Greek temple. and a large number of mortuary temples. front of the entrance were placed obelisks. therefore. 5 B). and the for they were not places for the meeting of the faithful or the recital of common prayers. which may be taken as a fair example of the ordinary type of plan. on the eastern bank of the Nile. meaning "under the air "). forming a splendid approach to the temple. and halls. formed by the different height of the columns (No. a plan is here given of the Temple of Khons. was another Temple of Ammon (eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties). the Christian church. the site of w'hich occupied a large area on the east and west banks of the Nile. colonnades. near the Great Temple of Ammon. 5). at Karnac (No. However. The student is referred to Lockyer's theories as to the orientation of temples with regard to the particular stars. approached by a flight of steps. all surrounded by a high wall." or massive In sloping towers. At Luxor. In this form they are generally considered to be the prototypes of The more usual type of temple. including the Great Temple of Ammon. The priests and king only were admitted beyond the hypostyle hall. and Medinet Habou. the Ramesseum. was a kind of royal oratory reared by the king in token of his own piety and in order to purchase the favour of the gods. with courts. -XX. and the temple. Thebes. This entrance gave access to the large outer courtyard. ' I . on each side of the central gateway (No. 7). This courtyard was surrounded by a double colonnade on three sides. The entrance to the temple was between "pylons. In order that the student may understand the general distribution of the parts of an Egyptian temple. On the western bank lay the Necropolis or Tombs of the Kings and Queens. The eastern bank had an important group of Temples at Karnac. The " mammeisi " were temples (dedicated to the mysterious accouchement of I sis) each consisting of one small chamber with statue and altar as at Elephantine. and no public ritual was celebrated within them. the Greek temples.22 therefore. and therefore called "hypaethral" (from two Greek words. in which light was admitted by means of a clerestory above.

CO .

and completed by Rameses II. a great court measuring 338 feet by 275 feet.C. 1333-1300). Abydos. (B.. the capitals of which are of the lotus blossom type (No. The Temple of Sethos I. each with its separate gateway and portal. which is formed in the difference of height between the central and side avenues. and magnificence to the additions of many later kings. sphinxes. is one of the most stupendous creations of . In common with other temples it has pylons. from the first monarchs of the twelfth dynasty down to the Ptolemaic period.<J type. courts and/ a sanctuary. Karnac.C. and the architraves are covered with incised inscriptions. about 46 feet high and have columns 42 feet 6 inches in height and 9 feet in diameter. \ The Great Temple of Ammon. The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel. covering about The roof is supported by the same area as Notre Dame. walls are of fine grained limestone. It further differs from others in having a wing at right angles to the main structure in consequence of a hill immediately behind the temple. 1333-1300). but instead of one sanctuary it has seven arranged side by side. The . and the eye is led from the smaller columns of the side avenues.C. 1366-1333). the column shafts.200 feet by 360 feet. still retaining their original colored decorations relating to the gods and personages concerned in the erection of the structure. a first and second fore-court and two hypostyle halls. was dedicated to Osiris and other deities of Abydos. the great The hypostyle hall. a form of The walls of lighting more fully developed in the Gothic period. disposition \ 80 feet in height as compared with 140 feet at Amiens Cathedral. extending over an area of 1. It was built by Sethos I. and the reliefs on them are among the finest Egyptian sculptures. The central avenues are about 134 columns in sixteen rows. to the larger columns of the central avenues lighted by the clerestory. Paris. is the grandest. It has six pylons added in successive generations. The impression produced on the spectator by the forest of columns is most aweinspiring. the Capitals being of the lojus t>u. every course projecting beyond that immediately below. The seven sanctuaries are each roofed by means of horizontal courses. giving an idea of unlimited size. the hall. 10 L) so as The side avenues are to receive the light from the" clerestory. Hypostyle hall measures 338 feet by 170 /feet. (B. (B. and have columns 69 feet high and nf feet in diameter. on which the clerestory light would fall. and the undersides afterwards rounded off in the form of a vault by the chisel. and other halls.24 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which gradually vanish into semi-darkness. built by Rameses II. dedicated to six deities and a deified king hence the front of this temple was divided into seven parts. but owes its size. and originally was connected with the Temple of Luxor by an avenue of It was not built on an original plan.

and having four seated colossi of Rameses II. A (No. like earlier examples. The back of this court was formed by the front of the great hypostyle hall. covered with of inscriptions. Twelve larger columns with elaborate capitals support . Eight smaller chambers. store-rooms and behind are two ante-chambers with a sanctuary beyond. including the second pylon. Staircases on either side lead to the roof of the temple. has its axis at an angle to that of the first pylon and courtyard. the ceiling 65 feet in height. all nearly in total darkness. two small vestibules. On each side of this hall and beyond are chambers. was the work of several generations. surrounded by a colonnade. a small colonnaded temple dedicated to Hathor-Isis and to the memory of the birth of her son Horus. three apartments. consisting of courts. The Temple of Isis. commenced by Ptolemy III. The entire structure has the walls. at the back of which is the imposing facade. is an interesting example of the Ptolemaic period. six of which form the fa9ade. a hypostyle hall with eight columns. treasury. massive pylon. and was entirely excavated out of the It has a fore-court. the walls having vividly colored reliefs. is the best preserved example. 119 feet wide and over 100 feet high. having six columns with elaborate Hathor-headed capitals. 8). Island of Philse. entered through a massive pylon.Roman period many temples were erected. 36 feet by 25 feet. 25 Egyptian architecture. is another Ptolemaic example. with an altar and four seated figures of the deities worshipped. having four Behind this is a long narrow chamber out of which are pillars. and in the rear is a small hypos tyle hall. and. The fore-court. The entrance leads to a vestibule. During the Graeco. Behind this is the hypostyle hall. first century). both inside and out. and on the east a colonnaded building used by the priests. or enclosing outer walls. used as lavatory. adjoin this vestibule. the centre and largest one being the sanctuary. (B. 237).D. This group. It has no pylons. has on the west side the Birth House. fore-court. each over solid rock. Dendera (A. formed as a pylon.C. and other adjoining chambers. Beyond is the temple proper. which is supported by eight pillars. probably used to store the temple utensils and furniture. but was not completed till the reign of Augustus. 150 feet broad and 60 feet high. On the fourth side of the court is the second pylon. faced with reliefs and inscriptions. The Temple of Hathor.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. the narrower spaces between the side columns having low screen walls . but has a great vestibule with twenty-four columns. of which the Temple of Edfou.. the portal of which was the centre intercolumniation of a row of six columns. a sanctuary. having low screen walls between them on either side of the central entrance. which is 105 feet broad and 40 feet high. gave access to a great court.

a 2 n ^ .p i-H O s w c/j rt oo oo Is" 3 w <. 8 w .

and altogether weighs about 600 tons. and at least twelve are in Rome itself. John Lateran is the largest in existence. All these have disappeared. or three stories. 6 feet 2 inches at the top. In the absence of any authentic remains. building was treated with color. about nine to ten times as great as the diameter. brought to London from Alexandria. and erected at the Paris Exhibition.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. by M. is 68 feet 6 inches high. having rich floral capitals. embellished by so-called heads of Hathor. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures which have come down to us. square on plan with slightly rounded faces. Many obelisks were removed from Egypt by the Roman DWELLINGS. That in the centre of the Piazza of S. and had a garden formal style. for the groove into which it was fitted is in some cases still visible. i. being only built of wood or of sun-dried bricks. 9 feet square at the base. the upper part of the house being painted a bright yellow. another example. The design was founded on an ancient painting. and also to in front. laid out in a a extending over the whole length of the structure.. 8 feet square at the base. Behind this were vestibules. although originally erected at Heliopolis (B. and The height is usually tapering sides. beyond which was a smaller hypostyle the roof of which was carried by twelve columns. 27 the roof over this hall. giving access to the rooms. or with the pedestal 153 feet. Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment. The staircase at the back led to a verandah. 1500). and the four faces were cut with hieroglyphics. emperors. Charles Gamier. smaller chambers. 9). and the sanctuary. originally employed in pairs before the principal entrances of temples.e. It is of red granite from Syene. from which they appear to have had one. They are monoliths. with fish-ponds. two. The whole wooden columns blue. 1889. and is 104 feet high. The capping was of metal. hall. single upright stones. an illustration of the Egyptian House is given (No. and the long external flat roof. conjecturally restored. .C. The house was divided by a corridor in the centre. OBELISKS monumental pillars. with a pyramidal summit. The quarrying and transport of such a mass of stone without the power of a steam-engine was" an engineering feat of are considerable skill. and weighs 180 tons.

crowded with pillars. or over the low dwarf walls between the columns of the front row. 7). with Greek examples (pages 15 and 22). which have normally a massive blank wall crowned with a characteristic cornice. These were all square-headed and covered with c. and other features are placed on instance. M). are the chief characteristics of the style. light being admitted by the clerestories in the earlier examples at Thebes. COMPARATIVE. giving them a massive appearance (No. and as already noticed The hypostyle they were especially planned for internal effect. 10 j. the walls. a method peculiar to the Ptolemaic and Roman D. or Philae. Window openings are seldom found in temples. consisting of a large hollow and roll moulding (No. while in the less important they were of brick faced with granite. the chief pylons ornamented with incised decorations formed facade. These were composed of massive blocks of stone supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced columns . different axes. Walls. and grandeur. and conmysteriously illuminated from above. even when of granite. . Roofs. The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter towards the top. impressive The erection of these temples was in progress during many In this respect they centuries by means of continual additions. B. while the approach was through avenue of innumerable sphinxes. were generally covered with a fine plaster. 7 and 10 P). realized the grandest Externally the massive ceptions of Egyptian planning (No. in which were executed low reliefs. massive lintels. for the style being essentially trabeated. 8). free from any pretence of regularity. the arch appears to have been but little used. hall seemingly unlimited in size. a contrast being obtained by the /slender obelisks which an usually stood in front of them.28 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The temples have already been slightly compared A. the temple on the island of Philae being a notable The walls. resemble the growth of English cathedrals as also in the disregard for symmetry in the planning of one part in relation to another. and in important buildings were of granite. Simplicity. Greek external architecture are not found on the exterior of Egyptian buildings. Openings. For the purposes of decoration. periods. The freedom and picturesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. 5). Edfou (No. the pylons. 4. solidity. Viollet-leDuc traces this inclination to the employment of mud for the walls Columns which form the leading features of of early buildings. treated with bright color (Nos. This may be seen in many of the later temples erected under the Ptolemys. qualities obtained by broad masses of unbroken walling. Plans. as at Luxor. These were immensely thick. Dendera.

and the feather ornament (No. as a symbol of protection. a tall. The Egyptians were masters in the use of color.) The capital. and at certain seasons may have been used for repose. and yellow. smooth reed. The scarab. while diaper patterns. Columns. and walls. The blue. is formed of heads of the goddess Isis. the main outline of the palms being (c. 10 G). made to represent the stalks. They may also have been used in the daytime. offered many suggesThe columns. In the rockcut temples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form. and was an important element in the style. 10 K). : . including such features as the solar disc or globe and the vulture with outspread wings (No. to whose protection he ascribed all his warlike successes. 9) as a pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for the enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring up at sunset. It probably attained its sacred character as the emblem of resurrection because of its habit of allowing the sun to hatch its eggs from a pellet of refuse. 10). 10 M). seldom over sijL-dia TTlf^ PT -ip hejgbj-. E. but the bead was also used by itself. In addition. viz. The " palm" capital.) painted or sculptured (No. red. F. fully-grown lotus flower. spirals (No. chiefly using the primary ones It was first wall to be decorated was prepared as follows (a) chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster or cement. seem to have been used in the priestly processions. and at intervals appear to be tied by bands (No. Ornament M). F). invariably crowned j. much in the same way as the cross became the symbol of Christianity. and the lotus. the Isis or Hathor-headed capital. 10 D. the roofing is made to represent timber construction (No.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 10 A. conventionalized. The capitals_wej^_mostly derived from the_Jptus plant (No. 6). B) 10). Being flat. 7 G. and as at the tombs at Beni. sculptured or The two combined pylons (Nos. The papyrus. supporting the model of a pylon (No. Mouldings. E. (b. they could be used in dwelling-houses (No. 2Q (No. These were few. the upper part of the and 10 (No. was considered by the Egyptians as the sign of their religion. This was symbolical. or sacred beetle."as follows: The lotus bud. were tions.. tied round by stalks ~"~(^-) (No. as at Dendera and Philae.Hasan. 10 N). It must be remembered that the decoration of the walls of a temple consisted largely in acts of adoration on the part of the monarch to his gods. 5 F). 10 L). 10 c) were largely used. if protected from The flat roofs of the temples the sun by temporary awnings. the hollow and bead generally used in conjunction. a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty. which formed a bell-shaped ornamented with color decoration (No.

large Erman (A. "Mosqueedu Sultan Hassan au Caire." Cleopatra.). Pyramid.).." Demy 8vo.. incised direct on the granite and then colored." 8vo. " The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.). " History of Ancient Egypt." 2 vols.." Imp. The Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace and the Egyptian Rooms at . F. being corrected with a black line by the chief artist (c) the sculptor next incised the outline." Ward (T.). the symbol of fertility and abundance. folio.). Egyptian Decorative Art. 8vo.." (Historical Novel. Rider). which will give the student a better knowledge of the style than can be gleaned merely from books. and others. REFERENCE BOOKS." 410. and i vol." 12 vols. which a colored wash was put over the whole." 8vo. "Histoire de 1'Art gyptien." 8vo. however. Nubie. Monuments de l'gypte et de la "L'art debatir chezles Egyptians. 5. Choisy large folio.. 1865. the palm. idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation. large folio. They are instructive as well as decorative. " The Sacred Beetle. the papyrus. 1904. folio. Lepsius (R. Paris. rounding slightly the inclosed form towards its boundaries (d) the painter then executed his work in the strong hues of the primary colors.Svo. History of Art in Ancient Egypt." 1895.. " Life in Ancient Egypt. 1 892. " " jeune). or essential. Petrie (W. ." 3 vols." Folio. Paris. 1845.) the British Museum give a good idea of the Architecture and decoration of the style. as may be seen on the sculptures at the British Museum. Rawlinson (G. (A. "An Egyptian Princess. each being copied as the motif for a design. Paris.). 1849-1859. and text in 4to. " Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien." Petrie.. 1899. N." 8vo. 8vo. 1902." 6 vols.3O after COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Haggard (H. Petrie. produced by the overflowing Nile. (b) The were then drawn on with a red line by an artist. " Description de l'gypte" (known as Napoleon's Egypt "). Prisse d'Avennes (E. Paris. 1894. " Life and Work at the Great Smyth (C. or its class. "The" Dawn of 'Civilization. " 1881.). The latter place contains a most complete collection of Egyptian antiquities. Piazzi). feature of the natural object. " in Egypt. and from then! is learnt most of what is known of Egyptian history (No.). The distinguishing. " Ten Years Digging 2 vols. F. being treated by the artists in a way suitable to the material in which they were working. thus passed by a process of figures or hieroglyphics . 23 vols. Maspero (G." Archaeological Survey of Egypt " and the " Egypt Ebers (G. le Champollion (J. text. Perrot and Chipiez.). 10 p). Cairo. Edinburgh. 1883. 1879. Berlin. 1897.) The hieroglyphics were often. 1867.). 1809-1822. (See the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace. The Egyptians possessed great power of conventionalizing natural objects such as the lotus plant. 1883. Publications of the Exploration Fund." 8vo. Herz(M.

10. .

once the seat of a high civilization. WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHI TECTURE. was irrigated by numerous canals between the above-mentioned rivers. hath perished utterly. The plain of Mesopotamia. being celebrated for its great fertility. On referring to the map (No. Learned and wise." WORDSWORTH. i. Nor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh That would lament her. 3). The earliest known buildings appear to have been erected at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country. The district was one of the earliest seats of civilization. i. where the . and was highly culti- vated. n) it will be seen that the principal ancient cities of Western Asia were situated in the valley of the twin-rivers Tigris and Euphrates. INFLUENCES. Geographical. and in this respect can be compared with Egypt (No. " Babylon. supporting an immense population round Nineveh and Babylon. and has been styled the cradle and tomb of nations and empires.<r\ \JO tffit \ BflCTRlfr II.

The people were worshippers of the heavenly bodies.A. 33 Pyramids and other early structures were near the delta of the In Western Asia the march of civilization spread northNile. general body of the walls was "constructed of the ordinary sundried bricks. as sacrifices and the worship of fire and sun appear to have been conducted in the open air. In Assyria. being obtained from bitumen springs found in the district. the Judging F. while in Egypt it spread southwards from Memphis to Philse. while " kiln-burnt and sometimes glazed or vitrified bricks of different colors were used as a facing. made of calcareous earth. which are so important from an historical point of view. and bear witness to the extreme superstition which existed. the rainy season. Climate. The unhealthy exhalations from the vast swamps in Chaldaea. being formed of the thick mud or clay The deposited by the two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates. with a climate ranging from the extremes of heat and cold. applied in a heated state. the god of light and of good. wards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to Nineveh. the walls were also faced. containing no stone and bearing no trees. but in both cases it developed from the sea inland. probably had a mythical meaning. v. iv. placed at the entrances of temples and palaces. such as the sun and the moon. such as the wind and thunder.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. iii. gardens. Mortar. soil. bitumen or pitch. on the Euphrates. and even images. As a cementing material. Numbers of omen tablets have survived. was worshipped with fire as his symbol. the man-headed bulls. Social and Political. on which were carved the bas-reliefs or inscriptions. which thus became the usual building material. On the other hand. from their history. internally and externally. and of the powers of nature. the floods during only desirable. when torrents fell for weeks at a time. further demanded the need for such structures. as opposed to Ahriman. seems to have been used. and deserts. Geological. The whole district of Chaldaea or Lower ii. with alabaster or limestone slabs. and appear to belong to the class of beneficent genii or to that of the great deities of the Chaldaean pantheon. the god of darkness and evil. as at Is. could be made into The bricks. Mesopotamia is alluvial. D . and the swarms of aggressive and venomous insects infesting the entire region during the long summer. Temples. was used in the latest periods. do not seem to have been necessary. where stone was not scarce. and thus the essential stimulus was wanting for the rise and development of religious art. rendered the construction of elevated platforms for the towns and palaces not Moreover. Religion. Ormuzd. Persia is for the most part a high tableland and has been described as a country of sunshine. but almost essential.

in their Assyrians were a sturdy. under Cyrus. Of the Assyrian kings. who were employed in raising the enormous mounds mentioned hereIt has been calculated by-Rawlinson that the erection of after. gleaned certain facts which considerably assist in forming the The earliest Babylonian king mentioned divisions of the periods. then in alliance with the Philistines. but cruel people. The Persian astronomer-poet. while still moist.C.C. indicates the national love of beauty and the influence exerted by environment and climate. Libraries of these strange MSS. Omar Khayyam. and show us the" costumes of the time and the military character of the period. 521-485. The Assyrian sculptures give in a very /ninute way the social conditions of the period.C. In B.C. following the course of the great river Tigris. in his writings. and Xerxes (B. and the empire he founded was gradually extended northwards.C. in B. 485. the most celebrated was Sargon he (B.C. and by the translation of these inscriptions much knowledge of the social condition has been acquired. warlike. who reigned B. the upon which the buildplat orm or mound of Koyunjik great of ings of Nineveh stood would require the united exertions 10. who erected the great palace at Khorsabad was the first Assyrian king who came in contact with the Egyptian army. with a triangular ended instrument of wood. The Assyrians conquered and occupied Egypt in B. 722-705). or metal. after which the palaces would have to be built. Historical. The reigns of Darius (B. 4500.000 men for twelve years.C. 1700 Assyria. From the study of Assyrian history can be vi. for'the long inscriptions and series of pictures with which the palace walls were covered form an illustrated history of the battles and sieges of succeeding monarchs. . Babylon then took the leading place until it was finally conquered by the Persians. . sacking the ancient city of Thebes in B. The cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters which form the inscriptions consist of groups of strokes placed in different positions. and battles the conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners. the northern part of the early Babylonian empire. were formed on bone. a combination of forces which he defeated. 666 but the Egyptians finally shook themselves free from the Assyrian yoke. The destruction of Nineveh took place in B. These characters were impressed on clay tablets or cylinders. asserted her independence and became the great power of Western Asia.C. a large scale. and the great Assyrian kingdom was then divided among its conquerors. Assyria being handed over to the Medes. a hardy race from the mountainous district north of the Persian Gulf.465) are important as being .34 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.C. 672. 609. the sculptor thus explaining the political events of the period in a lasting manner. in the cuneiform inscriptions was Eannadu. 539.

in general. they had to devise some other means for doing so. being compressed in flat square moulds and dried in the sun. The banks where wood which temples and palaces were forms were at first faced with built. 333. Arches. It is a general law. caused the development of the use of the column amongst the Persians. which. 2. Towards the close of the tenth century. These immense plat- sun-dried bricks. being probably accidentally hit upon through the use of small units for as the Chaldaeans were unable to support walls over openings upon beams of stone or timber. The true arch however The arch was was also practised.. was a repetition of its neighbour. owing to the lack of these materials in suitable forms. for the walls being of brick. D. The country. when it became a possession of the Greeks. a barbarous people pouring in from the east. but one formed by corbelling or projecting horizontal courses. of the Tigris and Euphrates presented only alluvial suitable for building was rare. that the arch was earliest discovered and most invariably employed by those builders who found themselves condemned by the geological formation of their country to the employment of the smallest units. applied to important openings (No. the Turks. rested on thick and . the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great. which study and comparison will confirm. which is at the present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule. each unit. and the dazzling impression left by the marvellous buildings of Memphis and Thebes. in the absence of piers. B. 35 those in which some of the most interesting palaces were erected The country remained under the rule of at Susa and Persepolis. The conquest of Egypt by Cambyses.C.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. 525. possessed an abundance of clay. D 2 . however. and subsequently with kiln-burnt bricks.C. the Arabs overran the country and settled there Bagdad becoming a new capital of great magnificence. therefore. 12) and also to vaults. or in the later Assyrian period with stone slabs from the mountains that separate Assyria from Media. settled in the country. It will be perceived how the salient characteristics of the architecture may be explained by the nature of the materials at hand. similar in principle to the mats and hangings spread over floors 'or -walls as a covering. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. was the material of which were formed the huge platforms upon plains. In some cases it was not a true arch. for the Assyrians either cased their walls with alabaster or with a skin of glazed brickwork of many colors. The buildings thus constructed could only be decorated by attached ornament. B. In the seventh century A. and rarely of special shape.

Their ground is blue. becomes inappropriate when applied to . were not used.36 solid walls . held a space of extreme importance in the style. stone (No. 12 feet high." The palaces would differ principally from the description of this mosque owing to the rules of the to the prohibition in sculpture and decoration of the copying of natural objects (page 654). is natural and inoffensive. applied to wood. a style of decoration which . with representations of battles and hunting scenes (No. if the power of a Merlin could bring them back to our view " Every part of the building. for the effect of the towering masses of Koran as the palaces. planted on the great platforms. can only be imagined. or in Greek temples and Latin basilicas. and whether used for the formation of vaulted drains under the immense platforms. upon which elegant flowers and sentences taken from the Koran are traced in white. The appearance of the monuments must. probably covered the apartment (No. it is believed. E). Texier's description of the great mosque at Ispahan might. In Chaldaea. The cupola is blue decorated with shields and arabesques. F. 12 B). and demonstrate very clearly that a form which. through which small openings gave a sufficient illumination. 13 F. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. however. G. 12 B. H). Assyria undoubtedly gave many of her architectural forms to Persia. : is covered with enamelled bricks. without exception. the Persians used it for walls and columns at Susa and Persepolis. and 13 D. This apartment had a dado. The Chaldaeans and Assyrians scarcely ever used stone constructively except as the/envelope for a brick wall but on the other hand as stone was abundant in the rocky country of Persia. c. be applied with general accuracy to the palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis. The bracket and scroll capitals of the columns at Persepolis and Susa retain much of the form of their wooden prototypes. One can hardly imagine the effect produced by such a building on an European accustomed to the dull uniformity of our colorless buildings. H. G). for the want of suitable stone rendered any such arrangement impossible. flanked by colossal winged bulls (Nos. of sculptured slabs. The portal. led to an audience-chamber paved with carved slabs of alabaster. be entirely left to the imagination. . or to form imposing entrances of colored and glazed brickwork in elaborate fasades. At Khorsabad an ornamentation of semi-cylinders in juxtaposition was employed externally. who later borrowed much from Egypt and Asiatic Greece. such as are found in the hypostyle halls of Egypt and Persia. 13 A. isolated supports. and approached from the plains by broad stairways. and was surmounted by a frieze containing figures of men and animals in glazed and brightly colored brickwork a beamed roof of cedar.

however.) : The first or Babylonian (Chaldaean) period (B. 538-333). the incongruities of such forms applied to stone structures were by degrees abandoned.C. . 3. An example of one of these at the British Museum has a double podium (cf. D).WESTERN is ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. Glossary) upon which is placed a chest or sarcophagus crowned with a roof of pointed-arch form.) The second or Assyrian period (B. be admitted that a material from which a style is evolved continues for a period to have its influence even when another material is substituted. 4000 (?)- 1290). where it was introduced by the Bactrian Greeks. These temples were several stories in height. and in Greece somewhat earlier than in Lycia.C. In Asia Minor many of the buildings present stone forms borrowed from a timber type. THE FIRST OR BABYLONIAN PERIOD was of a temple-biiilding epoch. . being copied from a wooden form. It may. The copying of timber forms in stone has also been traced in Egypt in India.C. (b. surmounted by a richly decorated temple chamber. into three tolerably Western Asiatic Architecture can be divided distinct periods (a. In Lycia many rock-cut tombs present flat and sloping roofs. 1290-538). 12 A. Colonel Rawlinson has shown by 'his investigations that the of Temple spheres. in the infancy of stone architecture that timber forms were adhered to for as soon as habit gave familiarity with the new material. including the pins. in the seventh century B.C. and features suitable to the new material were evolved. in which unhewn timbers were copied and the last stage shows an Ionic facade certainly developed from these carpentry forms (No. .) (c. 37 a last reminiscence of the timber stockading which had originally served to keep up the tempered earth before the regular use of sun-dried bricks. constructed in . 41 F). The third or Persian period (B. therefore. the mortises and framing. which served as a shrine and observatory from which astrological studies could be made (No. between the second and third century B. c. and the influence of this tradition is better seen in the tombs of Lycia than in any other remains. EXAMPLES.C. and the temple at Khorsabad. Birs-Nimroud was dedicated to the seven heavenly " In Chaldaea every city had its " ziggurat (holy mountain).. It was only. the principal remains being the temple Birs-Nimroud near Babylon.


The palace contained three distinct groups of apartments. chambers. G. and no less than 60 rooms or passages his (&.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.C. Conjectural restorations have been made by various authorities (No. in contrast to the Egyptian pyramids. . and terminated with the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus. B. Khorsabad (B. Turkey. 39 receding terraces. corresponding to the divisions of any palatial residence of modern Persia. including the palace proper. Nimroud. and forming the principal court of the palace.) The Seraglio. xi. The angles of these temples were made to face the cardinal points. (a. arranged round family an immense courtyard. 722-705). 12 F. whose sides were so placed. is the best example of the general type. ajid the reception rooms for visitors. and it is a fact worth noting that in Western Asia and Egypt. The attempts of the Babylonians to build a tower which should " reach to heaven " (Gen. in all containing 10 courts. and were rendered imposing by no fewer than ten human-headed winged bulls. may be referred to here. There was also a temple observatory on the western side of the platform. These portals formed probably the most impressive creations of Assyrian Architecture.) the Khan or service chambers. the men's apartments. countries both remarkable for their dulness and sameness of aspect. In the principal apartments a sculptured dado of alabaster about 10 feet high. examples of which are now preserved in the British Museum.north-east of the ancient city of Nineveh. and has been the most completely studied by means of systematic excavations. 19 feet in height (No. It was erected about nine miles north. The principal remains are the palaces at Nineveh (or Koyunjik). and corridors is supposed to have occupied an area of 25 acres. 46 feet above the plain. As in all Assyrian palaces. which seems to have been sometimes treated with color. 539. above which was a continuous frieze of colored and glazed brickwork. having an area of about 2| acres. A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. it was raised upon a terrace or platform of brickwork faced with stone. chiefly by Place. THE SECOND OR ASSYRIAN PERIOD was a palace -biiUding epoch. and each of different colored glazed bricks. or India. from which it was reached by means of broad stairways and sloping planes or ramps. and Khorsabad. 12 B). H). with the private apartments of the prince and and (c. . lined the lower portions of the walls. The Palace of Sargon. man should have attempted his highest flights of audacity in the way of artificial elevations. viz. : .C. 4). The great entrance portals on the south-east facade led into the great court already mentioned. and with its various courts.) the Harem.

705-681. 10 feet 8 inches thick. resting upon the summits of the walls.000 feet wide. The most important buildings erected by Darius are his Palace and the Hall of the Hundred Columns. of which only one is still in situ. The . which was used largely in the drains and water channels of the great platforms and in the city gates (No. and the Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal. 225 feet square. as a consequence. From a bas-relief found by Layard. The excavations B. specially in view of the thickness of the walls. have revealed a large amount of information concerning Assyrian Palaces. 12 F).C. also played an important part in the construction of the palaces themselves. In the neighbourhood of their new cities.four stone doorways and windows. proceeded to adapt that of the conquered Assyrians. many architectural features. are still extant. the Hypostyle Hall and a famous palace. similar to that of a Roman atrium. representing the king surrounded by the arms of subject states. had capitals of curious vertical Persepolis. in which were forty. and. has important remains of palaces. Susa and Persepolis. of the Palace of Sennacherib. which are wanting in the earlier periods. partly cut out of the solid rock and It was from 20 to 50 feet above the plain and partly built up. Nineveh. it would appear that domed roofs both spherical and elliptical were also employed. The columns. Persians having no architecture of their own. It was surrounded by a brick wall. tombs and temples. was reached by a wide stairway on the western side. THE THIRD OR PERSIAN PERIOD. B. 885-860. of four different levels. Nimroud. with Other authoporticos around. and that the large halls would have a central portion open to the sky. has inteThese resting remains of no less than eight different buildings. rities hold that the arch. while his son Xerxes built the Propylsea. which would indicate that the architect had to provide solid abutments for arched vaults which supported a heavy roof. and Passagardae. The method of roofing is still much in dispute.C. The bas-reliefs are on a magnificent scale. good stone was to be found. from the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great. as later the Romans assimilated that of the Greeks.40 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. at Susa. rows of warriors and other subjects. Persepolis. were erected on a great platform. receiving ambassadors. and many of the sculptures with which the walls were lined are now in the British Museum. one of the important capitals of Persia. 1. was probably used as an audience and throne-hall. The Hall of the Hundred Columns.500 feet long by 1. Some authorities hold that the long and narrow rooms were roofed with beams of poplar or palm.

It originally had seventy-two black marble columns. the angles of the Assyrian ziggurats were so placed. The Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes (B.. G) and the shafts are fluted with fifty-two flutes.. about 7 feet high. and by grouping the buildings round quadrangles. 13 A. The only great attempt at a monumental structure was the Temple at Jerusalem. 13 ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. A special character was given to the temples of the early. arranged in a somewhat novel manner supporting a flat roof. from which splendid examples of colored and glazed brickwork have been excavated. 12 G). occupied an area larger than the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac. Remains are unimportant. This was commenced by Solomon (B. 2 Chronicles portraying entrance pylons. with his arm uplifted towards an image of the god Ormuzd. COMPARATIVE.C.. and the palaces of the later period. Whereas the sides of the Egyptian pyramids face the cardinal points of the compass. A. c. by raising them on terraces or platforms some 30 feet to 50 feet in height (No.) 4. Assyrian. especially the frieze of lions and the frieze of archers in which the figures.WESTERN types (No. 41 Ionic-like scrolls (No. Paris.C. c). 18). Of these only seventeen colored work of the Persians. while Assyrian palaces were designed so as to be effective internally and externally. are now in the Louvre. 485). Susa has important remains in the palaces of Xerxes and Artaxerxes. and having no enclosing walls. or of the double-bull or double-horse now exist. consisting principally of tombs in the valleys near Jerusalem. Jewish Architecture. biblical description (i iii. The Tomb The Hebrews apparently borrowed forms from Egyptian. reproducing the Palace of f)arius. and the isolated brazen columns Jachin and Boaz. A. and the iv.) is interesting. of Darius. or formed of a pair of unicorns or bulls the bases are bell-shaped (No. or any Gothic cathedral except Milan. Egyptian temples were designed mainly for internal effect. and the site is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar. has a rock cut fa9ade. probably used as a throne room. 13 G). cedar woodwork. their architectural Kings vi. about 5 feet high. metal work. and have capitals either of brackets and volutes. Greek and Roman sources. and forming one of four rock-hewn sepulchres of the Akhaemenian kings. vii.C. being raised on the platforms mentioned above. 67 feet in height. The Temple was afterwards added to by Herod (B. Naksh-i-Rustam. . 1012). courts. near Persepolis. and give a good idea of the glazed and . above which are two rows of figures supporting a prayer platform. Plan. (Page 659. upon which stood a statue of the king. In this fa9ade the columns are of the double-bull type with cornice over.


formed of very tough but plastic clay and debris. where semi-circular arches spring from the backs of winged bulls with human heads. the walls which were thin have disappeared. both circular and pointed." (No. i. Openings. Walls. but in the later at Persepolis. Roofs. and kept in condition by being occasionally rolled. and broad stairways which alone have survived the ravages of time. in Western Asia . The roofing appears to have been effected by means of timber beams reaching from one column to the next. on their return from Egypt. and the Ionic scroll occurs in some examples. the massive walls. and of M. H). to give their buildings a supply of light and air. Perrot and Chipiez. The use of the arch. as is proved by the discoveries of Sir Henry Layard at Nimroud. G. In Assyria. but in many cases the roof of considerable thickness was flat." " " sufficient " . " double-horse or " double-griffen type double-unicorn. are of opinion that Assyrian builders made use of domes in addition to barrel vaults. In Persia. c). I2F. The slabs of alabaster with which the walls of the palaces were faced reveal much of the social history of the people. and openings may also have been formed in the upper parts of the walls. 12 B). and resting on the backs of the "double-bull" capitals (No. being of the "double-bull. The lighting to the temples is conjectural. which were of cased brickwork. The capitals were characteristic. which were of great size. the Persians. as a facing to their brick walls. and many of the slabs are now in the British Museum (No. 13 A. 5) also mentions expressly that all the houses of Babylon were vaulted. Mouldings. because of the discovery of a bas-relief at Koyunjik in which groups of buildings roofed with spherical or elliptical domes are shown. was practised by the Assyrians. 12 B). as in modern eastern houses. c.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. period built them of the natural stone which had been wanting in Chaldsea. They were not so massive as in Egypt. 13). D. however. Place at Khorsabad (No. E. forming a contrast with the solid marble work of the Greeks. Columns. Some authorities consider that the halls of the palaces were covered with brick tunnel vaults. These were primarily of wood. As in the case of Egypt. only remain. immense columns. where stone roofs had to be supported. 43 The Assyrians in the early period used stone only B. It is believed that the Assyrian architects counted chiefly on the doorways. leaving the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and window openings. Strabo (xvi. F. but to have been effected by means of a "clerestory" it appears (No. somewhat similar to that in use in the Egyptian temples. the columns being of wood having perished. however. and with the constructive use of stone and granite by the Egyptians.

Whyte-Melville. are represented buildings with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form in embryo. Chaldea. Place (Victor). (Z. and Judaea. "Sarchedon" (Historical Novel). Flandin (E. Monuments of Nineveh.. can be traced much of the peculiar and characteristic detail used by the Greeks. and the honeysuckle (No. much . and gate fittings is also From the decorative treatment of Assyrian architecture notable. H." 2 vols. and " their history. 12 j) and guilloche ornaments. History of Art in Chaldasa and Assyria. hollow and ogee mouldings may be noticed in the bases. la Perse. 1849.) 1844-1854.)... it may be said. At Persepolis the bead. large of the people (C. Ragozin Texier folio. 1853. Ornament. Paris. 1888." 5 vols. 1884-1889. Paris. Dieulafoy (M.. 8vo. 5. and on the sculptured slabs (No. while the repousse pattern work on bronze bowls." 8vo. la Perse." 2 vols. A).. large folio. et Coste (P. while the volutes of the capital were treated with plain sinkings. 1867-1870." " 3 vols. Layard (A. the colored decorations. the use of mouldings does not appear to have advanced to any In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured slabs and great extent. F.). " Nineveh and its Palaces. 1884-1892. shields. Further. already mentioned at Nimroud and Nineveh. colored surfaces took their place.44 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " Perrot and Chipiez. A him visit to will afford the Assyrian galleries and basement of the British Museum interest and information to the student and will impress with the dignity and importance of the style.)-" Voyage en Perse." " 6 vols. Persia. In the next chapter it will be seen that Greece adopted much of her decorative art from the preceding styles of Egypt and Western Asia. Layard." 2 vols. "L'Art Antique de folio. Phrygia. the latter being seen in a pavement slab from the palace at Nineveh (Koyunjik). 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS.) L'Armenie. Paris.. folio. that Greece took from Assyria the idea of the sculptured friezes. folio. considerable technical skill and refinement.. 1842-1852. The Assyrian sculptures in alabaster exhibit G. 13 B.). H). " Ninive et L'Assyrie. et la (A most interesting account Mesopotamie. which are thus of extreme interest in enabling the evolution of architectural forms from the earlier periods to be traced. Paris." 5 vols. now in the British Museum.

possessed of many natural harbours. colonists. Grecian forms and Grecian lays Prolonged. and convenient for the development of trade. A reference to the map of Greece (No. By means of these havens . the most monumental building material in existence. a few miles . In Greece the principal mineral product was marble. e. the mountainous character of the country. INFLUENCES." i. LORD HOUGHTON. in the mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus. Geological. and together with the tempting proximity of a whole multitude of islands.14. and one which favours purity of line and refinement in detail. was calculated to isolate the inhabitants into small groups. " Fair Greece sad relic of departed worth " Immortal..the Phoenician merchants in early times carried on commerce with the country. though no more . with scarcely a road until Roman times. of the sea in fostering national activity should not be forgotten an influence to which Great Britain owes her present position. This material is found in great abundance in various parts of Greece. was instrumental in producing a hardy and adventurous people. The influence i. The wildernesses there begin To blossom with the Grecian rose. 14) shows a country surrounded on three sides by the sea. GREEK ARCHITECTURE. latest days heritage of beauty fell . who might be expected to make good ii.g. great " AnH downward thence to ! ! ! BYRON. Till when new worlds for man to win The And The Atlantic riven waves disclose. Again. Geographical. their humanising spell. though fallen.

of which There are. god sun. feasting. each town or district having its own divinities. women officiated. t ( Hestia Heracles Athena ... iv. activity of the North with the passivity of the East in a way that conduced to the growth of a unique civilization. In the in the islands of Paros and Naxo's. and other primitive forms of religion. power P ower P eace and P ros Sea Wine. fetishism. and iron. numerous the gods were personifications. ceremonies. Also (The of song and music. Earth. as at Paestum and elsewhere. : Roman. I Poseidon Dionysos ^> - - Minerva.. The Greek religion was in the main a worship of natural phenomena (nature-worship. it appears also to have been coated with this marble cement. ) .46 effort to obtain COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and a small bright "cella" took the place of the mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians (page 20). traces of ancestor-worship. Ceres. The principal deities of the Greeks with their Roman names also rich in silver. Juno. yEsculapius. Mercur y Venus. heals and helps./ ishes. iii. Chief of the gods and supreme ruler Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage son of Zeus and father ot ] Zeus Hera Jupiter (Jove). and traditions. Greece enjoyed a position intermediate between the rigorous surroundings of the Northern nations and the relaxing condiHence the Greek character combined the tions of Eastern life. j . are as follows Greek. Hercules. refinement of line and smoothness of surface where crude bricks were used. of the the ^ Apollo. and founder of cities. they were in many cases coated with a where stone was fine cement formed of marble dust and lime employed. The god who pun. revelry Neptune. and often served only for a Both men and period. Hearth (sacred fire) Strength. / . agriculture ( iermes 1 Aphrodite Nike Hunting (goddess of the chase) Herald or messenger of the gods. therefore eloquent with winged feet Beauty Victory Diana. Climate. Demeter Artemis TT-. It should be borne in mind that Greek cults were always local. retiring afterwards into private life. The climate of Greece /s remarkable for the hot sun and the heavy rains. The country was from Athens. and . Victoria. the cement being susceptible of a higher polish than the uncemented surface. copper. Vesta. The priests had to perform their appointed rites. Religion. but were not an exclusive class. while marble itself was often treated in the same way.. major and minor). factors probably answerable for the porticos which were important features of the temples. Bacchus. however.

The poems of Homer. Their civilization belonged to the bronze age. For the . and gave them that love for music. and the tale probably arose out of the early conflicts of the Greeks in north-west Asia.e. 47 The early inhabitants were known v. for the public ceremonies and in many cases the administration of justice were carried on in the the open air. Whether or no the war with many Troy be an actual fact. the Achaeans or Homeric Greeks. hardy mountaineers called Dorians.C. B. at Mycenae. the drama. give a picture of Greek life about the twelfth century B. to the ancients under the name of Pelasgi. it is clear that the national games and religious festivals united them in reverence for their religion. . apparently a Pelasgic bard who sang for Achaean masters. who established themselves at In classical times Sparta and elsewhere in the Peloponnese. 700. As regards the people themselves. in Crete. and the fine arts. viz.. Tiryns.. and that emulation in manly sports and contests for which they were distinguished. depict the gloomy prospects and sordid life of the Boeotian peasantry at a time when art was almost in abeyance. The Hesiodic poems. emigration. as already indicated.C. are in their colonies of Asia Minor. viz.e. circ. descendants of the Achaeans). 650). and especially to the coast of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. 500 years after the fall of Troy that the new Hellenic civilization was evinced in the construction of the Temple of Corinth (B. especially in the Ionic style. The Achaeans in their turn succumbed to a fresh influx of invaders from the North. as is evident from the remains of it found at different points round the ^Egean sea. undertaken not only to establish trade. The war against Troy affords proof of an early connection of the inhabitants of Greece with Asia. the land was peopled by lonians (i. 750. ^Eolians (i.C. the old Pelasgic population). Historical. vi.' Social and Political. and elsewhere. was a government measure dating from about B. It should be remembered that the people led an open-air life. and that this connection with the East had some influence upon their architecture. at Hissarlik in the Troad.. of the important buildings of Greek architecture. one of the earliest Doric temples known. but also to reduce the superfluous population. the incidents related have a substratum of truth. were great colonists. It thus came about that the colonies were often peopled with citizens of a more energetic and go-ahead character than those of the mother country and it will therefore be found that The Greeks.. and Dorians. It fell before the iron weapons and greater courage of invaders from North. and to provide an outlet for party strife.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Dorian Sparta and Ionian (Pelasgian) Athens are the two It was not till some principal factors in the drama of Greece.C.

latter . having captured Sardis.C. On his death at Babylon in B. 490 the second invasion by Xerxes terminated in the naval victory of Salamis (B. Xenophon. between cities was but the Roman interference had commenced. and others.C. Cyrus. where arts not arms were concerned.C. National exaltation caused by the defeats of the Persians is largely responsible for the fact that all the " important temples now found in Greece were built in the fifty " which succeeded the battles of Salamis and Plataea. centuries B. In B. supremacy passed successively to Thebes and Macedonia. 431 to 404. overthrew the kingdom of Lydia whereupon the Greeks of Asia Minor became subject to Persia. or democratic and The Persians under most of their colonies had been founded.C. ." et artes .C. En revanche. and attempted gradually increased until in B. It was the revolt of these lonians in B. B. Persian wars. Thucydides. and the . there are the more or less critical The histories of Herodotus. Egypt falling to the share of Ptolemy. which followed. The Peloponnesian war left Sparta the chief power in Greece but her arbitrary and high-handed conduct roused other states against her. but thanks to the ability of Philip King of Macedonia and of his son Alexander the Great. lasted from B. The rule of Pericles (B. " Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit Intulit agresti Latio. as the Achaean and ^Etolian. cities of Greece had by this time settled down in their several forms of government tyrannic. aristocratic. 444-429) marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. having besieged and taken Tyre en route and received the submission of Egypt. the empire he had created was split up among his Generals. In Greece itself the formation of leagues. 334 Alexander set out on his great expedition. where he founded and gave his name to the famous city of Alexandria. and the Peloponnesian war. 499-493 which led to the .48 fourth and fifth COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. for Hellenic civilization was thus introduced far and wide throughout Asia. 146 Greece became a Roman The isolation and mutual animosity of the Greek province. The had hitherto been considered a half-barbarian state.C. The years wonderfully rapid growth of Athens excited the jealousy of the slower Spartans. communities afforded all too good an opportunity for the intrusion of the better-centralized and more united power of Rome. The first great Persian invasion resulted in the and victory of the Greeks at the battle of Marathon. 480). 323. His conquests extended to Northern India. and in six years he subdued the Persian Empire. who founded a dynasty (page 12).C. and the effect of these was most important. it rose to a leading position in Greece.C.C.

Trabeated. This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs = a beam). careful study of the materials at hand was in the temples at ^Egina and Paestum (Nos. cramps. and the character was largely influenced by the use of finely-dressed marble. as mentioned on page 53. 28). Stone or marble lintels being difficult to obtain of any great length. to inclined blocks over openings. made. and consequently needing but vertical resistances. In this period the Greeks often had recourse to the corbel system. that the stones were laid on their natural bed or otherwise. and as being an obligatory study for students of otherwise very different principles. also known as the Pelasgic.A.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The following diagram emphasizes the main facts': we Greeks. Further. Roman. The Hellenic Period which followed the Mycenaean is dealt with specially here because it is notable for the development of the trabeated style which the Greeks approved and developed. F. half is hers. was unnecessary because it would have been of no use for distributing the pressure between the stone or marble blocks of which the walls and columns were constructed. 20. puts it. according to the pressures they had to bear thus the architraves. a method of design which called for a Mortar certain simplicity of treatment characteristic of the style. Greek. and even to the true arch. as they were then better able to withstand a cross-strain. 49 ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. as the beds of these were rubbed to a very fine surface and united with iron . Gothic. and a wider intercolumniation could also be obtained. consists of rough walling of large blocks of stone." Greek architecture stands alone in being accepted as beyond criticism. were placed with the planes of their beds vertically. 2. for Choisy found . hold of beauty. Etruscans. and. / \ Trabeated and Arcuated. the columns or supporting members had to be placed comparatively close together. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity the weights acting only vertically. The character of the early or Mycenaean period. E . Greek still culture owed to the preceding Oriental the change effected by the Greeks has so profoundly influenced the development of European progress that Greece must be regarded as the veritable source of literary " Whate'er As a recent writer and artistic Much as civilizations. Arcuated. Cyclopean or Primitive period. is very different from the later or Hellenic period. and which is recognised as the special Grecian type. which had to support a cross pressure. often unworked. inspiration.


A). in the Parthenon the axes of the outer columns lean inwards 2*65 inches. their truthful and apparent construction. 71. E 2 . if built straight in reality. as has been discovered by the late Mr. would appear to sag or drop in the middle of their length. in order to correct optical illusions. c) were also given an inward inclination.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 51 The general architectural character of the early works of the Hellenic period is heavy and severe. 710. and is shown on No. Thus. pediments and other features. because of the excellence of their proportions.. The shafts usually have an entasis which. and the employment of one constructive . the influence of the Mycenaean period being apparent but a gradual change towards refinement and beauty took place. Parthenon the stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 2-61 inches on the east and west fronts. amounts to about three-quarters of an inch in a height of 34 feet. decreasing in size from the entrance pylons. vi. especially in the Parthenon. and chambers. in the case of the Parthenon column. Greek buildings have the qualities of harmony. close spacing of the angle columns has been already referred to. and the mouldings more refined. 71.. Penrose in many temples. the letters at the top of the inscription were increased in size. comprised in a typical Egyptian temple. For instance. According to Pennethorne a further correction is pointed out in an inscription from the Temple of Priene (No. and would meet if produced at a distance of a mile above ground. stylobate. simplicity and unity. chap. 71. The faces of the architrave (No. and these were influenced very largely by the hard. where according to Vitruvius. Unity of effect in the larger temples was obtained by the colonnade surrounding the shrine-cell. and of 4-39 inches on the flanks. 2. and the letters at the lower part decreased so that they might all appear of one size when seen from the point of sight. fine-grained marble employed. and these were increased in thickness as it was found The that seen against the sky owing to irradiation (No. forming a contrast with the number of courts. halls.6) they would appear thinner than those seen against the darker background formed by the cella wall. which. and in the later periods the proportions of the columns were more slender. Sculpture and carving of the highest class completed the effectiveness of their most important buildings. in the were formed with slight convex lines. Bk. which rendered possible the delicate adjustment and refined treatment characteristic of this period. and The long lines of the architrave. The vertical features were made to incline inwards in order to correct the tendency which such features have of appearing to fall outwards at the top. Many refinements in design were practised in the best period of Greek art. principle.


details being elaborated. and a Praxiteles. . and elsewhere still exhibit traces of their original coloring. there is the solid strength of the Doric capital. the clear-cut beauty of the Ionic. This progress can be traced in all departments of Greek life. in later times. though in the Islands (e. the exquisite symmetry of Sophocles. it lasted on till the eighth century B. Ionic and Corinthian being used by them. Cyprus. . And nobly plain. then. Crete." the Doric. but remains of a pre-Mycensean period called Min6an. or middle member. To these. but the characteristics are well expressed in the following lines . . and Delos). and the cornice or uppermost part. Form'd to repel the still or stormy waste Of rolling ages. and novelties introduced to make up for its loss this occasions a brilliant but somewhat disproportioned style.C. The proportions of these parts vary in the different orders. light as fabrics look That from the wand aerial rise." THOMSON. and in sculpture. The origin and evolution of the different parts of the three Greek orders are dealt with later under their respective headings. EXAMPLES. 3. and the florid detail of the Corinthian. The Greeks developed the so-called " Orders of Architecture. portion the frieze. in poetry the rugged grandeur of ^Eschylus. that the marble piles. The late J. . or part The latter is divided into the architrave or lowest supported. In architecture." An " order " in Greek and Roman architecture consists of the column or support.. : unadorn'd.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The Mycense-an Period has already been defined as extending to shortly after the war with Troy. an Ageladas. Delphi. as do the mouldings and decorations applied (No. including base and capital. the Romans added the Tuscan and Composite. " Her airy pillar heaved luxuriant last. Addington Symonds well observed that Art is commonly evolved through three stages: (i) The ardent and this gives strength and inspired embodiment of a great idea grandeur (2) the original inspiration tempered by increasing knowledge and a clearer appreciation of limits the result being symmetry (3) ebbing inspiration. The whole so measured. the manly Doric rose Th' Ionic. and the entablature. and the brilliant innovations of Euripides.g. thus completing the " five orders of architecture. 53 Color and gilding were applied very largely by the Greeks both to their buildings and sculpture. so lessen' d oft" By fine proportion. with decent matron grace. dating . and some of the remains which have been lately excavated at Athens. 38). First. . The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. a Pheidias.

have been discovered by.. the interstices between the larger being filled with smaller blocks.vault ("kamara") occurs in subterranean funeral chambers in Macedonia. the tunnel leading to the (partially CEniades.. at Olympia and other places. The walls are of three kinds of masonry: (i) "Cyclopean" i. (3) Polyzonal. B). A few examples of Greek arcuated work are extant.Dr. Examples at Argos. but the/ joints between stones in the same course are not always vertical. ii. of which the Minoan Palace at Knossos in Crete is an The architectural remains of these periods include example. and Amyclae were originally modelled on underground huts for the living (Vitruv. many sided blocks Examples at Mycenae. an arch with a key-stone : : dropped) in Acarnania.e. Arthur Evans. but with clay mortar. they survived for centuries. and tombs. Sometimes inclined blocks forming triangular headed openings were employed as in the early. perhaps prehistoric. 15). Mycenae. Tiryns. Sometimes horizontal courses were employed projecting one beyond the other till the apex was reached. Inclined Blocks. a Cyclopean arch at Cnidus. Thus all three styles " occur in structures of " Mycenaean age.. It " consists of a long entrance passage or dromos. and Athens. i). The barrel. and an arched gateway at A water-channel or drain at Athens. wall of Acropolis at Athens.C. Orchomenos. sanctuary on Mount Ocha in Eubcea.e. carefully hewn rectangular blocks arranged in regular courses. the precise shape being found by Prof. At Mycenae the tholoi are confined to the lower city as opposed to the shaft-graves of the upper city. Adler in Phrygia. In addition various characteristic features were used Corbels. " tholos " or beehive-tombs at Mycenae. E). 15 A. and also in the vaulted passages at the theatre of Sicyon. or an apparent arch as at CEniades in Acarnania.54 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." 2oJfeetJ>road by Stadium The . palaces. accurately worked so as to fit together. way places. and the ancient shrine of Apollo on Mount Cynthus (Delos).. without cramp-irons. back to about B. and the entrance passage in "tholos" or beehive-tombs. and the gallery at Tiryns. Arches. viz. producing either a triangular opening as is found above the doorways of the tholos-tombs (No. is partly arcuated and partly roofed with advancing corbels. Assos. seemingly the parent of the other two but the common assumption that polygonal is later than rectangular masonry cannot be proved with regard to the Pelasgic period. town-walls. 15 A. or a dome-shaped roof as in the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. (2) Rectangular. although in out-of-theThe first is as in Caria.. The largest and " best preserved is the so-called " Treasury of Atreus (No. Examples at Mycenae in the entrances and towers. which crosses the town from east to west. i. i. 3000.e. Knossos in Crete. and Cnidus. masses of rock roughly quarried and piled on each other.

= tectural activity Sicily.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. a large vaulted chamber. as also the plan No..C. 15 E). Psestum and Asia Minor. 17. 146. Q 100 200 30O 400 500 . between the defeat of the Persians.e. however. 2 H) (b) artificial cave below ground (c) artificial cave above ground. and formed a citadel upon which the principal temples or treasure-houses were erected for safety. A similar tomb at Orchomenos in Bceotia has a magnificently ornamented ceiling in its sepulchral chamber. i. The famous Gate of Lions on the Acropolis at .. Delphi. 480. A model of the Acropolis at Athens in the British Museum will give a good general idea of the disposition of the important buildings placed Other great centres of archithereon. B. section of Great Pyramid. The masterpieces of Greek architecture. about 50 feet broad by 50 feet rn^7ali3~a~small square tomb-chamber adjoining. 700 and the Roman occupation B. 5 D). were Olympia.. . No. hut (No. the complete series being (a) natural cave (No.C. ii 5 55 feetkmg. while another at Menidi in Attica has no less than five superposed lintels to support the mass of earth above it These tombs (cf. 2 E). Many of the Greek cities were upon or in the immediate an vicinity of a hill which was known as the Acropolis (Greek upper city). in South Italy. were all erected in the short space of about 150 years.C. 323. belong to the second stage in the evolution of the dwelling-house.C. IQO . viz. B. Mycenae also belongs to this period (No. and the death of Alexander. The Hellenic Period contains all the principal temples and monuments which were erected between the years B..

j. 28. Another theory by Herr Bdtticher is also shown (No. 18 H. They were in a "temenos" or sacred enclosure. The temple was occasionally " hypaethral. They were built with already referred to.). terminated the simple span roof (Nos. and a general description applicable to all is therefore given. The temple was the house of the local god. The door was almost always placed in the centre of the end wall. the whole generally raised on a stylobate of three steps. 20. 25 A). Fergusson (No. as mentioned in Strabo (lib. 27. and 31 A). 21. and some hold that the opening in the centre of an ordinary house must have had some counterpart in that of the divinity.56 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Both alike were developed out of the smokehole of the primitive hut the whole development being ably traced in an article on " domus" in Daremberg et Saglio. xiv. 23.. Many authorities hold that light was obtained solely through . and in the Ionic Temple of Apollo-/ Didymaeus. . B. but it appears to have been used in the larger temples as in that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens (No. These roofs were constructed of timber and covered with marble slabs the ends of the overlapped joints being provided with ante-fixae at the eaves (Nos. 20 H. 21. near Miletus. Peter. with flanking colonnades. can be seen practically in Sir Arthur Blomfield's restoration of S. 23. usually oblong in plan/ in which was placed the statue of the god or goddess a treasury or chamber beyond and a front and rear portico. " Diet. The Temples formed the most important class of buildings erected during this period. being merely a glorified dwelling-house. London. opening has been often refuted. 55). In the larger temples were internal colonnades of columns placed over each other to support the roof (Nos. 28). usually but not always filled with sculpture. 23. 26. and frequently planned so that the sun might enter and light up the statue opposite. On the two end fagades above the columns a triangularshaped pediment. behind the portico of columns." that is to say. Eaton Square. 25 B). and were ornamented sculpture of the highest class in order to form fitting shrines for the deities in whose honour they were erected. and 31). Their points of difference with Egyptian examples have been (Pages 15. | . 28 o). Pantheon. and consisted generally placed of a "naos" or cell. 1 8 j) (see Vitruvius)." An extant hypaethral opening is that of the . there was an opening in the roof which admitted air and light to the The use of an hypaethral central portion of the naos or cell. lighting by a clerestory concealed in the roof which is favoured by Mr. 16 A. des Antiquites. The general absence of windows in the temples. 20. with special regard to external effect. has given rise The method of to many theories as to how light was admitted. and 44 N). 28 A. Rome (Nos. that at Agrigentum being the only exception (No. . 54. 16 D. 30.


and also to show the evolution from the simple shrine-cell of the smaller The different methods of spacing the columns one examples. and a sheet of plans (No. 18 N). Temple of Apollo at Bassae (No. The Propylcea. Roman example is the Great Temple at Baalbec (No. Ionic Temple on the Ilissus (No. ii. Dipteral decastyle (as ix. T. Ex. 39. Philipeion at Olympia. 18 N). Athens (Nos 18 M. of Jupiter Olympius. but with eight columns to each Ex. 18 L). Great Doric Temple of Selinus.58 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. portico). Doric Temple at Selinus. Pseudo-peripteral (having columns attached to cella walls. (No. Ex Erechtheion. xi. a favourite form afterwards adopted by the Romans. Temple of Rhamnus(No. Irregular planning. The Theseion porticos at each end having six). 12). 31 B). Teleskrion at x. 18 K). Doric Temple at Eleusis (No. but with ten columns at ends). Greek ex. Tower of the Winds Athens (No. by the disposition of their columns. Sicily (No. the Ex. Peripteral circular (a ring of columns surrounding a circular Ex. Ex. 28 K. v. 28 A. and Temple of at Ephesus (No. R. Ex. Paestum (No. mention is made here that the Romans employed the circular . vi. Peripteral hexa. and Temple of Nike-Apteros (No. D).. Peripteral octastyle (as last. B. 18 iv. 18 iii. Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum (No. Amphi-prostyle tetrastyle (front and rear porticos of four columns). The different kinds of temples are classified. 28 M).style (a temple surrounded by columns. from the other i. See page ix. 18) is given in order to indicate the general distribution of parts. is shown in No. viii. the Parthenon Athens (Nos. Ex. others that the transparent Parian marble roofing slabs would admit sufficient light. Diana A Eleusis. the doorways. 53 E). tetrastyle (a front Prostyle portico of four columns). i8A). Temple of Neptune. Pseudo -dipteral octastyle (as last. Octagonal. 18 j). Ex. B). Temple temple. s. The Tholos at Epidauros cell). xiii. Ex. Sicily (No. Dipteral octastyle (double rows of columns surrounding Exs. In order to keep the descriptions of classic temples together. Ex. having ranges of eight at each end). xii. 27 c). Athens (No. L). 18 E). with the inner range left out). having two columns between antae). c). Di-style in antis at both ends. Athens (No. near Miletus. Di-style in antis at one end (the simplest form. 23 H). Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. 30 F). v. Artificial illumination by means of lamps may also have been employed. Athens (Nos. 18 H. 18 F and 21 D). vii./U.

He likewise observed that " the form given to the entablature of the Doric order can be adapted with some unimportant variations to a structure in stone as well as of wood. (No. and which would be vry difficult to flute across the grain of the wood but as original stone uprights. the oldest. They themselves suggest no origin of the Capital. and most sturdy. Viollet-le-Duc. was unable to conceive how the Greek Doric capital could have been derived from a timber form. not as the petrified ends of wooden beams which could not be seen on four sides of a building. and endeavour to show its derivation from the wooden-built prodomus or porch of the Mycenaean palace (No. : 54. .. and also planned smaller 18 c). and circular temples as follows (a. 6) of special interest. supported by (c. which will be referred to in detail now with their principal examples. which is yearly gaining ground and is to many minds convincing. moreover. the earliest of the Greek orders. and therefore treated in this respect in the same manner as the columns. Perrot and Chipiez. is traced an Egyptian prototype as exemplified at Beni-Hasan is but as the origin of this. 16. THE DORIC ORDER. The Doric by many (No. however. without walls). 57 E). held a decided opinion that the orders He of Greek architecture involved an original stone treatment.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. e. fluted to express their function of vertical support. Rome of Vesta." discuss the question of the wooden origin of the Greek Doric column and its entablature. and he considered the triglyphs in the frieze. in neither case involving . Tivoli (No. form as in the 59 Pantheon (Nos. are here stated. Ionic. Temple Temple (b. the theories put forward by several authorities.) of Vesta. to order.) Pseudo -peripteral (the cella wall having attached columns). They make various interesting suggestions.g. plainest. 47). form a consistent and attractive theory a theory. 16). in their monumental work on " Art in Primitive Greece. and decline to consider the derivation from the examples at Beni-Hasan in Egypt. and the explanation of the wooden types used decoratively in the later stone architecture. Illustrations showing these reconstructions are given in No. Monopteral (in which the roof was columns only. the derivation " of the " guttae from constructive wooden pegs. The varieties of temples described were erected in either the Doric. and the restoration they give of the timber architecture of Mycenaean palaces.) Peripteral. or Corinthian style. which were certainly fluted when in position.


. thus following out one of the Greek constructive principles of placing projections over projections. times "the diameter at the base in height. . H. The similarities between these proto-historic buildings and the later Greek styles of architecture are too numerous to be acci" " dental. the inclination being observed on the fronts equally with the sides of the building. 18 (Greek Temple at Pompeii)." He was not prepared to admit. The division into twenty flutes seems to have been selected in order that a projection or arris might come under each of the angles of the square abacus above. column as seen from the front. The circular "sEaft diminishing at the top t$ from f to f of this diameter is divided as a rule in 20 shallow flutes or channels separated by sharp arrfses. which has no base. while the reverse would probably have been the case had the and (ii. echinus and annulets. or 24 '(Psestum. however. and Pelasgic or Mycenaean palaces undoubtedly had columns and entablatures of wood.) That the greater the age of the known and approximately dated examples. No. had they been familiar with the recentlydiscovered examples of Pelasgic or "Mycenaean" construction. that a wooden original suggested a stone structure in the composition of the Doric order indeed. A later writer. he would rather suppose the converse. the thicker the columns are. sive (e. and one which it would not be at all easy to work in wood. rejects the wooden theory as far as the Doric column and capital are concerned. and at the same time a flute in the centre of the . have modified their views. In early works this is often too obtrustraight sided columns.g. back or sides. Garbett goes so far as to call the wooden theory an " insolent libel. rj A). The column. then. 19 B). in a recent work on architecture. H.) That the characteristic original forms been wooden moulding under the abacus of the Doric column is an essentially stone form. (page 67).g. The column is surmounted by The distinctive capital formed of abacus. 16 (Sunium). Occasionally the flutes number 12 (Assos). the effect is lifeless but the happy mean may be seen . : .. These opponents of the wooden theory might. and adds that its adherents have to explain these facts (i. a from 4 to 6^ g stylpbate usually of three steps is. including the cap. It will be found that no other number of flutes between twelve and twenty-eight will enable this to be done." and asserts that in the case of the inclination of the soffit of the cornice this barbarous theory is at once disproved by two facts. The shaft has normally an outward curvature of profile calledjhe lo counieiacl the hollow -appearance "6T "entagjgl' (No. and its angle being wholly independent of that of the roof. Basilica at Paestum) where it is omitted altogether (e.. but stands directly ori. Statham. Mr.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 6l the necessity of falsifying the form or the structure. Corinth) a in the Parthenon.


D.} The architrave is derived from its prototype. this is not so. 31 c. ornamented with and metopes or square spaces between them. 472-469 Temple of Zeus. 700 Heraion. . is supported by columns. and underneath this at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs is a narrow band called the regula. which is somewhat similar in outline to a human hand supporting a book. because the two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge. and has three main divisions (a. It has considerable depth. however. being fuller in outline (approximately parabolic section). usually about one quarter of the height of order. and only one vertical face. The profile of the echinus varies according to the date of erection. Sicily. Libon. their soffits being ornamented with eighteen guttae in three TOWS of six each. At the angles. the wooden beam. The entablature. which recall the feet of sloping rafters.) The frieze has triglyphs.C. page 66) B. 19 D). Separating this from the frieze is a flat moulding called the tenia.) The cornice consists of an upper or crowning part ing of cymatium and birdsbeak mouldings beneath which is a vertical face known as the corona. 6th cent. whereas in the later examples such as the Theseion (No. Olynipia (No. The triglyphs are placed at equal distances apart. Corinth B. (b. . and come immediately over the centre of each column and intercolumniation. and the Parthenon (No. Immediately below is the trachelion or necking. such as the Temples at Paestum (No. The soffit is inclined upwards and parallel with the slope of the roof. whereas in the Ionic and Corinthian orders the usual number is three. and its underside has flat projecting blocks called mutuies. The principal examples are found in Greece. . . Architect. Olvmpia (page 67) . having six guttae. consist(c. Temple of Poseidon. sometimes filled with sculpture of the highest quality (page 72). B). 19 E) the curve approaches a straight line (approximately hyperbolic Annulets or horizontal fillets varying from three to five section). DORIC EXAMPLES The The The The IN GREECE. and South called the : Italy. Island of Paros B. Beneath the triglyphs are guttae or small conical drops. having beneath it the hypotrachelion formed of three groves in the older or archaic examples and one in the later. three channels. the earlier examples. one over each triglyph and metope. abacus is 63 a square slab under which is a large convex moulding echinus.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 650 Temple of Athena. B C. Date. 19 A. in number are placed beneath the echinus of the capital in order to form a stop or contrast to the long lines of the arrises between the flutes. and in consequence the intercolumniation of the two outer columns in each front is less by about half a triglyph in width than that of the others.C.C.


.A.0) w w H F.

E). 430 of Apollo Epicurius (" The Ally"). Sicily B. 19 F). The Temple of Athena. Olympia (B.c B. 435-310. 5th cent. B.C. The Tliolos.C. C D. DORIC EXAMPLES The Great Temple. 18 N. . 23. . Athens (No. S. 27 A. 700) 41 E). N. 21. 24. Syractise. Epidaiiros (No. 19 A). 4th cent. 300.C. Agrigentiun The Temple ofJuno. 25. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (No. 28 F. The Temple of Demeter (Ceres). B.B. 38 A) (page 67). Sunium 17. H) (page 67). The Temple of Ceres.66 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Theseion (so called) or Temple of 465 Hephaestos. 19 B). Basses. Theron. N. B. The Temple of Egeita. It is generally held that the original columns were of wood replaced by stone columns as they decayed (see page 59. The Temple of Apollo. A. Island of Delos (No. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius) on the Island of sJLgina. B. 470-450 19 C.C.C. 20) (page 67). AND SOUTH ITALY. B. . G. L. 550 550 550 500 (No. l8 H. 17./44O B.C. . B. Pastum. 454-438 Ictinus and Callicrates. IN SICILY (No. (Temple of Hera).C.C. The Temple . of the Mysteries. 628-410 Temples {several} at Selinus. D. DORIC EXAMPLES IN GREECE B.C. Sicily The Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Olympitis. Ictinus and Philon. (?) Date. (Nos. (continued)^ Architect. 28 M. . F. M. Sicily (No. c. 40 44 G. Sicily.C. K. The Temple of Concord. 31 c. Date. E.C. It stands on a stylobate of two steps.C. The cella (Nos. 1 8 A). . 19 E. 18 K) The Temples of Themis and Nemesis (No. . D. Eleusis. B. Athens (Nos. l8L). B. or the Hall B. o) (page 75).C. on the . 6th cent. H) (page 72). . 16 A.C. Sicily B. 610-509 550 The Temple kncnvn as the "Basilica. B. which with the capitals measured 17 feet in height. . The Temple of Poseidon. (No. is very long in proportion to its width and has on either side a range of eight columns. Polycleitos the younger. The peristyle columns.C. The Propyl&a (Entrance Gateway).C. . 26) (page 93). . B. Architect. B.C. Italy .C. measuring 168 feet by 64 feet 6 inches. 437-432 Mnesicles. Pastuni (No." Pastum (No 28 D. Agrigentum r The l emple of Poseidon (Neptune). Rhamnus. . 22. Selinus. 480 Agrigentum (Girgenti). 19 n. varied much in diameter and are both monolithic and built in drums. The Parthenon. The Heraion D. is believed to be the most ancient of all Greek Temples hitherto discovered.C. B. . the alternate ones being connected to the cella wall by means of short transverse walls. Ictinus. Athens B. B.

as may be ssen by the marks of their basis on the marble paving. 465) (Nos. from which the temple took its name. It is placed on a stylobate of three steps. and it appears to have been used as the Hieratic treasury. was erected in the time of Pericles. to 9. especially at the eastern end. generally believed to be the Temple of Hephaestos. two of the columns in the opisthodomos were of oak.C. the principal doorway.e. On the east.D. A general description is given on No." The cella. sculptured pediments by Paeonias and Alcamenes. Each of the steps measures about i foot 8 inches high and 2 feet 4 inches wide. 62 feet 6 inches wide. both It is peripteral date and name are a matter of doubt.C. but are much The building was especially famous for its greater in diameter. Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects and Phidias was the superintending sculptor. 21. was called the " Hecatompedon. is now on plan with thirteen columns on each flank. 21. 22. 470 450). 20. and. with seventeen columns on the flanks. (B. 23 A. i. being dedicated to Athena Parthenos (the virgin Athena). still retain some of their The metopes and portions of the frieze are original coloring. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius). Theseion (? B. and having sixteen flutes. It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway corresponding to the eastern one. To the west of the cella was the Parthenon proper (i. of which there are thirteen to the sides. so making the aisle continuous round three sides of the cella. 16. (No. century A. 472 469) is peripteral hexastyle on plan. This chamber is a peculiarity differentiating the temple from most others.C. The Parthenon (B. 23. the dimensions on the top step being 102 feet by 228 feet. c). intermediate steps were provided at the centre of the -east and west ends (No. a relation of breadth to length of about 4. The temple is peripteral octastyle on plan. which. Olympia (B. 24). and being too steep to ascend with comfort. virgin's chamber). 19 c). 67 Pausanias mentions that in the 2nd origin of the Doric Order). The existing lacunaria. measuring 100 attic in length. Three columns were placed at the western end. the interior are two rows of five columns which help to support the roof. on the Island of ^Egina is an interesting and wellOn preserved example of an early peripteral hexastyle temple. was divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of ten Doric columns. The Temple of Zeus. 19 D. 3 feet 8 inches in diameter. 454 438) (Nos. equal those of the Parthenon in height. although the best preserved Doric example in Greece. and its roof was supported by four feet Ionic columns (No. The cella and the Parthenon were F 2 .C. mentioned hereafter.. Near the western end of the cella was the famous statue of Athena. 18 F.e. The columns. led into the cella. but although both pediments were ornamented with sculpture none of this now remains. hexastyle The so-called 38 A).GREEK ARCHITECTURE. > v shown on No. 23 F). 17.


representing Athena fully armed with spear. two are still standing they are 6 feet 3 inches in diameter at the base and 4 feet 7 inches under the echinus. as already described (page 59). an ambulatory 9 feet wide on the sides and Both the pronaos and opisthodomos 1 1 feet in the front and rear. and support an internal . segis and shield. including the (gold The gold plates pedestal. the central and 33 intercolumniation having gates for means of access. The apex (59 feet above the stylobate) was also ornamented by a large sculptured acroterion of the anthernion ornament (No. were enriched by the antefixae placed at the bottom of the rows of marble tiles which covered the roof. and accessories were of solid gold. Near the western end of the cella stood the famous statue of Athena Partherios. 23 K). and was constructed on a wooden core. having six columns about 5! feet in diameter feet high. 16 A). encircling the building. being one of the most marvellous works of Phidias. The former is three slabs in thickness. chryselephantine and ivory) statue. The most prominent external features are the fluted marble columns. The peristyle ceiling was " lacunaria " and marble beams. 34 feet 3 inches high.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 334. helmet. and was ornamented on its eastern and western fronts with bronze shields. with dedicatory The flanks of the building inscriptions between in bronze letters. forming a prostyle portico on an upper stylobate of two steps. of which it was partly composed were detachable and could be removed in case of national dangers. and cornice. The triangular enclosed portions (tympana) were filled with sculpture of the most perfect The eastern pediment represents the birth of Athena and type. The entablature frieze 1 1 feet high with the usual divisions of architrave. but the drapery. hands and feet were of ivory. 69 enclosed by walls about four feet thick. about 40 feet in height. probably selected from those presented by Alexander the Great in B. (measuring about 60 feet by 12 feet) were planned in a somewhat unusual manner. armour. Only thirtyforming the peristyle and resting on the stylobate. and the theories there set forth apply especially to the Parthenon. The face. having on the outside. . and in order to render them secure. columns supported an upper row of smaller Doric columns carrying the roof timbers and forming the side aisles in two heights (an arrangement still to be seen in the Temple of Poseidon (Neptune) at Paestum). The manner of lighting the interiors of Greek temples has already been referred to (page 56). They were both used as treasure stores.C. some of richly ornamented with which at the western end are still in situ. supporting a winged " " It wa*s a victory in her right hand (No. and precious stones were inserted for the eyes. The pediments or low gables which terminated the roof at each end had at their lower angles an acroterion and a carved lion's head. lofty metal grilles extending from the floor to the roof were fixed between the columns.



it was much damaged by a shell which fell into a portion of the building used as a powder magazine. between Greeks and Amazons. the remainder. scenes from the siege of Troy. dedicated to the " Divine Wisdom. " " fourth year to the Acropolis in order to present the peplos or robe to the goddess Athena. under the Prankish Dukes of Athens. terminating with a great central group at the eastern Out of a total end over the principal entrance to the temple. P). was an exceptional design in which all the three Grecian orders of architecture were employed. with the exception of eight fragments of the eastern frieze in the Louvre.72 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. In the 6th century. procession/of Athenian cavalry. the Parthenon was converted into a Christian Church. when it In 1687 during the capture of Athens by the Venetians." Emerson. and on the northern. men with olive branches. H. the top of the outside of the cella wall. 430) (Nos. 27. being taken across the east and west ends above the six columns to pronaos and opisthodomos. maidens with sacrificial vessels. excepting the three central figures. 1458 it was again an orthodox Greek church mosque. length of 525 feet only 335 feet are in existence. Bassse. are in high relief. It is a peripteral Doric.C. From chariots. In 1688. many of the principal sculptures were removed to the British Museum. being in the Athens museum. o. and shows the preparations of the Athenian knights. Ionic and Corinthian . about 4 feet 4 inches square. through the instrumentality of Lord Flgin. The sculptured metopes. between centaurs (man-headed horses) and Lapithae. 28 F. and is carefully sculptured so as to be effective by reflected light It represents the Panathenaic procession every (No. G. position southern and eastern sides is in the British Museum. 29 N. until 1460. in very slight relief (if inches). sacrianimals. ficial . until in 1801. musicians. youths. 23 F). on the western. The Temple of Apollo EpicuriuS (The Ally or Helper). a Latin church. magistrates and gods. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (B. of which Ictinus was architect. It is 3 feet 4 inches high. The western frieze. From 1206 1458 it was. on the southern. eastern fa9ade represent contests between the gods and giants." when an apse was* formed at its eastern end. numbering fourteen on each Those on the front and thirty-two on each side. \vas converted into a " Earth As the proudly wears the Parthenon best gem upon her zone. is in its original the greater portion of that belonging to the northern. the western the contest of Athena and Poseidon for the possession The celebrated Panathenaic frieze was carved along of Athens. Athens was restored to the Turks and the building suffered considerable injury at their hands.


GREEK EXAMPLES. '"'3 ^^ w " i i iMiurnn i? NECKIMG A5 DRAWN BY TL.D6NALD50N . IX. m^-H mi m m mp 50 i i i riOHS 10 20 5O 4ofEC RBnON S!SMIittCam^M1tlM.

C. as is also the use of attached half columns. has a very picturesque appearance. Owing to its immense size. and the Athenians and Amazons. 28 M. and apparently due to its erection on the site of an earlier The statue of Apollo was placed to one side at the temple. the illustrations being from restorations by Professor Cockerell. an unusual arrangein drums. light being admitted by an openOwing to the narrowness of the cella. ing in the eastern wall. is of exceptional design. The building is constructed of a hard grey limestone. . all built up The principal fa9ade faces north. and are represented interIt is The triple cella is of immense size. is a departure from Greek principles. ment. which being covered with a beautiful pink lichen of the district. southern end of the cella forming the sanctuary of the earlier building. 480) (No. structural truth (usually so important in Greek buildings) had to be sacrificed. The ceiling of the peristyle was very richly treated in marble panels or lacunaria. boldly moulded bases (No. but instead of these a range of five fluted Ionic half-columns on each side forming the ends of short cross walls connected to the cella walls. and is generally referred to as the earliest example known (No. being 13 feet in diameter. The building was never completed. and less than 2 inches in thickness. o). internal rows of columns were avoided. but the cella north of the more ancient sanctuary was probably hypaethral or had openings in order to admit top-light to the celebrated frieze above the internal half-columns (No. but by the intervening screen wall to which they are attached. o. and those to the pronaos and opisthodomos had marble beams in addition. H. of which Theron was the architect. having seven half columns These half columns are side. the order being built up of small pieces. E). 27 G.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. on the front and fourteen on each pseudo-peripteral septastyle in plan. These have a new and original treatment of the capital. measuring 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet. The roof was covered with Parian marble slabs. 75 hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on each flank. is believed to have been lighted by windows high in the wall. The architrave is supported not only by the half columns. p). of great size. which was orientated. j). The lighting of the interior is conjectural. Agrigentum (B. represents the battles of the Centaurs and Lapithae. D. 27 B. about 2 feet in height and 100 feet in length. and ranks as second in size among Grecian examples. 29 N. The Temple of Zeus Olympius. The single column at the southern end was of the Corinthian order. and have The sculptured frieze. with angle volutes. which in features like the echinus. and nally by flat pilasters. abacus and architrave. N. The two columns furthest from the entrance on each side are joined to walls placed diagonally with those of the cella.


The columns have shafts usually about nine times the lower diameter in height. sometimes plain. The Ionic order (No. is an instance of all the volutes being thus placed. development was to make the angle capital with volutes facing the two fa9ades by joining the two adjacent volutes at an angle approximating 45 (No. 41 G. Neandra. sometimes plain and sometimes ornamented. 27. Egyptians undergoing sundry modifications on its way from Egypt by way of Assyria to Asia Minor. where it will be seen it can also be formed by twisting a A further string round an inverted cone or common whelk shell. 41 B). but usually with dentil ornament reminiscent of squared timbers. and a bead moulding under. have (No. The principal examples of the Ionic order are found in Greece and Asia Minor. The earliest extant Ionic capitals at Lesbos. o. but no square In the later examples a lower torus was added. The Temple at Bassae (Nos. and on the front and back an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart. having twenty-four flutes separated by fillets. seems to have been derived from the lotus bud of the shallow flutes separated by arrises. and early Ionic capitals at Delos and Athens form a link between these and later types. It consists of (a) an architrave usually formed as a triple fascia. including the capital and base.C. The spiral is also found in early Mycenaean jewellery and domestic articles as early as B. one of which is shown on No. however. There is a moulded base (No. and not sharp edges as in the Doric order. and having above it the corona and cyma-recta moulding. The earlier examples. The Doric order provided a setting for sculptor's work. N. but to what influence these modifications should be attributed is not at present clear. 29 K) and at Naukratis. exhibit volutes of a distinctly vegetable type with a palmette interposed. about two-thirds the diameter in height. on the front and back of the column. making plinth. The capital consists of a pair of volutes or spirals. 29. and forty -four at Naxos. and Cyprus. The entablature varies in height. 77 THE IONIC ORDER. . The volutes were either formed by hand or by various geometrical processes easily acquired. and these origins might be sufficient to account for its adoption in a later period. 40 H) usually consisting of a torus and scotia. and the flutes number forty in the shafts in the Archaic Temple at Ephesus (No. This. what is known as the Attic base. 29 c) a cornice. The . 800. connected at their sides by what is known as the cushion. a band of (b) a frieze. with no (c) mutules. probably representing superimposed beams. 41 P). 27. but is usually about one-fifth of the whole order. P). like so many other decorative motifs. 38 c) is especially remarkable for its scroll or volute capital.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. but often ornamented by continuous sculpture (Nos.


C. B. IONIC EXAMPLES. B. Ictinus. B. usually in the form of carved enrichments on its main lines. Architect. 420-393 . Date. 550 484 438 Callicrates. B.C.C. B.C. B. 437-32 430 Mnesicles.GREEK ARCHITECTURE.C. 79 Ionic incorporated it with the order itself.C.


It projects westward of the main building. There are three porticos of different designs an eastern Ionic hexastyle portico. but resting on a solid marble wall about 8 feet above the level of the F. Athens (B. the materials were recovered and reconstructed by the architects Ross. 480. and other curiosiIt is an interesting example of ties and spoils from the Persians.C. In 1836.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. three diameters apart (diastyle). is in high relief." The eastern portion was appropriated to the shrine of Athena Polias (guardian of the city)." as it had only a small entrance on its eastern side. 30 G and 42 G). the salt well produced by the trident of Poseidon. The eastern portico probably formed the principal entrance. 7 feet 9 inches high (Nos. 425-400. slabs (four are in the British Museum). the Pandroseion being probably included within the precincts to the west of the temple proper. reached by means of steps (No. the golden lamp of Callimachus. 29 E. of which Mnesicles was the architect. which measures 61 feet 3 inches by 31 feet 6 inches. viz. whence the lower level of the western cella was only 23 feet. and was erected on the site of an older temple burnt by the Persians in B. is still a matter of conjecture. with carved consoles and architrave enrichments. F). The Erechtheion. enriched with very fine sculpture dating from B. The originally consisting of fourteen : : . and 30). 30 D. They are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter. similarly spaced to the columns of the northern portico. the olive wood Xoanon (primitive statue) of Athena Polias.C. as it contained the memorials of the religion of the State. It has six sculptured draped female figures. G . on the destruction of the battery. a northern Ionic tetrastyle portico. The marble balustrade mentioned above was 3 feet 2 inches high. the sacred olive tree that Athena called forth in her contest with Poseidon. The southern or Caryatid portico (as it is called) was probably not an entrance. the interior. north of the Parthenon.A. are arranged in a manner unknown in other Greek buildings. is situated on the Acropolis. The doorway in this portico is of the finest workmanship (No. 37). G. 17. 420-393) (Nos. and 25 feet high. hence it " is called apteral. the western portion to those of Erechtheus and Poseidon. and a southern Caryatid portico. but a raised "tribune. unusual and irregular planning. Schaubert. The temple was regarded with special veneration by the Athenians. from which it is approached by a wide flight of steps on the north. the northern one being now in the British Museum. and Hansen. and its columns. The columns are two diameters apart (systyle). due to its sloping site and the fact The distribution of that it consisted of three distinct shrines. The Temple was removed by the Turks in 1684 and built into a battery on the Acropolis. 18 inches high. the tomb of Cecrops. 18 M.C. F. The northern portico gave access to the western cella it is on a level 10 feet lower than the eastern one. pediment is 8l sculptured frieze. It has no side colonnades.

while the cushions (sides) have hollows and projections carved with the bead and reel ornament (No. during the Greek revolution. The skyline was enriched by the acroterion ornaments of the pediments and the antefixae of the marble roofing The frieze to the porticos and main building was formed slabs. All the figures face southwards. The Erechtheion ijas passed through various vicissitudes. and carried round the entire building under the architrave. and in 1845 the Caryatid In 1852 a storm damaged the building. o). The abacus is enriched with the egg and tongue ornament. with water-leaf and egg-and-tongue and portions of the rest of the building were destroyed. In 1827. N.82 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (palmette) ornament. and treatment. unlike in character. M. owes much of its character to the sloping site and unusual and irregular . frieze.) The exterior. devoid of sculpture. with the usual triple division of architrave.disposition of the/three porticos. 44 F). angle antae and three windows. thus correcting the same optical illusion as in the Parthenon and other temple fa9ades. The order of the eastern portico rich. and bronze embellishments were formerly affixed to other parts of the capital. of black Eleusinian marble. and cornice. and the upper torus of the bases have plaited enrichments. The " anthemion " neckings . The capital has a plaited torus moulding between the volutes once inlaid with colored stones or glass. overthrowing the upper half of the western wall and engaged Roman columns. only three of the Caryatides remaining in position. and the three eastern on their left. 41. constructed in marble from Mount Pentellicus. portico was re-erected. the three western leaning on their right (outer) legs.was converted into a harem. (The second Caryatid from the west is in the British Museum. In 1838. a method of showing up the sculptured figures which in other temples was frequently The pediments appear to have been gained by the use of color. . and after the Turkish annexation it . The north portico is an example of a very rich treatment of the lonjc order. is so as The angle columns in each portico have the volutes arranged to show on both faces. terrace and supporting an unusual entablature on which rests the marble coffered roof. The west wall was provided in Roman times with four Ionic half-columns. The spiral of the volute appears to have been finished by hand and is enriched with intermediate fillets.of the columns are carved with the which is also applied to the antae (No. to which the sculptured figures of white marble were attached by metal cramps. the walls were partially rebuilt in their present state. L. height. being replaced in the building by a terra-cotta copy. the north portico and coffered ceiling an entablature 5 feet high. The main building is crowned with very similar although less enrichments. The shafts of the columns have an entasis. It was transformed into a church in the time of Justinian.


having double ranges of twenty columns on each flank.C. but which on account of its vastness remains without a roof. j. (Diana).C." The building is dipteral decastyle on plan. The new temple " In after is referred to by Strabo. It was either restored or rebuilt by the architects Paeonius and Demetrius. having at each end an additional flight of steps. was burnt in B. The building externally must have been one of the most impressive among Greek temples. 31 A. the cella being It has a very deep pronaos.C. and there now exists inside and outside precious groves of laurel bushes. thirty-six of which were sculptured on the lower drum. the plan is dipteral octastyle. the inhabitants of Miletus built a temple which is the largest of all. 29 H. both of the archaic and later posticum. by the aid of Pliny's description. on the suppression of the Ionic revolt in B. was by the architects Paeonius of Ephesus. The site of the temple was discovered by/tne architect Wood in 1869 74> an d many of the remains.) This archaic temple was destroyed by the Persians under Darius. sphinx are in the archaic room of the British Museum. Conjecturally restored by the late Dr.C. 335320). at each end are eight of the columns with sculptured drums. which were dedicatory (Ten of these seated figures and the lion and offerings to Apollo. of Ephesus. Murray.C. opisthodomos and staircases leading to the roof. 400. thus making the thirty-six columns with sculptured drums mentioned by Pliny. The Temple of Artemis (No. are distinctive of this building. was erected in B.84 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. placed between the first and second rows of columns. two being placed in antis to the pronaos and posticum. The Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. on either side and a lion and sphinx. on the night of Alexander's birth. but was again burnt in B. there were a pronaos. but he does not mention the sixteen front and rear columns with square sculptured pedestals. which were probably suggested by the archaic temple. 330 in the time of Alexander the Great. . and the sculpture on the above-mentioned square sub-pedestals and thirty-six circular drums. K) erected from the designs of Ctesiphon (B. B). in order to reach the upper platform. The cella is believed to have had super-imposed columns to carry the roof. owing to its size.C. 356. treasury. The oldest archaic temple (No. occupied the site of two previous temples.C. The later temple. who says. near Miletus (B. having beyond it an hypaethral. In addition to the cella. which are shown on a lower level so that Behind these their top surface is level with the upper platform. times. 330) temples are now in the British Museum. 550). The building rested on a lower stylobate of four steps. 496. Ephesus (B. and Daphne of There was an archaic temple having seated figures Miletus. Pliny mentioned that the temple had one hundred columns.

43 A. having between them a sculptured band of griffins and lyres. 85 ante-chamber with stone staircases on either side. being octagonal with carved panels on each face. Rayet and Thomas discovered the foundations of a shrine. and as the earlier examples appear to have been of this metal. Ionic. The distinctive capital is much deeper than the Ionic. for Pliny (xxxiv. At the eastern (entrance) end on either side of the doorway were half columns having Corinthian capitals. iii. and the Stoa or Portico. the mouldings at the angles either being brought to a point as in the Temple (No. ranging with the These pilasters were crowned with capitals of peristyle level. the acanthus leaves being unusually placed and the central volutes undeveloped. The cella walls were ornamented with Ionic pilaster's. at Miletus. resting on a continuous podium. Didymaeus. where bands of sculpture occur beneath the scrolls. was little used by the Greeks. supporting the angles of the abacus. 33 F. or having their edges chamfered off Monument of Lysicrates (No. including the capital. Olympius. and the bases are of very varied design. and is placed on a stylobate in the same manner as the other orders. It may have been derived from the Ionic. 33 of Apollo at F. six feet wide and three feet deep. varied design. is sometimes referred to as the reputed author of the capital. At the western end of the cella. from which spring the volutes (also known as caulicoli and helices by different authorities). being about one to one-and-one-sixth diameters in height. the base and shaft of which resemble those of is generally about ten times the diameter in height. 38 E. chap. the Ionic. 43 A). and between those of the upper row eight caulicoli (caulis=a stalk) surmounted by a curled leaf or calyx. or it may have been borrowed from the bell-shaped capitals of the Egyptians. from the bronze It consists normally of a deep bell on capitals of the pillars. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER. The abacus is moulded and curved on plan on each face. with the addition of the Assyrian spiral. c). The peristyle columns of the Ionic order are fluted. which is more ornate than the The column. Callimachus of Corinth.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. which were carved two tiers of eight acanthus leaves. and the small central volutes supporting a foliated ornament. Athens as in the G). such as the Erechtheion example. The Corinthian Order still (Nos. Temple of Jupiter Athens (No.) refers to a portico which was called Corinthian. the name may have been derived from the fact. B. a worker in Corinthian bronze. 38 E). The origin of the capital is still unknown. Messrs. .


335-34 Athens (Nos. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.C. and having Corinthian columns supporting an entablature crowned rusticated The by a marble dome.C. 9 feet 6 inches square. 334-320 (Two attached internal (or Branchidae). The circular colonnade has six Corinthian . and a moulded abacus square on plan. Cossutius (com- j pleted by Hadrian). of the structure is 34 feet. (No. the prizes of the day. (Nos. frieze and the mouldings of the latter having additional enrichments. 43 c. The basement is slightly rusticated. B. L. 38 E) (see below). Polycleitos the younger. is a type of structure which was erected to support a tripod as a prize for athletic exercises or musical performances in the Grecian festivals. Eleusis. which is__usually about one-fifth of the JieighJLof the_ entire order. Ictinus. The Tholos.D.C. The entablature. Architect. The Vestibule. Miletus. Olympia. D. (single Bassie G. They are referred to in Virgils' ^Eneid (V. 27 (page 72). and sacred tripods glow With wreaths of palms. of Ephesus and Daphne. ^cormce. bears a general resemblance to the Ionic.C. 28 j. as there The total height was no provision for the admission of light. B.C.). 43 B. 32. supports a circular structure of 6 feet internal diameter.C. as in the Tower of the Winds. (No. (Internal order) B. 87 Another type of capital has one row of acanthus leaves with palm leaves over. 28 j. to bind the Victor's brow. The Tower of the Wind's. B. ornamented with sculptured scrolls. by means of sinkings at the joints. Poeonius. Athens (No. 43 A) (page 90). 174 The Olympieion (or Temple ofZeics-Olympius. A. Miletus B. The Temrle of Apollo Didymaeus. 100-35 28 K. 335-34). Arms on the ground. and is 13 feet in height to the top of the cornice. 430 internal column). B. L. j) H. 18 j. Athens (B.C. 338 (Internal order of half columns).GREEK ARCHITECTURE.) podium or base of Piraeus stone. B. and terminating in a floral ornament which formerly supported the bronze tripod. 18 K). having the usual triple division of architrave. The Temple of Apollo Epicurius. E) (page 88). The Philipeion.C. Athens (Nos. of | columns) (page 84). 32. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Epidauros. verse. Date. 4th cent." (Translation by Pitt. Between the columns are circular wall panels. 140) in the following lines : " In view amid the spacious circle lay The splendid gifts. 40 j. 43 B). but the interior was apparently never intended for use. 117 Athens (No._ CORINTHIAN EXAMPLES.

28 K. and the upper part is provided with small fluted Doric columns resting on a circular band of stone. having on their upper surfaces cavities in which the original tripod feet were placed. and are complete in themselves. although the Greeks were accustomed to these sinkings under their Doric capitals. From the south side projects a circular chamber. The cornice is crowned with a peculiar honeysuckle scroll. The channel just above the foliated flutings of the shaft probably had a bronze collar. foliated and moulded stalk or helix in conjunction with acanthus leaves branching in three directions. 1 1 columns their diameter. at The On the inside.pollo-Didymaeus. D. where they could /not be seen they were Miletus. Between the columns are panels. E).) . flutings of the columns are peculiar in that they terminate The capitals. 100-35) (Nos. and a clepsydra or water-clock internally (&. It measures 22 feet 4 inches internally. probably used as a The interior has a height of 40 feet reservoir for the water-clock. to the external porticos are fluted. used instead of a cyma-recta moulding. and the latter being sculptured to represent the myth of Dionysos and the Tyrrhenian pirates.88 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . the upper ends of which are generally supposed to have The central portion is carried up as a supported dolphins. 38 E. 13 feet 6 inches high. feet 7 inches high. 42 A. projecting rather more than half These rest on a secondary base encircling the whole building. 43 B. the former bearing an inscription. 9 inches. the same date in the cella of the Temple of ^. forming a sort of frilling. having between them an eight-petalled flower resembling an Egyptian lotus. They have no base and the capitals are of a plain unusual type. was erected by him for measuring time by means of (a. i foot 7 inches at the top in the form of leaves. also known as the Horologium of Andronikos Cyrrhestes. and probably an imitation of ante-fixae terminating the joint tiles. then a single row of very beautiful acanthus leaves. and on the north-east and north-west sides are porticos having Corinthian columns. and from the upper part branch out three scrolls (Nos. and is octagonal. having a lower row of sixteen small lotus leaves. the upper part of each originally being sculptured in bas-relief.C. it also stylobate of three steps. The foliage is different from the later type in unfinished.) a sun-dial externally The building rests on a acted as a weathercock. each of its eight sides facing the more important points of the compass. without volutes. The Tower of the Winds. the upper row of leaves resembling those of the palm. The Corinthian columns. as in Greek temples. 44 D). Athens (B. bear some resemblance to those of the half-columns of about high. The wall of the octagonal structure is quite plain for a . left L. The outside of the cupola is beautifully sculptured to imitate a covering of laurel leaves. The architrave and frieze are in one block of marble. as shown on No.



height of 29 feet, with the exception of the incised lines forming the sun-dial, above which on each face are sculptured figures, boldly executed to represent the eight principal winds (Nos. 43 The roof is formed of twenty-four equal sized blocks of D, E).

marble, and was surmounted by a bronze Triton (see Vitruvius, I., chapter vi.). The Olympieion (Temple of Jupiter Olympius), Athens (No. 1 8 j), stands on the site of an earlier Doric temple commenced

by Pisistratus, in B.C. 530. It was commenced by Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria in B.C. 174, Cossutius/ a Roman architect, being employed hence it is often designated Roman architecture. It remained incompleted, and in B.C. 80 Sulla transported some of the columns to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as related by Pliny. The building was completed by Hadrian in A.D. 117, but only fifteen columns of the original one hundred and four forming the peristyle are standing. It was dipteral-octastyle on plan, having twenty columns on the flanks, and occupied an area of 354 feet by 154 feet (equalling the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac), and was placed in the centre of a magnificent peribolus or enclosure, measuring 680 feet by 424 feet, part of the retaining wall of which still remains at the south-east corner. It is described by Vitruvius as hypaethral, but it was unfinished in his time. The peristyle columns were 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, and had a height of 56 feet a proportion of about one to nine. The capitals (No. 43 A) are very fine specimens of the Corinthian order, and appear to date from both periods mentioned above.

The Greek

near the

place in

was generally hollowed out of the slope of and was unroofed, the performances taking the day time. In plan (No. 34) it was usually rather

more than a

semicircle, being

about two- thirds of a complete

consisted of tiers of marble seats, rising one above the other, often cut out of the solid rock. Those spectators who sat at the extremities of the two wings thus faced towards the orchestra, but away from the stage. The Greektheatre, which was constructed more for choral than dramatic performances, had a circular "orchestra" or dancing place (corresponding to the stalls and pit of a modern theatre) in which the chorus chanted and danced. The orchestra was the " germ " of the Greek theatre. The stage was known as the logeion or " speaking place," its back-wall being the skene ( = booth or tent for changing in), the latter name being preserved in the modern word " scene." The actors being few, the stage consisted of a long and narrow platform, with permanent background. To what height above the level of

The auditorium






the orchestra this platform was raised is a question that has been much debated in recent years. The most probable view seems to be the following: (i.) In pre-.'Eschylean drama, before regular theatres were made, an actor mounted on a table, probably the table-altar of the god Dionysos, and held a dialogue with the dancers or chorus. The rude table-stage illustrated on some vases from South Italy may represent a local retention of this primidirect evidence is tive custom. (2.) In the fifth century B.C. no available but a low wooden stage is practically certain, connected by means of a ladder with the orchestra. (3/) The fourth century is At the earliest period in which there is monumental evidence. Megalopolis a platform of wood from 3 feet 3 inches to 4 feet 6 inches high appears probable, with a stone colonnade behind it. At Epidauros there was a wooden floor supported by a wall 12 feet high. Vitruvius tells us, the Greek (4.) In Hellenistic and Roman times, stage was 10 to 12 feet high, and this statement is borne out by many extant examples. The Theatre of Dionysos, Athens,

(No. 17), completed B.C. 340, in which thirty thousand spectators could be accommodated, is the prototype of all Greek theatres, and was the one in which the plays of the great Athenian dramatists were produced. The Theatre, Epidauros, was constructed by the architect Polycleitos, and is the most beautiful as well as the best preserved example extant. The circle of the orchestra is complete, and is about 66 feet across, the entire theatre being 378 feet in diameter. Thirty-two rows of seats forming the lower division are separated by a broad passage (diazoma) from twenty rows above.


flights of steps diverge as radii

from bottom to top.

lately carried out by Dr. Arthur Evans at in Crete (page 54), and those by the Italians at Phaestos, in the same island, have revealed palaces more remote in date than the Mycenaean period, to which is given the name " Minoan." The

The excavations


excavations of the Palace of King Minos, Knossos, show the remains of a remarkable structure laid out on a plan afterwards used in the Roman palaces and camps. This building is believed Underneath to date from about B.C. 2000, and was unfortified. the upper palace were found the remains of an earlier one, which About five acres of this is believed to date from about B.C. 3000. remarkable structure have been uncovered. The apartments, round a central oblong courtyard '(about 180 feet by 90 feet), are constructed in several stories, which are reached by staircases. Some remarkable wall frescoes and colored plaster ceilings, an olive press with huge oil jars, and the remains of a system of drainage, with terra-cotta drain pipes, were discovered.



At Tiryns, situated by the sea coast to the south-west of Athens, and at Mycenae, remains have been discovered of recent years by Drs. Schliemann and Dorpfeld which are of the greatest interest in showing the general arrangement of other palaces (No. 15 F). At Mycenae, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the megaron, or From this megaron, surprincipal men's apartment, is reached. rounded by a roof and open to the sky in the centre, were reached The women's other chambers, whose uses are not defined. chambers are considered by some authorities to be planned so as
to afford the greatest seclusion, while others, notably Prof. Ernest Gardner, hold that little or no attempt was made at seclusion, and bring strong evidence to bear from literary authorities,

The plans of domestic buildings principally from Homer. appear to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general arrangement of the palaces as is seen in the remains at Athens, Delos, and Priene, dating from the Hellenic period. They appear to have been of one story only, and grouped around an internal
courtyard or peristyle. Vitruvius (Book VI., chapter x.) refers to their general arrangement, when he says there was no atrium but a peristylium with a portico on three sides, and chambers grouped around. It is generally held that the Graeco-Roman houses of Pompeii may be taken as typical examples (No. 65 A, B), and these may be referred to on page 162.

Propylaea were erected as entrance gateways to many of the principal cities of Greece, and those at Athens, Epidauros, Sunium, Eleusis, and Priene are the best known. The Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), were erected under Pericles by the architect Mnesicles in B.C. 437. It is at the west end of the
Acropolis (No. 17), being reached by a long flight of steps from the plain beneath. It has front and rear hexastyle Doric porticos at different levels, giving access to a great covered hall, having a wide central passage bounded by two rows of Ionic columns, and having at its eastern end a wall in which are five doorways of different heights. On either side of the western entrance portico are projecting wings having three smaller Doric columns, that to the north being used as a picture gallery, while that to the south was never completed. The general external appearance is well shown in the restored view (No. i).


The most important from an architectural point of view are in Asia Minor. The Harpy Tomb, Xanthos, in Lycia



(B.C. 550) is an early or archaic example, with sculptured reliefs, from which the tomb is named, and is now in the British Museum. (B.C. fifth century), Xanthos, is generally considered to have been erected as a trophy monument. Important fragments discovered by Sir Charles Fellows, and the model in the British Museum, indicate a building consisting of a central chamber or cella surrounded by a colonnade of fourteen Ionic columns, the whole elevated on a basement standing on two The sculptured figures of nereids or marine nymphs, from steps. which the building takes its name, originally stood between the

The Nereid Monument

columns and had under them marine
has important sculptured


This monument

and pediments. The Mausoleum, Halicarnassos (No. 35), was the most famous tomb. It was erected to the King Mausolos (B.C. 353) by his widow Artemisia, and consisted of a square plinth supporting a tomb-chamber, which was surrounded by Ionic columns and surmounted by a pyramidal roof with a marble quadriga and group of statuary at its apex (see page 108). The architects were Satyros and Pythios, and Scopas was the
friezes, acroteria

Portions of the frieze, the statue of superintendent sculptor. Mausolos and Artemisia, with the horses and chariots of the quadriga, and other fragments are in the British Museum.

The Lion Tomb, Cnidus (No. 36), also consists of a square basement surrounded by a Doric colonnade of engaged columns surmounted by a stepped roof, and crowned with a lion, now in the British Museum. The interior was circular and roofed with a dome in projecting horizontal courses. The Sarcophagus from a Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36 E, G), is an interesting and beautiful example of a smaller type, as is also the Tomb of the Weepers (B.C. fourth century) (No. 36 H), found at Sidon (now in the Museum at Constantinople), which is executed in the form of a miniature Ionic temple, The having sculptured female figures between the columns. so-called Alexander Sarcophagus (B.C. fourth century), found near Sidon, and now in the Constantinople Museum, is the
and best preserved of all. It is so-called which are of marble, represent battle and hunting scenes in which Alexander was engaged, and is especially remarkable for the colored work which is still preserved on the There are also important examples of rock-cut tombs sculpture. at Cyrene (North Africa) and Asia Minor (No. 41 F), and reference has also been made to the Lycian Tombs (page 37), of which the two brought to London by Sir Charles Fellows, in 1842, are


its sides,

in the design of which the Greeks excelled. It consisted of a flat stone placed upright in the ground like a modern tombstone and crowned with the

now in the British Museum. The Stele was a class of tombstone



Il5 ToMBcf MAU50L05

PJINCE ? (folk











IT 15




























of AN













(Nos. 42 H, 43

design, the lower portion having panels in bas-relief F, and 44 E). Many of these can be seen in the


The agora, or open meeting-places for the transaction of public business, were large open spaces surrounded by stoae or open colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such, as temples, basilicas, stadion (racecourse), and the palaestrae or

Stose or Colonnades were formed for the protection of pilgrims
to the various shrines, as connections between public monuments, or as shelters adjoining open spaces, and were an important class

of structure.

The most important of these were the StoaPcecile, Echo Colonnade, about 300 feet by 30 feet, at Olympia two


one two stories in height acting as shelters for the patients who came to be healed at the shrine of ^Esculapius and the remarkable example near the three examples at Delphi Propylaea at Delos, known as the "Sanctuary of the Bulls"




(No. 42).

The Stadion was the foot racecourse found in cities where games were celebrated, and it came eventually to be used for It was usually straight at one end, other athletic performances.
the starting-place, and semicircular at the other, and was always 600 Greek feet in length, although the foot varied, and was sometimes planned with the semicircular end on the side of a hill, so that the seats could be cut out of the sloping sides, as at Olympia, Thebes, and Epidauros, or else constructed on the flat, as at The Stadion at Athens, now Delphi, Athens, and Ephesus.

commenced in B.C. 331, and finished by Herodes Atticus, and accommodates between 40,000 and 50,000 The Hippodrome was a similar type of building used for people.
completely restored, was
horse racing.

The Palaestra or gymnasia, as at Olympia and Ephesus, were the prototypes of the Roman thermae, and comprised exercise courts, tanks for bathers, exedrae or recesses for lectures, with seats for spectators.


These were simple, well A. Plans (Nos. 18, 20 E, and 27 c). judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical, exceptions to the latter being the Erechtheion (No. 18 M), and the Propylaea (No. 18 N), Plans involving at Athens, and probably the private houses.












probably also


framed into deep coffers, as were the marble lacunaria of the peristyles (No. 21 B, c, E). E. Columns. As the temples were usually one story high, the columns with their entablature comprise the entire height of the building, except in some interiors, as the Parthenon (Nos. 23, 25), the Temple of Neptune, Paestum (No. 28 B), and elsewhere, where a second range of columns was introduced into the cella to support the roof. The orders having been fully dealt with /on pages 59, 77, 85, are merely summarized as follows The Doric (No. 19) is the oldest and plainest of the orders, the finest examples being the Parthenon and the Theseion (page 67). The Ionic (No. 29) was more ornate, and is best seen at the Erechtheion (page 81), and the Temple on the Ilissus (page 79). The Corinthian was little used by the Greeks, the best known examples being the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Nos. 32, 38 A), and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius (No. 43 A), upon which the Romans founded their own special type. Caryatides (No. 42 G) and Canephora (No. 42 F), or carved female figures which were sometimes used in the place of columns, as at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 30), and are of Asiatic origin. F. Mouldings. Refer to illustrations of Greek mouldings compared with Roman given on Nos. 39 and 40. Mouldings are the means by which an architect draws lines upon his building, and a true knowledge of the effect of contour is best obtained from actual work rather than from drawings, the examples at the British Museum being available for this purpose.

principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was refineof contour due to the influence of an almost continuous sunshine, a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble


ment and delicacy


which they were formed. These mouldings had their sections probably drawn by hand, but approach very closely to various conic sections, such as parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. As a general rule the lines of the enrichment or carving on any Greek moulding correspond to the profile of that moulding. This is a rule which was rarely departed from, and therefore, is worthy of notice, for the profile of the moulding is thus emphasized by the expression in an enriched form of its own

The examples given from full-size sections taken at the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and elsewhere, may be studied on No. 40. The following classified list gives the most important mouldings When (a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). enriched it is carved with the honeysucke ornament, whose outline corresponds with the section (No. 39 j).












xma A














/.. "









It may be divided into (a. The bird's-beak moulding occurs frequently. 39 G). including friezes (as at the Parthenon. This is usually without enrichment. 42. 44 D). and was largely used as an ornamentation on Anta Caps (No.106 (b. : (i. and is also found in the crowning finial of the Choragic Monument which accompanies the leaf and acts as a V-shaped in section with sharp edges. 43 A. as in the Erechtheion (No. was a favourite decoration of the Greeks.) Sculpture appertaining to buildings. which in fact gave the name to the moulding (No. 42 H. The Greeks usually preferred the former with deeply drilledeyes.) " enriched it is carved with the guilloche or " plat ornament. 44 j) and scroll play an important part in Greek ornamentation. it is carved with the (c. the deep vertical upper portion of the cornice. a small plain face to separate other mouldings (d.) (No. The sculpture employed Was of the highest order.) and approaches a circle in section. 43. and is (g. It is also frequently employed as an ornamentation to the tops of stele-heads and ante-fixae (Nos. 33 F. viz. 17 A). The leaf was used principally in the Corinthian capital (Nos. 39 N).) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.) (No. When enriched it is carved with the egg and dart. F). Ornament (Nos. and 44 E. cyma-recta mouldings (No. and 44).) in the Doric order. When enriched L). 40 G). (e.) The cavetto is a simple hollow (No. 39 c). 39 j). 33 H). is the deep hollow occurring in bases. scroll The of Lysicrates (No.) The scotia generally not enriched (No. G. and has never been excelled. The leaf from which these were derived grows wild in the south of Europe. V-shaped in section. 43 F. 39 The acanthus leaf G. or egg and tongue ornament (No. The fillet. (Nos. The cyma reversa. palmette ov honeysuckle ornament. 41. in two varieties. 41 N). known as the "acanthus mollis" (No. When enriched it is carved with the bead and reel or with beads. (/. and the Romans the latter of these varieties. When (/?. especially (?'. flat in section. and giving a deep shadow is very suitable for the English climate (No. That with broad blunt tips. 44 A. or with bundles of leaves tied with bands (No. c). B. the Temple : . and known as the "acanthus " spinosis (ii. N). stalk is usually The anthemion. face of the (j.) That with pointed and narrow lobes. 39 A). 39 E). 39 p). The beid serves much the same purpose as the fillet.) The ovolo (egg-like). The torus is really a magnified bead moulding. giving a sharp crisp shadow. It was frequently painted " with a Greek "fret ornament.) The corona (No. 33 B). water-lily and tongue (No. and round the necks of columns. 33 H. H.


Darmstadt. 5.).) and Spiers (R.). the tympana of the pediments." 4to. 1902. " Die Architectonischen Ordnungen der Griechen (J. " The Temples at ^Egina and Bassae. " Histoire critique des Ordres Grecs. le culte et les fetes. A." Folio. or quadrigas (four-h^rse chariots (page 94). 1870-1871. Antiquities of Attica" (Dilettanti " Boetticher (C.)." Folio. Paris.'' Folio.). Leipzig. 30 G. monuments. of which the great frieze or " Gigantomachia" is now in the Berlin Museum.). 896. which appears to have been almost universal. " Fragments de 1' Architecture Antique.Die Tektonik der Hellenen. as at the Erechtheion (Nos.. u La restauration d' Olympic. " The Parthenon. Phene). instances marble. Berlin." 8vo. and the Caryatides. Boetticher. 1769-1881. 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1895. . 896. Anderson (W. " Die Akropolis von Athen. " Investigations at Assos (1881-83). "Epidaure restauration et description des principaux monuments du Sanctuaire d'Asclepios. were covered with carefully-prepared cement to receive wall paintings or color decoration. and Vitruvius mentions that well-polished stucco would like reflect a mirror." Handbook of Greek Sculpture. Cockerell (C. M. Color was largely used on buildings. D'Espouy (H. and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius." 8vo. Defrasse (A. G. consisting (two-horse chariots). Paris. Paris. 1 Gardner (E. Pausanias's Description of Greece. 44 M) mention might also be made of the series of magnificent figure sculptures to the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon in Asia Minor." " 8vo. Olympia. 1831. " The Antiquities of Ionia" (Dilettanti Society). of yEgina. " Das Griechische Theater. Dorpfeld ( W. Bassae). 1883.. W. 1888. Fergusson (J. brickwork. 1902.)." Sur folio. von). 42 G.)et Monceaux(P.) and others. the Heraion." Folio. especially in buildings of the Doric This cement casing was also capable of a high polish. bigas (c.). order. as already mentioned (page 53). 1899.). Folio. "Die Baukunst der Griechen. the acroteria at the base and summit. 1889." Folio. 6 vols. 4 vols. (b. und Roemer. 1 (J. Berlin.)." Folio. as in the Temples at Paestum and in Sicily." 8vo." 8vo. 1860. In many instances the stonework." Paris. "The Unedited 1817. Chipiez (C). Laloux (V. Invvood (H. 1876. Der Parthenon. Athens. of groups.J. Society). and Rome.). single figures. Clarke (J." The Architecture of Greece A Sketch of its Historic Development. 1874.108 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.). The Erechtheion at Athens. Durm 1898. and in some . and many traces are left. 1892." Folio.) Free-sianding statuary. 1875." 8vo. Berlin. "^Architecture Grecque. " Michaelis (A.'' Folio. 1'historie Laloux(V. the sculptured metopes in the Doric frieze. T. Boston. R.) Sculptured reliefs as seen on stele-heads (No. Paris.).). Frazer (J.) and Lechat (H. 42 H). les Mauch .


P. 1902..). 410.)." Folio. Paris. Murray (A. Cnidus. Antiquities of Athens." Folio.).).).). (Historical Novel). Svo." The Orders and Revett . 1894. (J.). " Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens. Schaubert (E.). 1903.). The student should . 1877-1890. P. S." Paris.) and Pullan (R." Folio. Watt Boston. publiees par 1'Academie de France a Rome. " Pennethorne (Sir J.).lio COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Verrall (J. folio. and Branchidse. 1900." Church (A. and Hansen (C. 1878. 1836.). "History of Greek Sculpture.) et Collignon (M. 1902. REFERENCE BOOKS Middleton Svo. Magna Gratia. S. "Die Akropolis von Athen Tempel der Nike Apteros. " Pontremoli (E. Paris. (J." Svo. restauration et Pergame description des monuments de 1'Acropole.." "A : : la Restaurations des Monuments Antiques. Large the Greek Court at the Crystal Palace for the splendid model of the Parthenon facade.." 2 vols.) et Haussouillier (B. 1807." Folio. C. Smith (Sir William). " "Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings. continued.)." Folio. Perrot (G. Folio. 3 vols.. 5 vols.). Svo. Ross (L. ' Stuart 1832. Pontremoli (E. "The Sculptures of the Parthenon.) (N. Berlin.). Svo. "An Investigation of the/ 7 Principles of Athenian Architecture" (Hellenic Society). " Didymes Fouilles de 1895 et 1896. Newton (C. History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus. Penrose (F. Murray (A.)." . Harrison. 1903." "Antiquities of " The Fall of visit Wilkins (W. 1862-1863." 2 vols." 3 vols. J. Athens" Folio. 1890. 1897. Svo. folio. T.) and Chipiez (C.. and also the British Museum for actual fragments of the sculptures from the Temples. Greek and Pompeian Decorative Work. of Architecture.). H. 1890. "The " Argive Herasum. C. The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture. i88B." Waldstein (C). " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.)." 2 vols." 1901. "The History of Art in Primitive Greece. 1762- and Svo. Spiers (R.

is not nearly so much broken up into bays. INFLUENCES. or natural harbours. as the shore line of Greece. amphitheatre's amazing height Here fills my eye with terror and delight. * : Immortal glories in my mind revive Wht-n Rome's exalted beauties I descry An Magnificent in piles of ruin lie. And here the proud triumphal arclies rise. held uncrowded nations in its womb . although the peninsula is long and narrow. The map (No. Here pillars rough with sculpture pierce the skies. its public shows unpeopled Rome. i. Where the old Romans deathless acts displayed. neither are there so many islands studded its coasts. Again." That on And i. although many parts of Italy are mountainous the great chain of the Apennines running from one end of the peninsula to the other yet the whole land is not divided up into little valleys in the same way as the greater part of Greece. along The Greek and Italian nations may therefore with fair accuracy .I/I THE ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 45) will show that the sea coast of Italy. Geographical.

stone. derived from volcanic eruptions. dwelt in the peninsula. hewn from countless Oriental quarries by whole armies of workmen. The heathen religion of ancient Rome being looked upon as part of the constitution of the state. notably at Palmyra and Baalbec. being less jealous of their separate independence.Travertine. a hard limestone from Tivoli Tiifa. iv. the worship of the gods came eventually to be kept up only as a matter of state policy. iii. . Social and Political. gave the Roman a material which contributed largely to the durability of their architecture. The position of Italy enabled her to act as the intermediary in spreading over the continent of Europe the arts of civilization. alabasters. was influenced naturally by the materials found in the various parts where it planted itself. Climate. Lava and volcanic origin from Mount Albano. as it spread itself over the whole of the then known world. In Rome the following materials were at hand '. stone. from that of Greece. where the chief and almost the only building In Italy marble. but concrete. porphyries. strength and durability. 1 be compared as follows like the (a. or marbles of all kinds. terra-cotta. and in Egypt the quarries supplied stones of enormous . . In early times three chief nations In the central portion (or Etruria) lived . . Religion. pages 230. when mixed into concrete with lime. Pozzolana. and may almost be described as the leader of the Pantheon of deities embraced by the tolerant and wide-spreading Roman rule. size. and the small towns. in conjunction with brick and stone casing or banding.) The Romans never became a seaGreeks. nor did they send out colonists faring people of the same description to all parts of the then known world. Geological. a stone of Besides these. Officialism therefore naturally stamped its character on the temple architecture. The emperor then received divine honours. and excellent sand and The existence of Pozzolana (a clean sandy gravel were plentiful. and material is marble. the Roman power could be built up by a gradual absorption of small states. earth) found in thick strata in the district. . 476). A list of the chief Roman deities is given on page 46. a process that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. for it has extraordinary properties of hardness. v.) There were few rival cities in Italy at this period (a condition : which was altered in after times.112 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. was the favourite material although in Syria. The geological formation of Italy differs ii. brick were largely used even for the more important buildings. 234. a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed and Peperino. 405. which were used locally. The walls were generally formed of concrete and were faced in a decorative way with brick. The north has the climate of the temperate region of continental Europe central Italy is more genial and sunny while the south is almost tropical. Roman architecture. (b.

About B. probably an been settled in Italy before were great builders (page had planted many colonies. 750. entering Italy from Spain.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. and resulted in the dominion of a city over cities. The third Punic war (B. Greece formed a stepping stone to Western Asia. 343 began the but is The second Punic war (B. in turn gradually it acknowledged the Roman power.C.C.C. King of Epirus.A. 218-201) was the most severe struggle in w hich the Romans had engaged. The government of Rome was effected by chosen kings. being first subdued. 59. 264-241) against Carthage. Roman conquest of Italy. The common form of government in ancient Italy resembled that of Greece. and who In the south the Greeks 119). 149-146) ended in the total destruction of Carthage. which was effected in about sixty years. 55 Caesar crossed into Britain. Nero. Rome. and the Italians had further split up into separate nations among themselves. 146. till in the conquests of Spam and Syria. conquering several Etruscan cities.C. In B. with its territory. r generally taken at B. made the Rhine and the English Channel its northern boundaries. became Republican.C. while Caesar's campaigns in Gaul in B. but was defeated in B.C. the Etruscans. which induced the importation of Greek artists and works of art. Pyrrhus. defeated all the Roman armies. resulted in Sicily becoming the first Roman province. when brought to a conclusion. The foundation in Rome is of uncertain date. became a Roman province in Africa. the great Carthaginian general. Then came the wars with peoples outside Italy. B. who continued for some time to hold the northern part of Italy. At the same time were effected the conquest of Macedonia and Greece. at the hands of the Gauls.C. the Roman empire extended from the Atlantic ocean to the Euphrates. which B. I . and the common forefathers of both must have stayed together after they had separated from the forefathers of the Celts. and under Augustus " Empire originated. which. consisting of towns or districts joined firstly " people. 133 also became a province. 27 the of Augustus. With F. and maintained himself in Italy until recalled by a counter attack of the Romans. The "Building Acts of and Trajan had considerable influence on the development vi. of 113 Magna Graecia. under Scipio. The Republic engaged in many wars. the latter becoming a province in B. which were included in the name Aryan together in leagues.C. The first Punic war (B. 390. for Hannibal. who appear to have authentic history begins. Teutons and others. but about 500 it Caesar in B. Historical.C." The remainder of Italy (exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes of the same Aryan race as the Greeks. aided by a senator and popular assembly.C. upon Carthage itself.C.C. But long before history begins the Greeks and Italians had separated into distinct nations.

Trajan (98-117). 59 A. 17). The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated_styje of the Greeks. The arch thus used in a tentative manner along with the . The Triumvirate. 70-19). 54-69). 41. consisting of Marcus Antonius. which had been growing up and which received official recognition under this emperor (page 176). poets Virgil (B. but was murdered in B. 65-8). 62 and 63) at Rome is a good example of this union in which the gigrs_ between the arches on the different stories are strengthened by the semi-attached columns which act the part of buttresses thus becoming part of the wall. 7 Antony at Aktion. Caius Octavius (great nephew to Caesar) and Marcus ^Emilius Lepidus. A turbulent populace. Horace (-B.C. . and eventually defeated them. and the huge armies required to keep in check the barbarian tribes on every frontier. Emperors soon chosen were sooner murdered. which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans.D.C. were opposed to Brutus On the defeat ot and Cassius. Julius Caesar remained system. and joined to it the Arch. Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar's nephew) was made emperor B. Christianity. history like that succeeding the The A.D.D. 2. Then followed a period of great confusion lasting 13 years.C. Following Augustus came a line of emperors. without a rival. Italy went out of cultivation and depended on imported corn. 43 and Livy the historian (B. and this union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest developments. and governed till his death. the Elizabethan age in England. 44. of whom Nero (A. and the chaos that gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. Hadrian (117-138) under whom the empire expanded to its greatest extent Septimius Severus (193-211).C. Ovid (B. in which what seems a new spring in national and individual life calls out an idealizing retrospect of the past. This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at home. and the beginning of the nineteenth century in Europe. 27. The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the ^world's Persian wars in Greece. A.under the previous On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia. Architecture then fell into complete decay until the vigorous efforts of Constantine (A. which in large measure was also due to a new force. and no longer carrying the entablature unaided.D.114 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. dominated the government. and eventually rendered the empire a political necessity owing to the difficulty of governing so many provinces. 306-337) did something for its revival.C. were all contemporaries. The Colosseum (Nos. the VaTIIt7~alid7!he Dome.C. Caracalla (211-217) and Diocletian (284-305) were the most active in architectural matters. Vespasian (69-79). 17).

and instead of composing the walls of their monuments of squared-blocks of stone. a material consisting of small fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or mortar. which were erected in the Middle Ages. the concrete backing being studded I 2 . . this was a building faced. Bridges. Tombs. which was the oldest kind. and from the first century B. were chiefly decorative features ceasing to have. not being special to any country. adapting it with rare sagacity to their new needs. subjects liable to statute labour. Amphitheatres. mixture formed of lime and lumps of tufa. was perfectly simple for only rough labour. was finally utilized in a pointed form in the construction of those magnificent vaulted Gothic cathedrals. 46 B). i. : (b) faced concrete for walls. The craftsmanship required.e.. The structures could be erected by hands quite unused to the art of building thus the Romans employed the slaves of the district. The orders. stone with or without mortar joints. Basilicas. The latter was of four varieties : Concrete faced with " opus incertum" (No.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Thermae or Baths. however. but owing to the varying needs of the Romans. i. Temples. under the direction of the central authority. and (a) Unfacfd concrete was usually used for foundations. urged them to make a more economical use of materials. buildings of several stones were erected by them.C. . The Romans by their extended use of concrete founded a new constructional system and employed it in the most diverse situations. are all monuments of Roman greatness. peperino. rectangular blocks of frequently secured with dowels or cramps.. and Fora. usually attached and superimposed. was used extensively for various building purposes. 62 A). and spreading it to form the walls. broken bricks. Aqueducts. was employed similarity to all Roman buildings. with large Blocks of stone. both plentiful and cheap. used especially in Italy. Greek buildings (see page 102) were normally only one story in height. and through the basilica. and concrete unfaced or As stated. or even the Roman armies while the legal punishment of condemnation to work on public buildings was largely enforced. and The various kinds utilizing it in the most important projects. and gave a of building The Greek method unconnected with mortar. were used with success in every part of the Empire. 115 classical column eventually came to be used alone. . was required" for mixing the materials of which the concrete was made. in the buildings of the Republic. marble or pummice stone. their true constructive significance (No. of walling may be divided into two classes opus quadratum. These materials. they inaugurated the use of concrete. showing great constructive and engineering ability combined with a power to use the materials at hand with the best possible results. The practical spirit of the Romans.


mainly used in the first and second centuries B.} The cross vault.inches thick (No. the pressure being taken by the four. iii.) The semicircular or waggon-headed vault. Concrete faced with " opus reticulatum " (No. 117 ii. the vaults being of any form. (b.C. Concrete with "opus mixtum" consisting of a wall of concrete having in addition to the ordinary brick facing bands of tufa blocks at intervals.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. used from the first century B. wealth and iv.) The cross-vault was utilized for covering a square apartment. Romans tended to become everywhere uniform and generally above the influence of local conditions for through the colonies and legionary camps the new methods penetrated to the extremities of the empire. and they were employed universally. When used over corridors and long apartments the pressure being exerted on points of division (Nos. power. It will thus be understood that vaults of concrete had a very important effect on the forms of Roman buildings. Thus from of the Greeks. as pointed out. the style of the their turn centres as the whence radiated the architectural manners and customs of Rome. The walling was faced with bricks. The semicircular or waggon-headed vault resting on two of the covered rectangle was used in apartments whose walls were sufficiently thick. the time that concrete displaced the ashlar masonry and allowed of unskilled labour. yet the Romans generalized vaulting as a structural system dating from the first century of the present era. 58 and 60). and the Etruscans. that every Roman ruin is filled with their debris. Although.C. triangular on plan and usually about i-J. Concrete faced with brick (testae). left the remainder of the sides . which were easily roofed. ideas as well Vaulting. : (c.) The dome (hemispherical and semidomes). 46 c). the early Greeks. by which they covered the largest areas even now in existence. The majestic simplicity of their edifices give them a severe grandeur expressing the Roman ideals of conquest. so called from its resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) the joints being laid in diagonal lines. with irregular shaped pieces of stone. The effect was far reaching and gave freedom in the planning of complex structures. The kinds of vault employed were as follows (a. which became in . and easily constructed on rough centres or temporary supports till the concrete was set. (b. so much so. and cities could be improvised. to the end of the Western Empire. the vault had been previously used by the Assyrians. They made it^imple and practical by the employment of concrete. angles. 46 D).) (a.

without the principle. were used for covering circular structures as in the Pantheon. thus having the form. vaults and domes of enormous size were constructed. The Roman concrete vault was quite devoid of external thrust and covered its space with the rigidity of a metal lid. it was divided into square bays generally three in number and covered with groined vaults. Semi-domes were employed for exedrse and other recesses (No. Hemispherical domes or cupolas (cupa cup) (Nos. or inverted porcelain cup. would possibly have pushed . dome appears to be excep- In many cases (No. brick arches or ribs probably used as temporary centres are embedded in the concrete vaults at various points. if 'formed of radiating voussoirs of brick or stone. Cements and .Il8 walls free for hall COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. If the oblong compartment or side walls had to be pierced by large openings. having no necessary connection with the general structure. and the by three (c. and it would have been impossible to vault the enormous spans if the vaulting had been composed of brick or of masonry as in mediaeval times. The great coherence of concrete formed of " Pozzolana" (see page 112) and lime was important by its use. for a Roman edifice built of concrete could receive a decorative lining of any or every kind of marble. as in the Baths of Caracalla and Basilica of Constantine. like the brick facing to walls. intersected were very wide. The decoration of Roman buildings had little connection with the architecture proper. and had an important effect on the general forms of Roman architecture. 54 and 55). the Roman use of concrete for vaults was more striking and daring than for walls. As Prof. 46 K). out the walls. Roman architecture had the character. Most of these were cast in one solid mass with no lateral thrust on the walls. of a body clothed in many instances with rich materials forming a rational and appropriate finish to the structure. which is frequently as much as 6 feet thick. and differing essentially from Greek architecture. that is to say. a longitudinal half-cylinder. which." but these are sometimes superficial. The use of buttresses had not been systematized. of the diameter of the hall. and only tail a few inches into the mass of concrete vault. therefore. Besides the use of many colored marbles other means of decorating wall surfaces are briefly stated here. Middleton has pointed out. especially at the "groins. window openings. such decoration being an independent sheathing giving a richness to the walls both internal and external. The construction of the Pantheon tional (page 134). of the arch.) half-cylinders of similar diameter. 46).

) Fresco painting. " Cloaca Maxima" (c. or glass to form patterns. or great drain of Rome. and for the cyclopean masonry." formed of squared (a. (No. 47). 750. to decorate the walls and vaults only. and whose methods of construction had a marked effect on that of the Romans. The abundant use of statues. The were mostly used the floors.) : fashion. 578) . and the final coat was polished. They are divided by Middleton into " " Opus tesselatum. IIQ stuccoes (" Opus albarium ") were frequently used for the coverings of walls both internal and external. crowned with a semi-dome." of tesserae of marble. alabaster. (c. These were either semicircular. The walls are remarkable for their great solidity of construction. and may be classified as follows (a. and from their buildings it is known that they were aware of the value of the true or radiating arch for constructive purposes. The style dates from about B. B.) Caustic : painting. or mortar of any kind. who were great builders. thus forming a frame. marble.) "Opussectile" or "Opusscutulatum. as thickness of the walls. Mosaics were also much used for ornamenting walls.) tesserae of stone. Etruscan Architecture. many ot them brought from Greece. porphyry. Mural paintings were executed on the prepared stucco. EXAMPLES. (&. led to the adoption of niches for their reception within the buildings. (&. glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures. They were usually attached by iron or bronze cramps to the walls upon a thick cement backing. Marble." made of paving bricks in herring-bone (c. and they occasionally had columns supporting a pediment. bridges and aqueducts. c. city walls. " Opus Spicatum.) Varnish painting. where huge masses of stone are The piled up without the use of cement. and not Gilded bronze was employed as a roofing material to important employed at the Pantheon (page 134).) Tempera painting. and their similar to the early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and Mycenae (page 54). porphyry and jasper as linings to the walls have been already referred to.C.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 3. The architectural remains consist chiefly of tombs." or vermiculatum. and used it extensively in their buildings. or rectangular. gateways character (as is at Perugia). In dealing with Roman Architecture mention must be made of the Etruscans or early inhabitants of central Italy. or glass cut into" shapes to form the pattern of which the " Opus Alexandrinum was a very rich variety. vaults and floors. and (d.

and Romanum A . and to the Royal Exchange or probably Trafalgar Square in the Metropolis. such as temples. The principal examples of Roman architecture were chiefly erected during 400 years. which in after years during the Empire took place in the amphitheatres. The Forum Romanum was in early times also used as a hippodrome and for contests. Tarragona and Segovia in Spain. which was the largest of all. who brought some of the marble Corinthian columns from the Temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (page 90). and was adorned with pillars of victory and memorial statues of great men. 300. between The principal remains are found not only B. 83 and rebuilt by Sulla. Trevesin Germany.. senate house. but Vitruvius gives a description of them. The others include those of Julius Caesar. It was burnt in/B. The models in the Walker Art Gallery. colonnades and public buildings. 509). Baalbecand places in England (page 280)^^ FORA. was a composite style derived by the unipn of the North Africa. Minerva (Livy VII. and was nearly square on plan. each 2 feet 6 inches high.C. restoration is given (No. The forum was usually surrounded by porticos. with widely spaced columns and wooden architraves. This and the Forum of Trajan. as at Nimes and Aries in France. Liverpool. 100 and A. basilicas (halls of justice). the market place of English country towns. city. Timgad in Algeria. and the Crystal Palace. 48). viz. which will indicate its probable appearance in the heyday of ancient Rome. in three rings of voussoirs. but throughout Europe to wherever the Roman occupation extended. The Forum corresponded with the Agora in a Greek was an open space used as a meeting place and market. and a plan of these is given " " was the oldest.. Roman Architecture followed the Etruscan. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the Greek and Etruscan styles. There are no remains of Etruscan temples. and many places in North Africa. Augustus Vespasian and Nerva. or a rendezvous for political demonstrators. and other Palmyra in Syria. Rome possessed several Fora. 47). and shops. Constantine in most important Etruscan example (dedicated B. in Italy. chambers containing statues of Jupiter. corresponding to the Place of a French country town. has a semicircular arch of ii feet span. give a good idea of the appearance of this important centre of architectural history. The Forum around it were some of the most important historical buildings. and is Its cella was divided into three generally taken as being typical. and grouped (No.120 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. were the most important. constructed to drain the valleys of Rome. and as indicated on page 114.D.C. iii) and Juno.c.

13 f^ y 20 BASILICA JULIA v/ 21 COLUMN Of PHOCAS ZZARCHOfSEPTIMIUSSEVERUS 23R03TKA 2* T. 49. and others are referred to later on (Nos. . Antioch.Of MARS ULTOR (5 COLS. "the order of columns being attached to the flank walls and arranged as a prostyle portico towards the front only. 53 and 57).ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Of SATURN (8 COLUMNS STANDING) 25 T. and Asia Minor may also be best mentioned here. between projecting wing walls. ' ' IN'DICATEJ EXISTING REMAINS INDICATES RESTORATIONS 47- TEMPLES. . 18 give some of the types used. 52. 50) (page 167). The plans shown on No. 49. streets at Palmyra and Damascus. but their prostyle arrangement and the use of the podium was derived from Etruscan temples. The characteristic temple is known as pseudo-peripteral (page 58). 1 8 G. & PILASTER CTANMC 5 TEMPLE Of MINER\ft 1 \^ 3 TEMPLE RESTORED AFTER YAEI0US /tUTHOEITIES 6 TEMPLE 8 TEMPLE 9 TEMPLE 11 Of PEACE 7 SITE Of THE BASILICA AMELIA \/ Of ANTONINUS * MUSTINA Of ROMULUS . Steps were provided at the principal end. Of VESPASIAN (3 COLUMNS STANDING) 26 TEMPLE Of CONCORD. Whereas Greek peripteral temples were normally twice as long as their width. The size of the cella was frequently Note. ' TRAJANS COLUMN 2 BASILO ULPW Of VENUS GENETRIX 4T. Bosra and elsewhere in Syria. The Roman temples were the result of the amalgamation of the Etruscan and Greek types. the Roman examples were very much shorter. and had no side colonnades as was usuar in Cjreek exkiilpltib. LEfT) 12 V . The remarkable colonnaded 121 Pompeii also possessed an important Forum. for they resembled in many respects Greek examples. and were continued along the flanks and back of the temple as a podium or continuous pedestal (Nos. which often supported groups of statuary. Of CONSTANTIKt 10 BASILICA *^ TEMPLE Of VENUS * R0ME *^ TME COLOSSEUM ARCH Of CON5TANTINE 14 ARCH Of TITUS 15 HOUSE Of THE VESTAL VIRGINS^ 16 TEMPLE Of VESTA </ 17 ARCH Of AUGUSTUS 18 TEMPLE Of DIVWJUUU3 19 TEMPLE Of CASTOR & POLLUX (3 COLS. 50. The orders are described under the Comparative table (page 167).


j. temple (page 125). Ionic. 11 ' . Now church of The (the Temple or Avenger) (No. The Alaiscn SOH.D. 123 increased. D). which in most cases were isolated and visible from all sides whereas the Roman temples were specially intended to be seen from the forum or open space upon which they usually faced. 6 Corinthian. but these may have been of coffering in stone as in the colonnades. 50 E. 49. G). The Temple of Saturn ^Nos.D. the front being therefore made important by the deep No consideration was given to portico and flight of steps. or vaulted as in the TempleTof Venus and Rome at Rome (No.) K. Pseudo-ptripteial te- the trastyle. 14 prostyle-hexa^tyle. The l^emple of Diana (No. which was used as a museum for Greek statuary and as a treasure As the architraves were supported by the enclosing walls store.D.D. A. 117-138 (See page 125. 47 1 4 and 49 L. 284 Ionic Pseudo-peripteral pro- style-htxastylc. 42-2 Corinthian. N). Corinthian. K. Three with front portico. Virilis Remarks. S. 52 and 67 Mars Ultor G). Pseudo-peripteral Now the prostyle-hexastyle.47 Q5 ). columns At Athens. being probably derived from Etruscan examples. and the Temples at Spalato. double Peculiar Corinthian.) x F. 1 8 G. Carrce (Nos. The Temple of Concord (No. Corinthian. J. 51). B. (Nos.D. of open_timber-work as in the basilicas. A. Jupiter Stator A. colu-nns remaining. . Eight B. 27-A. 123-135 A. A. Temple of Antoninus and I. 52 E). being usually the whole width of the temple. B.D. Peripteral octastyle 19 (Nos.) (Nos. the Temple of Diana at Nimes (No.C. 47 . temples could also be built on a larger scale than in the Greek style. c. Circular and polygonal temples were also used by the Romans. plan. Three columns remaining. 94 A. and The Temple of Vemis and Rome and 50 A. i8j. At Rome. 47 67 A and 68). L.C.C. Maria Egiziaca. orientation as in Greek examples.D. having cella wide as long. Date.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Temple of Jupiter Olympius At Nimes. B. c). . The abolition of the encircling colonnade and the continuous stylobate of steps resulted in a certain loss of unity in comparison with Greek examples. Pro-tyle-hexastyle. Three columns and Pseudo peripteral Unusual twice as api'asterremaining(page 125). IOO A typical Roman temple plan. 56). M. The Temple of Also known . Nothing definite is known as to the ceilings. B. Lorenzo. B. Castor as and Pollux. Corinthian. The Temple of Vespasian (No. on the flanks. A. 43 A). 47-). 50).C. (See page 90. The Temple of Forluna (No. (See page 125. 141 The 68 Faiistina (Nos. 174 remaining. RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES. church of S.


D. and is the best preserved Roman temple in existence. The Maison Carree. B. j. The Great Temple of the STDI. 273 A. 67 G. The Temple of Venus and Rome (A. A short description is given on No. having columns 58 feet in height. 52. 53). being pseudo-peripteral prostyle hexastyle. The Temple of sEsculaphts 59)- 125 (continued). The so-called Temple of Diana. 50 H. A. with Corinthian columns supporting a rich entablature. the capital of the latter being shown in No. It is of the typical form. Internally there were niches for statues. The Great Temple (No. 52). At Palmyra. in front of which by a dodecastyle Corinthian portico .D. G). having attached bronze leaves. 50). the thrust of which is counteracted by smaller continuous vaults over the side passages. and that by Palladio is given on No. It was 11 pseudo-dipteral decastyle (No.D. D. but only six columns now remain. Rome (B. K. and raised on a podium about 12 feet high provided with a front flight of steps only. 50 E.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Temple of Mars Ultor.) 273 Peripteral ocvastyle. Baalbec was a hexagonal cortile entered (A. F. but there are only three columns and a pilaster remaining. 300 Remarks. the apses having semi-domes. each provided with an apse placed back to back.D. Date. A D. and 51). This temple was raised on a platform and stood in a large enclosure.) (See page 130. c. entered through columns on the imposing gateways. largest Roman temples. and the cella was crowned with a hemispherical coffered The plan on No. RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES At Spalato. supporting a cornice from which springs a stone-ribbed barrel vault. 47 ). probably Corinthian. was probably a nymphaeum connected with some thermae. stood in the Forum of Augustus. The Great Temple. 53). The interior walls have detached Corinthian columns.D. occupying in all an area of about 540 by 340 feet. was It stood in dipteral decastyle. Nimes (A. 131-161) (No. (No.) At Baalbec. A. the peristyle having twenty flanks. 50 A. surrounded by a colonnade of nearly 200 columns of red and grey Egyptian granite and red porphyry. was erected during the reign of Hadrian.C. 123-135) (No. and a pronaos at each end. 42-2) (No. (See page 1 6 1. 131-161 (See below. Nimes (No. had a peculiar plan consisting of two cellas. the usually accepted restoration of this building. 53). The Temple ofjiipiter (No. a court 380 feet square with recessed porticos. in a precinct surrounded by an It was one of the enclosing wall 100 feet high.D. probably a prototype of the vaulting of many southern French Romanesque churches. and the cella walls were of extra thickness to take the thrust of the vault. 117-138) (Nos. 47" gives vault. 18 G.





The Temple of Mater Matuta. approached by a flight of steps. (See below. Dawkins and Wood restore this temple as^ if vaulted. 60 D. (See below. The V-shaped section of the It is now the Church leaves indicates the . 27-A. 273. Chedanne in 1892. B. 33.C. 55. Rome (Nos. of S. A. is situated in the Forum Boarium. marble. and therefore nearly eleven diameters high.I3O in antis. 715. At Baalbec. known to belong to two distinct periods. A. The interior was ornamented with half-Corinthian columns having returned entablature. formerly known as the Temple of Vesta. occupies the site .D. 56. and resting on a podium 10 feet Among the remains lately found are some fragments of the high. 14. 34 feet circular peripteral. 284.I4. but other authorities do not think this possible. is peripteral octastyle with a vaulted sanctuary at the west end. and rest on a podium 6 feet high. ana the columns were built up in three A further short description is given on No.) (See page 134. fire The Pantheon. owing to the investigations of M.D.D.) The Pantheon (Nos. At Rome. . 55. These surround a cella 28 feet in It is built of Parian diameter.D. having 3 feet 2 inches in diameter. The Temple of Jupiter. which is of tufa. The Temple of Vesta (No. 161.C.C. 53. (See page 136. iSc. finally by Septimius Severus in A. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. B. 47).) the The Temple of Mater Matuta. 57 E) is now. 33. 54. was founded in B. M. F).) (No. CIRCULAR AND POLYGONAL EXAMPLES. (in (No. The Temple of'Vesta (Nos. from which sprung the Between the columns were two tiers of niches. 59). pieces. 47).D. 57.D. The buildingsWere constructed with large blocks of stone without cement. 7 inches in height and exception of the podium. columns having fillets for fitting metal screens between the shafts. (Seepages 136. with the* is approached by a flight of marble of wood covered with bronze tiles. E. and The roof was probably steps.D. formerly known as Temple of Vesta. 56. B. 205.D. A.27-A. Rome. coffered vault. According to Middleton it was circular peripteral with eighteen columns surrounding a cella. The Circular Temple (No.work of a Greek artist.) At Tivoli (near Rome). 57). 120-124.) (See below. 54. The circular portion. The Temple of Jttpiter (in Diocletian's Palace) A. 37 A. 67 H). c. 273). Baalbec (A. known as the Rotunda. At Spalato. del Sole. and is twenty Corinthian columns. but was the Forum Romanum) frequently destroyed by and repeatedly rebuilt. Rome. 205. The Temple of Vesta.


formed in three heights. was a decastyle portico.D. sixth and eighth columns having two others behind them. In front of this " nymphaeum. and the third tier are level with and entered from the second cornice of the exterior. which is also its internal height. the other four being rectangular on plan. forming a frontispiece to a three-cell temple of the Etruscan type. and the upper portion is fluted (No. 27-A. 55). in front of the recesses in the interior. The lower third of these columns is cabled. third. having its inner surface The manner in which the sinkings or coffered in five ranges. In front of the Rotunda is the Corinthian octastyle portico. B. and are 19 feet high to the springing of their hemispherical heads. to- be seen from . of which the lower are semicircular on plan. and was made to face the north instead of the south. 120-124. with a layer of tiles every three feet in height. on the site of the more ancient " nymphaeum. entablature. one of which forms the entrance three of the remaining seven are semicircular Two columns exedrae. the second tier have their floor on the same level as the cornice over the inner order. built by Agrippa during the reign Of AugUStUS. and pediments of the projecting altars are later additions. 1 10 feet wide by 60 feet deep in the centre. The present Rotunda was erected by the Emperor Hadrian. The attic or upper story was originally ornamented with porphyry or marble pilasters. the level of its floor being 8 feet below the present level. As rebuilt this portico was made octastyle instead of decastyle. of white marble and panelling of giallo antico. The eight piers have niches entered from the exterior of the building. ft The columns." and facing towards the south. Maria Rotonda) is a circular structure having an internal diameter of 142 feet 6 inches. and have eight great recesses.C. The walls. flowers. and running water. 42 feet 6 inches high. The marble facing to the walls between. in A. . of an older uncovered piazza. 14. and the columns. At the back of the portico are niches. six of which are in the British Museum. are placed on the front line of these recesses. above which are relieving arches. with capitals. serpentine.D. are 20 feet in thickness. The dome or cupola is a hemisphere. and staircases by which to ascend to the various parts of the edifice. The Rotunda (now the Church of S. used as a " nymphaeum. the first." or place for plants.132 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. are believed to be part of the original design of Hadrian's architect. mouldings are regulated or foreshortened so as below is worthy of notice. and pavonazetto. but in 1747 this marble panelling was removed and the present stucco decoration inserted." the x portico to the Etruscan temple being taken down and re-erected at the higher level. of concrete (opus incertum).

o SB be -~ O 2 * H ^ _ "5 CO .

placed in a low flat situation. 27 feet in diameter. surrounded by a peristyle of eighteen Corinthian columns. 14) (Nos. 5 feet in diameter at the base. 23 feet 6 inches high. and this example are instructive. appearance of the vault of the heavens in the temple of all the gods. having a cella 24 feet in diameter. The Roman building. The reason for the difference in design between the Temple of Mater Matuta. The intermediate portion was not examined. and . and the capitals. The old Roman bronze door frame. and 4 feet 3 inches at the top. so as to relieve from pressure the recessed openings below. Rome." divided by the two cornices. These support an entablature 1 1 feet high. 46 feet 6 inches high. originally plated in gold. . and a doorway approached by a flight of steps. doors and fanlight. still remain (No. had two windows. in 655. of which the foliage is derived from the acanthus mollis.134 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Tivoli (B. and a pediment having an inclination of about 23 degrees. K). but it is held that a series of arches may have been formed in this portion. The cella. resting on a podium. j. 37 A). are one diameter in height. The dome. This method of lighting produces an effect which is solemn and impressive and there may have been a symbolic meaning . formed in the crown of the dome. The Temple of Vesta. 54 c. 57 H. the upper portion being faced with stucco decorated with pilasters. The lighting is effected solely by one circular unglazed opening. described by Middleton to be of concrete. since removed. in thus imitating the originally its lower portion formed in steps. The columns are nearly gf diameters high. has columns of slender proportions in order to give it the required height whereas the Tivoli example. The octastyle portico has monolith Corinthian columns. The dome.D. At the present time the walls are faced in brick with "opus reticulatum. 27-A. and also near the central opening at the summit. 23 feet 1 1 inches in diameter internally." The circular portion was originally faced with marble up to the lower string cornice. as shown in the drawings made by Palladio in the i6th century. was covered with bronze gilded plates. placed on the edge of a rocky prominence. heaven is by far the noblest conception great eye opening upon for lighting a building to be found in Europe. and still retaining its circular bronze cornice (No. which has Each of the three divisions of the portico ceiling appears to have been segmental and formed of bronze plates. although was found by Chedanne to be built of brickwork laid in almost horizontal courses up to the fourth range of coffers.C. the idea being that the worship of " One Jupiter should take place in a building open to the sky. is another circular peripteral example. D). 18 c. but these were removed to Constantinople by Constans II. and replaced with sheets of lead.


with four circular recesses and three square. 60 D. between which are semicircular niches for The line of the entablature is curved inwards towards statuary. erected as halls of justice and as exchanges for merchants. the circle. 273) (No. and occupy the positions resulting from the division of a circle into seven equal The entrance is placed centrally on the seventh division of parts. and bear witness to the importance of law and justice in their These buildings are also interesting as a link between eyes.D. is a further development of the Pantheon. generally placed in a semicircular apse. that in the centre. In front of the apse was the altar. as explained later on page 181. but the interior of the cella is circular. and crowned with a remarkable domical vault constructed in tiers of brick arches. Spalato The Circular Temple. The whole is raised on a podium.D. The usual plan was a rectangle. Between these are placed eight Corinthian columns with Composite ones superimposed.136 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Temple of Jupiter. where sacrifice was performed before commencing any important business. externally presenting a pyramidal form. Internally it has superimposed Ionic and Corinthian orders. Classic and Christian architecture. Ranged round the apse were seats for the assessors. has columns of a sturdier proportion. 59). and has a column on either side. E. Externally it is octagonal. (in Diocletian's Palace) 284) (No. The cella wall has Corinthian pilasters. at one end. the entrance corresponding to a fourth. Two or four rows of columns' ran through the entire length. which are therefore extremely interesting with respect to architec- tural evolution. Baalbec (A. The building was generally covered with a wooden roof. The Christian baptisteries erected in the following centuries were adapted from such circular temples as these just described. comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans. being occupied by the Praetor or Questor. F). and . BASILICAS. and the tribunal at the other on a raised dais. 43 feet 8 inches in diameter. flight of steps. resulting in three or five aisles. advanced slightly in front of tKe face of the wall. whose length was two or three times the width. which was elevated above the rest. These. (A. and galleries were The entrance was at the side or usually placed over these. which was sometimes partly cut off from the main body of the building by columns. has a circular cella raised on a podium and approached by a It is surrounded by eight Corinthian columns. six of which are well advanced from the cella wall. the cella between the six columns above mentioned. surrounded by a low peristyle of Corinthian columns. thus provided with a lofty basement.



47). the Basilica Julia (No. and at Silchester in England. Rome (A. from which sprung the groined vaults. E). . although the column which was placed to carry it has been removed. and an internal length The total internal height was excluding the apses of 385 feet. Farno. crowned at a height of 1 20 feet by an immense groined vault in three compartments. Other basilicas at Rome were the Basilica Porcia (B. each 23 feet 9 inches wide. 58 B. and supported pieces of . There were two apses. about 120 feet.D. supported that of the nave. may be mentioned. 98) (Nos. in which the thrust and weight of an intersecting vault are collected and brought down on piers built to receive them. Adjoining the Basilica were the Greek and Latin libraries.C. and is in many respects a prototype of a Gothic structure. in comparison with the interior.D. each 76 feet in span. and the Basilica Amelia (No. These walls had communicating openings formed in them. Light was introduced in the upper part of the nave over the by means of lunettes. 312) (Nos. consists of a central nave 265 feet long by 83 feet wide between the piers. 47*. Galleries were formed over the side aisles. The building is similar as regards plan and design to the Tepidarium of the Thermae (No. Entered from Trajan's Forum. The vaults to the northern aisle still remain. 184). 46 i. The Basilica of Maxentius or Constantine. D). exhibiting the deep coffering executed in brick work.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The columns on the ground story separating the nave and aisles were of red granite from Syene. of which Apollodorus of Damascus was the architect^ was a fine example of the wooden . springing from walls placed at right angles to the nave. with white marble Corinthian capitals. it had a central nave 87 feet wide with double aisles. or semicircular windows in the wall formed by the intersecting vaulting. thus showing the extraordinary tenacity of Roman concrete._ roofed type. 47% 58 A. Trajan's (the Ulpian) Basilica. aisle vaults . and Treves.entablature apses. Rome (A. believed to be the oldest. and a portion of the main vault of concrete formed of pozzolana is still in position. having sacrificial altars in front of them. At each end were semicircular reached by flights of steps. one to the north and one to the west of the central nave. attached to the face of these piers. To the north and south are aisles roofed with three great semicircular vaults. and aided by the weight of the aisle Monolithic columns were vaults. and Trajan's famous Column (page 156) stood in an open court between them. 59). the exterior seems to have been of small pretensions. formerly erroneously known as the Temple of Peace. reached by steps as shown on the plan. 47) and the basilicas at Pompeii. c.


laid out This surrounded the central block and was recesses for the philosophers. The principal existing remains are found at Rome and The Thermae a ruined state. Tepidarium and Calidarium in succession.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Palladio. pomades or ointments. but much can be learned from the published drawings of the Italian architect. oiling and sanding the .Arts. and a Frigidarium (cool room.) : A great central block. the processes of bathing resembling the modern Turkish bath. A small charge of a quadrans (| farthing) was sometimes made. when they were better preserved. Unctuarium (rooms for oils. and portions were planted with trees and ornamented with statues. This was planned for the baths proper. poets and statesmen. central structure. libraries. usually containing a cold swimming bath "piscina") were the most important apartments added to which there were the Apodyteria (rooms for undressing). It was frequently large open space. races. These consisted of lecture (c. rooms for the hearing of discourses. . boxing). body). aliptae shampooing with the "strigillus" or scraper. Laconium or Sudatorium (the hottest room. being supplied by a special aqueduct from a distance. and from the restorations of French students sent to Rome as prize winners of the Ecole des Beaux. and other necessary apartments. with raised seats for also used for various athletic exercises (such as wrestling. made in the sixteenth century. The external apartments were frequently let off as shops or utilized for the accommodation of the numerous slaves A who formed part of the establishment. In general arrangement they usually consisted of three main in Pompeii parts (a. The Tepjdarium (warm room for bathers to rest in). 141 THERMS. The Sphgeristerium (place for the games and small theatre occasionally formed part of the (b. large reservoir frequently occupied one This side. Calidarium (hot room. but in later days they were opened free as a bribe to the populace by Emperors in search of popularity. open colonnades. usually a circular domed apartment). or for lounging. exedrae or spectators.) of ball). The Thermae supplied the place of the modern daily papers for the dissemination of news and gossip. A as a stadium. usually containing a warm water bath). The whole block was frequently raised on a high platform. being probably derived from the Greek gymnasia. reservoir supplied the Frigidarium. and also answered in a measure the purposes of a modern club as a rendezvous of social life. or great public baths are quite as characteristic of Roman civilization as the amphitheatres. where the " " anointed the bathers and performed the rubbing down.) An outer ring of apartments.

The planning of this and similar buildings is very instructive to architectural students and worthy of careful study. i. to various parts of the establishment. The entrance to the establishment was in the centre of the north-eastern facade. measured 750 feet by 380 feet. Apodyteria (dressing rooms). It was 170 feet by 82 feet. The central building.600 bathers. the lower at the street level. formed in three compartments. around which the subsidiary apartments were grouped. Moreover. probably used as shops.150 feet (over one-fifth of a mile) each way. and the vastness of the building was emphasized.D. air ducts. Rome (A. and other apartments. and therefore covered an area of 285. in the segmental projections and elsewhere. Frigidarium (with piscina). not including the segmental projection on three of the sides. the The Thermae G. and led to the large open enclosure laid out for wrestling and other games. forming the principal hall. which was exposed to cold winds. used entirely for bathing. Calidarium (with sudatio). K and 59 A). 38 feet high and 5 feet 4 inches in diameter. restorations have been made which the relative positions of the Tepidarium. and give a splendid idea of their The entire site including gardens was raised on an artificial platform 20 feet high. but greater than either the British Museum or the London Courts. This Law Although now show .142 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of Caracalla. constituted the controlling feature of the plan to which the other apartments were subordinated. important of all size and magnificence.. Only four doorways were formed on the north-east side. were a feature of the south-western front. in ruins. by the system of exedrae and screens of columns.^ixial-linS. and furnaces for heating the water and hot this platform Under of small Along the road front was a colonnade having behind it a row chambers in two stories. measuring 1.000 square feet. loss of scale was prevented. giving access to the gardens. vaulted stores. 212-235) ( Nos 4 6 F - > H. which. accommodating 1. and supported on eight portions of entablature resting on granite columns. Internally the Tepidarium. roofed with an immense semicircular intersecting concrete vault. produced vistas through the various halls and saloons. for underneath which were the furnaces and other rooms service of the baths. were grouped the various halls for dramatic representations and lectures. but large columned openings.e. while providing for the practical requirements of the bathers. were communicating corridors leading chambers used as the hypocaust. around which. being laid out on. and the upper on the platform level. about equal to Westminster Palace (including Westminster Hall). 108 feet above the floor. for private "slipper" baths. Sphaeristeria (for gymnastics). placed in front of the massive piers. are the most the remains.


and their connection . issuing from the mouths of sculptured lions in marble or brightly polished silver. Finally. 'The exteriors appear to have been treated very plainly in stucco. porphyry. decorations in black and white.144 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which was constructed on a similar system to that described for the Basilica of Maxentius (page 139). is of similar dimensions to the Tepidarium of Caracalla's Thermae. and at the excavation of the Thermae during the Renaissance period much of it found its way into the Vatican and other museums in Rome. alabaster or other rare marbles from the ^Egean islands. George's Hall. The general adornment and color treatment of the interior must have been of great richness. and in marked contrast to the exterior. . or more wisely left as impressive masses of plain brickwork. and the upper parts with enriched and modelled stucco bright with color the great columns on which rested the vault springers were either of granite. either planned in geometrical patterns or with figures of athletes the lower parts of the walls were sheathed with many colored marbles. giving an excellent idea of its probable original appearance. giallo antico. the pavings were patterned with mosaic cubes of bright colors. admitting light over the roofs of adjoining halls by means of the intersecting vault. high in the walls. great apartment was lighted by clerestory windows. The Frigidarium was probably open many tons of T iron were found below . Liverpool. or covered with bold figures. and in the principal European cities. or colored glass mosaic. and decoratively to form with their entablatures and pediments frames for the superimposed niches in the walls. The Calidarium was roofed with a dome similar to that of the Pantheon. The surface of the great vaults was also richly ornamented by means of coffering. In these magnificent halls thus sumptuously decorated some of This was brought the finest sculpture of antiquity was displayed. but with five bays instead of three. Sumptuous internal magnificence was aimed at in all the great Thermae. some suppose it to have been covered with a roof of iron joists Viollet-le-duc has a (probably cased with bronze) and concrete. Various colored marble columns were used constructively to support the upper balconies and the peristyle roofs. The unbounded license of the public baths. largely from Greece or executed in Rome by Greek artists. perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a different color. drawing in his lectures of the Frigidarium restored. S. although as the surface of the bath. to the sky. falling into capacious marble basins and producing a delicious cooling effect in the hot sultry weather. additional interest was given to the interiors by the perpetual streams of running water. indicating a further secession from Greek principles.

80) (No. having Composite and Corinthian capitals of white marble each supporting a portion of highly ornamental entablature. 266). They have completely disappeared. were on the foundations of Nero's Golden House. Typical Roman baths are shown on No. but an idea can be obtained from the measured drawings of Palladio. shown in a restored condition in No. j. (B. 1561. with semicircular niches to nine of the sides. from which it will be seen that the general distribution resembled the Baths of The Tepidarium is 200 feet long by 80 feet wide and Caracalla.A.C. 69 B). M. published in Cameron's "Baths of the Romans. Rome (Nos. 80 feet in diameter. 46 j). 46 L). L ." 1772.D.D. Above are ten windows of large size at the base of the dome. which is an advance on the construction of the Temple and 83 now F. 46 M generally regarded as a nymphaeum attached to the Baths of Gallenius (A. caused by the destruction of the aqueducts by the Huns and the gradual decrease of the Roman population. The Thermae of Diocletian. degli Angeli. but not for pleasure. The so-called A. In the fifth century the large Roman Thermae fell into disuse and decay. caused them to be proscribed by the Early Christians. 83 c. D). were the earliest example. Buttresses were placed at points as required. 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter. who held that bathing might be used for cleanliness. 27) (No.D. had a plan. H). admitting of the use of thinner walls. and in the walls from the hypocaust or furnace in the basement (No. These baths were heated by means of hot air in flues under the floors. 69 G. It is a decagonal on plan. It is particularly interesting in that the rudiments of the pendentive (see glossary) system are to be seen in the manner of setting the dome on its decagonal base. who thus converted the nave of the church into a kind The Thermae of Titus. and in 1740 a projecting choir was formed on one side by Vanvitelli. G.D. springing from eight monolithic columns of Egyptian granite. Rome of transept. in A. a system afterwards carried still further by the Byzantines. 60 K. B). and is covered with quadripartite vaulting of tufa concrete. 46 F. This Tepidarium was converted by Michael Angelo. 302) (No. and the three examples at Pompeii indicate their general characteristics and manner of use. built The Thermae of Agrippa. Vitale at Ravenna (No. bearing a remarkable similarity to S. 90 feet high. Rome (A. Rome (A. is of Minerva Medica.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. in order to give the necessary light and air to the plants. The dome is formed of concrete ribbed with tiles. the tenth being the entrance. into the Church of S. 145 with amusements generally. The absence of a hypocaust or of flue tiles in the walls prevent it from being considered as a Calidarium. The Balneum or small private bath was much used.


was a semicircular area which was occupied by the Senators. by means of the new art of vaulting. on the east coast of Sicily. of the arcading. Pantheon (No. The design of Greek theatres was adapted to suit Roman requirements. It is partly hewn out of the Acropolis rock and partly constructed. of Herodes Atticus. is also Pompeii had two important theatres.C. probably only applied to the stage.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 17) a fine example. is the only The remains consist existing example of a theatre in that city. 147 54). which in recent years have been excavated. however. pierced with holes. 34 B). and a step towards Gothic principles of conThe pendentives are of the rudest kind. are other examples. in which the people might sudden showers. and probably struction. Staircases for access to the various levels were placed on either side of the stage. with wide passages and staircases ccmmunicating with the external At the ground level. L 2 . Athens (No. 314 feet long by 116 feet high. South France (No. at Fiesole. cedar. was raised conchorus. held 7. seating 6. was here restricted to a semicircle. The Theatre at Orange. In diameter it is upon tier of retreat in case of 340 feet between the inclosing walls. is ornamented by blind arcading. and has at the summit two tiers of corbel stones. through which the velarium poles were placed. and is an example where the auditorium is constructed and not hollowed out of the side of a hill. which is 203 feet wide by 45 feet deep. 23-13). The auditorium. stage. auditorium of sloping seats from the stage.D. of the semicircular auditorium. siderably and treated with great richness. separating the porticos on each story. were entirely masked by the original decoration. It originally had a portico attached to it. Rome (B.000 people. but where the site did not allow of this they were. 161). near Florence. the fa9ade of which was ornamented with the Tuscan order and the Ionic order superimposed. the It is held to have been roofed with seats having a marble casing. and inclosed by return walls at The great wall at the back of this right angles to the back wall. Theatres were still constructed on the slope of a hill. THEATRES AND AMPHITHEATRES. and consisted of tiers of seats one above the other. constructed tier connecting corridors.000 spectators. in Asia Minor. The theatres at Taormina. The Theatre of Marcellus. but this. and which in its original circular plan in Greek theatres was occupied by the The stage thus becoming all important. instead of being rather more than a semicircle as in the Greek theatres. and Aspendus. and became connected more completely with the auditorium. The Theatre (A. two stories high.


which were considered to be a good training for a nation of warriors. Palace gives a good idea of the general distribution of its parts. by means of which the various tiers of seats are reached. placed at intervals as shown. and the top range under the peristyle forming the later addition. tufa stone where more weight. as at Verona (No. the third separated from the second by a wall. making 7 jfeet in total thickness. The arena proper is an oval 287 feet by 180 feet. In plan it is a type of all the examples. Rome (Nos. Access to the various seats is from the eighty entrances by means of staircases placed between the radiating walls and by The radiating walls were corridors. 62 B)." . and in addition to their normal purposes were used for naval exhibitions. the vaults running downwards to the centre from the high inclosing walls consequently no building is more durable or more difficult to destroy a feeling well expressed by the line . The supports have been of the building. cleverly constructed.D. having underneath them corridors and staircases. surrounded by a wall The seats. consisting of a vast ellipse feet. calculated at one-sixth of the whole area The constructive principle consists of wedge-shaped_piejs radiating inwards. 149 The amphitheatres are characteristic Roman buildirigs. those lining of 9 inches of brickwork. 15 feet high. 64). is the most important example. The auditorium has four ranges of seats. than for the tame mimicry of the stage. being found in every important settlement. the two lower forming the grand tiers. and having an internal 620 feet by 513 story. (The Colosseum). the water drains for flooding the arena still existing in many examples. 62 and 63). 70. : " \Vhen falls the Colosseum. The masonry was laid without mortar. and the construction is strong and solid. and travertine stone where the heaviest pressures had to be supported (No. The system is one of concrete vaults resting on walls of the same material. having externally eighty openings on each on the ground floor forming entrances. The Flavian Amphitheatre. The dens for the wild beasts were immediately under the lowest tiers of seats. and completed (with the exception of the upper story) by Domitian in The model in the Crystal A. in solid stone. 82. rise up from the arena. 2 feet 3 inches thick. concrete being used where least weight.D. commenced by Vespasian in A. Joeing of an engineering character. and consequently opened on to the arena. The modern Spanish bull rings to some degree give an idea of the arrangement and uses of Roman amphitheatres. These are good exponents of the character and life of the Romans. who had greater love for mortal combats. faced with travertine stone.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 4 feet thick. Rome shall fall.



Capua. divided and united : by three ii. Ionic. and remains of a roughly made example at Dorchester.D. Corinthian pilasters. connected by eighty arches and supporting the weight of the structure. Other well-known examples are the Amphitheatres at Pompeii. The thick piers behind the orders. while the Greek stadium was principally used for foot races and athletic sports. 63). although only four bays of the external wall are still standing. and are ornamented with half columns of the Tuscan. however. it is the most perfect example of a Roman Circus existing.. The proportions of the attached columns on the fa9ade. lines of the unbroken entablatures entirely surround the building. three tiers of apparently i. all the stone seats being intact. but. It consisted of a long open circular-ended arena with a "spina" along its axis. Nero. The three lower ones have their walls pierced with arches. Although only part of it now remains. the two latter being on pedestals. countless arcades encircling the exterior. 60 c) near Rome. many Renaissance buildings (page The Amphitheatre. tiers of orders. In criticizing the general architectural character of this wonderful building (No. The purely decorative use of the Classic orders of architecture which being superimposed are in strong contrast to The grand sweeping which the Grecian method of single orders. Aries. iii. materials being taken from it for the construction of iv. Verona 456). The plan of a Roman Circus was an adaptation of a Greek stadium. 64). Domitian. viz. was built by Maxentius in A. and the height to the top of this order is 157 feet. Surrounding this were rows of marble seats supported by raking vaults and an . El Djem near Carthage. At Rome there were several important examples. Between the pilasters are the corbels used to support the masts of the velarium. Flaminius. among which were the Circus Maximus and those of Maxentius. 311. Hadrian. The Colosseum was used as a stone quarry by the builders ol later times. external fa9ade is The divided into four stories. was used for chariot or horse races. Pola in Istria.152 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and Corinthian The upper story has orders. points worthy of notice are The multiplicity of its parts. : (No. which The Tuscan all have the same lower diameter are unusual column is about 9^ diameters high and the Ionic and Corinthian about 8| diameters. in Dorset. CIRCI. Nimes. and Sallust. The Circus Maxentius (No. is in splendid preservation. also known as the Circus of Romulus.

47. has and statues. was built in honour of Constantine's victory over Maxentius. and basAn attic or surmounting mass of reliefs relating to campaigns. and the spoils taken from the Temple at Jerusalem on the other.D. the opening being spanned by an entablature. London. 312) (No." TRIUMPHAL ARCHES AND PILLARS OF VICTORY. which returns round each column. The archway has its soffit ornamented with deep coffers. is (A. being crowned by victory. horses. 66 detached Composite columns resting on pedestals. as shown in No. and above the attic were originally a quadriga. and have Corinthian or Composite columns on either side. the (A. emperors or generals in honour of their consisted either of a single arch or of a central arch with a smaller one on either side. A description is given on each of the illustrations Nos. Rome (A. 47. Rome (A.D.) The three-arched type. 204) (Nos. These rest on an impost. at Ancona (A. with a central entrance for processions and two side entrances. to victories.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. . 49. The inner jambs have reliefs of the emperor in a triumphal car. on the one side. in the centre of which is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus. These were erected They stonework was placed above. The Arch of Constantine. having a dedicatory inscription. 57 and 65.) The single-arched type. (a. not of arched construction.D. 69 A. 47). 204) (No. The Arch of Titus.D. 65. 70.D. of which the gives a general idea. Marble Arch.C.D. columns supporting an entablature. London. Other well-known examples of this type are the Arches of Trajan (No. statuary. " At one end were the " carceres or stalls for horses and chariots. of which the central arch at Hyde Park Corner. and three-quarter columns occur at the angles. 114) Sergii at Pola. (b. 49). The central keystones project considerably in order to support the main architrave. 67 B. Rome (A. 70 (B. 7). and 70).D. 81) (Nos. c). and at the semicircular end was the " porta triumphalis. Augustus at Susa (Piedmont) Augustus at Aosta (Piedmont). Trajan at Beneventum (A. and is one It has detached Corinthian of the best proportioned examples. On each side of the arch are semi-engaged columns of the Composite order. and are richly carved. commemorates the capture of Jerusalem in A. Rome 57. is an example. 1 13). 153 external wall of concrete faced with "opus mixtum" (page 117). and were adorned with architectural enrichments. The Arch of Septimius Severus. Augustus at Rimini D). built to commemorate Parthian victories.D. 27). and Hadrian at Athens. The Arch of the Goldsmiths. being the earliest known examples.


X H Pu W .

and a recital of the deeds which led to their erection was carved upon them. and 18 feet high. L). Of this 7 type of gateway the Porta Nigra. and carved on a spiral band over 800 feet long and about 3 feet 6 inches deep. lighted by The sculptures. Spalato (Palace of Diocletian). . 69 H). 60 j. Autun. through various toils. were used in their ornamentation (No.500 human figures.those of the Greeks. in particular that of Regolini Galassi at Cervetri. the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. was numerous. feet 1 6 8 erected in A. and also the arches at Palmyra and in North Africa. hero to the skies. There is a full-sized cast in the Victoria and Albert The column. . Rostra. "The And The sculptures lead. The column design of Trajan's Column. and bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples. mention might be made of the Arch of Janus. or prows of ships captured after a naval victory. and in such cases might serve the purposes of defence. stands on a pedestal inches square. The Arch at Orange is one of the finest examples of this type It has semi-attached Corinthian columns between outside Italy. tombs were numerous. Treve^ the Porte S. were probably intended to represent the unwinding of a scroll of parchment illustrating incidents of Trajan's war with the Dacians. ornamented with sculptured trophies on three sides. 58 B. Rostral columns. In contrast with.D. from which the bas-reliefs on its shaft could be viewed. Pillars of victory. were sometimes erected to record the triumphs of victorious generals.156 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D." wind aloft up the rough steep of the Roman Doric order. and stood in an open court with galleries around at different levels. Rome. in the time of the emperors. a type of memorial which. Trajan's Column (No. Arches were also erected to form entrances to towns or bridges. were erected to celebrate naval victories. numbering over 2. The column is 12 feet in diameter at the base and is provided with an internal spiral staircase of marble. and the Porta Aurea. the Porte des Mars. small openings. are among the best known. built in the reign of Septimius Severus. besides animals. was erected 'in connection with his Basilica (page 139). and having a doorway on the fourth. Andre. 161 to the memory of Antoninus Pius and that erected to Marcus Aurelius in memory of his victories over the Germans (A. Rheims. 167-179) were founded on the Museum. Besides these. in the Forum Boarium. or memorial columns. Its total height is 147 feet. a four-way arch built as a shelter at the junction of four roads. TOMBS.

surmounted by a conical marble It was built of concrete. Little is now left. resting on a quadrangular structure and crowned with a pyramidal roof. and others.D. 69 M) and urns being sometimes found in the same tomb chamber. Angelo. The bodies of the emperors during the first three centuries were usually burnt on magnificent pyres. or caves. and crowned with a colossal statue of Augustus. Each niche was reserved for a vase containing the ashes of the deceased. (on the Via Appia).. having a peristyle of marble columns. The Mausoleum of -Hadnan. dome. from descriptions of Strabo. and consists of a square basement about 300 feet each way and 75 feet high. 28). 60). Rome (B. some of which in addition had " loculi " or recesses for corpses. The Mausoleum of Augustus. to have had a square basement surrounded with a portico of columns and supporting a circular mass. the whole being capped by a mound of earth laid out in terraces and planted with Cyprus and evergreen trees. receptacle for ashes. 157 The Romans either buried or cremated their dead. supporting an immense circular tower 230 feet in diameter and 140 feet high. square or circular. Monumental tombs The Tomb of Cecilia Metella. the frieze of which is carved with ox-skulls and festoons. with the name inscribed thereon. in which.C. consisted of tower-shaped blocks. In the second century A.D. (b. Rome (B. 135) was one of the It is now the most important of these monumental tombs. 220 feet in diameter. but it is known.) Rome. The tomb-chamber was in the interior. . as other examples. was erected for himself and his heirs. There are five varieties of Roman tombs. supporting a circular mass 94 feet in diameter. Sarcophagi were also placed in these tomb-chambers. These may be survivals of the prehistoric tumulus of earth with its base strengthened by a ring of stones. as in the Tomb of the Gens Cornelia. and the whole was faced with travertine and crowned by an entablature. Tacitus. probably surmounted by a conical roof. containing the mortuary chambers. symbolizing the escaping soul of the dead emperor. was used as a theatre.) Columbaria. which are now known as catacombs. what remained of it. Castle of S. the practice of cremation became less usual the richer classes embalmed their dead and placed them in massive and costly sarcophagi instead of the smaller . as indicated on No. from which an eagle was set free.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress. and have rows of niches in the walls resembling pigeon-holes hence the name.C. and in the eighteenth century. 52 : These were placed in subterranean vaults (a. Rome (A. has a podium 100 feet square. both sarcophagi (No.

fulfilling a utilitarian purpose only. Above the ground the tomb resembled a small temple. The Monument of S. in Provence (B. due to the introduction of (c. Remi. and is now used as a military barrack. memorial structures or cenotaphs were occasionally erected. but with a walled-up colonnade. probably Egyptian ideas. is of similar design. These often have subterranean tomb-chambers for sarcophagi with niches for cinerary urns. and has an internal tomb-chamber. and .) Smaller tombs. as in the Tomb of the Pancratii. some rock-cut. Germany. the structure has been much altered since its construction. is one of the most interesting examples of the The illustration (No. somewhat resembles that at Mylassa. 52) will show its general characteristics.C. first century) consists of a high pedestal ornamented with basreliefs and supporting a story of engaged Corinthian angle columns with arched openings between. Above is a circular story with fluted Corinthian columns. So many pomps. as isolated monuments. as at Rome and in the Street of Tombs.C. supporting an entablature and conical stone roof. were formed the sepulchral chamber and converging passages. so many storms of war. The Igel Monument. and Petra in Syria Caria in Asia Minor. 62-12). aqueducts. some structural. which slope upwards from the ground level. being converted in the middle ages into a fortress by the Popes." DYER. near Treves. In addition to the foregoing. were also adopted. The Tomb at Dugga. Deserve they not regard Such crowds have roll'd o'er whose broad flints . On the whole.158 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. formed by The . at The Tomb Mylassa. as in the Pyramid of Cestius faced with white (B. Jerusalem (e. which is formed of concrete marble. were often (d. and the walls and vaults were ornamented with colored reliefs in stucco. (No.) Eastern tombs.) Pyramid tombs. and Algeria and Cyrene in Africa possess many examples. near Tunis (No. AQUEDUCTS. 52 G). the vault and walls being decorated with figure paintings. Pompeii : " Those ancient roads With tombs high verged.in Asia Minor. The districts of Palmyra. the solemn paths of ! Fame ' . latter. 52 H). towards the centre of the mass. so many wondeiing realms. often with a prostyle portico. erected along the sides of roads leading from cities. and the upper chamber contained portraits or statues of deities and served as mortuary chapels. although more of an engineering than architectural character.

near Nimes. entered the city on arches above those sixty-two of the A. across valleys.D. on immense arches above ground. and in approaching the Eternal City in the days of its glory.D. The Aqua Marcia (B. is the finest existing example. supply water to Rome. miles in length.) gives interesting information on the subject. is carried on arches. Many of them follow a circuitous course in order to prevent the slope of the channel being too steep when the source of the water was high above the required level of distribuIn the time of Augustus Caesar there were nine tion in Rome. In any views of the Campagna near Rome. The Pont-du-Gard. it was found to be more economical by the use of slave labour to construct aqueducts of stone. ig)(Nos. often in several tiers and sometimes of immense height (say 100 feet). On the two lower tiers the central arch is the widest. however. Throughout the Empire remains are to be seen showing the importance put by the Romans upon an adequate water supply Rome had to be especially well supplied owing to their cities. still The " Anio Novus (A. these enormous arched waterways must have impressed the beholder. great thermae and public fountains. their size 159 and proportion striking features of the Roman landscape. aqueduct twenty-five miles long. having almost level water channels.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. a system which even in modern times has been followed in the Croton Aqueduct which supplies New York City. to the inferiority of the local service and the large quantity required for the reservoirs. above or below ground (Vitruvius recommends a fall of 6 inches to every 100 feet). The masonry is laid dry without mortar and. It is in France (B. and the upper rooms " of their houses were supplied by " rising mains in the same way as modern buildings. The Romans were acquainted with the simple hydraulic law that water will rise to its own level in pipes. which is added to from other sources by Middleton. to the city reservoirs. to say nothing of the domestic supply for its large population. chapter vii. Vitruvius (Book VIII. The principle of all the examples is similar. On the uppermost tier there are thirtyfive arches having 14 feet span. and the others vary in width. of Uzes. 38) Aqua Claudia. or concrete faced with brick. A smooth channel (specus) lined with a hard cement.C. the ruined aqueducts are striking features. as will be seen on . 144) and the Aqua Claudia " (A. 38).C. 60 It forms part of an B and 61). to the fact that pipes had then to be made of weak and costly lead or bronze (cheap and strong cast-iron pipes not being in use).. conveying the water from the high ground. supporting the water-channel. and is formed of three tiers of arches crossing a valley 180 feet above the River Gard. of these aqueducts supplying Rome with water. Owing. bringing water from the neigh- bourhood about 900 feet long.

Spalato and elsewhere. or banqueting hall the Lararium. . The disposition of the buildings was governed by axial lines .) The many-arched type. in 1863. disguising the producing . The magnificent vistas. The Bridge five arches. have revealed remains of a group of magnificent palaces. of which the romantic Alcantara. and the giant remains attributed to him will probably impress the student of architecture most when visiting the site. were rendered symmetrical by the use of hemicycles and other devices. the Peristylium. (b. PALACES. at Rimini is the best preserved in Italy and has There are examples of two types of Roman bridges in Spain which are equally impressive. the Triclinium. 3). whose uses cannot now be ascertained. Excavations on the Palatine Hill. commenced by Napoleon III. Irregular spaces. is the best example. and afterwards continued by the Italian Government. on the west side of the Arch of Titus (No. The Palaces of the Roman Emperors. 61.l6o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Caligula. No. as exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Cordova and The single-arched type. by a road which enough branched off from the Via Sacra. chief characteristics of Roman bridges were solidity and a view to their withstanding the ravages of time and the elements. . were remodelled by Septimius Severus. : chief apartments in these palaces were The Tablinum or Throne-room the Basilica. 47). Nero and Domitian. The roadway was generally kept level The simplicity.D. (a. with throughout. a square garden surrounded by a colonnade.) sweepT of the bridge at Toledo. The principal approach was from the Forum Romanum. Of the Roman palaces the ruins only remain. and having additions by Tiberius. These. or apartment for statues of the household gods and the Nymphaeum. or hall for administering justice. Other aqueducts exist at Tarragona and Segovia. BRIDGES. some of the arch voussoirs of the intermediate tier projected to carry the temporary centering. but there is to show their enormous extent and imposing character. commenced by Augustus (A. spanning the rocky valley of the Tagus. caused by additions being made from time to time. Besides these there were many minor chambers of service.

l6l each other. were impressive features of the in distant views by group. The for the palace has a value. different angles of the buildings in relation to frequently used by modern architects. occupying an area of 9^ acres. on the southern sea front. 59) another famous example. broken and curved pediments with decadent detail being employed. On each of the facades. 300). formed an entrance to a here were placed suite of nine chambers overlooking the sea the private apartments and baths of the emperor. meeting in the centre. and has thus been called a It may be described as a royal city in a house. between the towers. Elizabethan gallery. slaves and soldiers of internally. were the cells that lodged the The octagonal temple. 238). halls of the palace proper. 136) and ^Esculapius (page 125) and the baths. ending these main avenues. as a chateau by the sea. Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area.A. being visible above the inclosing walls land and sea. which. The architectural character is somewhat debased in style. the finest being This the portico. and in the centre of each of the north. These gateways formed entrances to porticoed avenues 36 feet wide. however. and was probably filled with works The columns to the of art (cf. served as a connecting gallery. M . and in the northern gateway arches rest of an entablature. Spalato.D. F. entablature of the peristyle is formed as an arch. the "golden" on the north. A circular vestibule. and the more lofty the imperial retinue. thus losing its constructive significance.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. No. page 555). were rich entrance gateways. upper portion were detached and rested on carved corbels. between which and those at the angles were subsidiary towers. a . and the " brazen on the east. including two temples. gave the palace the character of a Roman camp. country house. The original plan of the palace was approximately a rectangle. each assigned to a particular purpose. east and west sides was a gateway flanked by octagonal towers. directly on capitals without the intervention an early example of a principle carried to its logical conbeing clusion in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. feature also seen in the golden gateway. being thus almost equal in extent to the Escurial in Spain (page 537. on three sides. 130. is The Palace of Diocletian. (A. a method in Dalmatia (No. which formed the greater part of the mediaeval town of Spalato. perhaps. 524 feet by 24 feet. The two northern portions were probably for the guests and principal officers of the household while the whole of the southern portion was devoted to the palace. which divided the inclosed area into four parts. with a front portico in antis. as a transitional example. . the " " "iron on the west. There was a square tower at each angle. pp. or better. that of Jupiter (see under circular temples.

which in A. and. and three smaller houses. The impluvium. as are Eastern houses to this day. and as Pompeii was a Graeco-Roman city. or 15 feet). A. but are_ mostly stairs and traces of upper floors exist. 47). which served as the public of in France and England The Pompeian houses waiting-room for retainers and clients. B) may be taken as a good type of domus or ordinary private house. the frontage_on_ either side of the entrance passage beingL-4^fc-oft asjshl2pr~~The absence oF windows on the fronts is explained by some as being due to a lack of glass. It was surrounded by streets on three sides. A prothyrum.D. and there seems every reason to believe that Roman They each possessed an dwellings were evolved from them. with a " lean-to or sloping roof supported by brackets round all four sides. The houses had plain fronts to the street. one story in height. but as a decree was passed in the time of Augustus limiting the height of houses in Rome to 75 feet. 79 overwhelmed the city. probably used by servants or guests. or many- .l62 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " to the sky in the centre. 65. the light being strong in the sunny climate of Italy. At Rome. led direct from the street entrance to the atrium. or as semi-public . besides the house proper. The excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have thrown considerable light on this important subject. are interesting examples. and a peristyle beyond.) classified under (a. the widest being 23 feet 6 inches." for receiving the rain-water from these roofs. and the House of Livia. These may be (&. The dwellings of the Greeks have already been touched upon (page 92). atrium. The villa. forming the more public portion of the building. forming the centre of the family apartments. The rooms wereji^hted by orjenings giving on to internal courts already mentioned. The House of Pansa (No. These Pompeian houses owe their preservation to an eruption of Vesuvius. while round were grouped the front rooms. 12. with a roadway 13 feet 6 inches and paths 5 feet wide. the garden occupying the fourth. or "water cistern. The streets of Pompeii were narrow (many only 8. or entrance passage.) or private house insitla. in which case openings towards the street would have rendered privacy impossible. brick or masonry buildings must have been largely erected. The openings were small. bakeries. the Atrium Vestae.) . or House/of the Vestal Virgins (No. and the inns former days. THE DWELLINGS OF THE ROMANS. the remains which have been excavated are believed to differ but slightly from the later Greek 'dwellings. storied tenement. Such upper stones were probably of wood. was sunk in the centre of the pavement. consisted of shops. The (c. or country house and The domus. and from which the more The atrium was open private portions of the house were shut off. burying it in ashes to a depth of 10 feet.

as nine was the recognized number for a . to which the name " Pompeian is now applied. The Houses of the Faun. the oacus. to have resembled modern M 2 . The floors of these houses were of patterned mosaic. had pro- bably painted and gilded timbers. is an exceedingly good reproduction of an ordinary Pompeian house. often the garden of the house and around were grouped the cubiculae or bedrooms. and which were furnished with domestic implements such as candelabra (Nos. Diomede. which have origin. The walls were either painted to imitate marble or executed in fresco. " The Last Lytton's great novel. corresponding to the hall of Elizabethan times. with entablatures in to be imagined. designed by the late Sir Digby Wyatt. Hadrian's Villa. for conversation. The walls and floors were richly decorated with mosaics and paintings. with " fauces. and Sallust. 69 E). Besides the imperial apartments it was surrounded by terraces. or tenement of many stories. walls. or tablinum. Canina. 69 K) or of colored marbles. forming an important element in the decorative scheme. been made by many authorities. The roofs were covered with tiles or bright colored terra-cotta. the decorations being copies of original paintings at Pompeii. and it usually had a small shrine or altar (Nos. and fountains." will be found of interest to the student as a description of the habits and life of the Romans. Examples of flat. 163 rooms. a gymnasium. either in black and white (No. (see page 280). resembled a palace in its extent. theatres. Roman feast. are other well-known examples of Pompeian houses which have their floors. or inner court. each receiving sufficient light through the door openings. Roman villas exist in England seems The the insula. 68 G. occupying an area of about seven square miles. as Piranesi.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.g. The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle. Days of Pompeii. or reception room. and others. Vettius. Restorations have palaestra. furthest from the entrance. The dining-rooms were fitted with three couches each for three people to recline upon. near Tivoli.) libraries. e. and the alae. The ceilings. suggestive of a metallic perspective. or dining-room (summer and winter). An open saloon. Pictures were sometimes framed with architectural features consisting of slender shafts. The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace. or recesses. and vaults decorated in a " characteristic style. 68. with different aspects. the darkest colors of the decorative scheme being placed nearer the ground. The peristyle was the centre of the private part of the house. the triclinium. 69). the Tragic Poet. led to the peristyle." or narrow passages. and thermae. peristyles.

sometimes supported by a figure of In others. have always been one of the most striking features of both ancient and modern Rome on account of their graceful designs. . and the soothing effect in a hot and low-lying city of the clear water sparkling in the sun. either as (salientes). and constituted a step ness of planning as resulted from the arcuated Roman style.164 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. ROMAN. exceedingly /numerous. often decorated with bronze statuettes. mainly in the courts and gardens of the houses. ment and Designs have Plans. giving boldness and variety and leading to the system of intersecting expanded. Unity was attained in the selfcontained temples. to The public fountains were many hundreds. Plans. wide openings were rendered possible. were provided with lions' heads. did not lend itself to such variety and bold- The arch. as have been found at Pompeii. 18. They were of colored marbles and porphyries. or other objects. The Romans were pre-eminently great constructors. No mixture of constructive principles occurs in the buildings of the Greeks. 30). of utilitarian works. and exhibit much variety. 4. proportion being of the first importance. both public and private. Private fountains existed in great numbers. 58 and 59). FOUNTAINS. refineA. 26. while variety of grouping and some picturesqueness was attempted in the Propylaea and Erechtheion (Nos. the limits of whose style have not been yet successfully toward Gothic architecture. wall niches lined with glass and mosaics a nymph. and by vaults and domes large areas and complicated plans could be roofed (Nos. amounting large basing of water (locus) or as spouting jets or the two combined and ornamented with marble columns and statues. A. COMPARATIVE. from which issued the water. and there is a dignity and grandeur of effect irrespective of the smallness of scale. and knew how to use the This conmaterials at hand. such as the aqueducts and bridges. In some the water issued in jets from fishes. Fountains. GREEK. and are characteristic of a powerful and energetic race. of design. on a large scale. shells. rich material. of and vastness impression magnificence. By the use of the arch. and dome were the keynotes to the whole system of the style. structive skill was acquired by the building. Purity and severity of outline caused by the simple method of post and beam. vault. Designs convey an beauty.

as shown on plate No. Even for transmitting the pressure between the blocks only metal cramps were used. Such walls are thus often coarse in character. 30. Great haste was necessary in the execution to complete sufficiently for use. 26.e. One-sixteenth of an inch was rubbed off the buildings on These materials were not special to any country. Constructed of large blocks of marble. Windows. rectangular and semicircular on plan is a special Roman feature (Nos. except on rare occasions. i. were never perfectly completion. where the beds of the stones are horizontal throughout. from the Basilica of circular. The employment of marble directly shaped the development of the style. as in the fine example of the north doorway at the Erechtheion. the columnar treatment giving the necessary light and shade.. 28. Jointing was not reckoned as a means of effect. this polishing being performed by slaves. The Anta (Nos. B. for the weights only acted vertically. with brick or marble facing. PJ pilaster was the Roman development of the Greek Anta (Nos. such as brick. Where coarse stone used it was frequently covered with stucco. reduced into fragments and bound together was by mortar. all of which sufficed for the most important projects. and coarse materials. and doubtless many buildings finished. The Roman Temples were B. thus producing the segmental arch. The Greek Temples were B. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity. headed or These were imbeing square- portant features. Openings. D). Openings. Constructed of small. each bed overlapping the one below till the crown is reached (page 54). bond courses for strength being introduced. and 44 c. usually faced the east. supported at the springing line. and often crowned with a cornice supported by consoles. allowing of refinement of treatment. brick or hard rock and quarry debris. D H). Arches sometimes had centering. Walls. 62 A). The was employed at extremities and angles of cella walls. Of minor importance. An example of a vaulted building is the Treasury of Atreus. By the extended use of concrete. common in the third and fourth centuries A. semicircle divided vertically by two mullion piers was a favourite type of window. 21.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. resistance. were not used in Temples. . the adherence of the blocks not being necessary. but consisted of fragments of stone. and 27 B. afterwards filled up with brickwork. 23 A. 37 c. rubble. 46 E). placed without regard to orientation. Constantine. illumination being obtained from doorways or hypaethral openings (Nos. mean. Athens' (No. The use of recesses The use of the true arch is avoided. 50 B. principally The the latter (No. (No. and concrete.D. and needed but vertical Walls. 38 F and 67 F). vaults. Doorways are squareheaded. 20 c. 27 L. at Mycenae. and perfection of finish in construction. by which the concentration of weights on piers was effected. ROMAN. it may be said that the Romans inaugurated the employment of large masses of irregular materials. GREEK. orientated. without mortar. 54 B).


as for example the Pantheon. used in The orders were connection with the arch. used by the Romans. The Tuscan Order has unfluted column entablature (No. reduced to rules by Vitruvius.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 28 E. which it is believed were constructed of T-iron and concrete. canon of proportions. ROMAN. 55). was not employed by the Greeks. a B). was of by the Greeks. The column and beam are the keynotes of Greek architecture. roofs of the temples. 54. Roof coverings were either of terracotta. The Tuscan Order. 21). as in some of the larger halls of the Thermae. 20). or of bronze in the more important buildings. such as octagons and squares in combination. as at the Pantheon (N os. Paul. D. to interiors of 23. The acroteria or blocks of stone resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment. Greek use of pedestals appears to be that of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus (No. decorative Orders never superimposed except Temples (Nos. The only B and 31 D). not suited to most important buildings being being their ideas . and in many cases finished with richly carved antefixae (Nos. as amongst the Etruscans. as at the Colosseum (No. These were of timber framing (Nos. D. or in the Triumphal Arches. The noble vaults and domes described on page 117 constituted the important development. and were covered with large slabs of marble with coverpieces which at the eaves were Roofs. which is merely a simplified form of the Doric. the richest examples being at the Parthenon (No. 20. Timber framing also appears to have been employed. Roofs. 62 A). The orders were structural necessities wherever used. The ceilings internally were of various geometric patterns. as at Baalbec. 16 A. The Doric Order (No. 31). GREEK. largely used 38 A) was their The Doric Order (No. having carved enrichments. being lost their structural used in a and gradually importance. 23 and 25). Covent Garden. little 38 B). E. were richly coffered. Columns. Orders often superimposed. manner. 23) and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius (No. and highly-finished. plain and 262 simple S. 16. the fluting being carried out when the columns were in position. I6 7 Extreme care was bestowed upon the elaborately constructed. 19 c and 20 H. The Romans introduced pedestals on which they placed the column A to secure greater height. Columns. The ceilings of the peristyles were coffered in stone with square or rectangular panels (No. and according to Horace. is a good modern example by Inigo Jones. splendid wooden coffered ceilings were employed in the houses of the rich. was gradually evolved for all the orders. j). 27). Coffered ceilings in framed timber probably roofed over the large span of the cella. According to Vitruvius flat terrace roofs were employed. as in the Colosseum at Rome. and supporting statuary or ornaments were characteristic features (Nos.


and was used in the largest temples. The Ionic Order (No. In this order as approved by Palladio and others the triglyphs in the frieze were over the central axes of the columns. and the shaft is usually fluted. It appears to have been principally used in small such as the buildings only. ment The mutules. 27 and 29). The distinctive capital has the scrolls showing on two sides only. probably derived from the painted work The architrave of the Greeks. thus showing the face of the scrolls on each side. varied the abacus and echinus. The channels in the triglyph have square angles at the top. inclined. numerous and enriched has naturalistic the acanthus leaves sur" " often being rounding the bell internally buildings greater The Temple mouldings. The Romans added a base." which as the are blunt-ended and flat in section. 38 D) from the Greek chiefly as regards the typical capital.. The Corinthian Order (No. gave way to mere carving. as those of Castor and Pollux (Nos. Winds in at Athens. usually The entablature is of a richer (Nos. in that sculpture. but is in a line vertical with it (No. The order was practically not introduced till the later age. dates from B. The proportions of the columns proceed from extreme sturdiness in the in different early examples to great refinein the late ones. 38 E) was little used by the Greeks. placed over are tri- glyph and metope much sometimes omitted. and modified the cornice. 67 A. 16 and 38 A). used without a base. but engaged columns occur in the Theatre of Marcellus. It was erected of this order. The architrave overhangs the face of the column (Nos. which Ionic differed had angle volutes. are but slightly inclined.C. and the triglyphs are over the central axes of the columns. The Corinthian Order (No.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. splendour and magnificence. adding a dentil course.' as in the Temple of Castor and Pollux. known earliest viz. 38 F) was the favourite of the Romans. The capital is rich. although example. The Temple of Hercules at Cora is the only temple in the style. The architrave does not overhang the face of the column. The channels in the triglyph are rounded off at the top. and the octagonal Tower or of the size. usually placed over the triglyph only. The columns were less sturdy and the flutes were examples. or from the olive leaf. although an example of angle volutes is found in a special case at Bassas The Order (No. and the frieze is freacanthus quently carved with the . as such. GREEK. 38 B). whose outline varies 169 ROMAN. 16 A). except at the angles. The entablature is very much enriched by ornamentation. description. where the end triglyph appears at the extremity of the frieze (No. The mutules. the capital having a plain square abacus. that in the cella the of the Temple of Apollo Epicarius at Bassas. choragic (No. 38 c) was used with great refinement by the Greeks. of of character and in derived from the leaves known " acanthus mollis. 68) and Vespasian at Rome. even at the angle. beneath which is the echinus (No. and the examples remaining are thought by some to indicate the decline of Greek art. 430. 38 Monument of Lysicrates E). 40 D).


39 and F. although the execution of the carving to the mouldings themselves is often of inferior workmanship. . and Greek examples were prized and copied. and have between them sunk and sculptured coffers. 68) and vertically in keystones to arches (No.. 67. they were often undercut so as to produce a fretted effect. In later times both vaults and floors of importance mosaic. but Greek artists were employed. which approach conic sections in profile. 69). (Nos. and the carefully prepared cement used as a covering to stone or were executed in many examples show floors. 37). Roman dentils are close together. of less depth. 67). and F. c. or rather as a Greek design mainly carried out by Romans. GREEK. the metopes and the friezes. carving cut upon their mouldings. Shafts were fluted or plain.Ornament The Romans the Parthenon. as the corona itself. 41). of marble. Ostentation replaces and in the latest examples. (See page go. The mouldings under the corona are much is Shafts of columns were fluted. Greek consoles used only as vertical brackets to doorways as in the Erechtheion doorway (No. 43 and 44). Jupiter Olympius at Athens may be considered a Roman building. whether executed in isolated groups or in works within the boundaries of an architectural framing. but great vulIn the case garity of sentiment. which are usually parts of circles in profile. spinosus) type (No. for wall facings and The ornamental sculpture used in the tympana of the pediments. as at (Nos. portion of the Ionic was combined with the lower part of the Corinthian. relied on the rich mouldings. having pointed shaped section. In other details the order follows the Corinthian. and occupy the whole depth of the moulding. Mouldings 40). The Composite Order was never used by the Greeks. Mouldings The Romans on relied for effect the graceful contour of their The Greeks (Nos. though often covered with delicately carved enrichments. 41. even The upper capital Triumphal Arches.) The Acanthus leaves surrounding the "bell" were of the prickly acanthus (acanthus 171 ROMAN. in cornices (No. being used principally in the enriched with carving. every member being carved. rich and good effects were . never lose the idea of grace of outline which the decoration seems but to enhance. 42. H). modillions (consoles. brackets or corbels) being intro- The scroll or with figure ornaments. refinement. Roman consoles used horizontally G. but a treatment somewhat similar is seen in the capitals of the Erechtheion where the necking under the Ionic scrolls are carved with the Anthemion ornament (Nos. 68 and did not excel either in sculpture or painting. 29 E The Composite Order was invented by the Romans. Executed in a finegrained marble. and have a fillet Greek dentils are far apart. cornice is also considerably enriched. Ornament (Nos. underneath. but with additional ornamentation. of V- duced and giving an apparent support to the corona.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. and which. a certain rich picturesqueness of surface is produced in cornices and dressings. 39 and 40). The sculpture of the Greeks has never been surpassed. 33 leaves F.


" " La Villa Imperiale de Tibur. so frequently carved on Roman friezes. 1856. . A. " Le Forum Remain et les Forums de Jules Caesar. (R.). Anderson (W. It is generally admitted that the exteriors of the 173 ROMAN. " Durm (J. REFERENCE BOOKS. G. 39 of much J.). "Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. "Die Baukunst der Etrusker und Roemer (" Handbuch der Architektur"). must have been grand in style and decorative in effect. The early frescoes were probably in the style of the vase painters of that period.). E. 1902. et de Traja. D'Amelio (P. Paris. and formed a ground on which paintto walls judged from the provincial imitations of Pompeii. " (C. part of the Propylaea being known as the Painted Loggia." Folio. and Istria. Folio. influenced largely the fresco decoration of the Renaissance period. 1878." 8vo. " Gli Edifizj di Roma Antica. also employed on cyma- recta mouldings. while the later. theatre.)." Folio. de Nerva. is specially characteristic (No. as the Romans were produced. Choisy (A. " Restauration des Thermes Caracalla a Rome." Rome in the Gell (Sir Gusman. 44 A.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Caristie (A. Isabelle (C.. 1819-32. 1885. brick. de Vespasian. 1873. 4to.) and Gandy (J. 3 vols. Paris.).). have already been referred to in the analysis of Greek architecture (page 108)." Large 8vo. 1848-56. 1876. 1887. or honeysuckle 42 H. The arabesques which adorned the walls of the Baths of Titus (No. W.) " Dalmatia.). was the characteristic motif and was Greek surface ornament. Canina (L. which must have aided in the Polygnotus and general effect. E. 69 A). The ox-heads connected with garlands. The Acanthus scroll with continuous stem and spirals adorned with rosettes or grotesques. which sought out and imported from all countries. Ancient Lanciani (R. 8vo. " Dipinti Murali Scelte di Pompei. " L'Art de Batir chez les Romains." 1772. 5.). are supposed to have originated connoisseurs they Temples were treated with color. d'Auguste. (Nos. of Recent Discoveries. Naples.). 43 F." Folio." 2 vols. Phene). The Anlhcmion. the Quarnero. if from the actual lands skulls and gar- decoration on altars at which the beasts them- hung for selves A finely had been slain. Adam Cameron Paris." Folio." Paris." 6 vols. P. arc de triomphe et Folio. other great artists were employed for decorative painting upon the temples and other buildings. GREEK. " The Architecture of Greece and Rome: A Sketch of its Historic Development.). Paris. worked marble cement was frequently used as a covering and stone columns. Paris. 1855. in marbles. Dutert (F." Blouet (G. Darmstadt. ings could be safely executed. 1828. F. as at Pompeii. 1888. " Jackson (T. Light 8vo. N).) and Spiers (R." 4to. J." 1764.).)." Monuments antiques a Orange. Description of the Baths of the Romans. 67 F). " Les Edifices Circulates. Dennis (G. " The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. Boston." Pompeiana.).


" Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt. see "The Decorative Part of (Sir W. 1 der 829. Middleton : Continued." " 2 vols. "Die Architektonischen Ordnungen Folio. von). Cinque English and French translations. 1827. Life in the Days of Cicero.). Kelsey. H." Descrizone della Villa Adriana. Penrose (F." translated by W.). " Thermes de Diocletian. Naples.) Folio and 4to. F. 8vo." Forming about 30 or 40 large folio volumes. 1570. and other editions." Folio. and F. Paulin (E.)." The 1818. 4to. 1826. Architectural Antiquities of 1821-1822. " (E.). L.) " (R." Paris. of Palmyra and Baalbec.I. "The Orders 1901.. Vulliamy (H)." Folio. delineated. 1786. "Temple of Jupiter Olympius. Vitruvius (Marcus).) and Cresy Rome. (Andrea)." (Historical For Classic Orders. Taylor (G." Several vols. Nibby (A. 1826. The . and student should visit the Crystal Palace for the Pompeian House and models of the Roman Forum.A. Paris. 1877. "Etchings of Grecian and Roman Architectural " Ponce Ornament." I Quattro Libri dell' architettura di A. " Antichita Romane.B. with Life and Work of Palladio." Folio. Roman.). The Ruins Church (A." (C) Folio.D.). 8." Transactions vol. folio. P. "Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture." Niccolini (F. Pantheon and other The British and the Victoria and Albert Museums should buildings. folio. Classic Architecture. 1854-189-. Wood Novel. 23-79).)." 1827. F. measured and Vignola (G. Palladio. published in 1902. The best English translations are those by Leoni (1715) and Ware (1738). large folio. Various Ordini d' Architettura." (J.'' Spiers (R.). Mitchell (C." Venice. Berlin. Piranesi (G. Tatham (C. Niccolini (F. the Colosseum.). H. 175 REFERENCE BOOKS Mau (A.). 1892. Palladio Naples. Circ. C). " Arte Pompeiana Monumenti Scelti. Historic Naturalis " (A.. Chambers Civil Architecture. 1887. da). "Description des Bains de Titus.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE." The Architecture of. Griechen und Roemer. Small Le Case e i Monumenti di Pompeii.). of Architecture: Greek. See also the author's monograph." Rome. p.). 1901." N ormand Italian. Its Life and Art. 4.). (N." M. 1899. " Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. J. . B. Folio." Folio. "Roman : 2 vols. Imp. Pliny.). : 8vo. be visited for actual fragments. each containing a magnificent series of engravings of Buildings and Antiquities in Ancient Rome and its Environs. Mauch (J. "Pompeii New York. R. "The Remains of Ancient Rome. " 1748-1791. 1875. B.

and in A. In A. called by Constantine. which formed their burial-places.D. as columns and other architectural features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into the design of the new basilican churches of the Christians. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan. " A A fuller light illumined all. A. was the Councils of the Church for the settlement of disputes about heresies. to become universal. known as the " Apostate. under Julian. subdued by Justinian in A. iii. ii. 537. Geological. was the connecting link of the early Christian and Byzantine styles (see page 193). Geographical.D. " All roads lead to Rome." TENNYSON. which spread so rapidly that in a very short period it was diffused throughout the whole civilized world. which then became the established religion of the Roman Empire. both in regard to construction and decoration. The Council first of several of Nice." and Christianity. The quarry of the ruins of Roman buildings influenced the architectural treatment of the style. Climate. The position of Rome as the centre of a world. sect.D.D. 360-363. i. Religion. History presents no phenomenon so striking as the rise of Christianity.wide empire was an important factor (see page in). Ravenna. 323 he himself professed Christianity. however eastern its birthplace. according to Christianity equal rights with all other religions. 325." .D. iv.). all breeze through the garden swept. INFLUENCES. were now able to hold their services openly and Christians. had to grow up at the capital. i. The who up to that period were an unpopular dissenting and had worshipped in the Catacombs.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. A temporary reaction took place in A. freely. See Roman Architecture (page i~ .

the latest phase of Roman art. Zeno reigning at Constantinople over the Eastern and Western Empires. the new king of Italy. 324 Constantine practically reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in A. and in consequence are called Romance languages. aided in consolidating Christianity in Europe.A.D. The Early Christian period is generally taken vi. Social and Political. when the old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside. Gaul. control made civilization. Kings of separate states were then elected in Italy.D. 451. which. 364. or from A. and the empire was nominally again reunited.D.D. ceased to exist. The the battle of Chalons. Theodosius the Great. A. 493-526. and for the next two centuries architecture was practically at a standstill in Europe. making common cause with the people against the Lombards and others. in which Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna. and Romanesque architecture was gradually evolved. F. when besieged by the Lombards Rome. Odoacer. was the capital of the Gothic dynasty. at Alaric in A.D. these movements being caused by the incursions of the defeat Huns into Germany. Spain. reigning between the years A. Valentian being Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East. possible the development of Romano-German which facilitated the growth of new states and nationalities. empire from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 590 to 604) the Latin language and Early Christian architecture.D.D. 337. During the reign of Gregory the Great (A. N . I From the Roman or common speech several of the chief languages of modern Europe commenced to arise. 376. The series of emperors in the West came to an end in A. gave a fresh impulse to the Christian Church and laid the foundations of the power of the Bishops of Rome. 410.D. The West Goths sacked Rome under of Attila. at 177 Gregory the Great (590-604). 300 to 604. king of the Huns. as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great. and Teutonic settlements took place within the empire about this time. recognizing the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at ConThe emancipation of the West from direct imperial stantinople. 379-395. from 493-552. A. The division of the Roman Empire first took place in A.D. the old Roman political system coming to an end. a period of peace and prosperity. and Northern Africa. Histoncal. On changing the capital of the v. Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced about A.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 476. reunited the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. employed the imperial army of Constantinople and acted as the defender of Rome.D.

-One style was evolved from another so gradually that it is impossible to say exactly where the one ended and the next began. although extremely interesting from an archaeological point of view. modifying the art of the past to meet command of the Early Christians. and were crowned with the entablature which supported the main wall. the early buildings can hardly have the value for study. and . The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced. 81. is certain to possess. . arising from new structural necessities. being connected by semicircular arches (Nos. was necessary for fresh conditions. The plans of the basilicas. Little money being at the them to These are known as basilican churches. BASILICAN CHURCHES. and formed of columns and other features from Pagan buildings. were utilized for the new faith. The basilican church with three or five aisles. 80. and were often situated over the entrances to their former hiding-places or crypts. This gradual growth characterizes progress in other departments as well as Architecture. but as the arch came more into general use these columns were spaced further apart. covered by a wooden roof. 84 and 85). which were readily constructed. The architectural character is impressive and dignified due to the increase in the apparent size of the basilicas by the long perspective of the columns. or double bases. and the comparative lowness of the interiors in proportion to their length. now rendered useless for their original purpose. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. EXAMPLES. is the special type of the style as opposed to the vaulted types of the Byzantine style (Nos. it adopt places of worship which could be Many of the Roman Temples. or in some cases by the omission of the base mouldings (No. which a new manner in architecture. were copied by the early Christians for their places of worship. 72. and were constructed with columns of different orders and sizes which were made to an uniform height by the addition of new pieces of stone. On this account. 73 A and 74). on which rested the wooden roof (No. 79). in which a circular dome was placed over a square space by means of the pendentive (No.178 2. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or--^^m^JtijJ]s_oi_justice. 3. in the architect's mind at least. Each age feels its way towards the expression of its own ideals. were erected. 77). and in addition new churches built on the model of the old Roman basilicas. 75 B).

1 * w S o 6tT -M c J tf w ^- SI z <: s '? S o. 1 < ffl > H N 2 .

S. which may be said to commence with these Basilican churches.ritual.l8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. where at first the community were in the habit of assembling. becoming the bishop's throne. 1084 (Nos. The altar in front of the apse. formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican The covered portion next the church 'called the churches. A A ' Epistle were read (No. How suitable the Roman basilica type (No. 75 E) S. of which the nave was the long arm. that this cruciform ground plan was derived from the buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the age of Constantine. In the centre of the atrium narthex was the place for penitents. 58) was for Christian worship is seen from the plan of S. or holy-water basin. Peter (No. PaulJ(No. The bishop took the place formerly occupied by the " pratprf1*! " qnestor" (page 136). or from the class-room where philosophers taught. as at S. " and was inclosed by low screen walls. lighted by a clerestory of small windows." which existed transept. Some consider. and provided with an " ambo " or pulpit on either side. 72. such aisles being usually half the width of the nave. The presbyters. owing to the increase of . was occasionally introduced. until in subsequent ages the seat was moved to the side. Rome. which. 75 c). converting the plan into a Latin cross. who dip their fingers into a stoop. choir became necessary. John Lateran. Some authorities. An atrium or forecourt. 73 B). Clemente. Galleries for the use of women were sometimes placed over the but where none existed aisles. Lorenzo the sexes sat apart on opposite sides of the nave. A. at the entrances of their churches. had an aisle on either side. " bema. being an open space surrounded by arcades. Agnese and S. The nave. occupied seats on either side of the bishop formerly occupied by the assessors. the water from which was used for washing before entering the church a custom which still survives in an altered form amongst Catholics. believe the early Christian churches to have been evolved from the Roman dwelling-house. called the in a modified form in the pagan basilicas. 72). thus became stepping-stones from the Classic of pre-Christian times to the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages. however. ([Occasionally two aisles occur on each side of the nave." or "presbytery. was a fountain or well. or members of the council of the early Church. The apse became the sanctuary which remained circular-ended in Northern Europe. from which the gospel and . however.D. as and in the Basilicas of S. ^although rebuilt in the eleventh century. or " cancelli (from which the word chancel is derived). formerly used by the Romans . contains the original internal arrangement of the churches of the fifth century.


75 D and 76). mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. Apollinare time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. and Five arches. There are also important examples at Ravenna. now used pouring out of libations.D. the centre called 113 feet high (No.D. The interiors of these buildings owe their rich effect to the use of glass mosaic (" opus Grecanicum.D. 78 G. 72). are important threeaisled Basilican churches carried out by Byzantine artists on Roman models. The old Basilican Church of S. and a baldachino. 330) was erected near the site of the martyrdom of S. 74. A. Paolo fuori le (Nos. L). a city well situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople. S. as the chancel was at the west end of the church. 74 and 76). was for the celebration of Christian rites. Peter (A. The pavements were formed out of the abundant store of old columns and other marbles existing in Rome." ) which was placed frequently in a broad band (No. 493-525. r82i. 75 A. and at one S. 78 B. At Torcello. 74) above the nave arcading and to the semi-dome of the apse (No. was erected over it. . or sacrifices to their gods. With cycles of the human tale. slices of columns being used as centres surrounded by bands of geometric inlay twisted with intricate designs (No. The priest stood behind the altar. and at the sanctuary end was a semicircular apse on a raised floor. A. and they are interesting for the impost blocks to the capitals supporting the pier arches. K). John Lateran (A. and S. as in the interior view of S. c). or canopy." The ceilifigs of timber were also formed in compartments and were richly gilded (Nos. In later times the altar was frequently placed against the east wall of the apse (No." 55 feet wide. built mura 380 by Theodosius but re-erected in A.D. B.D. the foundations of the original A. and the fine mosaics. There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome. near Venice.D. and thus faced east. The interiors of these basilicas are impressive and severe. built by Theodoric the Goth. supported on marble columns. Maria Maggiore (Nos. 330) has been altered so much in modern times as to have lost its early character.l82 for the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which is frequently richly treated with a central figure of Christ seared in glory and set in relief against a golden background. the repetition of the long rows of columns being grand in the extreme. Nuovo. gave access from the body of the church. the arch of triumph. Peter in the circus " It had a "transept. 75 E). " Below was all mosaic choicely planned.and S. against the centre of the wall of which was the Pope's seat." or of Nero. 538-549. Apollinare in Classe. bema.

1*3 CO h O u U ^ D K .

has S.D. usually adjoining the atrium or fore-court. and appears to be the first instance of the use of both. and 77). and with roof supported on two circular rings of columns. Stefano is baptistery. surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse. the vault is merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external wooden roof. K.184 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Baptistery of Constantine. resulting in such a building as these early domes. of baptism . the outer range supporting arches. . bishop's throne. and the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns two stories in height. BAPTISTERIES are another description of building met with in Early Christian They were originally used only for the sacrament hence the name " Baptistery. as at Ravenna and Florence. L) is octagonal. 75 F. 75 H. This building is domed and covered with a wooden roof. There was generally one baptistery in each city. . however. with two rings of columns. in the mediaeval period. G. H. as the Roman circular. Rome (A. 470). still exist. but by of an aisle in one story round a moderate-sized circular tomb. founded at the end of the fourth century. though not a a good example of a circular plan of similar type (Nos. Ravenna. for the internal architecture. being The Rotondo. Indeed. giving a good idea of the Early Christian arrangements. being 210 feet in diameter. the early Christians modified them to some extent. The two central columns are an addition to support the roof timbers. all taken from older buildings. j). is an octagonal structure with two arcades in the interior one above the other. architects always allowed the stone vault to show externally." The form was derived from the Roman circular temples and tombs. In the case of this building. between Naples and Salerno. who. 75 j. columns which a decorative in Roman examples were cover a large area with one roof was difficult. (No. Nocera. The dome. To way were now used generally used in to support the walls carrying the the addition baptisteries (No. as in the Pantheon. until the end of the sixth century of our era the baptistery but after this period appears to have been a distinct building the font came to be placed in the vestibule of the church. and it was as a rule a detached building. The Baptistery. and the inner a horizontal architrave. already described (page 136). and is similar to the practice of Gothic architects. In adopting the Roman tombs as models for these buildings. constructed of hollow tiles. the inner walls could be replaced by columns in the lower half. Rome Baptistery. covered the stone vaults of their churches with timber roofs (No 109). is 80 feet in diameter.


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Salonica possesses important examples. Constantinople (No. It is 35 feet by 30 feet internally. Ravenna (A. exceptional. 35 feet in diameter. but was converted into a church in It has a dome. and containing a cruciform chromatic decoration in mosaics. hollowed out in the form of a flat dome. F. Vitale. supported on twelve 1256. and Hierapolis. standing on the decagonal basement. The roof consists of one slab of stone. G) is two stories in height. 79 E. and the interior is remarkable. Sergius. 73 c. as at Ancyra. The Tomb of Theodoric. Each of the arms of the cross contains a sarcophagus. instead of the usual circular form. the angles being Roman The Syrian type appears soon A filled with niches. notably the domical Church of S. the Church of the Ascension. notably those by Constantine the Church of the Nativity. TOMBS. Pergamus. Ravenna (No. 73 H. to have broken away from influence. . E. Piers were used instead of columns.D. and the distance from Rome. Jerusalem. fine 187 mosaics representing the Baptism of Christ. also at Jerusalem. and has a raised lantern at the crossing. 530) (No. the lower story being a decagon.D. pierced with four windows. Bethlehem. and the octagonal Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the site of the Temple of Solomon. 420) (No. the absence of brick. Such are considered to be prototypes of later Byzantine churches of the type of S. It resembles the Temple at Spalato (p. and S. Ravenna crypt. as in the Churches at Bozrah and Ezra. as it retains all its ancient polyis domed by a in (A. and altars with the open books of the Apostles. pairs of coupled granite columns. of the founder were placed in an urn on the top of the covering. but with arcades instead of horizontal architraves.D. (A. is portion of a sphere. D. and in Egypt and Algiers are many examples of basilican and circular buildings of the Early Christian period.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. as it is cruciform in plan. 45 feet in diameter externally. and round the edge of this block are stone handles. Traces remain of an external arcade round the upper portion. favourite plan was a circle placed in a square. 79 H). George. It The K). Rome Placidia. 130). D). S. F. 83 c. and roofs formed of stone slabs were usual. Tomb of Galla j. 330) was erected by Constantine as a tomb for his daughter. In Asia Minor. and is one of the few examples which the pendentives and dome are portions of one hemi-sphere (No. originThe ashes ally used to place this immense covering in position. Constanza. due largely to the abundance of hard stone. G). 35 feet in diameter. Syria has a number of interesting monuments erected between the third and eighth centuries.


4. and a straight lined nave was added for the use of the people. faced with plaster. Florence (No. Circular churches were erected. as the Temple Church. 75 B). F) those to the nave being in the clerestory high in the nave wall above the aisle roof. The side aisles in the churches were occasionally vaulted. these early baptisteries. should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments which had been left by the pagan Roman. and due to the Knights Templars (page 219). and sometimes externally on the west facades for decorative purposes. c. dwelling-houses. 72 and 78 G. It was natural that the early Christian builders. the circular church originated the apsidal choir of the Gothic period. Wooden roofs (No. the baptistery always stands alone. lined with mosaic (Nos. was generally These were still constructed according to the methods. used as a baptistery. themselves founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs. Mosaic was used internally. were treated as follows in the different European countries : In Italy. circular churches were built to stand alone. a feature which was developed in Gothic architecture (Nos. or stone. Miniato. being mostly from earlier Roman buildings which had fallen into ruins &k were purposely destroyed. and when it was or necessary to enlarge them. Doors. The early Christians adopted the Basilican model for their churches (Nos. windows. design and size. as at Westminster. The Germans also built circular churches. Plan. In England. where the churches were not derived from a combination of a circular eastern church with a western rectangular nave. Roman The window openings were small (No. brick. 75 B. was usually domed and Columns t 1 In later Romanesque and Gothic periods. G). baths. 74). 83 E). being built as copies of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. In Germany. but in addition the halls. and niches were generally spanned by a semicircular arch. the Gothic builders generally preferred a square east end. as at S. rubble or concrete walling being used.. but they were few in number.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. These roofs were ceiled in some ornamental manner (No. London. except where French influence made itself felt. and then added choirs for the priests. Middleton states that all the fine marble columns E. nave. simple forms of construction such as King and Queen post trusses being employed. 73 A. 73 and 75). that they might pray apart from the people (No. 72. covered the central D. 78 D. A. 93). as in France. and the apse pensed with. the use of the lintel being dis- Walls. 189 COMPARATIVE. not being good craftsmen themselves. the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church and formed a western apse. Roofs. An isolated circular church. They are often of different (Nos. the decoration of a visible framework being of a later date. 77 and 78). In France. Openings. but were direct copies of the Roman basilica. and even the pagan temples were used for places of worship. the circular building was retained as the sanctuary Thus from choir. K). B. 1 attached to the chief Basilica or cathedral. A rich and grandiose T effect w as often obtained at the expense of fitness in the details of the design. . .


by the aid of these mosaics. " York. The interiors are. Paris. Butler (H.)." Perry (W. The . ) Paris. 5." 8vo. Vogue (Marquis de). Historical Novels 1J 13 LUI ICdl l>(L/Vt. 72). and episcopal chairs. 1884. of triumph.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 72." Paris. was lined with mosaic. porphyry columns. Clemente at Rome (No. C. characterizes the groups. Baldwin). Bunsen (C. and the acanthus ornamentation. 1866." Munich. which were worked into designs by connecting bands of geometrical inlay on a field of white marble (Nos. American Archaeological Expedition to Syria. " Les 1860. a feature The domed apse (No. The arch are treated in strong colors on a gold backdesign is bold and simple. . 78). screens. " Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms.). Hypatia. is Ornament. in the igi churches of Rome have been taken from ancient Roman buildings. and the wall spaces between the clerestory windows often had mosaics representing subjects taken from Christian history or doctrine. rendered exceedingly impressive. and no attempt was made at neatness of joint or regularity of bedding. The technique of the craftsman gradually declined. C. These pavements were formed largely of slices from the old Roman figures The ground." " 2 vols." II /X1T /~* \ LL C* T\ " Sancta Paula. Folio. was ornamented with appropriate subjects long friezes of figures line the wall above the nave arcades (Nos. although still copied from the antique. of the period. as in the fittings of the church of S. 1899 Hubsch (H. Mouldings. "From Schola to Cathedral. The introduction of much color giving much richness to the interiors. Paolo fuori le mura. separating the nave from the bema. REFERENCE BOOKS. both in form and draperies. 78). Vogue. 1886. and was at a low ebb during this period. and an earnest and solemn expression. and the carving is of the rudest kind. 1843." 8vo. F. 72. execution is coarse and large. Folio. J. was of a finer and more delicate description. fitting well the The method of position they occupy. Butler (A. Enrichments incised upon mouldings were in low relief. " Monuments de 1'Architecture Chretienne depuis Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne. G.).) 1900. New The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. 1904. 1 55 Syrie Centrale. as has been mentioned.lO ) . Brown (Prof. though rich in general effect.). The glass mosaic used to decorate the ambones. the subject generally being Christ surrounded by angels and saints." Kingsley (Charles). C. except those in S. These are coarse variations of Roman types. 1865-67. In addition to the richness of the wall surfaces formed of colored mosaics the pavements of colored marbles in geometric patterns added much to the rich effect of the interiors. Eglises de la Terre-Sainte. became more conventional in form." Folio. J. 74 and 76).

and that the architect was influenced by the kind of column likely to be at once obtainable. The absence of tides and the depth of its harbour.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. of the colored marble used in Santa Sophia. and the land high-road from Asia into Europe a position which. occupies an important commercial site. occupies the finest site in Europe. It and. Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by Constantine). standing on two promontories at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. It was called " New Rome" by the Turks of Asia. and overhead A lively vine of green sea agate spread. an inlet known as the " Golden Horn. . "So a church as this had Venice none: walls were of discoloured Jasper stone Wherein was Christos carved . for Constantinople was a marble working centre from which sculptured marbles were exported to all parts of the Roman world. the monolith columns being worked by convicts in groups of sizes such as the quarry could produce. Geological." four miles in length. from early times. like the other Rome in Italy. i. is of opinion that quite seventy-five per cent. and the other churches and mosques in Constantinople. standing at the interthe water highsection of the two great highways of commerce road from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. as far as possible the materials upon the spot had to be employed. especially over the corn trade carried on with the western merchants on the northern shores of the Euxine." CHAUCER. ii. The quarries were situated in different parts of the empire. INFLUENCES. Mr. it rests on seven hills. Geographical. but. a . Most of the marble used in the new capital was brought from different quarries round the Eastern Mediterranean. is Thessalian green (Verde Antico). rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden.writer on the subject. . fair The i. Constantinople possessed no good building stone or even material for making good bricks. Brindley. gave it power and influence.

D. Social and Political.C. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern Empire.D. and disputes in the church were rife the Council of Nice in A.D. also in Greece. 402. vi.D. which. the Roman empire was finally divided. The iconoclastic movement during the eighth and ninth centuries was in force and ended in the admission of painted figures in the decoration of churches. Rome. and it created an archiepiscopal see in A. The eastern emperors lost all power in Italy by endeavouring to force upon the west their policy of preventing the worship and use of images. iii. 493 Theodoric the Great took the city.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. whose system of government was an expansion of the despotic methods introduced by Diocletian.A. The Byzantine style was carried on until Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks in A. accounting for the style of some of the buildings. F.. o . but all sculptured statues were excluded. and the western the former.D. 438. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium but also those which were erected under its influence.D. A. After his death rival emperors troubled the state.D. Constantine. 193 Owing to Constantinople being hotter than to its being further east. Western Empire the town was taken by Odoacer. Byzantium is said to have been founded in the seventh century B. v. remaining the residence From of the Gothic kings till 539. the position of the latter city being unrivalled as a great commercial centre on the trading highway between east and west. and elsewhere. Religion. and in A. as at Ravenna and Venice. These and other points of difference in ritual have vitally affected eastern church architecture up to the present day. the Romans on settling there altered their method of building to suit the novel conditions due to climate and their contact with Oriental arts. chosen Emperor of the West in A. and Christianity the state that came to pass between east and west was followed by a separation of churches This was due to the " Filioque controversy " as to whether also.C. rivalled Rome in importance. Ravenna became important owing to the Emperor Honorius was transferring his residence there from Rome in A. Russia. 325 being the first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. and was a Greek colony as early as the fourth century B. 324. Climate. fSyzantine architecture is that which was developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome to that city. The political division . Historical. During the reign of Justinian (A. the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son or from the Father only the Eastern church which still claims to be the orthodox church. After the fall of the religion iv. 800. removed the capital from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 539-752 it was the seat of the Exarch of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperors. when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Constantine first made (page 176). 1453.D. maintaining the latter. By the election of Charlemagne.

Mark. sometimes in the form of the meander fret. Sophia (A. general architectural character depends on the development dome. 79. in his "Art de Batir chez les Byzantins. Front. but the manner in which the bricks of the casing were arranged contributed greatly to the decoration of the exterior. S. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and under Justinian. and elsewhere. The core of the wall was generally of concrete. is the prevailing motif or idea of Byzantine architecture. Although no line can be stated as separating distinctively the Early Christian and Byzantine styles. Sophia and the churches of Nicaea and Thessalonica show the perfection to which this was carried out. their bases " being brought to a circle by means of pendentives" (Nos. The change from the old Roman forms was of course gradual. induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal This is in contrast plans for churches. giving great richness and variety to the facades. but in the course of 200 years the East asserted itself. but sometimes obliquely. as may be seen in the churches of Thessalonica. and had been a traditional feature in the old architecture of the East. Ravenna. and in many other forms of similar design. sometimes in the chevron or herring-bone pattern. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Vitale. The walls of this shell were finally sheeted internally " Byzantine building consists generally of a brick carcass or with marble. and the decoration of S. Choisy. Venice. the Church of S. S. already referred to. and remains the greatest achievement in the style the interior being perhaps the most satisfactory of all domed examples. largely directing the architecture of these districts. Perigueux. tombs and baptisteries. and M." constructed after the size of the marble shafts had been assured. They were not always laid horizontally. and the vaults with colored mosaics on a golden back-ground. Byzantine art and influences were carried westward by traders. with the Romanesque style. yet as already stated the Basilican type is characteristic of the former and the vaulted church with pendentives of the latter. The dome.194 2. by the use of bands and relieving arches of an ornamental character. A shell. Domes were now placed over square apartments. 0/532-537) was erected. . as in the Roman period. In fact no church was founded during this period in which mosaic was not intended to be employed. which developed the vault in Western of the The and Northern Europe (page 224). Externally an attempt was made to render the rough brick exteriors of Roman times more pleasing. and are found at S." traces the influence of this tradition of domical construction on Greek architecture to show how from this fusion the later imperial architecture became possible.

S. for the dome on pendentives was invented and perfected entirely in the East. to teach the column to .' a feature which was still further embellished in the Renaissance Period by the employment of a circular peristyle or colonnade. From. The Classic orders were dispensed with. Windows were now formed in the lower portion of the dome. As Freeman says: "The problem was to bring the arch and column into union -in other words. 82. arid in the church of S. assume a novel form (Nos. which is quite a distinct system. and one of the most remarkable peculiarities of Byzantine churches was that the tunnel vault and the dome had no additional outer covering. 836. the "greater number of their vaults rose into space without " any kind of support (i. porous stones. In vaulting. and there is an absence of preparatory and auxiliary work. Sophia. Vitale. Choisy remarking that. types. 84. but were. Byzantine art is the Greek spirit working on Asiatic lines. as at S. 80 A) so closely correspond with the section as in the Byzantine. four being in S. in. : o 2 . not derived from a Roman but from an Asiatic source. 79). Ravenna (No. by the use of large flat bricks. especially pumice.e. the time when the architect permitted the forms of the vaults and arches to appear as architectural features in the facades. of which there are seven distinct for the purpose. and the semicircular arches made to rest directly on coiumns designed The capitals.. without centering). where it is formed with urns and amphorae placed side by side and grouted with mortar. these features were as a rule placed over a circular apartment. The architecture of the Byzantines was thus developed by the use of brick in the fullest manner. the regular entablatures of the Romans were abandoned. 88 and 89). M. the columns and entablatures could be and were removed without causing the ruin of the building. Sophia is seen the fully-developed Byzantine style for whereas in the older buildings of Rome. Sophia the true Greek expression of truth in construction was reverted to. the voussoirs of which were always square. In the Byzantine system of vaulting the vault surfaces gave the conditions of the problem. 83 D). were used sometimes the domes were constructed of pottery. especially in domical vaulting. . and not set in receding planes. 195 whereas in Roman architecture 80. The grouping of the smaller domes round the larger central one was very effective externally (No. me). presenting a direct contrast to the mediaeval buildings of Europe. and the groins or angles of intersections were of secondary importance.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. appropriate to their new purpose of receiving the springers of arches. which in the later period was hoisted upon a high circular drum. as in so-called Gothic architecture. but really supporting the galleries. thus in no style does the elevation visible externally (No. its columns and capitals being not merely ornamental. 86.


Sophia exhibit a remarkable and beautiful structural expedient. tion of these kinds of ornamentation. This independence of the different parts of the structure was a leading idea in Byzantine construction.' These shafts once assured. but the . before even the foundations were prepared. and when this had settled down and dried. for the columns decided the height and points of support of the building. was the material preferred in the construction of walls. it is not that the Byzantines took great pains in their surprising . such walls were the most suitable for the recepBricks being so much used. and cornices. The science of construction acquired by the Romans descended to the Byzantines. and " ' bricks. moreover. it was possible to bring together unyielding marble and brickwork with large mortar joints that must have settled down very considerably. for the walls were formed with a brick facing and concrete core a method also employed for vaults. In this way the carcass was completed at once. manufacture when it is remembered that they employed them in their military as well as in their ecclesiastical and domestic architecture. and is obviously necessary when the quantity of mortar is so great that the bricks become secondary in height to the joints. further. and bronze annulets surround the shafts under the capital and above the base. everything else being completed as a brick " The building was thus made of vast masses of thin carcass. with mortar joints of equal thickness". and the pavement laid down. . and lent itself to all the caprices of the architect for as interiors were always lined with marble and mosaics. Further. the walls were sheeted with their marble covering. who were only required to prepare the bases. 197 support the arch. bridges. more or . Swainson and Lethaby say." This was done by shaping the block of marble which formed the capital so that a simple transition from the square block to the circular shaft of the column was formed. and aqueducts. Brick. capitals. the body of the structure was proceeded with as a brickwork shell without further dependence on the masons. as Messrs. the numerous round shafts of S.he first it monolithic marble shafts. or decorated with frescoes. The form of these varied a great deal. by which the necking is entirely suppressed.' less decided. the bricklayers not having to wait for the masons and. The building procedure was developed somethe general form of the building being what as follows : thing necessary was to collect was necessary to have a certain knowledge where such might be quarried or otherwise obtained. since the monolithic shafts had to be set up contrary to the direction of the quarry bed and also the lead seating from being forced out by the superincumbent weight. by reserving the application of the marble until the structure was dry and solid. the vaults overlaid with mosaic. These prevent the shafts from splitting a likely result.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.

The Theodosian code in fact encouraged this branch of trade and industry. Flat splays enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation were introduced.D. and mosaic and marbles were used. composed of lime. tiles or bricks. being a rectangle of . although a certain number follow the Basilican type. and the mode of ornamentation by means of colored marbles was carried to a greater extent than ever before. with an absence of mouldings. The simple exteriors of brickwork. the majority are founded on the circular and polygonal plans of the Roman and Early Christian periods. an invention which was introduced in the Early Christian -period. cornices and modillions. all the mosaics which still adorn the domes and apses being of colored glass enamel rendered opaque by oxide of tin. in a broad way. columns of the richest marbles were taken from old buildings. EXAMPLES. the importation and sale of newly quarried columns and other decorative materials. ordinary shape was like the Roman. with bandings of stone. as Moulds were used for the pieces forming already mentioned. cornices.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the workmen employed in them were governed by imperial decrees issued specially for their guidance. and the art of enamelling had arrived at perfection. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. Constantinople erected by Justinian. One surface melts into another as the mosaic is continued from arch and pendentive upwards to the dome. and the shafts of columns when of this material were built of circular bricks. Byzantine examples consist mainly of churches and baptisteries. Sergius and Bacchus. architectural lines being replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. is (A. and crushed pottery. 3. The interiors were beautified by richly colored marble pavements in opus sectile or opus Alexandrinum (page 1199. an inch and a half in depth. The universal use of brickwork made the Byzantines pay great attention to their mortar. 527). which were subordinate to the decorative treatment. and it remains as hard as that in the best buildings of Rome. The extensive use of rich marbles and mosaics caused a flat treatment. which was worked on rounded angles. unity of surface was always maintained. SS. as a complete lining to a rough carcass. and they were always laid upon a thick bed of mortar. and the gold of the background being carried into the Although figures. sand. did not in the least decrease. In the former. The quarries opened by the Romans continued to be used. such as rare marbles. nearly square in plan. The use of natural stones in mosaics and inlaid pavements had been abolished.


(a.. S. The Plan consists of a central space 107 feet square. but was being partially restored by the Sultan at the time of the authors' visit in January. in two stories. 81). 1 80 feet above the pavement. 79. 83). 52 feet in diameter and 66 feet high. and is inclosed in a square instead of an octagon (No. . This church. 25 feet square. forming continuations of the four great piers already mentioned. 532-537.) The wooden-roofed basilica. with marble columns and brick pillars. 79.200 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. in A. irreparably damaged in consequence of the penetration of rain through the roof. but it has four niches only. 1896. The beautiful frescoes . and forms a grand apartment over 200 feet long by 30 feet wide it is in two stories. pierced with double arches on the ground and upper These piers take the thrust of the main arches and dome story.) The church erected by Theodosius.D.e. which is subservient to it. less than a semi-dome). 80. The square central space is crowned with a dome.D. to the west of the main building.and mosaics are. . crowned with semi-domes. S. on the two sides where there are no semi-domes. however. 415. London). formed The area thus a great oval-ended nave 265 feet by 107 feet. excluding the apse and narthex. having no wooden roof. bounded : by four massive piers. SS. i. picturesquely situated on the shores of the Bosphorus. The dome. 360. and the whole doubled in size. are massive buttresses. Sophia in plan if it were cut in two and a dome on pendentives placed over an intervening square. Further west is the outer narthex and atrium. measures 250 feet by 237 feet. G). The narthex. 25 feet wide by 70 feet long. East and west are great semicircular spaces. Constantinople (Hagia Sophia = " Divine Wisdom") (Nos. in their turn covered with semi-domes. and supporting a dome 107 feet in diameter (cf. the upper story being for women. was built by order of Justinian. The (b. F. erected by Constantine. architects were Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. is in a ruinous condition. The domical method of construction governs the plan. E. Paul. and is of a peculiar melon-like form caused by the formation of ridges and furrows from base to summit. connected above by semicircular arches. but in itself only 47 feet in height above its base (i. is which. A. Vitale (No. To the north and south. and out of these are formed smaller exedrae. is visible externally.e. These aisles bring the main building approximately to a square.D. Sergius and Bacchus would resemble S. on the site of two successive churches of the s"ame name. A. was set apart for catechumens and penitents. Outside this central area are aisles over 50 feet wide. the upper forming a gallery to the church. north and south. all. Sophia. 109 feet by 92 feet over and has an interior arrangement very similar to S.


and six smaller columns on the upper story. The capitals are mostly of the pyramidal or cubiform type. with little apparent support." The impression is that of one great central domed space with semicircular domed ends. The construction of the dome is explained on No. as " as if suspended by a Procopius. The two semi-domes. The lower stories of the aisles (north and south of the central space) are supported by four columns of dark green marble from the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus. and the vaults and domes are enriched with glass mosaics of the apostles. in varied patterns. while scale is obtained by the careful gradation of the various parts from the two-storied arcades to the aisles and lofty dome. Moulded bronze rings encircle the column shafts at their junction with the capitals and bases. The pendentives carrying the central dome have a projection of 25 feet and a height of over 60 feet. with small Ionic angle volutes and delicately incised carving. and Thessalian marble).domes. yet the four pendentives exhibit the six. The columns of many-colored marbles are used constructively to support the galleries which rest on a variety of groined vaults. of which forty are below and sixty-seven above. the actual effect of the whole is one of extreme intricacy. abut against the great arches which support the central dome and act as buttresses The smaller exedrae are also to it on the east and west sides. an eye-witness. chain from heaven. 80. Celtic black. although the general scheme is very simple. Although many angels. the upper stories having six columns of the same material.winged seraphim. described it. of these are now concealed by matting covered with plaster. whom Mahometans acknowledge under the. covered with semi. the rest of the building being of brickwork. and elsewhere. the height gradually decreasing from 179 feet at the centre. still are replaced by quotations from the Koran. Internally. and saints on a glittering golden ground. The walls and piers are lined with beautifully-colored marbles (Phrygian white. Gabriel. The great piers supporting the dome are of stones. and when the light is favourable the figure of Christ can still be seen in the vaults of the apse. which rests. like a canopy over the centre. Michael. . as has been stated. brought from the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec. Laconian green. Each oi the four small exedrse has two large columns of dark red porphyry below. white marble with black veins from the Bosphorus. fixed by means of metal cramps the floors are laid with colored mosaics of various patterns. or . or.2O2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. east and west. and Israfil. names of the four Archangels. The total number of columns in the church is 107 (the same number as the diameter of the church in feet). Lybian blue. Raphael.


of its proportions. under The bases of the domes the great arches which support the dome.D. . as also the two great spandrel walls between them. especially in respect of the abutting semicircular domes. one at each corner of the building. Sophia is the masterpiece of Byzantine architecture asS but/ the Parthenon is of Greek. but subsequently much altered. . finally about A. is interesting as preserving the Basilican plan of nave and two aisles with Eastern apse and Western atrium. Externally the walls are faced with brick and stone in alternate courses. Irene. The Church of the Chora. 740. The Theotokos Church. The vaulting of the domes and semi-domes is visible. and provided with windows lighting the central area. The lighting is partly effected by forty small windows piercing Additional light is introduced through the dome at its base. having a double narthex crowned with three domes. reached from the exterior by four gently sloping ascents. of the smaller exedrae are also provided with windows. The plainness of the exterior causes the building to depend for effect entirely on the massiveness of its form and the general symmetry S. originally constructed by Constantine and several times destroyed and rebuilt. Many of the windows are small and spanned by semicircular arches others are more elaborate. dating from the ninth to the twelfth century. in which large semicircular headed openings are divided into six by columns in two heights. twelve windows in each of the spandrel walls. north and south.204 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Constantinople. pierced with openings about 7 inches square. A variation of the dosseret block is in general used on the lines of the Classical abacus. Constantinople. and has semicircular windows on three sides and an apse on the It has an inner and outer narthex. and a central dome over the church itself. and on a column to the south exedra on entering is the date 534. and from the interior by stone staircases. pierced by windows. or the Pantheon of Roman neither in plan nor treatment does it seem to have been largely imitated. resting on a high drum pierced with windows to light the interior. resting on wooden battens placed The immense buttresses immediately on the brick vaults. make imposing external features. deeply recessed from their face. filled with glass. the lighting area being filled with lattice work of marble 3 inches thick. ornamented with fourth. is a small but perfect example. dating originally from the fourth century. Some bear the monogram of Justinian. S. It has a central area crowned with a dome resting on a drum 26 feet in diameter. is an interesting example." or women's gallery. already referred to. being covered with lead i-inch thick. . as in those to the " Gynseceum. It has a dome which is believed to be the earliest example. Constantinople.



9*1 .

84 c) is in the form of a Greek cross.2O8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . The plan of S. Mark (No. 85 and 86). 83 A. whose prototype was the Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome (No. 526~547)/(No. for the most part. The interior (Nos. The vestibules fill out the western arm of the cross to a square on plan. by Charlemagne. an inner octagon of 50 feet being inclosed by an outer one of no feet. 1063-1071. D). in fact. 83 derived from this church (see S.. in which are worked figures of saints mingled with scenes from their lives. which is evident in Venetian architecture. 86) (see below). to make way for the Mosque of Sultan Mahomet II. the gallery are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels arcade connects the piers on either side. Vitale. tine influences are seen. thus differing in construction from Roman examples. by a square bay cutting through the outer The relation of the chancel to the octagon is successfully aisle. The dome is composed of earthen pots. Venice (Nos. 84 A and 86) is richly veneered with colored marbles casing the lower part of the walls above. 85). was the second type of Byzantine plan. Ravenna (A. is the real and essential decoration of the church. and protected by a wooden roof. which carry the dome. the columns and marble mosaics to the exterior being added between 1100-1350.D. The Church of the Holy Apostles. hence It is is now known as the " mosaic mosque. It is to be noted that the other seven arches of the inner designed. was erected. and destroyed in A. between A.D. of equal arms. covered by a dome in the centre (42 feet in diameter). and one over each arm of the cross. 85. built The church page 261). F). but rebuilt by Justinian. B) is octagonal on plan.D. is a lining of richly colored glass mosaic. at Aix-la-Chapelle (No. is his tomb. the depth of the gallery being that of the pier. 1463." supposed by some that the fagade of this church served as a model for that of S. S. and is interesting as being the prototype of S. 83 c. 84. Constantinople. is : . 84. and is deriyed It from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. Venice (Nos. Venice was by situation one of the connecting links between the Byzantine and Franconian empires. and a great depot of the traffic between the East and West. Venice (No. set off by a broad background of gold. carrying round the In many particulars Byzangallery usual in Eastern churches. The apsidal chancel opens from the inner octagon. founded by Constantine the Great. Mark. it large mosaic decorations. and extending in one great surface over vault and dome. Mark. worthy of note that the square piers. octagon have columns placed on a half circle. to which all architectural detail is subordinated. and containing E. Mark. Mosaic.

X F.A. .

described by Ruskin. The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine church and an Early Christian basilican church are as follows : tine leading thought in a Byzanis vertical. forming a rich and beautiful portal. In Armenia teristics. as may be seen in the little Metropole Cathedral (No. Russia among the best known examples all are the Cathedrals of Moscow. 84 A). supported by means of pendentives. The narthex was placed within the main walls. . the Church of the Kapnikarea. 4. In Greece the buildings are small but exquisitely executed. by the grouping of domes round a principal central one. 80. Sophia. forming a Greek cross. towards which the eye The church is drawn. and the Monastery ofS. COMPARATIVE. are also interesting examples with local characsuch as the Church of S. On each side extend short arms. due to the use of bulbous-shaped domes and unusual of and Novgorod. polished marble. and other churches at Athens the Church of Daphni. George (A. on the north of the Gulf of Corinth. which direct the eye towards the apsidal termination. /variable. who says that they depend not only upon the most delicate sculpture in every part. and S. but also on the most subtle. showing externally). 84). shown in No. details. TreUzond. Plans. 500550) an example of a five-aisled basilica with transepts (not .D.2IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. K. enriched with of many-colored marbles The shafts brought from Alexandria and the ruined cities of the East. Mosaic panels also serve to enrich with color the spandrels of the arches. and In galleries. 5. and has been the accepted style of the Greek church to the effects of S. by means of the long perspective of columns. Byzantine churches are all distinguished by a great central square space covered with a dome. Demetrius (A. 400) is an early example of a domed church.D. The leading idea in an Early Christian basilica is horizontal. and lustrous gold. and other parts. At Thessalonica (Salonica). 87). inexpressible color produced by transparent alabaster. Kieff. which with the narthex and side galleries make the plan nearly square (Nos. The Byzantine style spread over Greece. 79 j. external fagade (No. A. Russia. It must be remembered that this and the external domes are a later casing upon the original exterior of the usual Byzantine type (No. Luke of Stiris. which have a decided Eastern aspect. in Macedonia. near Athens. 85) has five entrances. The Mark have been present day.


a quarter of an inch thick. perhaps the only example in Europe being that over the tomb of Galla Placidia(No. although the fa$ade was sometimes various colors. 73 H. The windows are small and grouped together (Nos. in c). In S. 83 D). Internally. SOB. and the consequent exclusion of painted glass. The churches depend largely for light on the ring " of windows at the base of the dome. and on Such windows. and then scooping out the interior above the crown of these semicircles is the dome. or in the drum. 87). resting on the vaults without any wood roofing (No. or concrete. H). each at right angles to the last. Portions of the windows are occasionally filled with thin slabs of translucent marble (No. marble . in conings sufficed to admit the necessary light. . already described (page 187). a series of domes formed in brick. hence a flat casing and mosaic being applied to the walls treatment and absence of mouldings prevailed. c. however. 80 A). to represent the the portion four arches. In early examples the pendentives were part of one sphere. Hollow earthenware was used in order to reduce the thrust on the supporting walls (No. G. . Walls. The early domes were very flat. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The method of roofing these buildings was by D. Doors and windows are semicircular headed (No. sequence. a type not found in Roman architecture. stone. practically non-existent as a northern architect would understand it. love of magnificence was developed.212 B. A good idea of this type is obtained by halving an orange. 86). vening triangles are the pendentives. but rises independently from their summits (Nos. relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick. K). and in the bright climate very much smaller openTracery was. j. the oriental all These were often constructed of brick. Externally the buildings were left comparatively plain. 89 but segmental and horse. 80 B). 89 G). rendered the use of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed quite inadmissible. grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch beneath the dome.shoe/ arched openings are sometimes seen." or circular base on which the dome is sometimes raised (No. openings grouped in the gable ends (No. and the interSuch domes are rare. Roofs. Sophia the vaults are covered with sheets of lead. cutting off four slices. 80 A and The universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches. The Byzantines introduced the dome placed over a square or octagonal plan by means of pendentives (No. with frequently no further external covering. in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder. fastened to wood laths. in Openings. are a great feature in the style. 79 j). In the later type the dome is not part of the same sphere as the pendentives.


constructively. these were taken from E. probably derived from the Classic dentils. This represented the disused Classic architrave. Externally. which was Further. 88). the massive piers alone supporting the superstructure. over which was placed a deep abacus block. 89 D. Columns were used and often only introduced Romanesque churches (page 227). due to the origin of the craftsmen. Mouldings. unity of surface is always maintained. the decorative lining of marble and mosaic in panels was sometimes framed in billet mouldings. Mosaic thus was used in a broad way as a complete lining to a rough structure. and architectural lines were replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. F. the walls being lined with costly marbles with the veining carefully arranged so as to form patterns. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. an altered larger in area than the shaft of the column. and pendentive up to the dome. These were unimportant. with occasional stone banded courses. ancient structures. but were always subordinate to support galleries. and effect was frequently obtained by sinking portions of the surfaces. One surface melts into another as the mosaic sheet creeps from wall. sometimes called a "dosseret" (No. and aided in supporting the springing of" the arch. their place being taken by broad flat expanses of wall surfaces. or consisted in the lower portion of a cube block with rounded corners.214 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Greek rather than Roman technique was followed in the The carving was carving. 89 c) or Corinthian types (Nos. and the vaults and upper part of walls with glass mosaic having symbolic figures. G. and of V-shaped section. Capitals sometimes took a form derived from the Roman Ionic (No. a convex shape The surfaces of these capitals were form being best adapted. arch. The acanthus leaf. which not being so numerous in the East as in the neighbourhood of Rome. mainly executed in low relief. and the gold surfaces being continued as a background to the figures. groups of saints and representations of the peacock (the emblem of immortal life). deeply channelled. The scheme of ornamentation was elaborate in the extreme. A special character of the carving was due to the use of the drill instead of the chisel (No. Ornament. 88) between the leaves. 89. Several other types are shown in No. In the earlier buildings. having drilled eyes (No. and flat splays enriched by incised ornamentation were used. Columns. the whole forming a striking contrast to the less permanent painted frescoes usually adopted in the Western features. . is . E). the simple treatment of the elevations in flat expanses of brickwork. the supply was sooner exhausted and thus there was an incentive to design fresh ones. carved with incised foliage of sharp outline. Internally. 88 and 89 D). of capital was required to support the arch.


) "Count Robert of Paris. published by Signer Ongania. Bentley." (Historical Novel. Note. A good general idea of the exterior of a church in this style is to be gained from the Greek Church in the Moscow Road. the pattern being cut into it without breaking its outline.. 1886. The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as compared with Classical. Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine ornamentation. and in clos6 contact with the East. "The Monastery of St. adopted from the Greek variety. 2 vols. Lethaby (W. is that the pattern is incised instead of seeming to be applied. erected by Oldrid Scott. . W. drilled at the several springings of the teeth with deep holes. Church of Sancta Sophia." Folio. P." 8vo. and Oriental methods.) and Swainson (H. " Scott (Sir W. " Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel." Salzenburg (W. 1864. folio and 4to. " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Knight (H. Italy. Schultz (R. Choisy 1842-1843. Luke of Stiris in Phocis. but became more conventional. 1901. vols." Byzantine Architecture.). folio. 5. 8vo. 1883.." 2 vols.) and Pullan (R." 2 vols.). with acute-pointed leaves. for the surface always remained flat. Venice. van)." 8vo. " Saint Mark's. Paris.)." Folio. "Christian Iconography. Constantinople." Folio. " Milligen (A.2l6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Texier (C. Bayswater.) and Barnsley (S. and this is accounted for by the fact that Constantinople was a Greek city. 1894. 1854-1855. 1899. "L'Art de Batir chez les Byzantins.). The mosaics and casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum should also be inspected. Berlin. R. N.). Byzantine Constantinople.)..) L. G. 4to and folio. H. Didron (A. 1881. REFERENCE BOOKS." A large and beautiful monograph in several Venice.). (A. as also the new Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster by the late John F..

COLOGNE/ ROUEN EMPIRE V CflLIPHflTE - OF THE ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. IN INFLUENCES. in those countries which had been directly under Geographical. was on throughout practically the whole of the Western empire that is. i. a general outline sketch is given. the rule of Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country. and is Rome. Roman empire.i i. 1 . The position of each country will be slightly touched upon under its own heading. The influence of Byzantine art brought through Ravenna and Venice also influenced the Italian Romanesque in Lombardy and Europe generally. The style of the carried which grew up on the decay known as Romanesque. GENERAL INTRODUCTION.a/? .

and was manifested in magnificent edifices. Among the chief monastic orders were the following in the (i. Until the middle of the twelfth century science. : The own different countries looked to Rome until each developed its . As East and West drifted apart their architecture developed on opposite lines. occasionally taking the field in person. (For a description of the typical plan of a monastery see page 276). In these early times a rough use of the material at hand characterizes the style in each country. and the erection of a church was often the foundation of a city. Jessop's "Daily Life of an Monastique. Religious enthusiasm and zeal prevailed. The Christian Church. thus increasing the power of the Church. but architecture of Western Europe due to Eastern influence is classed as Byzantine.2l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The papacy had been rising to great power and civil it rivalled or controlled such Pragmatic Sanction (A. Climate. The government as existed.D. iii. Local styles were favoured by the variations of climate north and south of the Alps. the loss of the Holy Places resulted in the long warfare known as the Crusades (1096-1270) between the Christians of the West and the Mahometans of the East. by whose decree architecture. as referred to in each country." English Monastery" is interesting as showing the life led by the monks. with the encouragement and aid of Charlemagne. art and enlightenment generally were the monopoly of religious bodies. letters. as those at S. mosaic and all branches of art were taught. The nlonastic communities. ii. and. with which now often rested the nomination of public functionaries and judges. influence. directed with skill. The feudal rank of bishops and abbots made them in some sense Schools military chiefs. which was the civilizing and educating agency of the period. Gall. attached to certain monasteries discharged to some extent the functions of universities. Religion. founded in the South of Italy sixth century by S. and Rheims. Tours. Geological. as stated by Albert Lenoir in " 1'Architecture Dr. Down to the thirteenth century. was striving to extend its boundaries in Northern Europe. and the aid thus rendered by monastic institutions to architecture was therefore important. style. iv. and in creed warfare. 554) had already conferred authority on the Bishops over the provincial and municipal governments. architecture was practised largely by the clergy and came to be regarded as a sacred science. Benedict. came into existence.) The Benedictine order. so that when the Turks overran Palestine. and will be referred to under the same. All the painting. and pupils of monks afterwards became the designers of many of the great Gothic Cathedrals. and may be studied with advantage.

Such a regime explains In Italy the establishthe extreme severity of their architecture. near Grenoble. at Citeaux. 909. the transept forming a part of one side of the cloisters.) The military orders included the Knights Templars The churches of the Templars were circular Hospitallers. plan. or steps. The refectory was usually parallel to the nave. 1098.D. transepts.) E). The plan was especially notable for double transepts. in A. as at Lincoln (No.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE older monasteries in IN EUROPE. 1105. one for the monks and the other for the people.) The 1080. Carthusian order was founded by S. on the opposite side of the cloister. (4. opened. The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having on one side a church of cruciform plan with aisles.D. walls. and Castle Acre Priory in England is an example.) The Cluniac order was founded in A. Canterbury was founded in A. 118 B) and Westminster Abbey (No. a feature which was adopted in many English Cathedrals. Clermont in Auvergne. 117 F) and Salisbury (No. The influence of the Cistercian foundation extended to various countries of Europe. in (5. (2.D. Picardy.) The Premonstratensian order was instituted at Premontre. speech was interdicted. and Kirkstall Abbeys. 117 (3. By the rules of the order. 2IQ England belonged to this order.D. Carlisle. ments at Florence and the Certosa near Pavia. as also was the frequently no aisles. Gall. eat and drink in solitude. about the chief French establishment being the Grande Chartreuse. were the most important. The manuscript plan existing in the Library of the monastery of S. and (7. (No. London. 127) being the chief establishments. each being self-contained and with its own garden. the celebrated Abbey at Cluny being the headquarters. and the Carthusian must work. Two churches were preferred. . is interesting as showing what was considered a typical plan of the buildings of this order (page 261). In England the most important were Furness. the typical church was divided into three parts transversely by screens. surrounded by an arcade on which the monks' (6. Cistercian order in The Burgundy. The dormitory was generally placed on another side with a staircase in connection with the church for night services. 1119. Fountains. others being Vauvert. There were The transepts were short.D. and Montrieux. and in England. the Charterhouse. A.) The Augustinian order differed little from the Benedictine. Roche. and Oxford Cathedrals were founded by this order. In plan the typical feature was the great rectangular cells cloister. In It was introduced into England in A. Villefranche de Rouergue. Bruno. and the choir extended westward of the There was an absence of towers and painted glass. and Bristol. eastern arm of the cross. in Switzerland.

They came in A. Till the time of Charlemagne very little . in A.) in A. 799 the Roman Empire in vi. while the influence of the freemasons produced important results. Little Maplestead. as in the Temple Church. plan. on a change of ownership. 1229. Friars of the Holy Trinity. 1197. the West practically passed from the hands of the Romans.D. instituted in Bologna. still the poorer freemen gradually came to be serfs.D. It is supposed they were erected in imitation of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. whose election is a convenient date to mark the end of the Roman Empire as such. Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled during this period. bound to the land and passing with it. to (d. The clergy the scholars of the period directed the building of the churches. In the year A. Historical.) The Jesuits were established to in order to crush the Reformation. While through its operation the class of actual slaves died out. in A. were driven out from Mount Carmel by the Saracens. of which there were several orders.D.D. instituted in A. The growth of the able. and first came England in A. anjd later held a high place in Christian art. or black Friars) were founded (#. The system of feudal tenure. Christianity and civilization gradually extended from southern to western Europe. in A. and were distinguished for intellectual capacity. (8.) (<?. 1216. 1170.D. and Northampton.D. Social and Political.D.D. 1217. Dominic about A. by the election of the first FVankish King. rapidly towns as civilization advanced is noticewhich they acquired. and without at a later period. or the holding of land on condition of military service. Charlemagne. Austin Friars (or Hermits). and skill in craftsmanship was at the lowest ebb. was growing up. London.D. 1209. 1169.) The Friars. They came to England about A. v. and those at Cambridge. and caused important changes in the social and political organization of states. plain.D.) England The (/. Fra Angelico freing the best known member of the order. by most distinguished members. 1538.220 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (9. being designed for preaching purposes. amounting almost gave them importance. and the privileges to independence. Roger Bacon being one of the The S. (&.) Franciscans (mendicant or grey Friars) were founded Francis of Assisi. Crutched (or crouched) Friars. 1098.) They first came to England The Carmelites (or white Friars). aisles. (c. were founded Their churches were large.) The Dominicans (preaching by S.

some intact. and many a yawn. Germany. traditional forms being firstly transformed in general design and detail. were becoming powerful and tending to set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. of the wants he began to understand. 2. and then new features civilization to created.D. imagine an ancient civilization of vast extent. with many local peculiarities. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and which were being carried out. of the means to the ends he would attain. of an ancient of the uses building. Nearly all existence . and Spain. hut he in a great measure restored the arts Western Europe before his death in A. 814. devoid of physical force. in a rough and ready way. in various parts of Europe. and most of them disused which happens in due course to every great nation or calamity group of peoples and further suppose that the civilization is represented by a man.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE building IN EUROPE. him little protection either from heat or cold. and Norway were distinct kingdoms. but after the millennium had passed. the nations of Europe had at this time come into France. while his own shelter afforded . which now had become only a title. Before the year A. of monoliths of and marble. and as he gradually acquired a knowledge to which he might apply this and that fragment. Denmark. What happened ? As time went on he gathered up the smaller fragments and arranged them perhaps upon the foundations. Sweden. In his midst were ruins of vast edifices.D. The term Romanesque may be said to include all those phases of Western European architecture which were more or less based on Roman art. some still standing among heaps of stones hewn and carved. when it was popularly supposed that the world would come to an end. threw off the sleep of ages and awakened to a sense of the treasure he possessed. dormant. he insensibly porphyry . and England had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the end of the eleventh century. while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the towers. which will be noticed under each country. and with many a contortion. all unguarded. from the departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the pointed arch in the thirteenth century. but the change was slow. little building was carried out. but who slowly. 1000. and recognisable only by the multitude of its monuments. The general architectural character is sober and dignified. still intact. buildings sprang up in all parts. In northern Europe. of sculptured capitals and friezes. 221 and was done. others injured or a partially destroyed. As helping towards the appreciation of the character of Romanesque architecture. and projection of the transepts and choir.


Mark. the development of monasteries in the eleventh century gave a great impulse to civilization and agriculture. was to lead to the next glorious period of architecture the thirteenth century in which elasticity of structure was joined to the principle of equilibrium. naturally. Further. for the earlier buildings of the period were often built from the remains of ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity. however. putting aside spasmodic efforts. who invaded this portion of France from 719-732. for. and which. the period of the tenth to the twelfth centuries is remarkable for the tentative employment of a new constructive principle and a new use of material. Perigueux. in conjunction with the aisleless nave. but with apparently little foundation. 84). in the same way in which S. both in construction and decorative treatment. the old traditional basilican plan was preferred and adhered to during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the chief centre of the growing traffic from the East. the development from Roman to Gothic art was . This explains the birth of Romanesque. and the second was the employment of dressed stonework in comparatively small pieces. but the dome raised on pendentives became the common kind of vaulting. to have been derived from contact with the Saracens. 223 produced a new art founded on the old.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE JN EUROPE. moreover. By this new employment of materials. a new style was evolved. was the result of the close connection of these centres with the trade and commerce of the East (No. the whole current of architecture was turned to a constructive system which should answer to its needs. These buildings partake. the quarry of the ruins of ancient buildings largely influenced the work done. in the South. It is worthy of note also that the use of the pointed arch occurred in the South of France sooner than in the North. The first was( the principle of equilibrium which succeeded that of inert \ stability as used by the Romans. Similarly. Front. being the seat of the Exarch or representative of the Byzantine Emperor in the western part of his dominions. especially in the Western and Northern Provinces. and the highway by which artistic and other products of the Levant were dispersed through France and the North of after . In the course of time. In Italy (page 228) there were various early Christian edifices erected at Ravenna from the fifth to the seventh centuries. Front. In France (page 246). because the materials in use up to that time had not demanded it. and S. con nected with mortar beds of considerable thickness. and it is considered by some. ) many tentative experiments. for on the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. notably S. Provence was. of the elements of the fully developed Byzantine style. Venice. This was a method not before attempted. Europe. for Ravenna was the principal city in Italy during this period. with certain exceptions. and exercised considerable influence on architecture.

which had previously been settled without design. The panelling was then filled in on the top of these ribs. as shown in No. known as " severies. / Romanesque Vaulting. seizing on the Proven9al principle of the Pointed arch. yet purifying dissolution of the Dark Ages. (&. the" vaulting of the naves of the Romanesque churches in follows : .224 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. however. and especially that of the diagonal rib. this domical form was not used. The Roman system of plain cross vaulting (No % in A). accomplished through the ordeal of the destructive. Up to the end of the twelfth century the Provengal architects had led the way. where the vaults were generally constructed with level ridges. 4 as used in Europe up to the twelfth century. 112. but at this period the lay architects of the North. ' the thirteenth century. in which a framework of ribs supported vaulting surfaces of thinner stone. by the intersection of the two vaulting surfaces meeting at right angles. On the Continent. in B and 112 c). but the use of ordinates. when it began to be superseded by the "groin-rib" type of vaulting. D G) or else by forming the diagonal rib as a and transverse ribs becoming segment of a circle." or " in-filling. 112 D ). and the profile of the groins It was therefore followed as a matter of course. If the vaulting surfaces were semi-cylindrical the diagonal groin was of necessity a semi-ellipse. viz. and in consequence the structure was highly domical.. In vaulting an oblong compartment the difference between the heights of the diagonal and wall ribs was still greater and produced an awkward waving line of the groins on plan (Nos." This method introduced a new principle in vaulting. cleared to a great extent of the extraneous elements with which it had been so long encrusted. 112 B. . especially in Germany and (fl. who surmounted the difficulty arismg from the difference of span of the diagonal and transverse ribs as . necessary for the Romanesque architects to find the profile of the ribs. in E. whence the true spirit of Roman construction emerged. the 2longitudinal semicircular (No.) France. having the longest span. 3 transverse and longitudinal ribs (No. as mentioned above. designing the profile of the the form of the vaulting surfaces to groin ribs and leaving themselves to them whereas in Roman architecture the adapt vaulting surface was first settled. In. soon developed from it the magnificent Gothic system of the perfected architecture of . the vaulting ribs were usually portions of circular curves of similar curvature starting from the same level. the difference in height between the ribs being equalized by stilting the diagonal and the transverse 5 latter (No. D ). thus the diagonal rose to a greater height than the rib.) In England. does not appear to have been employed by the Romanesque architects.

was formed a vaulted crypt as at S. HID 3. The earlier examples have choirs without aisles. In some instances the intermediate pier was carried up as a . as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (Nos. (refer to each country). Paris (No. and 112 D). Plans. the type of the Early Christian Church took place. took the Roman basilica as a model for the new churches. which were accordingly strengthened (No. these difficulties of It will also Germany. 94 A. as at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (No. the church partaking more and more of a well-defined cross on plan. and Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen. as The transepts were the at S. and of great prominence in the design. and the chancel prolonged further east than in the basilicas. 112 E. Q . E and 105). 105 G). The towers are special features. as at Canterbury the difficulty of spanning . oblong accommodating the heights be found that all of ribs of different spans. 157). During the following centuries this principle of rib design became more "complex by the multiplication of the frame-work of ribs described under Gothic vaulting (page 272). 93) and S.same breadth as the nave. In church architecture further developments from A. 105 c). which was usually twice the width of the aisles. in France. 225 compartments was surmounted by including two of them in one square bay of vaulting. 94 and 95). Miniato. as at Worms (No. and Notre Dame. and underneath. The weight (six part) vaulting (Nos. and calling architecture out of its sleep. Mayence and Spires. B. 105 B and 112 F). in which the saints and martyrs were buried. Transepts were usually added.vaulting shaft and formed the vaulting compartment into " six parts on plan. supported on piers. however. The choir was raised considerably by means of steps.A. being continued round in later examples. each main bay corresponding with two square compartments of the side aisles (Nos. Michele. Pavia (Nos. and in England. Michele. EXAMPLES 4. . of the vaulting in this case was therefore supported by alternate piers. F). were surmounted by the introduction of the pointed arch (No. 94). COMPARATIVE. Charlemagne gathered around him artists and skilled workmen. Florence (No. the latter. which was then known as " sexpartite 100 c. 10^ cloisters in connection The F.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Pavia (No. with the churches are often of great beauty and have capitals and other features elaborately carved. especially in oblong compartments.

connected at the top by horizontal mouldings. of course. "Walls. In early examples rib mouldings were not used in the vaulting. formed capitals. . having on the exterior. Oxon (No. The arches followed the same method. were at first plain. especially over the side aisles in the eleventh century. buttresses formed as pilaster strips of slight projection. octagonal. having windows to each. The principle upon which the jambs were formed characteristic. although technical skill was at a very low ebb during this period. in the case where the thrust of a vaulted roof had to be met (Nos. They are either square. of vertical. stilted (No. 94 and 100). inthian or Ionic capitals occur as in the third column from the crossing was crowned by an " octa- . Intersecting barrel vaults (No.D. The principal doorways are usually placed in the transepts. The form of arch universally employed was semicircular 5 (No. Columns.the columns have a variety of . influenced B.e. Roofs. and the difficulty in constructing these in oblong bays led to the use of pointed arches D. 94 F. The shafts of . general employment of vaulting. 94 A). Roman work and precedent. or trellis work form. The door and window openings are very c. these columns. 98 B. four of the sides were carried on The Romanesque architects used " flying (Nos. 94 and 105). and the profile of the jamb is carried round the orders. known as were placed circular columns or shafts. all constructive art in Europe. Openings. about noo A. but when introduced. or rectangular recesses. often raised. 112 D G). j). being built in concentric A continuous abacus often occurs over rings (No. 138) also in Southern Italian examples. as at Palermo. The characteristic rose (or wheel) window occurred over the principal door of the church in the west front. t ." which semicircular portion of the arch in southern examples. with c). but the central nave was still often covered with a plain wooden roof. or by a row of semicircular arches resting on a corbel table Semicircular arxphes. as at IfHey Church. resting on rudely projecting from the wall. treatments. Walls were in general coarsely built. or circular. also occur.. and afterwards moulded in a simple manner (No. i. 112 G) were usual. 107 L). spiral. The in later times. or the whole shaft is sometimes covered In early examples forms of the with sculptured ornaments. was " in receding in planes. was due to the desire of fire-proofing the building. flutings being used (Nos. H. 94). but it was left for the Gothic architects of the thirteenth century to place them above the aisle roof and weight them with pinnacles. buttresses" under the aisle roof. Other peculiarities are referred to in the comparative table of each country. When " squinch arches gonal dome.226 and 105 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and are placed at the west and east ends and the crossing of nave and transepts. well-marked stories.E.

with lower corners rounded off and no carving. H. The carving and ornaments were derived from G. 107 D. John's Chapel. and the lower circular moulding often overhangs the plinth. E. geography as a whole. and is moulded with alternate fillets and The base to the column (Nos. These were often carved elaborately. 135). 103. or Attic base. required great technical by Byzantine mosaic. Ornament. M. 135). the interiors fresco is more commonly used than mosaic. which . 227 where and the right in S. j. 98. John's Chapel. Mouldings. be referred to in English Romanesque (Norman) architecture The The abacus over the capital (Nos.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. an adaptation of the old Classical form. L. M. K. c). Tower of London (No. skill. but projects less than in the Classical style. or is sometimes richly carved and scolloped (Nos. and 146) is hollows. 107 and 146) is always distinctive in form it is higher. capital in later times was often of a cushion (cubiform) shape. 146 and 148 B. Also see Nos. 139). many types of the vegetable and animal kingdom and treated In in a conventional way. (No. as will F. at the 'angles of which flowers or animals were occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part. 139). climate. 103 D. 98 j. as in S. Early stained glass was influenced Note. often but rudely carved (No. The above are the principal characteristics of the style Local influences of taste. Classic influence is apparent. and geological formations were instrumental in producing the different characteristics of each country. Tower of London (No. Q 2 . generally resting on a square plinth.

(See Roman architecture. Geographical. local volcanic stone (tufa or peperino). king of the Franks. " In Middle Rome there was in stone working The Church of Mary painted royally of it were some two or three The chapels In each of them her tabernacle was And a wide window of six feet in glass Coloured with ail 1 .) Religion. advanced into Italy in 773. 1 The style is divided into three is central. INFLUENCES. i. entered Rome for the first time in 774. while the south. after defeating He gave the the Lombards. and Travertine stone from Marble was obtained from Carrara. although the Popes had only small temporal dominions. . and. Peter. Charlemagne. a few miles off. they began to make their power felt in civil government. her works in red and gold. and south. north. Paros and the other Greek isles. which the Pope accepted in the name Thus in 755 Central Italy severed its connection of S.). iti. ii. thereby inaugurating the temporal power of the papacy.. It was during this period that. defended the latter from the Lombards and gave him the lands they had seized and also the chief city of the Exarchate (Ravenna)." I. to Climate. The comparative table of the three together given on page 242. and the disputes with the emperors began. . page 112. and building stone was abundant. CENTRAL ITALY. asked by the Pope (Stephen II. with the Empire and became independent. Pippin. (772-779). Geological. Florence lay on the great route from south to north. and to Naples on Pisa was by position a maritime power. commanding the passage of the Arno. Tuscany possessed greater mineral wealth than any other part of Italy. The boundaries of Central Italy extended Florence and Pisa on the north and west.ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. or Tivoli. invited by Pope Adrian I. The ordinary building materials of Rome were bricks. iv.


the rival of Venice and Genoa. influence was strong. city at this period. being developed. 1030. Genoa. thus adding to his temporal power. took place in the eleventh century. and in the following century its growing commerce it caused to rival Pisa. where vaulting was now greater beauty in detail. the inhabitants of this latter industrial population. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. and took the lead in. In Italy. Lucca was an important ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Such treatment caused the introduction of many new constructive ideas. complete districts. was the great commercial and naval power in the Mediterranean. which latter city in particular possesses a distinct style of its own. the former supporting the-power of the Popes and the latter that of the Emperors. than for developing a bold and novel construction into a style. Dukedom of Spoleto and other concessions to Adrian. which influenced the whole design as in Normandy and the Rhine The the have always possessed a capacity for provinces. ideas rarely found. defeating the Saracens in A. less ^Q&THERN EUROPEAN ^ ROMANESQUE. At the commencement of the eleventh century. The rise of Florence dates from 1125. The Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in 1284. was rent by the feuds of the two parties. The Byzantine .230 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. owing to the destruction of Fiesole. -and its architecture was influenced by that of Pisa. principal aim is perfection construction of vaulting. especially in several as Venice. the daughter arts of painting and sculpture being in a state of inaction/ 7 The growth of an v. an artistic commerce and the independent views caused by education. decisions which resulted in the struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines (page 405). vi. owing to insufficient protection from Constantinople. being also a It republic. Historical.the wars against the infidels. the increase of ' city moved there. 1025. Constructive boldness not sought after. and Pisa. which led to their decline. when. in New departure being the ancient Basilican Italians made from The type. -ruled that the clergy should not marry. Ravenna. and from this period connection with Byzantium was broken off. Pisa and Amain and other cities for self-defence. ' ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. in which architecture was most prominent. and that no temporal prince should bestow any ecclesiastical benefice. and thus were brought in contact with Eastern art. were important factors in the rise of Naples. 2. movement. Pisa. and 1089 at Tunis. Gregory VII. and Amalfi sent merchant fleets to the ports of the Holy Land for the Eastern Fair at Jerusalem. especially in Tuscany. Social and Political. Pisa.D.

Pisa Cathedral (A. bear considerable similarity to the architecture of Pisa. 1060-1070. Thus. Michele. through which penetrates a conical dome 60 feet in diameter over the central space. 91). however. a fine impression (No. if there were another internal hemispherical cupola. built in stripes of red and white marble. that of Rome was still composed of Classic columns and other features taken from ancient buildings. In the Romanesque period. from 600-1200. The Campanile (Bell Tower). is a circular structure 52 feet in diameter.e. 91 and 92).D. producing an elliptical dome of later date. the reason being that Lucca belonged arches.D.D. one above the other. with rows of columns and flat ceiling recalling the Early Christian Basilican church. 129 feet in diameter. Built of marble. (twelfth century resembles these Rome. which also have small open arcades. This Baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the church of S. in Dalmatia. with encircling aisle in two stories. ' 231 \ . and S. and supported on four piers and eight columns. A. 1063-1092) is a fine example of the style (Nos. 1188. erected in the During this period a series of towers were also The origin of these is not clear. ornament the fa9ades. has a space only 30 feet in diameter. Pisa (A. fa$ade 1204). and has Gothic additions of the fourteenth century. Martino. blind arcades. 3. . 1172).). Pistoia churches. ornamented with eight stories of arcades (No. Donate (ninth century) at Zara. the interior. while the architecture of the rest of Europe was slowly developing towards the Gothic style. S. connected by semicircular The which is an open arcade in two heights.ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. Lucca (A. It was not completed till A. Pisa (Nos.D. designed by Dioti Salvi in A. is transepts Externally. i. 91). Lucca (A. it is surrounded externally on the lower story by half columns.D. as the custom of imperial city. in consequence of which it is not easy to ascertain what the original external design really was. The structure is crowned by an outer hemispherical dome. Paul. facade 1288). London (No. but the transepts with segmerital apse at each end were an advance on the Basilican Over the crossing or intersection of nave and plan. above to that city when most Cathedral of its churches were erected. 253 B). The Baptistery. thus causing the tower to lean about 1 1 feet from the vertical. which.. interest of its building depends for its artistic effect upon the beauty and ornamental features rather than the promise of logical development mto a new style which a northern example possesses. During its erection the foundations gave way.D. 1278. 1153. 70 G and 91). is circular. it would resemble the constructive scheme of S. EXAMPLES. supported on small detached shafts.D.

North Italy has a climate resembling that of Central Europe. Florence (No. INFLUENCES. Paul beyond the walls. This is an instance closing the doors of the Church against him. blue and red. 1241) (No. Climate. Ravenna and Venice. Bishop of Milan (374-398). and the local architecture the great building material of the shows the influence iii.232 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and forming an evidence of the patient skill of the craftsman. Geological. the great emperor.John Lateran. the vault arches inclosing the arcades in groups of five or more openings. Ambrose. i. and the vine. of this material.is open to the nave. and is an evident departure from the basilican type of long unbroken ranges of columns or arcades. 98 B) are of extreme interest. At the end of the fourth century.. Religion. and banding in black and white marble of the exterior and interior. were carried to a further extent in the Gothic period. and the raised eastern portion. 93). Brick is plains of Lombardy.e. ii. green. see page Rome Rome 242. Milan. the capital of Lombardy. and of S. . The special feature of the cloisters consists of the small twisted columns inlaid with glass mosaic in patterns of great beauty. Very notable is the open timber roof with its decoration. in bright coloring of gold. always had a high degree of prosperity. 1234). (A. but they may be regarded as prototypes of the mediaeval towers and spires. while in summer the heat is often excessive. i.D. Milan is near enough to the Alps to experience cold in winter. recently restored. The marble panelling. Miniato. The city is surrounded by rich plains. NORTH i. S. and its proximity to several of the Alpine passes. For the Comparative table of Italian Romanesque. as trade connecting links with the Eastern Empire. The Cloisters of S. The length of the church is divided into three main compartments. Theodosius. a climate of extremes. and the cultivation of the mulberry (for the silkworm). is a leading example of the Central Italian style. bell ringing was not then in existence. They are formed in square bays. S.D. This division of the church by piers seems a prelude to the idea of vaulting in compartments. iv. on account of its favourable situation in the centre of that state. (A. . reflect the culture and architectural forms derived therefrom. Geographical. had been forced to do penance on account of a massacre in Thessalonica. adds to the general prosperity of the district. ITALY. under which is a crypt.


including Dalmatia. Milan being as much German as Italian. other scenes reflecting the life of the northern invaders are frequent. The devastating wars in the North Italian the in led to the gradual rise of the Venetian state. by whose study the Pisani were influenced. Details show a breaking away from Classic preceIn sculpture. Detail much affected by Classic remains and traditions. vi. and a porch resting on lions are often the chief relief. of the Basiall and were nearly vaulted and roofed. especially after the eleventh century. and severe facades are typical. the old Roman population eventually caused barbarian influence to wane. and in these a grotesque element is Arcades prominent. CENTRAL ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. mented with bright coloring. Wide. Social and Political.234 of the great COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 96) aisles. and beauty and delicacy of detail were preferred to the invention of fresh architectural forms produced by a new system of construction. is less refined owing to the use of stone and brick rather than marble. was invested with supreme authority plains first gradually grew up. by means of which both the naval importance and commerce of the little state continually increased. In Italy. page 408). and ornament of great refinement. cities Italy itself consisted of a number of separate which were independent commonwealths. the clerestory is omitted. by which time commercial relations had extended to the Black Sea and the coast of the Mediterranean. S. top of The character gables and apses. Marble facing was carried to such an extent as to form a style in that material. The churches were lican type. which differed in some points of ritual. flat. The Basilican type was closely adhered to. Ambrose's fame and influence maintained the Ambrosian rite. the members of which were orn. The eleventh and twelfth centuries were the great building epochs in Lombardy. Venice from the first kept up a close alliance with Constantinople. At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly sculptured with figures existed. Milan Cathedral. 91). which resuited in the production of carving restricted to NORTH ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. form of government being republican. but until this had come to pass little building was done. The barbarians who occupied the valleys of the Rhine and Po pursued a similar development in spite of the intervening Alps. Side aisles are often in two stories. such as side altars not being used (cf. Croatia. Historical. hunting and dent. Arcades in several stories were employed as an ornament to the faades (No. power the Church had acquired. The churches were mostly roofed with plain open-timbered roofs. without marking in any wav the difference of nave and A rose window (No. 2. but an oligarchy which a Duke. or Doge. covering the whole church. and Istria. the walls between the side chapels forming buttresses. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. v. .



Antonio. was employed as a decorative feature on window transoms and other positions. 104 and 105 B). having. arcaded corbels. being treated as plainly and with only sufficient windows to . from being used merely in this position. but were placed at some little distance. This arcading. S. in which are found the characteristic cubiform capital. is an important example. being similar in purpose to the civic towers of Belgium (page 390). the external walls did not need to be continued solid above the springing of the vault. in every possible part of the building. Zenone. and the Fondaco dei Turchi. 96). as illustrating how such architectural features have had. 1122). as the ends of the rafters exerted little thrust hence this portion was arcaded. used in the Eastern trade. giving a deep . The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan. originally. Pavia (A. are good examples. Mark. a great warehouse on the Grand Canal. In plan they are always square.important features of the period.D. as in countries as possible. so that it even entirely covered the western facade. and in many cases are rather civic monuments than integral portions of the churches near which they are situated. These campanili occur in most of the North Italian towns. without breaks. 1 188). 3. or commemorative monuments. and resting on the backs of crouching lions (No. are .D. came to be employed. as a decorative feature. primarily of use for defence at the top of the building. the arches being connected with the extrados of the vault. under the slope of the gable. They were not joined structurally with the church to which they belonged. are well-known examples at Venice. north of the Alps. and S. Verona (A. Similarly in the later Gothic periods in England. a constructive meaning. Ambrogio. S. with columns supporting arches. and piers of clustered section.D. 91 and 95). when a wooden roof was placed over a circular vault. Venice. is interesting. Thus.D. as in England. carrying semicircular arches which are often stilted. S. Michele. and the projecting porch to the main doorway. 1139) (No. In these cases they were erected as symbols of power. the battlemented parapet. and Germany. as that of S. and have no projecting buttresses. The latter (Nos. 1 shadow in an appropriate position (Nos. 98 G). 96). with side aisles in two stories. . 237 EXAMPLES. or bell towers. The Campanili. and sometimes connected with the main building by cloisters (No. 94 and 95) is vaulted in square bays. which are characteristic of the work in this district also the great western rose (wheel) window. Milan 140). (A.ITALIAN (NORTH) ROMANESQUE. The origin of the arcaded galleries in many of the more important churches of the period (Nos. Piacenza (A. France.


owing to Mahometan influence. while the mountains afforded an abundant supply of a calcareous and shelly limestone. Southern Italy has always maintained a close connection with Sicily. the fa9ades were ornamented with intricate geometrical patterns. and the latter part of the gradually tenth century was the most prosperous period of their sway. which is typical (No. In A." SICILY. 827 the Mahometans landed in Sicily. i. as is the Campanile of S. which were invented because the Mahometan religion forbade the representation of the human figure (page 654). and being of triangular form. influenced Climate. which is thus practically an open loggia. For comparative table of Italian Romanesque. considerably aided by the previous Byzantine influences. The deposits of sulphur contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the island. is And amber i. features. But for cubits five or six. Religion. under Robert and /nasty. Their civilization was. architectural character. see page 242. vi. On the southeastern coast of Italy the towns have the general characteristics of Oriental cities. In Sicily. Verona. for palms grow in the open air. 96). and has yet to be fully explored for traces of its architectural development. INFLUENCES. such as grain and cotton. Zenone. ~:icl overran the whole island. and there are celebrated orange and lemon groves near Palermo. 239 light to the internal staircase. Historical. v. centrally in Geographical. The Mahometans introduced into Sicily valuable commercial products. Social and Political. or sloping way the windows increase in number from one in the lowest story to five or more in the uppermost story.D. SOUTHERN ITALY AND There most goodly sardonyx. Sanguinary struggles amongst certain sects led to the insurrecon of several cities. another to Italy.ITALIAN (SOUTHERN) ROMANESQUE. and the whole is generally crowned with a pyramidal shaped roof. how ever. " Therein be neither stones nor sticks. which ii. Geological. and the third to North Africa. Sicily presents one side to Greece. the buildings having flat roofs and other Eastern its iii. and its history is a record of the successive influences of the powers to whom these countries belonged. and hastened the downfall of the Mahometan From 1061-1090 the Normans. Neither red nor white bricks . iv. r . admit . Being situated the Mediter- ranean sea. The climate of South Italy and Sicily is almost sub-tropical. laid in rows.

c/ Q W ffi H CJ .

well carved capitals of Byzantine form. representing scenes from biblical history. about 12 feet high. Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles.ITALIAN (SOUTH) ROMANESQUE. and a descendant of the latter was crowned at Palermo. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. surrounded by arabesque borders. where a square space is covered by a dome supported on Four freestanding columns. Monreale Cathedral (begun 1174. as mentioned above. and rich cloisters. The architectural features of the interiors. were subordinate to the mosaic decorations which clothe the walls. and not in recessed planes as in northern work. and by great richness in the material employed. Mahometan influence is evident. are notable. The walls are ornamented with mosaics in color. marked by severity. During this period Sicily prospered. 24! Roger de Hauteville. crowning lantern. Byzantine influence is shown in the plans of certain churches. and her fleet defeated the Arabs and Greeks. The low. 1 1 30. oblong. is bordered inlaid patterns in colored porphyries. 97). the decoration being style. and from the latter to the Nvrman in the eleventh century is traceable. particularly in the decorative parts of churches. Palermo (1132) (in the Royal Palace). No. and rich mosaics and colored marbles were employed as a facing internally. In plan it resembles a Roman basilica. illustrates mixed Byzantine and Mahometan influences. A by F. or a Byzantine dome. The nave columns have.A. supporting pointed arches. Dark and light stone was used in courses externally. are decorated in color in the Mahometan The interior is solemn and grand. but are hardly ever vaulted. conquered the island. but civil wars as to the right of succession led to the island passing in 1268 to Louis of Anjou. of slabs of white marble. 97) has typical examples. EXAMPLES. the early bronze -^ors. 3. of which Monreale Cathedral (No. R . on the high ground to the south-west of Palermo. The churches have either wooden roofs. The Capella Palatina. The open timber roofs. which are square in section. Architecture developed considerably under the Norman rule by the erection of cathedrals. and a school of mosaic was maintained in the Royal Palace during this period. dado. with apses at the eastern end of nave and aisles^ the choir being raised above the nave. The change from the Byzantine to the Mahometan dominion. as in the Church of the Martorana at Palermo. intricate in design. 2.

Milan. which may be due to some extent to the Greek descent of the inhabitants of this part of Italy. including the aisles. reached by steps from the nave. Plans The plans of most of the churches were substantially same as the basilicas. distinguished by a projecting porch. Ambrogio. can be traced to German influence. It has a richly treated ceiling of stalactite forms. The flat blind arcades of the northern style were developed by the Pisan (Central) architects in their galleried facades. are detached. There is a fine atrium at S. The choir was occasionally raised to admit of a crypt beneath. 97). Walls. Nicolo. and are bold open-arched structures. their northern 7 4. . being straight shafts without buttresses or spires. COMPARATIVE. for Monreale Cathedral. and placed on huge semi-grotesque lions. CENTRAL. S. anri sometimes have a large circular window to light the nave. The crypts are a special feature. Bari (1197). I the South this feature is highly elaborated with wheel tracery. the low lanterns at the crossing. modifications being introduced on the lines of German work in the South. and other arcades carried across in bands. and though of small size. with arcading following the rake. In the North A. The west front. 96). that at Novara being connected to the cathedral by an atrium. Towers. above which is the characteristic wheel-window. AND SOUTH. often of stories. as at Monreale Cathedral (No. the open arcades of the apses seen in conjunction with the usual arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossing. which. NORTH. as at Piacenza and S. supporting a projecting roof. S.242 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Verona (No. when occurring. B. The Northern fa9ades are flatter. A number of circular examples were built mainly as baptisteries. with the columns resting on lions' backs. was carried up to a flat gable. constitute the charm of the style. is unrivalled for richness of the effect of the mosaics. Giovanni degli Eremiti (1132) and the Martorana Church (1113-1143) are other examples at Palermo which show the blending of Saracenic and Byzantine ideas. more especially in Central Italy in the North the churches are mostly vaulted. having a symbolic character. the . The detail of these buildings is always refined and graceful. resting on isolated columns. Projecting porches were preferred to recessed doorways. is a good and typical example of the churches of Southern Italy which are small in comparison with was the model The entrance front is always contemporaries. are marked features. Zenone. oblong in plan. i two . that at Otranto being noteworthy for the numerous points of support employed to carry the choir. .


show typical capitals. Southern work is far superior in detail. the timber roofs of the basilican In the style often effectively decorated with color were used. attention being chiefly bestowed upon their decoration. rude Corinthian columns carry a round-arched arcade. Where round-arched cross/ vaulting. and elegance. The nave roofs of Italian churches continued to be constructed Plain of wood with flat ceilings till the thirteenth century. grace. and. Columns. Flat bands are characteristic of the Northern Strings were formed by small arches. by the small arched openings of the clerestory. In consequence of the bright climate the c. connecting one Rude imitations of old Classical detail pilaster strip to another. especially in the North. Buttressing was obtained by means of the division walls between an outer range In of chapels. 98 was the main object in the design of the interiors. No. while the roof is of the simple basilican type. bronze doors are a feature. and opaque decoration was Window tracery was not developed. above which the plain walls are pierced. 97). great richness in timber ceilings was attained. Mouldings. were not employed. 98 A). openings are small (No. owing to Mahometan influence. are met with. 96) just described are only rudimentary in pattern. are similar in treatment to Byzantine ivories. Piers with half shafts were employed rather than columns. Openings. where vaulting was more in use. elaboration were attempted in the doorways (No. 98). more often than not unmarked on the exterior. and the use of color G. style. F). but timber roofs are the rule in Palermo and Monreale (No. Flank walls are occasionally the churches at Palermo. or simple D. The rows of apostles on the lintels of the doorways. flat bands. vigorous hunting scenes. often F. springing from corbels (No. The wheel windows (No. Ornament and animals (No. 94 H. decorated by flat pilaster strips. j). a practice which was continued in E. domes rather than vaults were attempted. Central Italy. as at Toscanella. and incidents of daily life are found in Northern sculpture. preferred to translucent. barrel vaults. as at Monreale Cathedral. In Central Italy greater elegance is displayed. (No.244 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Roughly carved grotesques of men E. . 98 H). Elaborate decoration in mosaic exists as in the Palermo churches and elsewhere (No. groined vaults of small span were common and divided into compartments by the Gothic period. and Classic models were copied. southern examples. 98 j M. Roofs. In Southern examples. 98 c). as in the rich carving of the Palermo examples. as at Pistoia. connected horizontally by small arches. Richness and possessing good outline. but coupled and grouped shafts were seldom properly developed in relation to the vaulting ribs.

" 2 vols. 1' Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth (R. .- Cattaneo " Cresy and Taylor. Napoli.) 1829.).) italien. Darmstadt. 8vo. 1896. Delhi (A. Hittorff (J. Studi sui Monument! della Italia meridioni dal IV al 6 XIII Secolo. Griiner (L. 2 vols. Jahrhunderts. 1859." 1838. W. " Palermo. " Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in UnterSchulz (H. folio." Pisa." and Chamberlin (G. Terra-Cotta Architecture of North W. 1871-1877. Rohault de Fleury.)." Paris.).). (F. 245 5. 1874." Normans " Knight (H." (Historical Novel). Sicile. Gravina (D. Norman Remains Pise au Normans folio in Sicily..)." 4to. "Norman Antiquities of Palermo and Environs.) et Zanth (C. " II Duomo di Monreale. 1860.). folio and 4to.' e " Salazaro (D." 3 vols. J. de). large folio. "Monuments de Bauvverke in Moyen Age. 1867. 1846-1854. D.." Translated from the Italian. 1827. to Illustrate the Saracenic and Folio. Dresden. Architecture Antique de la Knight." Street (G." Dartein (F." 2 vols. E.. "Harrison (F. Architecture Lombarde. 1830. L. 410.).. I. 8vo. " Theophano. 1866. 1865-1882. H." Folio. in Sicily. Folio. B. " Etude sur Paris." 7 2 vols.). folio." 410.). . " Italy. " Die der Lombardei vom bis 14 Folio.ITALIAN ROMANESQUE.). and Osten Paris.. Centuries. " Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy. G. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1892. Boston.

is sub-tropical. France is practically on the high road i. winds (c. Gilles. . the severity of whose rules as to church building.) the north resembles that of the south of England (b. When Rome was a great power it was by way of Provence and the Rhone valley that civilization spread hence the strong The trade with classical element which is there prevalent. The soft.) the south. ii. Attention was then concentrated upon . as in the fa9ades of S. Auvergne walling was executed in a curious inlay of colored . I-n France there are three iii. Aries. In the volcanic district of was also exported to England.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. took a strong hold in the Rhone Valley.ormandy. and of S.) the west on the Atlantic coasts is warmer. when introduced. and the relative position of each district influenced the various prevailing types of architecture. with a landscape almost African in its aspect. INFLUENCES. owing to the Gulf Stream and warm S. France is exceedingly rich in building materials. Geographical. used throughout N. . fine-grained stone of Caen. Trophime. Christianity.W. Geological. Venice and the East introduced to the district of Perigueux a version of the Byzantine style in stone. By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable Looking And It strikes an awe tranquillity. especially stone. Lyons contributing martyrs to the cause. material. of which most of the towns are built. on the Mediterranean. terror on the aching sight. between the south and north of Europe. iv. caused a reaction from the decorative character of the later Romanesque." CONGREVE. i. How reverend is the face of this tall pile. Religion. In this district the most interesting event was the rise of the Cistercians (page 219). Climate. Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads To bear aloft its arched and ponderous roof. climates (a.

emphasized the richness of the west fronts of the churches in both districts. interiors having the first tentative essays of a new system. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. On the death of Charlemagne. The development of vaulting. naves were covered with barrel vaults. are impressive. usually with flat external buttresses in the north or internal buttresses in the south. until the complete fusion of races in both was marked by the loss of the English possessions in France. hence architectural progress was impossible until a more settled state of society vi. _as at N6ti Dame du Port. half barrel vaults. In the north the style is the promising commencement of a new epoch. which they retained on their possessions John. in In the north. in France was the cause of continual invasions and wars in the two countries. Northern France was invaded by the Northmen. supported by the massive walls of the recessed chapels.over-two-storied whose thrust was resisted aisles thus suppressing the clerestory. Historical. 100 B). Hugh Capet ascended the Prankish throne towards the close of the tenth century. In the_ south. The conquest of England in 1066 marked the transference of the most vigorous of the Normans to England. v. often by (No. The plain thick walls. The were close set with pier and pillar. by the effort to solve the problems of vaulting. and the change to the pointed style was promoted. from whom Normandy was named. 2. Normandy becoming an English province until the time of King The hold. Roman style is remarkable for its rich decorative facades cloisters. the buildings of Provence being a new version of old features. Lawlessness and bloodshed were rife throughout the century. and heavily roofed with of ponderous arching.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. where matter is lost in the emotions expressed. the 347 of producing grand and severe effects. and seem to revive the great halls of the Roman Thermae. . Social and Political. . which was different in the north and south (page 223). and the authority of the king extended little beyond Paris and Orleans. made much progress. Clermont-Ferrand. especially along the Loire Valley. Paris being made the capital of the kingdom. was established. which seem to have aojuiivd a The southern and graceful fresh significance. and their ruler Rollo was the ancestor of the Norman kings of England. naves were covered by groined vaults. however. forming a link to the marvellous structures the next three centuries. In Aquitania and Anjou the vast interiors in one span. At this period the greater part of the means country was held by independent lords.

Avignon. 84 B) shows the Venice (page 208). and other places in the Rhone Valley. used in couples in the depth . and the Church at 5. Provence. exhibit great richness of effect and beauty of detail. all showing Classical influence. and the Auvergne frequently Church at Issoire. and for this reason it may be divided into southern and northern provinces. S. consisting of a square shaft. the buildings having a local character imparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different colored lavas. Pmgueux (A. Front acted as a prototype of churches with cupolas in France. 84). campanile in stone. and Orange. Provence has numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. indicating an eastern influence. 100 E. The portals of S. in many of which pointed tunnel-vaults were used. square compartments and covered with sexpartite vaulting. that over the crossing being carried above the roof and having a stone lantern. 1050-1100) is an imitation of S. EXAMPLES. Gilles. Auvergne. Aries. Aries (No. 102). is an example of the first type. but they have latterly The parts Attached to the church is a magnificent been made semicircular. surmounted by a circular ring of columns. Aquitania has two distinct styles." infilling or 3. the 'first having. an example of the second type. F. Irene at Constantinople (page 204). Mark. The nave is covered with four stone domes.^ 5. and closely resembles S. Both transepts were originally crowned with towers. The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces of Aquitania. in which different peculiarities are traceable. but has a long aisleless nave with transepts provided with lateral chapels an cT an apsidal choir with four chapels.D. Toulouse. is due to a large trade with Byzantium. but the southern one was destroyed in 1568. as at Notre Dame. roundarched tunnel-vaults. the geological influence is apparent. consisting of columns. Sernin. G) is of the second type. It is a Greek cross on plan. Angouleme Cathedral (No. Cahors Cathedral (A. Trophime. France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style.D. and the second having domes spheroidal in shape. forming a Latin cross on plan. Front.248 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. as at Nimes. Clermont-Ferrand. elongated upwards and supported on pointed arches. the main dividing line being the Loire. carrying a conical dome. the groined ribs being constructed independently and supporting the " severies. being a volcanic district. Anjou an. influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest in the where they more particularly occur. The cloisters. arches supporting the domes as pointed.d Burgundy. The illustration (No. S. 1120) (No. as at Notre Dame dn Port.

noo). which was being developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. the former having a groined vault instead of the longitudinal barrel-vault. 103 D. These examples are of the vaulted basilican type. Anjou has many examples rich in decorative treatment. The great Abbey -Church of Cluny (1089-1131) was the most famous in this province and was the longest in 1< ranee. The city of Caen possesses a number of examples illustrating the difficulties of vaulting.D. which was covered with a great barrel-vault. Caen (Nos. 1101-1119) resembled Angouleme Cathedral nave and general arrangement. Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. many~ot "whicfi. which ultimately led to the introduction of the pointed arch. and that at Vienne are other interesting examples. The North of France comprises the provinces of Central France. specially capitals sculptured with sharp and distinctive foliage (No. It had originally an eastern apse. 101). with Paris as the radiating centre. no attempt at tracery and carrying semicircular arches. Etienne). E) and support semicircular arches. in its aisleless Burgundy was specially rich in monastic establishments which influenced the architectural treatment of the churches.Cathedral ( i OQO. this fa 9 ade being a prototype of the Gothic follow. are The columns have deep filling being made. s A utun . expiation of having married Matilda in spite of their close relationship. :ompartments without the aid of the pointed towers crowned by octagonal spires flanked by with angle . The plan seems to have been is the best known example. (A. which are left entirely open. but the characteristic chevet (No. in 100-101). founded on the Romanesque church of Spires (Germany). Poitiers. and the aisles probably had groined vaulting.1 1 3 2 is an example of the aisleless churches which are found in various parts of France.faave been destroyed.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. as The Abbey of Fontevrault Notre Dame la Grande. with double side aisles to the main body of the church. and the provinces of Normandy Toiirnus and Brittany. this was superseded is later by The west end two square schemes to pinnacles. 1066 by William the Conqueror. and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. commenced A. The Church at Vezelay (A. of the wall.D. The pointed arch was employed in the arcade of the nave. owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. spanning under which windows were formed in the nave walls.D. 249 interesting. ) Abbey Church is an interesting example in which arches the nave from pier to pier support transverse vaults. The vaulting illustrates the difficulties of spanning oblong Two bays arch.

This resulted in a system known as sexpartite vaulting (page 225) (Nos. internal buttresses. diagonal. usually having double columns with magnificent capitals. although a fourteenth century nave Has been wedged between them. Towers are detached. 4. which developed the pier plans. Cloisters were treated with the utmost elaboration^and jricjmess. A. 99). and the Abbey Church of Mont The Abbaye-aux-Dames (La in by the great and the choir and west front still remain as left by him. "Walls. F). COMPARATIVE. Denis. Walls were of rubble with facing stones. building abbot. Round churches are rare in this district.D. In the setting out of the bays important changes were introduced. Plans. B. inclosing the outer range of chapels. the increasing demand for vaulted interiors modified the planning. in 1144. 1084). admitting of high clerestories with windows Th lighting the nave. as glazing or tracery were not required by the climate. Buttresses are often mere strips of slight projection (No. Caen (A. Michel (since restored). Massiveness is the characteristic of all the early work. were preferred. Trinite). which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen. are notable examples. near Paris. was erected Abbe Suger. because the difference between the width of the nave and the distance longitudinally between the piers could be easily surmounted by pointed arches of different radius manipulated so as to equalize the height of the ribs. could be vaulted without reference to the neighbouring one. and the fa9ades were arranged in stories. with window lights in pairs or groups. resembling Italian Gampanili. the rise of the transverse-. and the vaulting ribs were provided with individual shafts. the Church of S.D. however. what) ever its shape. S. which are often models of simplicity and richness. 100 c. 100). The Abbey of S. towers are mostly square with pyramidal roofs (Nos. when each compartment.which receive the round arches of the narrow bays. were introduced between A. as at Vienne cathedral. and wall ribs is nearly equal. which. Elaboration was reserved for doorways in the arcaded lower portion of the fa9ades. 99). and were left entirely open. Nicholas. 112 E. Caen (A. which thus being approximately square. D. 1083) (No.D. Flying buttresses. was superseded immediately on the introduction of the pointed arch. 99 and'ioi .25O COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. thus in early plans the naves were vaulted in square bays comprising two aisle bays longitudinally (No. 1150-1200. In the north. but on the introduction of the pointed arch each oblong bay of the nave formed a vaulting compartment corresponding in length to each aisle bay. In the south. of the nave are comprised under one vaulting compartment.

u't :- .



which supported the covering independent of the vault. or cut with zigzags. Ornament. the early treatment was a tunnel vault by half tunnels oyer the aisles. clear-glazed openings being employed to set off the opaque color decoration of the walls. F.groin ribs (introduced in the twelfth century). recessed D. In the south. In the latter. Capitals are cubical blocks. doubtless to lessen the thrust upon the walls. Stained glass favouring The diaper large openings was gradually developed in the north. clerestories of increased height were obtained by means of the intersecting nave vaults (No. were used.254 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. up Roman examples or B. In the south. In the north. work so common in the spandrels of arches. or columns. or draperies that originally occupied the . imitated from the Corinthian order. j). in northern work is supposed to have arisen from the imitation. c. Openings. G. grotesque heads. thus not admitting of a clerestory. 103). 103 G. either plain or carved with copies of acanthus leaves from old in planes. Corbel tables. 103 M-P). Columns. and in order that the roofing slabs of stone might be carried direct upon the extrados of the vault. to the nave. more especially in the direction of filling in the vault spandrels of the clerestory with arrangements of three and five The ante-chapels at the Church at Vezelay light openings. and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from the abacus of their huge' capitals (No. 100). E). of the color pattern work. whose thrust was taken by buttress arches concealed in the aisle roofs a step towards the later flying buttresses. E. either square piers. circular or octagonal. the elegance due to classic tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration cut upon the structural features of the Norman work. 103 D. Painted glass was not favoured in southern examples. The carrying up of the vaulting shafts emphasizes the division of the nave into bays. Roofs. with . The earlier vaulted churches have no clerestory. In nave arcades. while in the north a commencement in grouping was made. buttressed and having upon their faces half round shafts carried to the vaulting ribs (No. with nook shafts plainly fluted. The vault in the southern examples frequently supports the roofing slabs direct. and reminiscent of Roman times. Mouldings. were employed. The pointed section was sometimes used. arched jambs are formed in recessed planes (No: 102). supported by plain form the cornices of the walls (No. while in the northern examples above the stone vault were constructed wooden roofs. Imposing western entrances are characteristic of this period. small. often in two stories. in carving. (1130) are generally referred to as having the earliest pointed vaults in France. narrow openings with wide splays to admit light sufficed. blocks (No. In the south.

rn-rn .


" Dictionnaire de 1' Architecture. On the ground story the capitals so treated. "Saint Front of Perigueux and the Domed Phene). " Rational 8vo. 1870. " L' Architecture Normande aux Xle et XI le Ruprich-Robert (V. Huss. Paris. 102). "The Domed Churches 1896." 410. " L' Architecture Byzantin en France. 1885-1887. Building. 1900. Journal." 3 vols. same in the senting foliage or figures of men and animals.). Sharpe (Edmund).A. " Histoire de 1 Architecture. (A. (C. 1882. 5." 4to.). L'architecture religieuse a 1'epoque Folio. The West Fronts of the churches of the Charente District in Aquitania were elaborately treated with carved ornament reprepositions. Thiollier (N. Viollet-le-Duc.)" Richard the Fearless" (Historical Novel). 1864-1873.I. 1859. Figure sculpture was more frequently employed southern buildings (No. Le Puy. published under the title of New York. February 20.." 2 vols.). M. siecles.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. dans Tancien diocese du Puy. Paris. F.. (R." Svo. A translation of the article "Construction" has been Paris. 1851. folio. were often continued as a rich. (D. Pugin W.. and F.B." Verneilh (F. 1895.'* "Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. Yonge M. " romane Paris. "The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera. 1828.) and Le Keux..A . broad frieze. 4to. McGibbon 8vo.)." 2 vols. of Perigord and La Charente. Revoil (H.*' ." R. " Architecture Romane du Midi de la France. 1888. Ramee (D. folio. Spiers Churches of Charente." by G. de). Paris.). REFERENCE BOOKS. 8vo. 10 vols.

facilitated the erection in this material of churches. i. Climate. Geological. No stone being found on the sandy plains of Northern Germany. plan of a typical church of this period is peculiar in having eastern and western apses. and eke full of windows As flakes fallen in great snowes. built as tombs. whereas France. and the style of that district is consequently varied from that of the Rhine valley. v. cities had been established during the Roman occupation. or more especially as baptisteries. and it was in these parts that Christianity took root. in the north and east. INFLUENCES. and in the winter correspondingly lower. as the heat in the summer is ten degrees higher. may be said to be the same as Southern England. On the banks of the Rhine. Religion. to Rome. forced the people of Saxony to embrace that religion. in . i. Without peeces or joynings. " Both the Castell and the Toure And eke the hall and every boure. Geographical. There are also a number of important circular churches. originally divided into many distinct nationalities. paganism still existed." CHAUCER. The existence of stone in the Rhine valley ii. and Charlemagne. and in the south. In the early period the Germans looked much iv.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. the conversion of the tribes giving great importance to that ceremony. while. being a strong supporter of ChristiThe anity. so that carriages in Berlin are converted into sledges. rendered permanent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting. brick was there employed. Germany united under Charlemagne afterwards split up into small principalities. Social and Political. became fused into an absolute monarchy and has remained. but with wider extremes. But many subtle compassings As babeuries and pinnacles Imageries and tabernacles I saw. The average temperature of Central Germany iii.

when French Gothic architecture was introduced. Historical. The house of Hapsburg succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273. the one supporting the Church and municipal rights. and in the unsettled state of the country. but the conflict between the two took place mainly in North Italy (page 405). which included all Central Germany and Northern Gaul.D. 90). extending the boundary of the German Empire southwards into Lombardy.spite of all 259 changes. His successor. and ruled over the land of the Franks. Otho. reigning as King of Germany at the beginning of the tenth century. was crowned Emperor of the West at Rome. 814 this empire crumbled to pieces through internal wars. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. which are bold and effective in execution. the Pope at Rome. an event which shows the leading position of the Prankish emperors at the period. In addition he established the Prankish dominion over Southern Gaul and Northern Italy In a great measure. and was not without its influence on the architecture of these regions. Rhenish Vaulting appears to have been first adopted in the churches some fifty years after its in France.D. he restored the arts and civiliza(No. the German princes pushed themselves into prominence tion by demanding the right to elect their own sovereign Conrad the First. The mosFncKIy" ornamented parts are the doorways_aiid_capitals. The Rhine districts possess the most fully-developed Romanesque architecture. The plans of the churches western and eastern apses. The general architectural character is rich in the multiwith plication of circular and octagonal turrets.D. resulting in the erection of many important buildings in his dominions. in conjunction polygonal domes. . due to certain influences dealt with previously (page 234 and above). and the use of arcaded galleries under the_eayes. the most united of continental powers. 1138-1273) with Lombardy. general adoption s 2 . The political relations of the Hohenstaufen (or Swabian) Emperors (A. king who became Roman Emperor. vi. was crowned by Charlemagne (A. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. On Charlemagne's death in A. and henceforth copied. and the other representing the Imperial authority. Germany was troubled by the dissensions of the two rival parties. the first Prankish to Western Europe. is evidenced in the similarity of the architecture of the two countries. and the style lias_fe_wejl local -^axieiies than are peculiar in having that_pf France. and no great western entrance as in France. 768-814). In the later portion of this period.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. bears a strong The style resemblance to North Italian Romanesque. 2.


Gernrode Abbey Church (958-1050). The entrances were placed at the side. The Monastery of S. and Spires Worms . the portion of the church. 1047). 105 D. Vitale. both being covered with cross vaults. B. The Church of the Apostles. as S. 1036). Cunibert. 83 E. usual (Nos. school. as the representative cathedral of this period. and of aisles half the width of the nave. and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. Maria im Capitol (ninth century). E. Etienne. guest-house. 105 and 106) vies with those of Mayence (A. having a pointed roof. 11501170). valley are specially rich in Saxony and the Rhine Romanesque As (A. S. The Germans may claim to be or North Italian till about 1268. Charlemagne's architect. opening from three sides of the central space. Cathedral (1110-1200) (Nos. F). interesting examples. Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral (No. and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low octagonal tower.D.D.GERMAN ROMANESgUE. Cologne (A. is an interesting and typical example of a German It appears to have been Benedictine monastery of the period. are of the basITican type with triple eastern apses. face of the wall being divided up by arcading. The bold dignity of this church may be compared with the confused effect of the French chevet. and round arched style lasted 3.D. framed in with flat pilaster strips as buttresses. are other examples of triapsal churches for which the city of Cologne is famous. cemetery. 1030).D. S. and bakehouses. granaries. and S. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western apses. HiMesKeim (1133).D. and few works of importance were erected elsewhere till the Gothic period. Gall (circa A. 768-814 by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb-house for is as resembling S. prepared by Eginhard. the vaulting of one bay of the nave corresponds with two of the aisles. Caen (No. 1220-1250) is one of a series in that city which possesses characteristic features (Nos. 261 the inventors of the Lombardian their Romanesque. dispensary. 101). and consisted of a double-apse church and cloister. The eastern portion has three apses. F. a position which found favour in Germany as well as in England. In plan it consists of a broad nave. EXAMPLES. orchard. 104 and 105 A. The fa9ades have semicircular headed windows.D. Martin (A. dormitory. Godehard. abbot's lodging. c).D. G). Ravenna himself. and S. refectory. built A. infirmary. Treves (A. giving richness and importance to this The grouping externally is effective. crowned by a low octagonal tower. 820) in Switzerland (page 276). of which a complete plan was found in the seventeenth century.



as in Lombardy. pro- ducing a rich and varied outline. The choir is always apsidal. generally attached to castles. 106 and 107 G).D. apses. 106). Western apses are frequent (No. a hip rafter rising from each gable top (No. contrasting in this respect with Italian examples. The towers rise in successive stories. remarkable for a series of double or two-storied churches. connected by a gallery (Nos. used by the Prince and his personal retinue.. Plans. sometimes octagonal (No. Numerous towers.D. COMPARATIVE. which is used as a tomb-house. A. 1173). as in the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (No. B. 105 G). and often raised. and over the crossing a tower. 83 c. and there are three eastern (A. The chapels surrounding the structure are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. is a . are the principal entrances from the western atrium.D. The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster strips. one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles. Western as well as eastern transepts occur. (No. Cologne (No. and the western tower has been added in recent years. 1093-1156) is a Benedictine On/either side of the western apse. is generally found. The vaulting-bays of the nave and aisles are of similar (A. Walls. 83. but in some instances the upper church would appear to have been provided in case of floods. or polygonal. width. as the crowning place of the Western Emperors. arid the Church of the Apostles. and apses also occur at the ends of transepts. as at Nuremberg. 107 G).264 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The building is of interest. as at Treves and the Abbey Church at Laach. 105 c). two being usually at the east end flanking the apse. and the lower by his retainers. 1335 (page 398). D). for the Gothic choir was added in 1353 to 1413. were employed. 105 c). 105 G). as in the plan of Worms Cathedral (No. and Steinfurt.and a characteristic finish consists of four gables and a steep roof. The building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne. Lubeck Cathedral peculiar to North Germany is type of brick architecture but the choir and aisles were not added till A. and two at the west end. A short description is given on No. Laach Abbey Church example built completely in this style. The naves and aisles are vaulted in square bays. circular. Germany 4. LandsIn these it is held that the upper chapel was berg. either square. connected horizontally by ranges of small arches springing from . historically. to admit of cry_pts jbeneath. and the gables and roof of the octagon are of the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries.


Munich. Denkmale der Baukunst am Nieder-Rhein. 106).). 104 and 106). 107 c." " Leipzig. Passe Rose " (Historical Novel). with half columns attached. Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst. Moller 1852. Timber roofs were also employed for large spans. though bold in execution. windows are usually single. No tendency towards tracery is found. with high pitched intersecting roofs (No. 105 D and 107 E). but the capitals and bases take a distinctive form. Roofs. In the Rhine district a central semicircular barrel D. and the traditions and examples of the early Christian and Byzantine mosaic decorations. A gable on each tower face. vault was supported by half-barrel vaults over the aisles. occur under the eaves of roofs. being rarely grouped (No. Columns.).). <. Ornament. being a step in the evolution of spire growth. These are as a rule of indifferent F. Tower roofs. E. Owing to the smallness of scale this favourite feature may be considered as a string course or cornice. and were unsuitable for rich decoration. 1844. F. Hardy (A. REFERENCE BOOKS. the latter being formed by the intersections of the planes between the adjacent sides of adjoining gables forming a pyramid. Boisseree " (S. Openings. especially round the apses (Nos. 107 G). Folio. Mouldings (see Walls). and the alternation of The capitals piers and columns is a favourite German feature. Open arcades. being superior to the later Gothic examples. a system which led by degrees to complete Gothic vaulting. . H). is common. leading from Roman through Romanesque to Gothic. G. (No. (G. The churches have sometimes a triforium and always a clerestory. In the north colored bricks were used. The doorways (Nos.266 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. D. rarely in the west front or transept ends. S. 105 and 107 N) are placed at the side." Folio. Internally the flat plain surfaces were occasionally decorated in fresco. are a special feature of the style. The nave arcades were generally constructed of square piers. design. 5. corbels (Nos. the origin of which have already been dealt with (page 237). were carried on in color. and spires of curious form. The c. thus accounting for the absence of sculptured foliage. are well designed.

1 INFLUENCES. do with Western Europe. The nations of Western Europe had come Germany was the centre of the Western Empire and the Kingdoms of France. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. i. into existence. Refer to each country. and shadows are better caught by outstanding buttresses and the flying lateral members of a Gothic 1 Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country. Geographical. iii. i. 108) gives the general distribution of the various countries in the thirteenth century. in Northern Europe. for it is a sun wheeling somewhat low on an average round the sky. a general outline sketch is given. Sweden and Norway had little to strong united states. Refer to each country. Geological. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Italy and Spain were also becoming Russia. . England had become thoroughly united under the Norman Kings. is more suitable for Gothic than Classic Architecture. ii.PIM01 13 CENTURY 108. Climate. The map (No. It has been pointed out that the sun.

the periodical pilgrimages. vaulting and ornamentation of the pointed arch . facade. iv. Religion. for an ambulatory to be used for processional purposes. and the foundation of chantry chapels where masses for the dead could be repeated. which are more effective. as at Ely (No. -. Hugh at Lincoln. Treves. 117 E). Introductory remarks and a description of the The immense various order of monks are given on page 218. towns joined together for mutual defence. also took a pro^ minent part in temporal affairs. was evidenced in the way they made and unmade Emperors and Kings and disposed of their dominions. than by the level lines of the heavy horizontal Classic cornices. Snow and inclement weather were responsible for the high pitched Gothic roof of Northern Europe. 109. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. as at Salisbury (No. The principles and character of Gothic architecture were' similar throughout Western Europe. vi. in consequence of their learning. many of the Abbots and Bishops were princes of the Empire. whereas in Germany. which moves higher in the firmament. also affected the general plan of Social and Political. divided into different portions belonging to the larger towns. Refer to each country. or at the eastern extremity. Jn Germany. and the Archbishops of Cologne.Refer to each country. S. and of local saints (as S. Msriokbtry was responsible for the addition of' lady chapels either laterally. In Italy. Thomas at Canterbury. The demand for chapels dedicated to particular saints. and are indicated on No. many buildings. and Mayence were among the Electors of the Emperor. The worship of relics. Swithun at Winchester).268 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 2. The fully-developed Gothic art of the thirteenth century was the style which had been slowly developing itself throughout Europe as a necessary sequence of Romanesque art. the-adoration of the Virgin Mary and other forms of ritual. under the Grecian or Italian sun. which was probably at its height in the thirteenth century. Historical. The clergy. \ * ". S. which afterwards became principalities. The growth of towns which developed into important cities brought . also had their influence on the monuments. and is mainly recognized because of the introduction and use in door and window openings. 117 A). power of the Popes.about an increase of riches and the erection of magnificent'buildv. arcades. amongst the most famous being those forming the Hanseatic league. and by so doing attracted wealtri" and power to their orders. the country was ings owing to municipal rivalries.

for the numerous vaulting being collected at intervals were supported on capitals of a shape formed to fit them. These principles led to the introduction of much novelty in ribs mouldings. The Gothic architects. H. and fifteenth centuries the Gothic masons carried to the utmost the use of stone as a building material.ck mortar joints. had to employ the materials at hand according to their nature. arches. and . divided by stone mullions. 141). having their upper parts designed with combinations of curves of great variety. is 269 v ^ found so characteristic as to give a which. capitals and piers. fourteenth. 141 F. buttresses. scarce capable of bearing the stalactite pendants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century its expression. 109 A.tapered away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fretwork of lacelike tracery. Romanesque .walls themselves were occupied principally by glazed windows. the collected pressures of the vaulting and roof were counteracted by arches. In the thirteenth. they cut the granular stone to the thinness of fibrous wood or iron. could have been developed without the employment of such a material as stone. influencing very largely the form of the nave piers. Walls became mere enclosures. and these were provided with shafts.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Even the . Further. developing ' still further the principles of architecture (page 221). indeed. sometimes carried on corbels and sometimes continued to the ground. and revelled in tricks of construction and marvels of workmanship. it is evident. laid in tolerably small courses with mortar joints. Every vertical support in Gothic architecture depended for its stability on being stayed by a buttress. which gave the necessary elasticity to the various pressures. In the case of the nave vaults. which in its turn was weighted by a pinnacle and every arch-thrust met another which counteracted it. and 153 A). the comparative scarcity of materials taught the Gothic . called flying buttresses. leaning against the nave wall and supported at some distance by massive piers. and to seek for those laws of elasticity and equilibrium whidi were substituted for those of inert "stability as practised by the Greeks and Romans. They hung it aloft in ponderous vaults treated by art to seem the gossamer web of nature. G. No such system of construction. and eventually pushing their practice to the furthest boundaries. This elasticity was obtained by the employment of stone laid in narrow courses with tolerably th. weighted with tall pinnacles (Nos. and the entire structure consisted of a framework of piers. suggestion of height coinciding with the aspiring tendency of the style and its connection with the religious enthusiasm of the period. and ribbed vaulting held in equilibrium by the combination of oblique forces neutralizing each other (No. heaping it up in towers that rose on open archways through the lofty roofs of the naves and transepts.


but a complex. the Alps. the Gothic architects of Western Europe possessed stone which was strong and hard. and it was no longer the self-contained Greek temple. which had helped to mould the Roman style. conditions naturally influencing the forms of each style of architecture. In the Middle Ages it was the constructional features themselves to which an attractive form was given. sisted of walling formed of a rubble core between two faces of stonework. loftier . The was evolved from no utilitarian requirements. yet others were the expression of artistic invention and of aesthetic requirements. but was a and an indication of municipal sign of the communal spirit spire of which it formed an outward and visible prosperity. 271 architects to practise economy in their use. and the East thus they were absolutely compelled to erect considerable buildings with thin courses of stone. As to the material at hand. expression. and could be split into thin pieces. the architecture of this period stands in close relation to Greek art. was wanting in the Gothic period. of the architectural features were founded primarily on structural necessity. but is only the expression of the structural necessities. to fight in their owners' battles. or by workmen who were forced labourers. Although many. and ornaments have particular developments it is because they are necessary. Romanesque architecture con. ever and anon. restless structure whose aspiring tendencies found expression in vertical grouping. is not the result of caprice. whereas the Greeks erected small buildings with enormous blocks of marble. and was a compromise between the concrete walling and the jointed stones (without mortar) of the Romans. stone having to be sought in various quarries from different proprietors and transported by voluntary aid. The same principle of truth was upheld. unity being obtained by the exact and necessary correlation between all the parts. in the best types of architecture. and taken away. Form. and in this particular. If the column is a real support and has an expanded capital it is for the purpose of supporting a particular load if the mouldings . and if the vaults are divided by ribs it is because they are so many sinews performing a necessary function. the characteristic mouldings of the Mediaeval period exhibiting much less waste of material than those common in Classic times. reposeful in the severity of horizontal lines.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. but had not at their disposal either the marble of Pentelicus or the blocks of granite which the Romans procured from Corsica. but at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The architecture was adapted to a structure of small stones with thick mortar joints. The military organization. doing as little as possible. but the form had changed. if not most.

which was stone. the painted sculpture and hieroglyphics of the Egyptian temples. while the semicircular arch was The ribs became still used for some time for the diagonal ribs. As indicated on Nos. were now overcome by the introduction of the pointed arch. and to avoid the expense of labour which the carrying of material of large size involved. Further. for traceried windows came to be looked upon merely as frames in which to exhibit painted transparent Neither pictures displaying the incidents of Bible History. nor the mosaics and frescoes of the Byzantine and Romanesque periods produced color effects that can be compared with the brilliancy and the many-tinted splendours of the transparent walls of a Gothic cathedral.272 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. therefore. and enabled the building to be erected all at once or in parts without disadvantage to the solidity of the edifice. the entire screen wall between . The method was an extension of the Romanesque system. their place being occupied by stained glass windows. all the mechanical expedients of buttresses and pinnacles being placed externally. became of secondary importance. In the north and west of Europe. 109 and 141. used to cover the shorter spans. and the support of the structure was effected entirely by means of buttresses or short walls placed so as best to resist the thrust of thje vaulting. a new method was gradually evolved. where painted glass was the principal mode of decoration. permanent centres on which the panels or "infilling" of thin stone could rest. when by the grouping of windows and the subsequent formation of mullions and tracery. in D) during the three centuries of Gothic architecture is one of the most fascinating studies of the : style. and more extensive edifices being built. In seeking to diminish the size of the piers and thickness of the walls. Vaulting. Such pressures are of two kinds outwards by the nature of the arch. The increase of the number and variety of ribs and the consequent form of the vaults (No. the paintings of the Greek temples. which were first constructed and which supported thin panels of The difficulties of vaulting oblong compartments. so as to allow the windows to be seen internally in every direction. and downwards by the weight of the material. it was necessary for the architects of this period to find a mode of construction more homogeneous and more capable of resistance. the pressures of the vaults were transmitted to the angles of each compartment by the diagonal ribs. which was evolved from that of the Romans (page 224) and consisted of a framework of independent ribs. the walls were kept internally as flat as possible. the colored and sculptured slabs of the Assyrian palaces. the resultant of the two being in an oblique direction. The walls. The invention of painted glass was an important factor in the development of the style.

(Nos. 170 and Italy (Nos. the sculptured forms and brilliant coloring being The virtues and vices. which was further influenced by the desire for lofty windows to act as frames for the glass. 176 and 179). The place in the national life which the mediaeval cathedrals occupied was an important one. was generally erected over the crossing or at the west end. and must be realized in order to understand how they were regarded. taking the place in the social state since occupied. 117. The sculpture and the painted glass reflected the incidents of Bible History from the creation to the redemption of mankind. EXAMPLES. were mirrored in imperishable stone or colored glass. \s a rule the nave is the portion to the westward. 167). north and south. Picture Gallery and Concert Hall. Belgium (No. France secular 155 and 159). Peter. in which Kings. either in glass or statuary. these of necessity took the pointed form of the vault. along with their reward or punishment saints and angels told of the better life. a development from the early Christian basilicas. history. Architecture then as now was also the grand chronicle of . to a large extent. sometimes crowned with a spire. and the choir. and the various handicrafts.A. forming the The cruciform ground plan is considered by some as transepts. such as Old S. 3. Nobles and Knights were represented. and 172). were there displayed. The founded construction of these buildings. originally adopted for constructive reasons arising from the progress of the art of vaulting. Germany (Nos. A tower. the short arms. many of which were in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Cathedrals were erected and decorated partly as a means of popular education. with their easily understood by the people. by such modern institutions as the Board School. The plans in all parts of Europe. was carried on from generation to generation. F. CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES. 273 the piers came to be occupied by bright colored windows. 119. 118. BUILDINGS ERECTED DURING THE MIDDLE AGES.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Rome (page 182). as evolved from the cruciform buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the period of Constantine. Museum. Free Library. both of peace and war. past and present. T . 120 and 127). symbols. and by others. as may be seen on referring to those of England (Nos. and they were the history books of the period. are generally in the form of a Latin cross.


Lichfield (No. the French word clair. owing to the intricacy and . south and west of the transept. Continental cathedrals seem short. from which. and central towers (see Chichester. are features of English cathedrals western towers also occur in many examples. Wells. 117 E). 155. or "clear story. 118 D). is at the west end. Durham. 119. but not invariably. The lady-chapel is placed beyond the choir at the extreme east end. 118.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE containing the bishop and clergy. light being admitted by the windows in this portion of the nave wall. The head of these windows is generally the level of the ridge of the stone vault of the nave. or " blind story. York. 275 that to the eastward of the crossing. the position and number of transepts (Nos. and the floor is raised above the nave level by steps. high. and a means of communication between different parts of the Abbey. Norwich (No. Worcester. for instance. 118 c). Such is the general distribution of the parts of a cathedral or large church. as at Ely (No. T 2 . and often shapeless. Durham. 117. Lincoln and Ripon. Above this arcade are a series of small arches. Oxford. They are generally. naturally. Peterborough. Canterbury. 127). Gloucester and Wells). all of Norman origin. usually square-ended in England (Nos. were circular. . ~ Each of these divisions is further divided into a central nave and side aisles. 120 j). 118 B). 167 and 187). or by a porch on the south or north sides. which is covered by a high pitched wooden roof. east ends of The The cloisters attached to so many of the English cathedrals. Gloucester (No. or on one side. forming the centre of the secular affairs of the monastery. 117. as at Norwich. opening into a dark space caused by the height of the sloping roof of the aisle this is called the triforium. in the warmest and most sheltered position. there are many deviations. which carry the main walls. as at Lichfield (with spires). The principal entrance. often richly ornamented." Above Hhe triforium is a range of windows in the main wall. while Westminster Abbey has a ring of chapels or chevet (No. forming part of the original monastic buildings. and Salisbury (No. 118. York. low." probably derived from . is IN EUROPE. 117 D). Rochester. The east ends or choirs. 159. Chester. The columns or piers support arches (the nave arcade). Peterborough (No. 109 A and 141 G). 120. were probably derived from the atrium of the Early Christian period (page 180). rising above the aisle roof (Nos. admitting light into the upper part of the nave this division is called the clerestory. and Canterbury (No. such as. and highly grouped examples. 119 and 120) are generally richer than the remainder of the church. 117 A). separated by columns or piers. Compared with such long. Great length.

. Gall (page 261) and Westminster Abbey (No. In many a maze. . of which S. interested in agriculture and industrial pursuits the Cluniac was the student and artist the Carthusian the ascetic and the Friars the missionary preachers of the period. With hues romantic tinged the gorgeous pane. richly rude. MONASTERIES. and were important factors in the development of mediaeval architecture. The interior of a Gothic cathedral has been thus described " The tall shafts that mount in : massy Their mingling branches shoot from Where elfin sculptors with fantastic clue O'er the long roof their wild embroidery drew When superstition. To fill with holy light the wondrous fane. a single western tower is an English characteristic (No. By no Vitruvian symmetry subdued. are trees. pride. The monks according to their several orders favoured different The Benedictine was the chronicler and most learned pursuits. which in many cases were actually built against the wall of the church itself (No. owe much of their beauty to the fact that they are generally placed in a large open space called the Close. are often completely surrounded by houses and shops (page 368). as a general rule. the wreathed window planned. see page 378. Worcester. side to side . Milton so descriptively has " it. or Durham. 121) "The ranged ramparts bright From level meadow-bases of deep grass > Suddenly sealed the " light or are situated picturesquely on the banks of a river. For comparison of English and French Cathedrals. included . Lincoln (No. 109." Bosom'd high 'mid tufted The French Cathedrals. as at Canterbury. on the other hand. The English Cathedrals. 162). 1 . 153. To aid the builder's model. A complete monastery. as as at Wear " . They were erected by the various religious orders already referred to (page 218). i25) and Salisbury (No." . 127) are good examples.276 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. These were amongst the most important structures erected in the middle ages. described by Scott as. and his dress was adopted by University students the Augustinian favoured preaching and disputations the Cistercian was the recluse. 154). " Grand and vast that stands above the or. 130). In churches. . the friend of the poor. . of monks. profusion of their buttressing (Nos. with capricious hand.

) A Cloister Court. open to the public. Lists are given with each country.) Mills. Monasteries answered the purpose of inns in little frequented places. 277 beside the church (a. with the Sacristy between it and the church. gardens. wine and oil. surrounded (0. as is the case to this day on the continent. Peterborough and Gloucester. abbot's lodging. Wells. (b. servants' hall. . hospitals. thus placed to keep away noise and smell. On the opposite side to the church were the refectory (dining hall) and kitchens. with double gateway for carts. and the dormitory adjoining the church. library and scriptorium (the writing and illuminating room for making copies of books). stables. workshops. guest house. servants' rooms. bakehouses.) An Inner Court. Examples of secular work. with infirmary. such as castles and residences of the nobles. tribunal. orchards. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. 4. Chester. and other civil and domestic work are referred to under each country. kitchen. was often by granaries.) cellarage for beer. the dwellings of the people. and fishponds. The comparative analysis of each country is given separately. REFERENCE BOOKS. The lavatory was usually placed in the south cloister walk as at Westminster. approached by a separate staircase. store rooms. (d} The Church Court or Close. prison. and a comparative table of the underlying differences between the Gothic and Renaissance styles is given on page 442. (e. The placed under the dormitory. A Common Court. 5. off which were placed the Chapter House. COMPARATIVE.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE : IN EUROPE. and barn.

thus the transport of stone by sea was an . owed much of her development to the intercourse effected by her ships. human art. INFLUENCES." WORDSWORTH.se rocky shore beats back the envious siege. This happy breed of men. when winds blew loud. England. position of i. " Diffused Spirit divine through forms of her arch Faith had her arch. bound in with the triumphant sea. defensive to a house. in some way. Richard II. Isolation by the sea has had two alternating influences. this little world. This fortress built by nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war. This precious stone set in the silver sea. Hope had her spire Star high. \ ANGLO-SAXON. Geological. Against the envy of less happier lands. has led to the importation of continental ideas in architecture. ii. of dread foundation. Into the consciousness of safety thrill'd . ROMANESQUE (NORMAN). England being an island with natural harbours. responsible for the special character of the buildings in different parts of England. AND GOTHIC.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. laid Under the grave of things. Or as a moat." SHAKESPEARE. for it has assisted in the development of purely national characteristics. and by giving rise to an incurable habit of travelling. in every part. Who. Geographical. Which serves it in the office of a wall. And Love her tower-. " The England may well be considered unique. and lying opposite the rich and populous plains of Europe. i. and pointing still to something higher. The geology of the country is.

in the absence of good roads. but in the Fen districts. and are directly influenced by the iii. During the reigns of William and Mary and Queen Anne. mild. Climate. and sixteenth centuries (Nos. gives a special character to the architecture of these districts. brickwork was largely used in house construction by Sir Christopher Wren and others. after being comparatively unused since the England. and 150. climate is cool. almost continuous work. Religion. damp. Terra-cotta was also employed. Where forests afforded abundant material.D. as in Lancashire. the limestones of Portland. In England. and 247). Cheshire and. and high winds with much rain necessitate conThe deep stant forethought in building to exclude the weather. half-timbered houses were erected. but cold. about departure of the Romans. during every season. attempts at the assertion of national independence were continuous.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. chiefly during the fourteenth.D. 597. 1260). of course. in Suffolk. and parts of the south coast. easier. in parts of Hampton Court Palace. and the different orders of monks had come into . being probably the earliest brick building existing in Brickwork of modern type came into general use in England A. and moist.elsewhere. during which period several popes succeeded in overruling the effected civil King ^Ethelbert was power. have all affected the districts in which they are found. porches and small entrances of English cathedrals are in contrast with continental entrances. and Christianity. was at its height from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. such as the Bath stones. Little Wenham Hall (A. 132 j. The conversion to Christianity of the Kentish by S. Essex (1500-1525). The granites of Cornwall and Devonshire. and the oolitic formations. 1300. but not pushed to extremes until a later date. material was conveyed on horseback. although. fifteenth. adapted The and is for climate. iv. Hampton Court contains good examples of sixteenth and seventeenth century brickwork. 279 important reason for its use in some districts. there was a tendency for these local distinctions to disappear. In chalk districts the characteristic flint work of Norfolk. The distinction between the regular and secular clergy was fully established. By the end of the tenth century the greater part of Europe had embraced The power of the papacy had steadily grown. Caen stone from Normandy being used in the erection of Canterbury Cathedral and other as transport became churches. Suffolk. Even in the Middle Ages stone was brought from a distance. Augustine in A.D. temperate. as at Layer Marney Towers.

Lincoln. Agricola built his forts from the Clyde to the Forth.) Way. The dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. The word "Chester. 283. 449-547. 420. Bury to Lincoln. Edmunds to Salisbury and Southampton. which accounts for peculiarities of plan differentiating them from French Examples. York. v.D. as a Roman colony. 731) for most of the information regarding this period. and signifies a Roman settlement in this country. indicating the religious zeal of the period. building. John Wycliffe (d. After the departure of the Romans in A. as they were especially ignorant in all matters of art. and from him is learnt that a stone church was a rarity. Richborough. but the influence of their architecture continued for a considerable period. markets.D.D. is derived from the Latin word castra = camp. Many of the cathedrals formed part of monastic foundations (page 294). The excavations at Silchester revealed the remains of a very ture. Leicester. 1 20. Hadrian's wall built from the Tyne to the Solway. St.) Fosse (d. A. The in civilizing power of the Roman The roads was of importance opening out the country. London London to Wroxeter. the remains Roman work were largely destroyed by the barbarians who succeeded them.) Wailing Ermine Icknield Street. provided with basilicas or halls of justice. The Crusades. the Roman dress and language being adopted by the British higher classes. as at Winchester. and Fifehead-Neville in Dorset. such as those at Colchester. Street. to Lincoln via Colchester and Cambridge. 210. 650 seems to be of We . (. A. and Burgh Castle (near Yarmouth). and Chester. The Emperor Severus strengthened Agricola's forts. Cornwall Street. existence. and protested against the dogmas of the papacy. fine basilica. their buildings exhibiting characteristic points of difference (page 2 1 8). Bignor in Sussex. and progress was made in agriculand mining. : four great roads in England were (a.D. A. baths. Britain. Darenth in Kent. 1384) asserted the freedom of religious thought.) (b. near Shrewsbury. A. The remains of this epoch consist chiefly of castles. A. The Roman settlements in this country were. are referred to on pages 218. was divided into five provinces. temples. Silchester. The arrival of the Angles and Saxons did not improve matters." as an affix.D. and villas as at Bath. 81. provided funds for the erection of new mansions.D.D. many of them. 363.280 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. are indebted to the Venerable Bede (A. Social and Political.

The English language was ordered to be used in the law courts. but most of these appear to have been built of wood. A. The conquest of Wales led to further development in the planning and design of castles. many of the ruined cities or monasteries. William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury his and work at Cathedral. 1154-1216. 603.D. 1066.D. A. 604. A. and elsewhere. was called. A.D. 1174.D. Edmunds monA. Leicester's Parliament. The boroughs and justice. and in some of these it has been suggested that the timber forms of the earlier ones were executed in stone (No. and attempted to consolidate Great Britain. The conquest of England by the Normans. and the building operations of Bishop Gundulf. though the process was slow and difficult. led the way in self-government. 1362. A. See of Rochester founded. 1042-1066. 1272-1307. to which burgesses were first of the cities and boroughs.D. 134). The Magna Charta freed the Church. the Tower of London. and the formation of towns. abandoned his foreign dominions. at Rochester Castle. and covered with thatch. 1349-1381.D. astery. The framework of modern political institutions began to develop. took place. A. See of London revived. 1215. A.D. A.D. Harold's Collegiate Church at Waltham conse- crated. Benedict Biscop flourished as a church-builder. 871-901. A. and peace and prosperity in commerce gave importance to a middle class. or rebuilt. A.D.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. around the abbeys or castles. 1017-1035. in order to withstand the strangers whom the Angevin kings were constantly bringing into England.D. . 1061. founded early in the thirteenth century. During this period the fusion of the native English and Norman settlers was effected. assisted materially in forwarding the technical progress new buildings. A. Westminster Abbey (consecrated 1065). 656. The rise of the farmer class and free labourer. King Cnut founded Bury St. 681. Monastery of Peterborough founded. Edward the Confessor's religious enthusiasm. summoned from A.D.D. free speech. and remedied abuses.D. influenced the construction of strongholds. The Association of Freemasons. 281 about the date at which stone churches were first built. by which the invaders secured their position in the newly-conquered country.D. King Alfred erected. 1265-1284. A. Edward I.D. A.D.D. A. 1265. A.

1404). 449-547. LL. The condition of the English people. Julius Caesar's first expedition into Britain. 55. Expedition of the Emperor Claudius into Britain.282 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. A. his employment on army of Wykeham (d. one of the greatest Gothic builders. and should be referred to by the student. King of the Saxons. Historical. A. The A.D. 1455-1471. Normans caused a social and political revolution. 597-681. and influenced art. Green.C. is well treated in "A Short History of the English People. Accession of Henry VII. the West Welsh 802-837. and many other buildings. 1066. A.D. 420. Final conquest of Britain by Agricola.D.D. The Wars of the Roses. .D. the General of Domitian.D. 1485.D.D. which swept away half the population of England. commenced. The introduction of printing by Caxton. developed education. development of political institutions. in Italy and Flanders. Saxons and Jutes) conquest of Britain. 84." by J. (the The English Low Dutch tribes known as Angles. R. which can hardly be considered apart from the architecture which they produced. as the foundress of colleges. 450-550. gradually brought the other English kingdoms and into subjection. 43. A. to the owing Black Death. The Edward received the homage of all Britain.D. and the' military organization of feudalism introduced. King A. A. against France. united the Houses. of York and Lancaster. Egbert (a friend of Charlemagne). B.D. vi.D. a press \ being established by him in the Almonry at Westminster. A. Destruction of British churches by heathen invaders. the manners and government of the English being transformed. thus bringing over Continental ideas. between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster. diplomatic services. exercising a marked influence on his writings. carried out a large number of building operations at Winchester. . French traders at the same time came to reside in London and the large towns.\ A.D. including the college and refacing of the cathedral. distracted England at this period. A. when a great impulse was given to the The Lady Margaret. Countess of Richmond.D. 1476. conquest of England by the A. 924. Augustine landed in England and the conversion to Christianity A. Roman troops withdrawn from Britain. William of The poet Chaucer (1340-1400) fought in the Edward III.

1338-1453. Bordeaux. It is usually divided into periods having special characteristics and known as Anglo-Saxon (page 327). is one of the earliest examples of a non-castellated domestic residence (page 322).D. Gothic Vaulting The problems of vaulting during in the England. which brought about the conWest. The wars with France. Sutton Place (A. A. A. where the essential differences between Roman and Mediaeval vaulting are compared.ENGLISH GOTHIC. Early English (page 335). The Crusades. and Henry VIII." Black Prince ruled at A. amongst whom was Hans Holbein. A. 1500.. These and various other causes led to the great Renaissance movement. The introduction of gunpowder ruined feudalism.D. was appointed Court Architect. 1431. encouraged other foreign artists. on the Field of the Cloth of Gold the King and the many knights . riot as castles or places of defence. 1520. visited the French King. Perpendicular (page 349). 2. fortresses which were impregnable against the bow of the yeoman and retainer. The development of mediaeval architecture in England from the departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century. crumbling before the new artillery which Houses were lay at the entire disposal of King Henry VII.D. The first . an accomplished painter of portraits and designer of goldsmiths' work and woodwork. but as residences. and from this period modern ideas of domestic economy gradually transformed house planning. aided in the formation of the great which had a direct influence on feudalism and the Church. A. henceforward constructed. Edward the Prince of Aquitaine. 1360. and Tudor (page 356). who followed in his train returning imbued with the newly introduced Renaissance style as practised in France. Girolamo da Trevigi. A. of England crowned King France at Paris. and a comparative table showing the approximate period covered by each is given on page 327. Henry VIII. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 1095-1254.D. Romanesque period have been already explained on page 224.D.D. Decorated (page 341). Norman (page 328). Francis I. The architectural character of Gothic architecture in Europe has already been referred to on page 268. near Guildford. c. which is referred to on page 547. has a more complete sequence of style than in other countries. 1521-1527). known as the " Hundred Years' War. tact of East and 283 universities.an Italian.D. as of Henry VI.



seems to have been but little used. 112 B. as at the Tower of London (No. . involved the solution of a group of constructive problems which have been already hinted at on page 272. L. great advance was made by the introduction of the pointed arch.D. 135) (b) groined cross vaulting in square bays (No. or (&) to make the diagonal ribs semicircular and stilt A the springing of the transverse and longitudinal ribs. 112 E. 1174. 112 A) (c) other shapes in which the narrower vaulting arches were stilted (No. were pointed (d) Sexpartite (six part) vaulting as in the choir at Canterbury Cathedral. G). in D and 112 j. which was used firstly for the transverse and wall ribs only. and enabling vaults of varying sizes to intersect without stilting or other contrivances. the diagonal ribs (i. surmounting all the difficulties of difference in span. in the later period. Thus it was in connection with the necessity for counteracting the thrust of the nave vaults brought down on piers that the greater part of the evolution of the constructive side of the style took place. The evolution of vaulting in England. in and 112.286 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. F. . in stone. The problem for the mediaeval architects was to vault. as in the aisles at Peterborough Cathedral (No. . c). and the method was either (a) to make diagonal ribs segmental. also known " " as " severies or " infilling were quite subordinate to the ribs and were of clunch or light stone in thin beds. which produced the domical vault employed on the Continent. The pointed arch became permanently established. those with the longest span) remaining semicircular. rebuilt by William of Sens in A. Two views of this type of vaulting at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen are shown in No. and at the same time to provide for the lighting of the building by means of clerestory windows in the nave walls above the aisle roofs. the nave of a church of the basilican type. but the introduction of transverse and diagonal ribs in this period rendered temporary centering necessary for these. Norman vaulting was either (a) cylindrical or barrel vaulting. The cells. 112 D. as shown in Nos. Norman. whereas mediaeval vaulting consisted in profiling the groins which were erected first and supporting the vaulting surfaces which were made to adapt themselves to them. The Roman system was in vogue up to the twelfth century. These severies were of arched resting upon the back of the ribs. In England the raising of the diagonal rib.e. as on the Continent. . consisted entirely in the design of the vaulting planes or surfaces without reference to their meeting lines or groins. Early English (Thirteenth Century). or. The church was thus crowned with a fire-resisting covering over which a wooden roof was placed in order to protect it from the weather. and are indicated in Nos. The following may be taken as the main features of vaulting in each period.

L). was produced by stilting or raising the springing of the wall rib. The plain four-part (quadripartite) ribbed vault. were introduced between the transverse and diagonal ribs as in the vaulting of the nave of Westminster Abbey (No. and would have a tendency to fall towards the centre of the compartment unless resisted by In continental examples the ridge rib is often not the ridge rib. and any horizontal section of a spandrel or meeting of two cross vaults would be a rectangle. and as found in the churches of South- West France. as in the naves of Durham. and were constructed so that their pressure was directed towards the piers and not the wall rib. 112 j.ENGLISH GOTHIC. as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting compartment (No. 109 A. Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals. and the aisles of T windows. 127 c). known as tiercerons. continuous. Salisbury (No. and was necessary in order to obtain greater height for the clerestory The geometry matical truths in regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration. Gothic system was a rough use of mathewhich beauty was sought for. above that of the diagonal and transverse ribs (No." because forming a boundary for each compartment. Ridge ribs are generally horizontal in England and arched on " or "severy" having its courses the Continent. when forming the window arch bordering on a vaulting compartment. 287 form. varying according to the curve of the latter. The curvature of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more centres. but often had winding surfaces. called a " formeret. The "ploughshare twist. however. the plan thus formed would have as many angles as ribs. primarily constructed as a skeleton framework of diagonal and transverse ribs. In the ribbed Gothic vault. but only extends to the last pair of arches which abut against it obliquely. Later in the century intermediate ribs. In such cases ridge ribs were introduced in order to take the thrust of the tiercerons which abut at their summit at an angle. and were especially needed to strengthen the vaulting surfaces by decreasing the space between the ribs. the "infilling at the ridge in zigzag lines as in the nave of Westminster meeting Abbey (No." so called from its resemblance to a ploughshare. and designed without reference to the curvature of adjoining ones. was chiefly used in this period. Decorated (Fourteenth Century). M). -During this period there was an increase and elaboration of intermediate ribs . 112 K. and Gloucester. A wall-rib. was also introduced. in D). and the naves and choirs of Lincoln. In this lies the w hole difference between the Roman and mediaeval systems.) This was a of the common arrangement. for in the former the vaulting surface is everywhere level in a direction parallel to the axis of the vault. and not a strict Peterborough.

for in fan vaulting the whole vault was often constructed in jointed masonry. ridge ribs. 1390) by William (A. Q). 112 N. and in consequence of the star-shaped pattern produced " by the plan of such vaults.. due to the increase in the number of the ribs. are formed on the surface of an inverted concave cone. into a polygonal (hexagonal) pyramid. palm or conoidal vaulting. Tewkesbury Abbey nave. as in S. intermediate. Holborn. the panels being sunk in the soffit of the stone forming the vault instead of being separate stones The solid method seems to have resting on the backs of the ribs. their form being determined independently regulated their curvature. s. The vaulting Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century). which. and of panels which became smaller and smaller until a single stone frequently spanned the space from rib to rib. known as Lierne ribs. N. from the French lien to bind or hold. ridge and lierne ribs in fact. Wells. Bristol (No. The name "lierne" is applied to any rib. known as " rib and panel " vaulting. a vault of numerous ribs. described above (No. Wykeham. to a peculiarly English type of vaulting in this century known as fan. The development was somewhat as follows: In the thirteenth century the form of an inverted four-sided hollow rectangular pyramid was the shape given to the vault. o. by a succession of trials and phases. P. a change in the direction of the vaulting surface. In the early plain -ribbed vaulting each rib marked a groin. however. The complicated "stellar" vaulting of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (No.e. F). except a ridge rib. as carried out (A.D. and connected at different heights by horizontal lierne ribs. 124 E. Sepulchre.. of this type exist in the choirs of Gloucester \ii2 Q). of of this period therefore consisted of transverse. often give an elaborate or intricate appearance to a really simple vault (No. and elsewhere. In the fifteenth century the setting out of the vault was much simplified by the introduction of what " is generally known as "Fan vaulting. diagonal. Owing to the reduction of the size of panels. in which the main ribs. and a new set of ribs (tiercerons). 137 F). In the fourteenth century the masons converted this shape. it is often called Stellar" vaulting (No. o). forming equal angles with each other and being all the same curvature. not springing from an abacus. been adopted first in the crown of the vaults where the ribs were most numerous. Examples 1337-1377). In some "perpendicular" vaults the two . 112 P. i.288 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D. a return was made to the Roman method of vault construction. and the vaulting of Winchester Cathedral (No. 112. 112 R. These liernes. by the introduction of more ribs. Ely (No. but lierne ribs were merely ribs lying in a vaulting surface. by their number and disposition. of such surface. Q) led.

Trinity Church. U . although it seems to have been used in the vaulting of earlier churches (No. and changing it from an oblong to a square on plan. as generally twice as long transversely as longitudinally. and this would m'ake the window arch in the nave wall of acute lancet form but the window arch was made equilateral or even less in height compared to its span in this period. The difficulty of supporting the flat lozenge-shaped space in the top portion of the vault surrounded by the upper boundaries of the hollow cones was comparatively easy in the cloisters. where this type of vaulting was first introduced. Cambridge Henry VII. each portion must obviously be less than a quadrant. as at King's College Chapel. 's Chapel pendants supported by internal arches were placed away from the walls and the conoids supported on these. especially if the compartment is oblong. the whole vault is of jointed masonry. if the diagonal rib is to be a pointed twocentred arch. Gloucester Cathedral (No. and appears to have been first used largely JLD &*l Vaulting. For example. Fan vaulting is confined to England. Windsor R. Oxford. which were in others. but when it was attempted to apply it to the bays of the nave. F. difficulties In King's College Chapel (A. but at a certain height the portions above this level were drawn with a longer radius in order that they might meet the ribs from the opposite side of the vault at the required height. thus reducing the size of the flat central space. and elsewhere. and so the segments of a diagonal arch of two centres preserving the same curvature would not meet at their summit without becoming To horizontal or possibly bending downwards to each other. PeterS. thus forming an awkward junction transversely. systems are found. in D). 's Chapel. being shorter. George's Chapel. but the sides were cut off.D. At Oxford Cathedral a somewhat similar method was adopted. . Westminster. These four-centred arches were afterwards applied to other parts of the buildings in England. It is not found out of England. the pendants also placed some distance from the wall.ENGLISH GOTHIC. In the nave of Henry VII. 299 M) is typical of the architecture of the Tudor period. . The depressed four-centred arch (No. s) borough. as in arches to . 289 .A. must be considerably less than quadrants. 112 the retro-choir. to which the reason for its adoption is held to be due. continued to the centre. 1513) the conoid was occurred. Ely. all the ribs starting with the same curvature. and the transverse and wall ribs. and other examples beyond those already mentioned are in the Divinity Schools. being supported on an upper arch. obviate this the transverse and diagonal ribs in an oblong compartment were sometimes made as four-centred arches. and a polygonal form of ribs adhered to. because the vaulting spaces to be roofed were square or nearly so.

113 B). the whole being framed together and (3. and it was never entirely discarded by mediaeval builders. and the simplest in construction.) forms. Examples of pendant but not of fan vaulting are frequent in the Flamboyant period (fifteenth century) in France. as at Caudebec. as at Wellingborough Church. including arch-braced roofs.) Tie-beam rafter or single-framed Roofs. possibly with a desire to harmonize with the important superstructure of vaulting. primarily used to cover various ribs meeting at all angles. The tie beam was rarely straight. and other places. This was probably the only form known at the Norman period. in which pendants as elongated voussoirs are dropped from a constructive pointed arch. and tracery work in panelling. or ornamental keystones. (i. and form abutments to support the pendant conoids. being cambered or curved in the later examples this camber governed the pitch of the roof. Henry VII. (4. Curved braces were often inserted. concealed above the vaulting. Open Timber Roofs The open timber English feature of the Middle Ages. doors and windows. in order that the awkward mitres of the rib mouldings might be hidden behind the ornament " " " " decorative of the boss. the purlins resting immediately on it. being illustrated on No. which form such Bosses.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. were a constructive the awkward junction "of the necessity. " Pendant " vaulting of vaulting.) Aisle Roofs of several Roof" is the earliest form of which (i. holding their lower portions to counteract the outward thrust on the walls. make the truss harmonize well with other features. 's Chapel and Oxford Cathedral are examples of this method on page 299. (5.) . roofs of the Middle Ages are a special and may be classed in the following five divisions. B).) The "Tie-beam there is any record. (2. The special forms of vault used in Chapter Houses are referred to is a later form often used in connection with fan vaulting. . the beam is merely pinned to the wall-plate at either end and unconnected with the Various methods were afterwards adopted in order to rafters. connecting the tie-beam with wall-pieces (No. In the early examples.) Trussed : Hammer-beam Roofs of various forms. being used in every succeeding style (No. 113 Roofs. 113 A. being merely two rafters pitching one against another with the tiebeam inserted. The bosses. Collar-braced Roofs. features in Gothic vaulting.

Norfolk. and having once been used the superiority of its construction and appearance led to its being largely substituted for the tie-beam form. as seen at Morton Church. was obtained by the use of curved braces fixed to the rafters and collar. The timbers with wooden pins. considered (3.) The "Trussed Rafter or Single-framed Roof. 113 A). as stated. the principal rafter being strutted. as at Solihull Church. B. 2QI In giving the favourite form of the arch. Roof" is. but as the tie-beam always intersected this the result. which were sometimes passed through the collar. and sometimes stopped on the underside. as at Outwell Church. ribs and Wimbotsham. are as at S. struts. collars and curved braces. It has been supposed by some that the hammer-beam arose from the cutting away of the tie-beam in the centre when a curved brace is used beneath the tie-beam. forming a triangular foot (No.ENGLISH GOTHIC. which gave a pleasing effect. and is held to be the The arched form origin of the hammer-beam roof (No. it forms a truss which. Mary. in which the former acts A timber arch was sometimes introduced. (2. as shown in No. 113 A). as a suspending piece. Norfolk. springing from a wall-piece below the tie-beam. As the bosses. This type of roof was often boarded on its underside. A pillar or king-post and struts were often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the rafters. and elsewhere. forming a pentagonal ceiling ornamented with Norfolk. Being thus strengthened. repeated at intervals of 10 feet or more. supports the intermediate rafters of the bay. 113 j). 113 D. as at Lympenhoe Church. as at Outwell Church. was not satisfactory. 113 A). Lincolnshire. and to remove this hollow and unsightly appearance an upright strut was introduced." of which there are many examples.) The to be a natural evolution of the triangular framing adopted at the foot of the trussed rafter roof (No. roofs of steeper pitch the open space above the tie-beam was filled in with perpendicular strutting or carved open work. 1 13 A. It is improbable. 113 j). halved and held "Hammer-beam U 2 . together outside of the wall rafters pitched on the a ledge was left on the inside. H. j. was probably chosen in order to form a space for the pointed vaults. This greatly added to the stability of the roof. as at Swardstone Church and also as shown in No. The hammer-beam is merely the " " at the foot of lengthening and thickening of the sole-piece the trussed rafter (No. as at Stowe Bardolph Church (No. and the weight of the roof carried lower down the wall by means of a curved brace tenoned into the hammer-beam and wall-piece. This is an inversion of the use of king-post and tie-beam as adopted in modern roofs. In roofs of large span each rafter had a collar stiffened by braces. E. and consists generally of hammer-beam.


Suffolk. as at Westminster (No. as at Trunch Church.e. Moreover.) Those with a main arched rib springing from wall-piece and reaching to a collar. (4. whereas the collarbraced kind are not more than 4 inches thick. forming a rigid chief support. collars and curved (a. 293 however. but there are various minor modifications of the type. while the Pulham Church. hammer-beam principals as at are supplied . Norfolk principals may be about 10 inches. earlier. both having principals or trusses placed at regular intervals. Mary. There are many varieties of this form of roof struts. as at Tunstead Church. Margaret. as opposed to the trussed rafter type. 113 H). but the effect is more complicated and less pleasing. and include arch-braced roofs. Ipswich.) Those with no collars and no struts. 113 H) and Eltham. Double hammer-beam roofs have two ranges of hammerbeams. braces. (d. even in conjunction with the Outwell. as at S.) Those with hammer-beams.. but with the important difference that at Tunstead the braces are of the same thickness as and appear to form part of the principal rafters.) "Collar-braced Roofs" are a simplification of the hammer-beam form. The curved braces answer the double purpose of strengthening the principals (No. i. the apex being framed into a wedge-shaped strut. where the intermediate with hammer-beams this is a late example. 113 D).} Those with collarbeams and no struts but curved braces. Suffolk. curved braces only being used from ridge The archto hammer-beam. 1399 (No. which has no principal. Brinton Church is another example of the arch-braced type.D. and Middle Temple Hall : E). Norfolk (No. the object of the second range being to further the principals and convey the weight on to the first range and thence to the wall. the tiebeam was used in all types of roof. structed until the end of the fourteenth century. and there is little more resemblance between a hammer-beam roof and a tie-beam roof than consists in their both being double framed. as at Capel S. Suffolk. 113 c). (#. that this was the origin. so called when the collar is omitted and the arched brace carried up to the This form is very like that constructed nearly a century ridge. is an example of this collar-braced form. These are the main divisions.) Those in which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces carried to the ridge. (c. (e. in which a shorter hammerbeam is used. (No. braced roof is the outcome of this latter form. as Little Welnetham Church. They usually occur when the pitch is flatter. 113 stiffen . earliest recorded example.ENGLISH GOTHIC. and was probably constructed after the hammer-beam Hammer-beams were not contype had attained perfection. A. itself. as at Palgrave Church. and were not in Westminster Hall is the general use until the fifteenth century.

(c. Lichfield. and carrying the weight lower down the which they also help Aisle Roofs in the early period were merely a continua- At North Walsham.2Q4 to steady. Refer to the General Introduction to Gothic Architecture (page 273). being served by secular clergy. Peterborough.D. S.) The Cathedrals of the monastic foundation are those which were originally served by regular clergy or monks. is carried through the (a tie-beam roof). The constitution and foundation of English Cathedrals is important and is largely responsible for their monastic character and general arrangement.) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation. Gloucester. When they were gabled they were usually of low pitch. and the hammer-beam was rarely introduced for these. were not affected by the reforms of Henry VIII. 113 G) and Ixworth Church (No. Carlisle.) The Cathedrals of the old foundation are those which.) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation. known as Norman. Norfolk tion of the rafters of the nave. (&.) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Exeter. Worcester. Early English. New Walsingham Church (No. Chester. When the change in these monastic establishments was : : : . EXAMPLES. They may be divided into three classes (a. Winchester. Westminster Abbey was a Cathedral Church from A. and Bristol. 3. the tie-beam of the aisle wall. Rochester. 1540-1545. wall. and the Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff. The following is a list The Cathedrals of Canterbury. intermediate trusses being introduced to strengthen the purlins. forming a corbel for the wall-piece of the nave roof. Oxford. (5. David's. Lincoln. Ely. Paul. thus Aisle roofs were usually simple. Decorated. As mentioned in architectural character (page 283). S. binding the whole together. Norwich. The following is a list The Cathedrals of York. Bangor. CATHEDRALS. and S. and which were reconstituted at the dissolution of the monasteries as chapters of secular canons. London. (a. Wells. Hereford. 113 F) are good types of aisle roofs. The student is referred to Gothic Architecture in Europe (page 273) for the different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages which are here further enlarged upon. Salisbury. Chichester.) Cathedrals of the New Foundation. these buildings were mostly erected in the styles and Perpendicular. (b. Asaph. Durham.




mills. Scotch and Welsh Cathedrals (S. differing in not being provided with the buildings enumerated above. and Truro. workshops. and The the choir is often of nearly the same length as the nave. Ripon and Southwell. were provided with the apsidal easte . Canterbury. extreme length is often as much as six times. and the Irish. fact that Diversity of style in each building was caused by the with the single exception of Salisbury (page 309) many were erected in all periods. round which the various buildings enumerated above were grouped. Most of the English Cathedrals were founded or remodelled after the Conquest. Wakefield. and gardens page 261). especially in France. The English Cathedrals are thus peculiar in retaining many of the conventual features.2g8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. were required in monastic establishments from necessity. In these countries a large proportion of the Cathedral Churches formed part of monastic establishments in which are original purpose. thus presenting a complete history of the evolution of Gothic Architecture. and the following Parochial Churches S. Monastic found cloisters. remaining the same. but were served by secular clergy. prior the dean.) The Cathedrals of the new which are bishops have been appointed. refectories. as Norwich. (cf. prison. infirmary. Gall. and the the personnel generally made the abbot became the bishop. and therefore do not form part of monastic establishments. Manchester. library. Newcastle. Davids excepted) have no cloisters. old Collegiate Churches. guest Cloisters hall. whereas in France it is seldom more than four times the width. The plans are long and narrow. York and Manchester. scrip- torium. including many which formerly served as churches of the great monastic institutions of the period. Southwell. as they formed a covered way for the use of monks. dormitories. Ripon. wine cellars. The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield. as at Salisbury and Wells. The character which each Cathedral possesses generally indi: cates its Cathedrals are almost peculiar to England and Germany. foundation are those to which (. Monastery of S. They were also frequently planned as an ornamental adjunct to cathedrals of the old foundation which were not part of monastic establishments. the monks became canons and choristers . The absence of double side aisles (Chichester and Manchester excepted) and side chapels tends to show that worship was more congregational in form than on the Continent. chapter houses. where they are frequently found.. viz. The French Cathedrals were mostly erected in the thirteenth century by funds provided by the laity. and others. Albans. The buildings founded by the Norman prelates.

and/or the sake of brevity the Early English. In France owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. restless effect (cf. acting as a screen against the cold winds. The characteristic high central tower. The transepts project considerably. Salisbury (1250). Decorated. 1142-1170). as at Salisbury and Norwich. No. the flying buttresses to the chevet end of the building produce a confused. for " " the buildings. and that at Worcester (A. 101) absent in the English buildings. 1084 1 1 60) is circular internally. Gloucester. and Wells (1292) (No. The normal type is octagonal with a central pillar to support the vaulting. 1242-1290) is an eastern transept. as at Lincoln. The English Cathedrals.ENGLISH GOTHIC. Canterbury. Canterbury and Durham. but has no central pillar. Lincoln. form a part only of the entire composition (page 276). as at Salisbury. They were originally square in plan. as at Bristol (A. 2QQ termination. and in contrast to the large western porches of the French Cathedrals. Westminster (1250). 117-120 for the plans. which produced a very different external effect. and Nos. owe their internal effect to their enormous length. The central tower is generally accompanied by two western towers. Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France. Wells and Worcester. but the example at Durham (A. and there are occasionally secondary transepts.D. in reality of the Nine Altars at Durham (A. exteriors are in direct contrast to Continental examples. York (1280-1330) is also octagonal." and seen in conjunction with cloisters. 1093-1140) is apsidal. and is sometimes crowned with a high tapering spire. but the English type evolved through Durham to Lincoln had square eastern terminations from the Saxon prototype (page 327). 114. 115 and 116 for comparative views of models of the Cathedrals. 70 K). all of which have vaults supported by a central pillar and the surrounding walls. while at Lichfield (No. The characteristics peculiar to the leading cathedrals are here indicated. 116) all three towers are crowned with spires.D. The main entrance was frequently by a south-western porch. Chapter houses were required for the transaction of business by the chapter or bishop's council. See Nos. being mostly situated in a quiet " close far from the madding crowd. nave The refectory and outbuildings. York. in striking contrast with the French The Chapel examples. and Perpendicular . Note.D. sometimes developed into a chevet. Ely. is rendered very effective in contrast with the low nave. as at Lincoln (1225).D. which is further emphasized by the comparative lowness of the vault. being covered with a sham wooden vault 57 feet in diameter.





flanked originally with bold north and south transeptal projections. 137 F). choir of singular interest. A A An Augustinian Abbey. 118 E). Cloisters on the north. "Chester (Nos. which it inspired.E. replacing a lallen central tower. Bristol (Nos. and quaintly channelled with characteristic spirals and flutes. Repeatedly destroyed. 120 B). A. 115 B. An eastern 7. Paul. the finest in England. with timber roof and modern paintings. in 1322. Lady chapel at the east end.. west front is an imposing composition (180 feet wide). Built of red sandstone. 114 H. containing the most perfect of tracery windows. if any. ended by big octagonal turrets. 1. A. on the destruction of Anselm's Norman choir in 1170. with lofty aisle windows. Norman really caused by the formation of lateral chapels. composition. as in in having nave some German churches (cf. Perp. "Ely (Nos. In front of the tower projects the E. 120 F). " Becket's Crown. erected by William of Sens.E. "Canterbury (Nos. Canterbury. Originally the church of the Benedictine order of S. 116 118 B). "Durham (No. has a rich vault of wood only. 136 A. The singular contraction of the width of the choir. An Augustinian monastery. is of lesser interest. 172). are of great beauty. much in the civil wars. 120 K). Perp. by Street. the pillars about the same width as. vaulted and elaborately arcaded. 1140. with fine wooden ceiling. 253). large number of side chapels resembling Continental Cathedrals. Exceptional lady chapel. Present church is Dec. 117 A. and high. The chief example of double aisles. the special point is the massive arcade of the Norman nave. Band Norman nave and transepts. and modern nave in imitation thereof. Rectangular vaulted chapter house. Bangor (No. Internally. in a style after French models." in massive E.304 styles are denoted COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE'. 1099-1128. 119 D). by Alan of Walsingham. (1198-1215) Galilee porch. and Perp. The Perp. 114 B. 8. The nave was vaulted in A. help to form a group which for strength of outline and dignity have few. . owing to the bold tower. resembled that of the Cathedral at Sens. Those which were E. reaching to a central octagonal lantern. The sides of the octagon are unequal. 60 feet high by compare chapter house. on the north side. It. central and lower portion of south-western towers. choir. 114 G. but suffered Scott. except in the general picturesqueness of the group. in order to In plan thjs choir preserve two ancient Norman chapels. 5. 1133 and is said to be the earliest example of a Norman vault in England. Fine central spire. ico feet by 46 feet. the same width as the nave and 215 feet high. The east end a fine 4. 229 feet The nave. Dec. triforium 3. the openings. tower. The plan influenced that of S." At the extreme east is the curious chapel called Extensive There are double transepts.. On his death the work proceeded under William the Englishman. Norman work (1096-1133). The splendid central tower. Remarkable canopied wall c. Most noted feature is the unique octagon. Norman work being of singular interest. London (No. Carlisle (No. The chapter house is oblong.. nave. rivals. (12421290). 216 feet in height. being alternately 20 feet and 35 feet. cloisters. 70 feet in diameter. 6. two square bays in plan. Peculiar and aisles of nearly equal height. Choir remarkable for splendid carving. and In 1866 thoroughly restored by Sir G. The. the original crypts are under all the eastern portion. is in the Late Perp. E. the churches of Benedictine monasteries (page 218) are distinguished by an asterisk *. and clerestory. "Elder Lady Chapel. 119 G). style.D. The Bell Tower is the only example of its kind belonging to an English Cathedral. 2.D. D. the west front and towers are unimportant. also late. transept called the "Chapel of the Nine Altars. E. No. Werburgh. respectively. is worthy of notice. and a central Perp. Chichester (No. .E. 114 A. 1306-1332." Dec. There is thus an absence of the usual Norman recesses for monuments.

upper part and short spire. The E. constructed in A.D. Ely). central and two western spires of rich and graceful character form the only example of the triple combination in England. as at Winchester. which has splendid fan vaulting with pendants. the ridge of a steep hill dominating the town. The clerestory windows of spherical triangular form. cloisters of singular completeness. B. polygonal. is surrounded by a ring of flying buttresses. central tower. supporting Norman arches. on the north side of Cathedral. 1117 and 1190. Cambridge. 122 A. 1422-1520). E. tower (A. decagonal chapter house. 112 R. 115 F. Fine modern stalls.E. without transepts or side Two western towers.E. The long. and choir. W. 118 D). 115 H. lady chapel and Dec. C. with spire on crown of arches. 116 F. transepts. The nave is covered with a painted wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments. in general outline resembling Canterbury. whose lower parts are therefore invisible. The nave is much chapels. No cloisters. removed in the thirteenth century for an oblong lady chapel. Llandaff (No. 115 c. style. The apsidal choir is inclosed in a square chapel of Late Perp. 14. Hereford (Nos. 114 F. 10. "Angel choir. Late Dec. 1096-1 145).D. Cathedral built between A. and is exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved wood and stonework. 18. having twin towers placed over the Unique north and south transepts (cf. resting Newcastle. 119 aisles. *Gloucester (Nos. 116 D. A Norman 19. obtained as at Chichester by the inclusion of side chapels. Lincoln (Nos. Very rich in Early Perp. S.D 1233. excluding spires. 225 feet high. Norman nave and choir. King's College. Chapter House.A. X . Originally the church of a priory or The nave and choir are Norman (1158-1180). No cloisters. 12. having double Fine stalls. 126). are Norman (A. resembling that of Durham. destroyed. The grand western facade. and having also double transepts and central and western towers. Bold central Perp. front are in the E. the " National former (271 feet high) being the highest in England. The easternmost apsidal chapel. nave. A 15. work. Giles. Perp.E. spire. Edinburgh. style. fan vaulted. Aberdeen. *Norwich (Nos. The cloisters are on the north side. in style.E. Oxford (No. 16.ENGLISH GOTHIC. 1474). Lichfield (Nos. Wolsey when building his college of Christchurch. Vienna. since destroyed. Perp. Square chapter house with central pillar. Stephen. vaulting (No. It is the best specimen of the Dec. The choir clerestory. (A. situated at the foot of a hill. Central tower. and the vaulting throughout are Perp. No triforium.. and choir with apsidal chapels. transepts choir will see how the French feeling is here departed from. 120 H). Manchester (No. page 396).E. The interior is considered to be the finest in the Norman style next to Durham. London. C. and the student acquainted with Canterbury E. Exeter (Nos. *Peterborough (Nos. consisting of a screen wall behind which rise the two western towers. 115 in 305 D. 137 E). 125. 118 c). Dunstan in the East. n6B. The nave aisles only are vaulted (cf. consists of F. 120 c). D. 136 B). Remarkable for B). Situated on 13. Situated on slightly The nave. a vestibule to choir." 1256-1314. chapter house and sloping ground and built of reddish stone. and Dec. B. alternately circular and chapter house and lady chapel are E. s). Norman choir cased with Perp. forms. aisleless transepts 17. 117 D. 117 F. and S. as at King's College. 119 E). Norman central tower having E. The Dec. vaulted to central pillar. beneath which is the triforium gallery. 119 c). Perp. ornamenting what is probably the oldest wooden roof in England. g. restored. and the Augustinian monks. 158 feet wide. as it were. Lincoln" sums up its greatest glory. The west front is unusual. 120 j. Nave shortened by Card. narrow nave. Pillars of nave.D. long low building.E. forming quite an unusual arrangement in order to gain height. D. 11. 124 A. Rebuilt 1185-1200. similar to S. the windows beneath clerestory on south side of nave.

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and monuments are The cloisters. marble shrine of S. octagonal chapter house. 1220-1260. 129). the highest development of a type of is arcaded and enriched with sculpture Double transepts. 116 E. the only complete example of this 25. but The spire. Restored by Sir G. very rich and well preserved. periods. rood-screen at entrance support a carved oak roof of late (1508) design. in A. feet high.E. gable crowns each arch. 127. See Nos. -The nave. 120 E). 29. . . Norman nave.E. Scott. and is remarkable for its elaborate fan vault.) (1214-1465). 115 G. The 114 E. has no central pillar.D. mouldings. Rebuilt in the Dec. The plan has double transepts. and fa?ade found in English Gothic. Davids (No. S. 119 A). beside the river Alan. Situated in a valley. 1070-1107.E. 119 K). The E. The triforium. and is believed to have been the model for that at York. 119 F). Central and two western towers. transepts with aisles. is Dec. style. transepts and towers. F. boldly projecting and vaulted internally. Perfect western facade in E. and transepts. 115 E. E. 117 C. the longest in England (284 feet). A Benedictine monastery founded by Dunstan betrays French influence in its polygonal chevet and chapels.D. Dec. Alban. surrounded by the green sward of a wide close. central tower. to choir. The Norman nave and choir (1079-1093) were transformed . Other towers rise from behind over the end bays of the aisles. Asaph (No. in place of the former lady chapel. and 24. 121. is unique. 123 and 140 D).. walled-in choir are Perp. west facade is weak. internal loftiness (having the highest nave in England). surrounded originally by five aps dal chapels. 22. and the end abutments are carried up as small towers crowned with spires. being the loftiest in England.E. 154 A. the full height of the Cathedral. Of the present structure the eastern portion was erected by Henry III. though some uncertainty exists as to the intended grouping. transepts and Western Dec. Dec. and Perp. Carving No cloisters. and splendid Dec. 1722-1740. E. Erected A. style (restored by A A Scott). Dec. It has the greatest transepts Norman and tower. 128. *Winchester (Nos. 309 a portico of three gigantic arches. erected by Sir Gilbert Scott. E. 117 E. broken only by a Constructed almost entirely A.E. 124 D. 119. bays of choir are E. 159 B. Central tower.E.I). in A. are Perp. The shrines. and Henry VII.ENGLISH GOTHIC. Much destroyed and altered Norman nave. During 1260-1269 the four bays west of the transept were constructed. The nave was completed in ihe fifteenth century in imitation The western towers were completed of the older work. illustrating the comparative height to width of the naves of English and French Cathedrals it has been shown that whereas Wells is 32 feet wide and 67 feet high (two to one). Two-storied south porch. transeptsand western 27. 116 on a level site. Rich choir stalls and tabernacle work. *Rochester (Nos. forming the type of English. Fine western in recent years. The nave arches close by the sea. Rcof and choir stalls 23. the chief glory of the Cathedral. tombs. 404 The cloister there is a fine north porch. 122 E. Amiens is 46 feet wide and 140 feet high (three to one). 21. 's Chapel was added by Henry VII. and strongly marked flying buttresses. S. choir. 1 60. *Westminster (Nos. total length (560 feet) of any mediaeval Cathedral in Europe. choir. two-storied porch of the Perp. Wells (Nos. Ripon (Nos. clerestory to nave and Norman wooden roof nave. : feature in England. As three towers. The plan consists of a nave and aisles. west front. in the usual position to the south of nave. few elm trees. 1220-1258 in the E. 120 G. 119 H). and eastern chevet.E. as Amiens is of French Gothic. 137 G). period has been built in the central archway.E. open tracery and elaborate vaulting of the E. 20. including buttresses. eastern lady chapel. of close set openings with capitals. 28. Norman doorways. o. Southwell (No. *S. have exceptionally fine. Albans (No. 1360). style. by Wren and Hawksmoor. Salisbury (Nos. recovered and reportion of nave is E. 26. 150 feet wide. chantry chapels. but with Perp. F.



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* Worcester (Nos.E. Wykeham and his successors (1394-1486) with a veneer of Perp. the River Severn. Dec. The nave and the octagonal chapter house. ***** The floor * . E. London. choir. York (Nos. rectro choir. and Dec. The height of the nave is second only to that of Westminster Abbey. The nave and choir are covered with a wooden imitation of a stone vault. Norman crypt. The five sisters a name given to the lancet windows of the north transept are each 50 feet high and 5 feet wide. 1261-1324). in concert with the temperate awe natural reverence that the place inspired raised in nice proportions was the : pile. (For a description of S.oi a comparison between English and French cathedrals. No Perp. The E. " The portals of the sacred pile A grateful coolness The And Not But large and massy. It is notable as the largest in area and width (being no less than 106 feet within the walls) of any English cathedral. 117 B). 118 A). the largest Wood in England. Tombs and chantries. Paul's Cathedral. The west front is of the French type. fell. Norman A MONASTERIES. and on the floor beneath stones appeared. without central column and covered with a wooden roof. level situation on the banks of 30. for duration built . 115 A.E. with Sepulchral emblems And marble monuments were hrongmg footworn epitaphs Inning effigies and some with small of brass inlaid.) Notf. Compare Gloucester. nave. (See page 276. vaulting to choir. cloisters and house. Stood open. E. mid some thick grove. 114 D. and we entered.. With pillars crowded. transepts are remarkable for the 31. On my frame At such transition from the fervid air. 145) are fine specimens. which will enable their various characteristics to be understood. unpretending guise occupied by oaken benches. cloisters. In spite of the size of the cathedral it compares unfavourably with Durham for grandeur. that served to strike heart.) PARISH CHURCHES. tower. see page 378. and grouping. strength of outline. of Edwardian Gothic (Dec. Jf nave and aisle in Was And here display'd the walls . intricately cross' d Like leafless unclerboughs. and Perp. ranged In seemly rows ."-W O RDSWORTH graven . King John and Prince Arthur (No.316 by William of the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. central tower (196 feet high). on core and crowned with a vaulted roof. see page 571. All withered by the depth of shade above. and the roof upheld By naked rafters. stalls. The Royal chantries of Interesting monuments.E. north and south transepts and circular chapter the only one in England. " " classic beauty of their mouldings (Street).


as in the Tower of London (A. These consisted of (a. on the south side. several stories in height all being surrounded by a lofty wall with ramparts and parapet and a deep moat. while complying with the ideas of defence. and Kenilworth Castle (No. The castles were less strongly fortified. although occasionally the western tower emphasized the main entrance. 131 A). ' ' In the thirteenth century these castles were further enlarged by additional buildings. while in (No. and the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk have examples specially famous in this respect. the planning also illustrates the relation of the vassal to his lord. 1500) ' . was theoretically bound to maintain him. . 130 B). which are cruciform on plan.100 castles being constructed during the reign of Stephen alone.318 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The English developed ' THE CASTLES OF THE NOBLES. .) an outer " bailey " or court. therefore. over 1. clustering round the keep. These form an important part of the architecture of the Middle Ages.) the donjon or keep. and (c. Large hooded fireplaces and chimneys became general. 131 c). and narrow with aisles. They were generally residences as well as military posts thus. 140 G." SCOTT. sometimes of two stories. The loophole grates where captives weep. and elaborate specimens of constructive art were indulged in. clerestory with windows. military structures were all-important. The principal entrance was by a porch. A large number were erected during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. various types being shown on No. who. The typical English Church differs from the French in not and there is. near the west end. E) and flying buttresses tower and base of the spire (No. culminating in the "hammer-beam" variety of the fifteenth century.) an inner bailey. the donjon keep. while exacting the former's service. and " was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a "broach on angle squinch arches (No. 140 A) resting the following centuries. the hall still remaining the principal feature. as the growth of the royal power suppressed petty wars between rival nobles. These were often painted with rich colors. (b. In the twelfth century. 140 c. the tower larger Where a spire occurs it is usually is over the "crossing. finished with crenellated battlements.D. while the invention of gunpowder (A. being vaulted. There was generally but in some of the tower. parapets with elaborate corner pinnacles were employed to connect the (No. and were fortified up to the end of the fourteenth century. 1081-1090) (No. H). 113." the change from the square to the octagon octagonal on plan. and a long a single western chancel without aisles. an absence of flying " the " open-timbered roof. The battled towers.D. buttresses. Parish Churches.


132 B. 132 A. made rendered quite the moat comparatively useless. a royal palace Ightham Cranbourne Manor. and sometimes. The roof (No. and soon obsolete the older systems of defence (page 549)." the adjacent. F) (A. The main body of the Hall was occupied by the servants and retainers.D. E. E) is a fine in No. moated manor houses merchant's home. The plan (No. with case it An external raised dais at one end and a screen at the other. 132 F) of a nobleman's house. Kent (No. and the sleeping accommodation was much improved. referred to in Hall. and the floor was often only strewn with rushes and formed. the whole height of the house. The great banqueting-hall gradually ceased to be used as the common sleeping-room on the introduction of the withdrawingroom. . was separated as a vestibule from the Hall itself. Shakespeare's is a Penshurst Place. 132 A. the kitchen being The fire was in the centre of the Hall on " dogs. an example of a Richard III. The porch or doorway led to the entry which. The "solar. On the side away was the Hall. In the fifteenth century the central fireplace was moved to the side wall. was often at right angles to the Hall. as Crosby Place. and Crosby Kent. . D. The walls were hung with tapestry and with trophies of the chase. elevation is "louvre" example of a typical open timbered type. c. B. as at smoke being carried away by the " louvre or by a wall fireplace with a hooded canopy. and the fourteenth century house may be taken as the prototype of the modern country house. Over this entry was the minstrels' gallery. and the original or opening for the escape of smoke from the central fire still exists. as in arose. and habits of the country gentleman of to-day. London. 1335). 131 B). desire for privacy In the fourteenth century an increased of the Hall was attained. as in all domestic buildings of the fourteenth In this of primary importance. Penshurst. by a panelled partition or screen. " in the roof. as at Oxburgh Hall (No still given retainers. as in the earlier periods. A characteristic house of the period consisted of a quadrangular from the entrance plan with central courtyard." or withdra wing-room. as was the mediaeval castle of the feudal baron. Westminster Hall. while at the further end of the Hall was the raised " dais. and the highest development Mote and Hever Hall. century. becoming a distinctive feature. . inclinations. the sleeping-room for the though they were sometimes lodged in dormitories in the wings. Dorset.3 20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. a large bay window gave external and internal importance to that end. good example indicates that." for the seats of the master and his principal guests. which in its highest development is an expression of the wants. the Hall was the feature a is 68 feet by 38 feet 8 inches and 48 feet high.

A.ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.? '9' z .D.? .. ^PFEET 132. XI MIRTH iramm of crat ma fl. F.. '91. ..1300-1650.. 3 .

every city was more or less fortified.D. In the latter part of the century the common dining-hall began to decline in importance. 150). in some cases. In towns the dwellings often consisted of a shop on the ground floor. as The formation of towns was often due to considerations of when traders and others grouped themselves around . the castles of the great nobles. THE DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE. or formed a dependency to a and thus afterwards arose in many towns two rival In the absence of authorities. and in the consequent insecurity against lawless vagabonds. and dormitories in the upper story.as at Layer (A. and brick with overhanging upper stories abounded. There were different varieties ments in palaces or other these.. century the typical In the sixteenth of buildings grouped around a quadrangular Tudor house consisted court. while the Jew's house at Lincoln is a fine specimen of an early half timber a notable example. . which gave access to the sleeping-rooms oil the first floor. house are dealt with in English Renaissance. safety. Italy. light being obtained by a wide opening fronting the street. 1521-1527). in which the trade of the owner was carried on. sepulchral of . ecclesiastical and secular. the living and and such ranged along the other two sides. Compton Wynyates 1520) (No. The entrance was in the centre of one side under a gatehouse. above.. owing to modern ideas of privacy being introduced but the salient characteristics of the Elizabethan . of the fifteenth " solar " century. and other local causes. Houses of CHAPELS. those forming portions of larger churches. in proportion to the condition of the owner.. In this respect the passage way on the first . Marney (A. Belgium. which gave it prominence. The undeveloped state of the towns is accountable for the absence of town halls. page 553. those forming apartdwellings.322 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and Sutton Place (A. on the opposite side were the hall and offices. rooms were usually thoroughfare only entered from the courtyard. and an external door led to a staircase. viz. monastery and Germany.D. the materials at hand. has ground floor shops. in contrast with France. where many such buildings exist. The " Butcher Row " at Shrewsbury. Behind the shop were the kitchen and living-room. 1520). effective police.D. floor to the houses at Chester is stone residence. viz. The architecture was more or less developed. or attached to convents and monasteries. sleeping-rooms being " " rooms or.

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Christ Church. hall Museum. Worcester. Oxford (1274-1277). Trinity Hall. still exists. John's Chapel. and that of Cambridge from about 1209." The " Triangular " Bridge at Croyland. 1458. George's (No. 1352.John's. Trinity. 1437 Magdalen. and many of the principal colleges at these Universities were erected as follows At Oxford the : : colleges of Merton.324 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. New College. (1480-1508). the Chantry Chapel S. Lincoln. 132) (A. 1554. 133). BRIDGES. . 1289. Tower of London (No. John's. 1284. is a model in the GuildCambridge 1440). Pembroke. 127. and this and the other rooms were grouped around a quadrangle. 1427. 129) (1500-1512). 1448. Corpus Christi. monasteries. The rise of Oxford dates from about 1167. 1379. Colleges resembled the monastic establishments of The earlier times and were modelled on them in many ways. All Souls. 1250). 1348. 1263-1264. examples may be mentioned. and other educational the institu- chapels. West- COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. Lincolnshire. 1516. 1340. hall was the principal apartment. and cathedrals. 1326. 128. Lambeth (A. Clare. . . . those attached to colleges tions and those erected on bridges germ of all these being a : Palace Chapel (No. 135) . 1505 S. . . with later additions. 's minster" (Nos. Westminster (1349-1364). Jesus. King's. since destroyed Stephen's Chapel. 1441 Queens'. London . having three pointed arches with abutments at the angles of an equilateral triangle and having three communication. Merton College Chapel. onward there existed a number of connected with churches. and S. At Cambridge: the colleges of Peterhouse. which aisles came to be added. Gonville. and Henry VII. menced in 1176. 1497. and Eton College (1442) was founded by Henry VI. (1422-1461). on the Bridge at Wakefield (fourteenth century). From the time grammar schools of Alfred Winchester College (1387-1393) was built by William of \Vykeham. Windsor Chapel. 1347. Exeter. Oriel. 1555. was built by the religious confraternity known as the "Prates Pontis. and in many A few representaOld London Bridge. Brasenose. of which there . Christ's. S. large apartment to The following are a few examples of different types S. 1511 Magdalen. 1314. Chapel. with the later addition of the Lollard's tower (1424-1445). 1524. 1326. . Queen's. 1509 Corpus Christi. to make way for Westminster Palace King's College Chapel. 1546. as in the mediaeval house. 1350.D. These formed important means tive of instances possessed a semi-religious character.D. com- . 1542 and Trinity.

and form interesting examples of semi-domestic character. There have been various systems of classification adopted by Rickman and Sharpe are the best different writers. can still boast a number. whereas Sharpe's divisions are governed by the character of the window tracery in each period. the choir screens. Winchester Ford's Hospital. Kent. and almshouses at Cobham. Many of these. roadways and three waterways. The Bridge Northumberland. which are given under each style later. although belonging to a very early foundation. 132 L. John's Hospital. Mary's Hospital. tombs. and has bedrooms and sitting-rooms for the inmates opening on to the central hall. such as Chester. 132 MINOR MONUMENTS. In the cathedrals and churches. These are j). 5. at 325 Wark worth. by Rickman's divisions are made to include periods corre- sponding to the reigns of English sovereigns. and numerous villages throughout the country. ANCIENT TIMBER HOUSES. (No. Northampton the Bede House. wall and chantries are specially notable. Coventry S. is in good preservation. Stamford. Other examples are S. . PREFATORY NOTE. principally dating from the fifteenth century. still numerous. worthy 4. N) is mainly of the fourteenth century. tablets. were founded by charitable people. but those now known. will give an idea of the appearance of these old timber houses. Many of these are of careful study. . at the end of which is the chapel. Chichester. (No. which have is their specially denned characteristics. and each period treated in a comparative way in a somewhat different manner to the method adopted in othsr styles. HOSPITALS. . of which many towns. the architectural character and examples in each period being given. . COMPARATIVE. and elsewhere.ENGLISH GOTHIC. Cross. M. The architecture of England during the Middle Ages can be divided into centuries corresponding to the principal developments. and the example from Chiddingstone dating about 1637. ALMSHOUSES AND BEDE HOUSES.


given : Dates.. .) (i. the triangular-headed openings.. Plans. the 1 3th cent... The following are a few of the examples of this period : Worth Church.. } /Norman. the I5th cent. 449 to 1066)..... 134 F). Wickham (No. but these features are more likely ru\le attempts to copy the contemporary Romanesque work of Ravenna and other Italian towns. There was often a descent of a few steps from the nave into the chancel. Deerhurst (Gloucestershire) (No... Greensted Church (Essex). Northants (No. D.. so minute are the differences. D)... Brixworth (Northants)..... Barnack Church. of which Earl's Barton. ANGLO-SAXON STYLE The (A. and the baluster mullions (No.) Anglo-Saxons) to the ConSaxon. . Decorated.. 134 H). end of I2th cent. Towers. 134).. . Dover Castle and Church. joined example. f^ Lance ^' Rectilinear. . but the scanty remains of this period render it difficult to estimate the character of the buildings. it must be remembered that the transition from one style to the next was slow and gradual. as S v Martin.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (ANGLO-SAXON STYLE). | Transition.. B. Tudor.. 449 (arrival of quest in 1066 (i. and distinctly marked as such externally and internally. Tudor.. Sharpe. Sompting (Sussex) (No.... the pilaster strips. buildings are sometimes composed of the fragments of Roman architecture in Britain. is an A...e.. (i.. Early English. 134).e. Canterbury. comparative table is showing the approximate period covered by Rickman. the chancel being squareended (borrowed from the Keltic type). It is probable that timber was the material mostly employed in all classes of buildings. ..... for it must not be forgotten that the mediaeval architecture of England is one continuous style. 1066-1189 1189-1307 1307-1377 1377-1485 1485-1558 to the Norman. 134 c). 327 A each A.) (i>e.) .. as in the "long and short" work. and that the great development in timber work of the later Gothic styles was due to this early use. Earl's Barton (No. Another type of plan is that of the Roman basilican form... The masonry work is considered to show signs of the influence of wood architecture.. lower and smaller than the nave. and the crypt at Ripon Cathedral.e. and can often hardly be traced.. It is only for convenience in alluding to the different stages that the division is made. (i. Saxon.. the first half i6th cent. 134 A. Although the period of each style is thus defined.e. are without buttresses.) Perpendicular. Churches seem to have been planned as two simple by a small chancel arch. the I 4 th cent.. and Brixworth.D... oblongs. or of rude copies.

Roofs.. G). There are no means of knowing exactly how these D. as at mentioned above are also features. Ornament. These were mostly formed of rough rubble work B. 1100-1135. and presents with the architecture of Normandy. Walls. E. It is well described by Sir Walter Scott similarities : The many " In Norman strength. These were few in number and consisted of F. as in early Irish ing each other till they met at represent buildings as covered by slates Manuscripts examples. 134 c). as at Wickham (No. hence the use of the axe in roughly finishing the contours. That rose alternate row on row On ponderous columns. Ttfbls were few. belfry technical ability. Bartholomew's the (Transitional). stumpy in the place of cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone moulded capitals (No. NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. in the absence of G. 1135-1154. Henry I. Henry II.and short" with ashlar masonry at the angles formed in The pilaster strips Earl's Barton (No. general appearance is bold and massive. The roughly formed balusters.. : The keep and . In London. have been mentioned above. 1087iioo.. have square jambs. but they were probably either of timber or composed of loose stones in horizontal layers approachthe apex. The round portion of the Temple Church S. 131 A and 135)... These are round or triangular-headed. the principal examples are S. 1066-1087. and c. Great. and appear to have been worked by a lathe. 134 A).. 134 E. hangings being probably in use. " long . To emulate in stone ". simple ovolos and hollows coarsely axed. short and low Built ere the art was known. Piers in churches are short. Stephen. courses. By pointed aisle and shafted stalk The arcades of an alley'd walk . as at Deerhurst Church (No. 134 F). William II.328 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Columns. Mouldings. Openings. 11541189. This was probably scanty.. comprises the reigns of William I. that occur in windows. and are sometimes divided by a baluster. as none exist. or shingles. were treated. also known as the English Romanesque or Twelfth Century style. Smithfield. John's Chapel in the Tower of London (Nos. from whence it was introduced during the reign of William I. that abbey frown'd With massive arches broad and round.




as at Norwich. Durham.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Oxford." to their jambs. Lo'ndon (No. 131 A). and Iffley Church. These were frequently formed with square recesses. owing to the recent conquest. high roads. were numerous and important. triforium. B. Barfreston Church. and transepts were employed. and Tewkesbury Winchester. Albans. but double windows divided by a shaft Three openings. .n with 0e Omt ^^ whh Wa s scul P tural The roof-trusses a^l)^ were of ^ n . The Tower of London gives a good idea of the system of defence adopted (No. and a passage was often formed tetween the clerestory window and the triple arch carrying the inside of the wall. with semicircular heads. as at Iffley Church. Kent. Durham. Hereford. S. a method also adopted in the churches at Caen. are sometimes grouped together. and frequently arcaded in later work. B). the core being imperfectly bonded with the facing. 138). and clerestory. Castles. Openings. having at their west end round towers supposed to be due to Scandinavian influence. commanding fords on the rivers.* Gloucester. S. Saxon period. known as "orders. They are narrow and deeply splayed. 136 c. Oxon in single lights. The chapel of the Tower of Ely. Walls. 135) is a type of a small chapel in the style. Peterborough. The windows are isually small. :st. Oxon Abbey. The towers are square and massive. 141 A). and other strategic points. Doorways are deeply recessed and richly ornamented with the ornament and beak-head. of which the centre -equently occur in towers. and Winchester. Exeter. In Norfolk and Suffolk are some fifty churches. with usually a tower Most of the cathedrals date from this period. Chichester. and often flush with the corbel table. Albans. of small Norman churches. but are often constructed with defective masonry. A. . The interiors have nearly an equal height assigned to nave arcade. Alban's Abbey and Iffley Church (No. Waltham. Buttresses are broad and flat. Ely. Plans. 138). and the general type of plan laid down was developed rather than changed. chiefly of king-post form. the principal examples ^reater portion of the Cathedrals of Norwich. but probably owing to these being more readily constructed. with little projection (No. at the crossing. are In the Provinces. as at S. (No. are good examples : The The nave was considerably lengthened from the A. which supports a plain parapet (No. great length being aimed at. in the absence of suitable stone to form square angles.beaded or intersecting > open timber. These are very thick.



and form a most important decorative element in the style. supported by corbels or grotesques. John. 1216-1272. The style of this period. Early Plantagenet. Also known as Lancet. with rectangular recesses. The Corinthian type frequently met with in France is rare. or roll moulding. leaded together to of brown lines. are usually of the cushion form. succeeded by the highly decorated work of the late period. as at Gloucester. piscina and sedilia are shown on No. massive. Bristol.. as at Durham and Waltham. the covering being of lead or shingles. The small shafts occurring in the recessed orders of doorways and windows were sometimes richly ornamented. being chiefly white. form patterns. 135). comprises the reigns of Richard I. but occasionally forms reminiscent of in the Roman architecture occur. produced a bold and not unLate in the period pleasing effect. THE EARLY ENGLISH 1199. and either polygonal or circular (No. along the lower part of the aisle walls. with the addition A Norman font. bowtel. as at Gloucester. were also used. are shown on Nos. It is probable that hangings were employed in interiors. but were vaulted later. nail-head. Columns. billet. 146 and 148). in small pieces. often in conjunction with round piers. shaking itself free from the massive . White Tower. These are low. or simple colors in stripes.. as the chevron F. The simple framing is either left In fact. billet. E. The plain treatment of the earlier period was G. consisting of black and white. 1366). 139). Wall arcades of intersecting arches (No. 1272-1307. -The ornamented mouldings. 122). and Durham. and having an 335 inclination of forty-five degrees. Rudimentary decoration. the existing cathedrals or abbeys of this period had originally wooden ceilings. as at Peterborough (No. as in the roof at Peterborough. STYLE. constitute crowning features on walls and towers. and Exeter. or has a flat ceiling boarded and decorated. corbel. Exeter. Mouldings.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE). while at Durham fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the columns. the glass. Capitals (Nos. or Thirteen Century Style. Henry III. Clustered piers. and other orna- mented mouldings (No. 1189- 1199-1216. forming lozenge-shaped and other figures roughly executed in distemper. without regard to the courses. all exposed. beak-head. Edward I. or zigzag.. Ornament. which was richly carved with nail-head. being sometimes carved and scolloped. constituted an effective dado decoration. 139 and 146. First Pointed. stained glass began to be employed. Corbel tables. London (No. as the Ionic example. 144. 135).

and the Chapter House. Wells (nave and west front). occur connected by bands to the piers. and first portion of the Temple Church. and steeply pitched roofs. D). B). Saviour). 132 G. 122. and 140 D). life and vegetation to the very stones of these door and window an upward openings. " which (No. 140 mn the square tower without a parapet. Bristol (the A. The choir. which may be called : Norman. more elegant. in is Walls. and the ing their luxuriance upon knots of pierced and hanging leaves. mark slender groups of shafts nally. K). Lichfield. in magnificent and rich. proportion. in place of the massive Norman pillar. between Norman and Early English. In London the principal examples are The round portion of the Temple Church. Lincoln (nave) (No. Flying buttresses were introduced. Ely (choir transepts and Gallilee Porch. Plans (No. in order to lateral outward of the pointed pressure vaults. and nave (restored) of S. Elder Lady 1198-1218) (No. the foliaged capitals and bosses intrudthe mouldings and hollows. pinnacles. and less ' P ronounced th an in the Norman period. strong its dependence upon The Eastern Transitional. four bays of the nave of Westminster Abbey (1220-1269).336 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The Chapel of Lambeth Palace (No. equal in projection to their width. transepts. 117 B). nave compartments were made oblong in place of the former divisions. Rochester (choir and transepts). York (transepts) (No. 117 E). Lady Chapel. as. The pointed arch vaults are bolder. a portion of the Cloisters. Worcester : (choir). square The "broach s B. the upper portion characteristic. and used more frequently (page 286). The proportion of opening 1S often excellent as in the e buttresses ' These retain the massiveness characteristic of cut stonework was employed. man work but more We filling On iTir J the concentration of the weight of the roof and leading to the gradual treatment of between as a mere screen. Mary Overie (S. extending like some petrified almost impart garland or bower of filigree work round the arch. and the boldly projecting buttresses and Interthe exteriors. 117 F). and . spire A. when pointed arches were finally adopted. restored (No. well-defined outline. These varied but little from the The vaulting as it advanced modified the planning. 127). The long trails of dog-tooth ornament lurking in the dark furrow of the channelled recesses. The Choir. In the Provinces the principal examples are Salisbury Cathedral (Nos. 136 Chapel). H. Southwark. 121. is and simplicity in decoration. The tall and narrow lancet openings give tendency to the design.

Narrow lancet windows are grouped in two. making the inside jamb very deep. G) are of lancet form. 122 G). or carved with conventional foliage (No. The doorways are often richly treated. the heads of windows having cusps forming The spaces between the cusps are part of the tracery itself. (Vaulting. Openings. This form of detached cusping is found generally in the circular lights. D. as at Westminster (No. 136 D. 146). gradually throughout the whole building. then . and 142 A. 146). and Their arrises were often chamfered. B. at first in connection with vaulting. 127 c) and Salisbury (No. or semicircular ribs were employed. carved foliage (No.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE).) E.. Capitals were frequently moulded. 124 c). known as foils (Lat. quatrefoil or cinquefoil when having three. folium a leaf) being trefoil. and ornamented with A). four or five openings. the glass being usually kept near the exterior of the wall. B). as at Salisbury (No. or even five lights. and pointed arches came into general use for constructive reasons. Columns. surrounded by smaller detached columns (No. 127 A. 143 (Nos. is circular on plan. 123) and Westminster Abbey. c. being let into the soffit of the arches in separate small pieces and entirely independent of the mouldings. These are steeper than in the last period. 1 1 1 and 112. placed on the bell or lower portion of the capital. The normal Windows = abacus F. F. when the close setting of the flat rafters produces the effect of barrel vaulting. E. The framing was exposed where there was no vaulted ceiling. c. Flying or arched buttresses (No. and Nos. Cusps or projecting points of Gothic tracery were introduced in the latter part of the Early English style. York (page 316). so-called because the openings were cut through a flat plate of stone. or octagonal shaft. generally. and Lincoln was diminished in order to provide a larger display of glass. In the interiors the nave arcade usually occupies the lower half of the height. 122. stages were frequently gabled. especially the early form known as "plate" tracery (No. often of polished Purbeck marble. Z . and tracery was developed. B. but were not of common occurrence till a later period. the triforium Lichfield (No. sixty degrees. as at the choir of Ely. 141 E) were first utilized in this period.e. as in the " Five Sisters" in the north transept. are more slender than in Norman work. i. Piers consist of a central circular. 148). held in place by bands at intervals. see page 286. Proportions. the naves of but sometimes. and the different 141 B). the upper half being divided equally between triforium and clerestory. approaching the shape of an equilateral triangle. The braces were used to form a waggon shape. 142 A.A. 337 were formed into stages by weathered set-offs (Nos. three. Roofs. so as to produce fine bold shadows (No.




A general tone of color pervades the windows. The west front of Wells (1206-1242) has 300 statues. 143 and 147). Stained glass rapidly increased in importance. deeply undercut. Books of Hours and Chronicles. Middle Pointed. Mouldings. Sculptured figures of large size were used. typical examples consisting of convex curling masses. and crisp and fine in treatment (No." Flat surfaces are often richly diapered (see Glossary.I 377- . and placed in niches with canopies over them. as " stiff leaf foliage. and tabernacle are shown on No.. page 691). being a grand composition where sculpture is fully combined with architecture. Norman period. fisher- man. scribe. and often of pear-shaped section. 341 F. or Fourteenth Century Style. 3 2 7. These are bold. saint. Edwardian. sedilia. 146). The chisel was generally used.. as in the fine thirteenth century glass at Canterbury Cathedral. Later Plantagenet. 127). sculptured ground vaulting bosses. labourer. piscina. The most characteristic ornament in tooth. and carved bracket on No. In the Early English and following periods. knight and monk were represented. finial. it has been suggested that the carved diapers of this and the next period are copies in stone of the hangThere is ings or painted decorations of the previous period. exquisite decorative art was produced in such works as the Psalters. shepherd. and a gable cross. Missals. the pieces being small and leaded up in patterns so as almost to suggest the cubic formation of mosaic. illustrative of the ornamental art of the periods. king. which was generally placed is the doghollow mouldings. nailhead decoration of the G. 147). as in Westminster Abbey (No. rings and utensils. comprises the reigns of I 1307-1327. as was the case with Greek and Roman ornament. Edward III. Examples of an Early English font. also known as the Geometrical and Curvilinear. 144. Edward II. forming a valuable record of contemporary life. THE DECORATED STYLE. 149. The Mediaeval Room at the British Museum contains examples of armour metalwork. in which the huntsman. and an unrivalled deep and violet-like blue was a favourite tint. ivory and woodcarving. for believing that such carved diapers were colored.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE). following the outline of the rectangular The chiselled dog-tooth succeeded the axed recesses (No. taking the place of the axe in the Early Norman period. known Carved foliage is conventional. In regard to color work. Ornament. and was used in great profusion (Nos. caskets.


Lincoln (Nos. IIOA. Stone Church. : . characteristic of the thirteenth century. including angel choir. as Salisbury (Nos. more noticeable . and B. the vault becoming a main feature in the effect of the interiors. the small number of parts. usually octagonal. Spires. and the "broach" form.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). 147 K). from the size of the windows filled in with geometrical and flowing tracery. west front and chapter house). lofty than in the Early English period. Vaulting ribs were more numerous and complex than in the previous style. and Southwell (the polygonal chapter houses). although there is an increasing richness of ornamentation. The increased size of the traceried windows. Kent. and the extension of tracery to the walls in the shape of panelling was now introduced. from. and the Eleanor Crosses. Plans. 343 The general appearance. Walls. and was in itself strongly influenced by the increased size of the openings required to exhibit stained glass. The progress of vaulting regulated the planning of the piers. Clerestories were enlarged at the expense of the triforium. and Lichfield (No. 140 c. S. Holborn. gradually gave way to parapets with angle pinnacles (No. and magnificent. 141 c) and crocketed canopies. the English generally keeping to the battlemented form (No. Angle buttresses. as at Westminster and Penshurst (No. Spire-lights are ornamented with crockets (No. E). Etheldreda. Openings. is simple. set diagonally. 116 Band 125). were introduced in this period. Wells. The new in the bays. 121 and 140 D). Albans (choir). as in the exterior of Lincoln (No. Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals (naves). and in later periods are ornamented with niches (No. A. 125). The proportions of height to width are less c. In London the principal examples are Westminster Abbey (three bays of the eastern cloister walk and the polygonal chapter house) the Chapel of S. In domestic architecture the " Hall" was highly developed. (the portion). Salisbury. 147 M). Parapets were often pierced with flowing tracery (No. Several of the great central towers were now carried up. Austin Friars. : plans were set out with a wider spacing in parish churches than in cathedrals already started in earlier periods. but this was especially a French feature. D. the importance of the buttresses are characteristic of the style. In the Provinces the principal examples are Lincoln Cathedral (nave and east end. 132). eastern York Ely Cathedral 1260-1280). Cathedral (the choir. 116 F). and the Dutch Church. and ribs occur on the angles of the tapering spires. Ely Place. are lofty. Buttresses occur with offsets in stages. 147 N).




ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). 137 and 142) are large. 299 i). Stained glass led to a great extension of window openings. as in the cloisters of Salisbury. Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the ball-flower (No. 125). 147 K). were a development from the Early English. the choir clerestories of In the latter Ely. Lincoln. as at Cley Church. Doorways (No. and sometimes have open framing. forms. ivy. maple. Dripstones are finished with carved heads or grotesques. In itself it lost the mosaic character . and divided by mullions Tracery at first consisted of geometric lights. Etheldreda. Norfolk (No. Small shafts. Mouldings. are similar to those in the Early but not so deeply undercut (No. (Vaulting. with engaged shafts (No. 143). These are of moderate pitch. Holborn. 147 c). are good examples. 112. Columns. Cornices and dripstones often have their deep hollows filled with foliage and carving." KEATS. The cusps. and have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style. and resembles the leaves of the oak. style. Ornament. and G. in this period were cut out of the stone forming the tracery. Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked. 148 G). naturalistic. With hair blown back. 143 and 146. "The carved angels. The enlargement of clerestory windows proceeded pan passu with the diminution in height of the triforium (No. " " part of the period it was flowing in character as in the choirs of Ely (No. Ely Place. and the nave of York. of which Eltham Palace and S. when moulded. which is specially characteristic of the style. and are ornamented with crockets capitals. 146). 143) are ornamented with engaged shafts. the development of tracery. 137 F). D. 299 v) was also used. 146). The ogee arch into Windows two or more (No. Carved . where upon their heads the cornice rests. Arches were formed by being struck from the points of equilateral triangles. oak. and the well-known tablet flower (Nos. the foliage is more naturalistic. which in the Early English style were often planted on. Roofs. F. W'hen carved. surrounding and attached to a central column.) E. Piers are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan. 147 and 148). as seen in the exterior of Lincoln (No. ivy. ever eager eyed Stared. 137 F) and Wells.foliage in this period is generally and consists of seaweed. and wings put crosswise on their breasiS. and vine leaves. or even of lower proportion (No. or vine (No. The English (No. other mouldings being shown on Nos. see page 287 and No. 347 (Nos. and Lichfield.


and lighter The subjects portrayed became of more importance. Lancastrian or Fifteenth Century Style.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). The windows. as at York. 349 and became more translucent. 1422-1461. the pieces being larger. and Crosby Hall.. 149. Henry IV. Westminster Hall. and the crockets and finials to pinnacles and canopies increased and importance and gave additional richness to buildings of this period (Nos... pews. piscina. as screens. Holborn. and a gable cross.I 399 VI. "began to acquire character and importance. by an inner structure forming a gallery across the window. the clerestory and aisle windows being of great size. stained and traced. 's Chapel (Nos.S. by primary and secondary mullions. Mary. 1370 and 142). owing to their immense size. The architecture of the last four reigns is frequently known as " Tudor" architecture (page 356).. . more especially in wood. The triforium practically disappeared owing to height of nave arcade and flatness of aisle roofs. 1461-1483. and there was a loss in the general decorative effect of the interior... Shrines and tombs in masonry are elaborate and beautiful adjuncts to the interiors of the cathedrals and large churches. 145. Richard The general appearance varies much in earlier and later work. in tone. "The Would seem deep-set windows. 144. the latter being overladen with panelling.. tabernacle and sedilia. 1399-1413.. Henry V. the southern and western portion of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. III. in THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. 1483-1485. . pulpits. a brass eagle lectern on No. finial and boss on No. 377. the Savoy Chapel in the Strand. . Westminster. : Margaret. slow-flaming crimson fires. Edward IV. 143 D. but the glass in itself gained in value and expression. Late Pointed. Henry VII." Fittings. London. 1547-1553. Henry VIII. and. were strengthened by transoms in tiers (Nos. 128 and 129) (a most perfect example).. Porch (with vaulting) S. Examples of a decorated font. Edward VI. are shown on No. Sepulchre's Church. choir stalls. comprises the reigns of Richard II. also I known as the Rectilinear. 15531558. Edward V. 1413-1422. the main lines in a perpendicular direction predominating. Henry 1483.. in some great east end windows. 127. 1485-1509. 147 K). In London the principal examples are Henry VII. 1509-1547.


Owing this period. 133 and 299). Peter. 137 G). Walls. (Nos. which may be taken as the most elaborate specimen of the style. and Other examples are (choir).'s Chapel (No. Towers are numerous and important. it rises behind a parapet. as at S. as at Henry VII. 124 D. Gloucester (transept. in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. Henry VII. and 128). Kettering. 124. 128). 299) . and Beverley . as at crockets. and King's College Chapel. which have often great depth. lateral triangle (No. as at King's College. 's Chapel (No. 147)." WORDSWORTH. for panels in conjunction with stone tracery. Cambridge (No. Evesham (1533). and A. 's Chapel. in the Cathedrals of Canterbury (nave). Sherborne Minster. Openings. or struck from four centres (Nos. and a tendency to throw all pressures upon the buttresses. York . 70 M). and the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick towers at Gloucester and Canterbury. ecclesiastical to the great building era that had preceded work consisted mostly of restorations or In church planning there was a decrease in the size additions. The use of flint as a wall facing. many of the colleges of 324). Oxford. These were profusely ornamented with panelling 137 G). 140 F). 143). was B. Plans. Flying buttresses are common and 128). Windsor (Nos. : 351 The west fronts In the Provinces the principal examples are S. and were generally erected without a spire. of Winchester. Oxford and Cambridge (page numerous mansions throughout the country. as at early period inclose an equithey were afterwards obtusely pointed. Gloucester. Buttresses project boldly. and often very Merton College. which are often richly ornamented with rich. They are also panelled with tracery. c. being sometimes deep enough in projection to allow of a chapel being placed between. sometimes inclosed in a square hood-moulding above the head (No. as the Bell Tower. Arches . choir. E. " This immense and glorious work of fine intelligence. Winchester (nave remodelled) (Nos. When a spire occurs. in the are often pierced. common. 128.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). and are crowned with finials (Nos. Cambridge. resembling tracery of windows. of the piers. Northants (No. Parapets are embattled or panelled (No. George's Chapel. (The plans of castles and houses have been referred to on pages 318 and 322). 70 L and 133). as at Henry VII. and cloisters).


F. . and the space of the triforium (Nos. The characteristic pier consists of four circular shafts connected by hollows. Columns. 133). The earliest are probably those at Winchester Cathedral (No. as well as the vaults of the central towers of Canterbury and Gloucester Cathedrals. George's Chapel. E. and strengthened by horizontal transoms. shallow and square in outline (No. 148 M. and placed diagonally with their greater dimension north and south. 112) is characteristic of the later periods (page 288). on the front of the pier and not between the arches. 70 j 133). 148 L). are well-known examples. and with pierced tracery (No. Lofty clerestories are general. Carved capitals have foliage of conventional character. existing in Norfolk. Doorways were generally finished with a square label over the arch. George's Chapel. Piers (No.A. and few have the abacus and bell perfectly defined. 's Chapel. Open timber roofs of low pitch and of the hammerbeam construction abound they were often richly ornamented with carved figures of angels. as at S. and S. The roof of Westminster Hall (No. 129).6 }. D. 146). Henry VII. converting the west end into a wall of glass. as at S. Windows many examples the world. 142 o). Capitals are sometimes polygonal on plan. effect. these mouldings being carried round the arch. i^. Mouldings.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). and King's College Chapel (No. Fan vaulting (No. These were arranged on diagonal planes (No. 124 F and 137 G) is occupied by panels. 113 H). Windsor. 146). (No. consist mainly of mullions producing a perpendicular hence the name of the period. F. Oxford (No. erected in 1399. as shown in the doorway of Merton College. 124). being wide and shallow. Windsor. they are of enormous size. and having mullions continued vertically their whole height (Nos. George's Chapel. Roofs. or by niches for statuary. executed under William of Wykeham. Cambridge. King's College Chapel. 353 the spandrels thus formed being filled with tracery or carving N). and with two fillets. . A A . as at Henry VII. covers an area of nearly half an acre. and the spandrel filled with ornament. caused by the vaulting shaft being taken up from the ground. 143 j). and often large and coarse. Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and a typical 42 moulding is the "bracket" mould (No. Windsor (No. the mouldings being weaker and less effective (No. 113). 137 G and 142). the east window at Gloucester (38 feet wide by 72 feet high).'s Chapel (No. 146) are generally oblong on plan. stopping against the main In many cases arch. being one of the largest roofs unsupported by pillars in The and later roofs in the style became nearly flat (Nos.

are shown in Nos. in Ornaments and sculptured foliage. pulpits. 145. The various phases of English architecture from the time of the Romans to the reign of Henry VII. p). pulpits. the tracery of windows being repeated on the walls as blank panelling (Nos. 149 o. 149. and The 137 G). have been dealt with. as at usually inclosing single figures. all of period Chapel) (No. and the of the ments elaborately also with the which were used unsparingly (see Henry VII. The misereres under the choir-stalls of the period were carved with delicate foliage. and poppy-heads on No. a pew-end. the portcullis. as in the early work. the upper part and the whole was being divided by mullions. This return to color. The tendency was to obtain ornamental motifs in decoration. and battlements being carved along the cornices. as in the churches of Norfolk. and sculpture followed in the tram of literature. usually conventional and 148. grotesques. CONCLUSION. and diminutive battlements along the transoms enriched G. from the base. 's ornaments in square panels. Suffolk and elsewhere. and flowers. statues. by the application of features on a small scale. parclose-screen and chantry on No. golden tinge produced by silver stain. especially as . and the bench ends Tudor flower with poppy-heads (No. Cambridge. 128. and a gable cross. and pinnacles fleur-de-lis. In the fifteenth century the Renaissance of literature in Italy was taking place. Architecture. round the arch without of cornice mouldings (No. painting. and it became the fashion to read the Latin authors. prevented any such completeness of one tone Color decoration was freely employed effect. 144. used along with white glass. piscina and sedilia are shown on No. Crestings occur along the top of windows. pendant. 147 G). Wooden chancel screens are very numerous. the general design becoming more pictorial. a rood-loft. Canopies are often of ogee character. gorgeousness of coloring exists with great confusion of form and subject. and the generation that wrote and spoke the Latin tongue desired to build in the style of ancient . King's College. finial. sanctus bell. screens. Ornament. 128). niches. with crockets (No. and other fittings.354 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. thus breaking away from the conditions imposed by the material. 147). and perspective being introduced. boss. however. 147 are the Tudor rose. 128). cresting (No. gave contrast to the painted canopies of architectural character In very late examples. and Pier mouldings are often continued up the intervention of capitals. on roofs. The special ornacharacter. supporting tracery^ treated with panelling. Examples of a Perpendicular font. 133.

A A 2 .

. and Sir Christopher Wren. for it is the work of those trained in Gothic art.. Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages." (A ' )- Churches of Nene . but probably under the direction of a designer familiar with the new features of the Renaissance. H. follO.)." Churches of the Middle Ages. 5. Vol.-" The Arts in Early England. Evolution of the English House. and in some examples the designs for the details and mouldings would It is styles be traced the increased influence of the old Roman architecture. s' Elev ations. " Addy (S. less debased but picturesque exemplified in the more or of each country." )> : :S(J Collmgs. 410. Ato. 1882. however." 8vo..).. there the Gothic style had never. S. "The Bloxam (M. 1807-1826. at any time. 4 to. The Tudor style was followed by the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles.).). and Details of the Interior of - nlm 2 vols. 1846." 1847. and Mary. in these countries." 13 vols. O." 4 to.-" Gothic Ornaments. (H. A. The process. was slow." 1857. 3 vols. -" Parish Churches. Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture. 1858. folio. 8vo.. 2 deals with Ecclesiastical Architecture 1903from the Conversion of the Saxons to the Norman Bowman '^ 7 "R Co ings. 2 vols.. and Gothic structures.. in 6. G." 2 vols. in which the influence of the Renaissance movement is noticeable. 1860. until the Early Renaissance architecture. were erected late into the sixteenth century. taken a because of the precedent afforded by the very firm hold. England. 410. 4 to. and because numerous Roman ruins. " 3ra*idon. Baldwin). " Britton (JOCathedral Antiquities." Analysis of Gothic Architecture. grafted on to the native the reigns of Henry VII. Conquest. English Mediaeval Foliage and Colour Decoration." 2 vols. " alysis Ancient Domestic Architecture. Rome. IV 1*86 lSter 2 VOls. etailsofGothicArchitecture -" 2v61s." 2 vols.. (page 349) is the style prevalent during Henry VIII. 4*0. in which may REFERENCE BOOKS. seem to have been made by a foreign artist. f 1822. more or less debased." 5 vols.. " Architectural Antiquities. and the special forms will be considered under the head of Renaissance architecture. From Italy it spread to France and it took.356 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Brandon (R.. 1848-1850. Brown (Prof. The Revived style naturally originated in Italy. described under English Renaissance (page 551). finally shaking itself clear of incongruities.) and Crowther (T. 1814-1835. effected by Renaissance details being Tudor architecture Gothic style." 4to. 1899. developed into the Anglo-Classic or Later Renaissance of Inigo Jones. and J. Edward VI.

Scott (Sir W. Wickes (C. Cettt." 3 vols. Gilbert). " Willis (R.). 4to. H. " Architectural Parallels. Sharpe. Sharpe (E. Cutts (E. Walcott (M. G." 187 1-74." Large folio." "The Gathering of Brother of the Barons. " 3 vols." 2 vols.}.). "Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture. " Mouldings of the Six Periods of British Architecture. 1849. R..) 1842. 4to. 357 St. " Examples of Gothic Architecture. 1859-1877.). measured drawings and sketches should be made of these." 1877.. Neale (J. H. \st half).)." 2 vols.). Peter. Hertfordshire. "A History of Gothic Art in England. Vaults of the Middle Ages." (H.).I. account of its splendid series of plans to a large scale." 8vo.) and Parker (J.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). W. 8vo. 1853-1859. Historical Novels : Roman Norman Hilarius.). 1881.).)." 410. Turner (T. and the Crystal Palace. " The Abbey Church of St. folio. the Victoria and Albert Museum. Castle. 1870. Prior (E. Perpendicular (i$th Cent. G. and A.)." Occupation." 8vo. Pugin (A." Lytton." Gothic Architecture." 1860. Alban.). Cent.)." Scott (Sir G. Paley (E. an important collection of architectural casts of each period can be seen at the Royal Architectural Museum.). ture. Sharpe. 1821.) Fairless (M.) 1898. Rickman (T. " An Scott (G. E." 2 vols. Tufton Street. E.1900. Early English (i$th Decorated (itfh Green (E. " Under the Black Raven. land." Blake (M. . 1830. Norman (nth Creswick (P. besides the examples already mentioned after each period." Cathedrals of England and Wales. Anglo-Saxon. Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture." 3 vols. "A Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery in England." Cent.). " Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Eng- Statham (H. Neale (J.}.).}. 8vo. Pugin (A.}. careful study of the buildings themselves is necessary to appreciate thoroughly the progress of the style. 1879." 8vo. " Some Account of the Domestic Architecture in England during the Middle Ages. which will impress the different features on the mind more thoroughly than study solely A from books.. The " Villa of Claudius.}." 1900. " Seven Periods of English Architecture. " Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture. M.. Perpendicular (\bth Cent.A." (Trans.B. C. " The Last Ainsworth "Windsor Note.). " Church and Conventual Arrangement." Parker. Essay on the History of English Church Architec1 88 1.. "Specimens of Gothic Architecture. "The Siege of Norwich Castle. "Gothic Mouldings." 1838.). Westminster. In London. Ivanhoe.. Sharpe.. 8vo. S." (The This work is specially valuable on Folio. and many being within the reach of the student. P.). H.. 'Builder" Series.).). 1891. Editor." History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of 1818. Westminster." 8vo. 1848." (\2tk Cent. H. Parker (J." " A Clerk of Oxford.). " L.


and the Abbeys of Kelso. and in which stone was almost universally employed. treated in a simple. Inspiration was largely drawn from abroad. MacGibbon Scotland. In Melrose Abbey is to be seen the influence of French and Spanish Art. Sketch Book. either singly or in groups. In these the lancet window. W. causing a picturesque and interesting in development on French (A.D. (D. lines. while in Rosslyn Chapel Portuguese influence is it is very similar in detail to the Church of Belem most important Cathedrals are those -of Edinburgh (S. S. The "corbie" or "crow-stepped" gable was used in preference to the straight-sided gable of England.). 8vo. and " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of MacGibbon (D). 410. 1848. In vaulted roofs a continuous barrel vault with surface ribs. ^he to the Perpendicular style of English Gothic.. The Pele or bastle houses were of the tower class. Aberdeen and Elgin. 1879. and almost bare." Folio. " The Abbey Church of Melrose. Sketch Book. until the middle of the fifteenth century. are characteristic. Giles). especially from France. and consisted of single rooms one over the other. Andrew.was occasionally specially rich in castles and mansions of the Gothic distinctive character. 120 D) (having no transepts but a famous crypt). Holyrood and Dryburgh are the best known. 'Edinburgh Architectural Association.) and 3 vols. Ecclesiastical Architecture . which possess REFERENCE BOOKS. accessible by " turnpike" or winding stairs. 1887. for near Lisbon.'' 4 vols. (T. when it took a more national turn." 5 vols.). especially after Robert Bruce 1306-1329) finally secured the independence of Scotland. The " Castellated and Domestic of Architecture of Scotland. with which country there was a close political connection. 1885. 8vo.SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE.. Dunfermline. while in the later period the Flamboyant tracery of French Gothic was followed in preference apparent. In these a picturesque use of circular towers.. 151 is given a series of plans and sketches of different types of buildings showing the national character of Scottish Architecture. Architecture in Scotland followed on much the same lines as England.). " Baronial Billings (R. Melrose. Glasgow (No. Scotland period. Scotland." 1896. with projecting turrets at angles. "Glasgow Architectural Association. On No. Dunblane. is employed. Pinches (F." 3 vols. was used long after it had been discontinued in England. Kirkwall. and Ross Ross (T. vast height of walls.). and the planning of the buildings at different angles." 1878-1894. manner.

Early Christian Architecture in Ireland.'"' Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. unglazed. have been a subject of much controversy. The naves were covered with barrel vaults. The chief interest lies in the remains from the sixth century to the of the Celtic Architecture erected English Conquest in 1169. and other places. 152 G) or battlemented The entrance doorway was several feet covering (No. 2"n Irish Architecture. cloisters. and a tower. and Muckross. or were probably erected as symbols of power. 152). and to which a small square chancel was attached. The best known are those at Cashel. and the Rev. refuges. Kevin's Kitchen. as at Cormac's Chapel. Owing to the disturbances in Elizabethan times there is no domestic architecture of note. REFERENCE BOOKS. 120 A). and for displaying lamps at night time. Mediaeval Architecture. but the generally accepted view. probably the finest example in Ireland. but the absence of parish churches is remarkable. probably some time divided by a wooden screen. but few monuments of importance were erected. 152 j). which was added in the fifteenth century. bell towers. They taper slightly towards the summit and are crowned with either a conical (No. The Cathedrals of Dublin (No. 1878 ( / TT 1 S Monographs Of) 1 '~ N tes on V on . similar to some in Asia Minor and elsewhere. Windows appear to have been Glendalough. a transept and southern aisle. Within the English domain the influence of Continental art was felt during the Middle Ages." 187^-1877.D. were the most important. over which was a hollow chamber " called an overcroft. as in the early work in Greece at Mycenae (No. usually having a nave and choir. The Round Towers generally detached and placed near the Church. 15) and elsewhere. originated by Mr. The early Churches were extremely small. Kildare and Cashel. Cashel (A.IRISH Celtic Architecture. The Monas(principally Franciscan) are small. Stokes refers to a group of seven small churches found at Inchleraun. Prof. from the ground. ARCHITECTURE. George Petrie.. >tokes (M." 8vo. being of beehive form.). S. and appear to have been used principally as oratories. generally of stone. Kerry. but the earlier castles built by the teries and Friaries Chieftains are interesting. is that they were used as treasure houses. The Monasteries form another class of building. The monastic cells at the Skellings are peculiar." covered by a steep pitched roof. Kilconnel." 8vo. Co. where the priest could officiate. 1845. with domed stone roofs in horizontal courses. Ardfert Cathedral. 1127-1134) (No.


The zeal with which the urban populations set about building cathedrals has been compared by Viollet-le-Duc to the commercial movement which has covered Europe with railways. The Abbe Suger. such being largely due to their championship of justice and their adhesion to the royal cause. Louis IX. (See pages 246. ever new surprise Graceful. and in the mountainous districts of Auvergne the use of colored volcanic material gave a decorative character to the buildings of that ii. into divided architecturally. grotesque. which are expressed in the richness of their architectural treatment. (See page 248." Imagination's very LOWELL. though local liberties were not all swallowed up in centralization. who may be styled the Cardinal Climate. Romance district. which resulted in the erection of so many grand cathedrals. with to please. leading the fourth (1248-1254).) found near Caen Geological. INFLUENCES. airy. The excellent building stone aided in the development of the northern Gothic style. race. iii. was manifested also in the Crusades. Religion. Geographical. 248. while to the south were settled i.) iv.FRENCH GOTHIC. much influence on church buildremained the controlling spirit. The clergy as a corporate body reached the summit of their power and influence. self in stone. Religious zeal. to the north of which the were settled the Franks. by the River Loire.) (See page 246 " Of hazardous caprices sure Heavy as nightmare. The introduction of various special cults gave fame to certain chapels and shrines. exercised ing. i. for French Romanesque.) (See page 246 in French Romanesque. France may be North and South. light as fern. (i 137-1 180). the minister of Louis V II. Rome . which as pilgrimage centres acquired both wealth and importance. Wolsey of the period.

King of England. to have forfeited all the fiefs he held of the French crown. 987). The development and consolidation of the French kingdom thus corresponds with the great cathedral. the English barons offered the crown of England to Philip's eldest son Louis. widely differing from each other. when setting out on his last crusade. called S. 154.FRENCH GOTHIC. such being due to political. and the English Channel.. and all John's possessions in Northern Gaul. 158. Louis IX. In continuation of the Romanesque style." Philip Augustus (1180-1223) after declaring John. viz Atlantic. were at constant war. numerous spires (with crockets). and the long lines of the tall traceried windows (Nos. proceeded to conquer Normandy. and Flemings at the Battle of Bovines in 1214.. Louis on account of his goodness. Previous to the commencement of this period (A. and governed by different rulers. Social and Political. environment. idea or prevailing principle of Gothic architecture The main in France was the same as in other parts of Europe (page 268). vi. high-pitched roofs. varies considerably in different parts of the country. as Louis VIII. Louis in 1229. but died at Tunis in 1270. 160. the French crown afterwards passed. to the separation of the various parts by different languages and customs. with the exception of Aquitaine. As a consequence of the crusade preached against the Albigenses by Pope Innocent. Philip next defeated the combined forces of English. with the title " King of the French. . and to the Roman remains. flying buttresses. Owing to the power of France at this time. the Gothic architecture of France.building epoch of the thirteenth century. Germans. who was chosen king in 987. 363 The crusade against the Albigenses (see below) was a movement against Christians who had been declared by the Pope to be heretics. the dominions of the Counts of Toulouse were conquered by S. v. which naturally gave a classical tone to any new architectural development in the southern districts where they were principally found. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.D. obtaining a sea-board on three seas. to whom. The real beginning of the modern kingdom of France may be said to commence with Hugh Capet. pinnacles. Historical. and the next stage was to carry on a religious war against all who were considered to be enemies of the Papacy. largely increased the power of the crown. France was inhabited by races of people who. 161 and 162). the vertical and aspiring tendency being accentuated by great internal height. France thus the Mediterranean. : 2.
























Of HRiKP:!?

94^789 p








divided by M. de





or thirteenth century. (i ) Primary (Gothique) from the characteristic wheel (2.) Secondary (Rayonnant, or fourteenth century. tracery of the rose windows) or fifteenth century. (3.) Tertiary (Flamboyant) is however, on account of space, to consider the


subject as one continuous development

as, in fact,








where necessary with English Gothic.


All the great cathedrals, numbering about 150, were erected in first half of the thirteenth century, principally by funds

provided by the laity, and not as parts of monastic establishments, and in consequence vary considerably in plan and arrangement from English cathedrals. The French cathedrals, in situation and surroundings, are also in marked contrast (page 299) with English examples (Nos. 121 and 162), and are referred to by Browning, who talks of that
" Grim town, Whose cramp'd, ill-featured streets huddled about The minster for protection, never out Of its black belfry's shade and its bells' roar."
B, 154 D, 156, 157 one of the oldest of French Gothic cathedrals. The plan is typical in having a wide central nave with double aisles, transepts of small projection (being practically in a line with the side aisles), and the chevet arrangement with its double aisles and exterior chapels. The west front (No. 156) is the grandest composition in France, the western gable to the nave being hidden by a pierced screen, connecting the two western towers, The three deeply recessed western portals, the range of statues in niches, and the circular wheel window, are all characteristic

Notre Dame, Paris, 1163-1214 (Nos. 153





between the buttresses.
ble as possessing

fa9ades are spoilt by chapels having been placed

Bourges Cathedral (commenced

It has five aisles, in three different heights, the being 117 feet, resembling Milan Cathedral (No. 176), though in a different gradation. The vast nave of extreme icight and with length unbroken by projecting transepts, presents an imposing appearance. The view westwards



A.D. 1190) is chiefly remarkno transepts, for its shortness in comparison width, and its general resemblance in plan to Notre











5 8.

Interior, looking East,

B B 2






the east end is striking, owing to the picturesque confusion of innumerable flying buttresses, pinnacles, and other features. Chartres Cathedral (i 194-1260) (Nos. 1 10 E and 155 K) has a plan peculiar in having strongly marked transepts, each crowned with two towers, which with the two western and two contemThe cathedral is plated eastern towers would have made eight. remarkable for the fine statuary to the north and south porches (No. 165 A), the rose window to the northern transept, and the flying buttresses of three arches one above the other, the two lower being connected by radiating balusters resembling the spokes
of a wheel.

Rheims Cathedral (1212-1241) (Nos. 155 and 161) has a fine plan, the west front having three deeply recessed portals richly ornamented with sculpture, and enclosed with richly ornamented The upper portion has a row of statues in tabernacles gables. carried between the two towers instead of the open tracery arrangement seen in Notre Dame. The flying buttresses (No. 141 H) show the arrangement adopted over a double aisle, in which the
thrust of the nave vault

transmitted by arches to piers weighted

by pinnacles and statuary.

Cathedral (1220-1288) (Nos. 154, 159 and 1 60) is generally referred to as having the typical French Cathedral plan, but the side chapels to the nave placed between the buttresses are a later
addition. The interior is 140 feet high to the stone vaulting, and the roof of the nave is over 200 feet in height. The western


facade somewhat resembles Notre
central fleche of timber

Dame and Rheims.
shown on No.



and lead


Bayeux Cathedral (twelfth century) is remarkable for its twenty-two chapels and immense crypt under the sanctuary, dating from the eighth to the eleventh century.
Coutances Cathedral (No.


was erected



famous for the excellent design of the two western towers and spires, and the octagonal lantern over the crossing of nave and transepts.

Noyon Cathedral

(1157-1228) with a peculiar plan resem-

bling a combination of the

German triapsal Troyes Cathedral (12 ^-fifteenth

example with eastern

and the French century), a fine fivechevet and rich western facade

Soissons Cathedral (1160-1212); La'on Cathedral (11501200), exceptional in having of six towers; and Rouen

an English type of plan and group

western towers of a later

Cathedral (1202-1220), with rich period and iron central spire, are other

well-known early examples. The Sainte Chapelle, Paris (1244-1247), built by S. Louis, in which the space between the buttresses is occupied by windows 15 feet wide and 50 feet high, is often quoted as a typical Gothic structure. The plan (No. 155 H; was in size similar to that of











It has a richly vaulted Westminster Palace. rebuilding French features as the apsidal crypt, and such characteristic termination and the high stone-vaulted roof. in the Among later examples in the north of France, mostly style, are Flamboyant S. Ouen, Rouen (1318-1515), the choir (1318-1339) being Rouen (1432contemporary with that of Cologne, S. Maclou, the richest Flamboyant example in France, 1500), probably S. Jacques, Dieppe (1350-1440), and S. Wulfrand, Abbe:

S Stephen, Westminster (No. 119

since destroyed for


many buildings were erected during the Middle Ages, differing from these northern cathedrals in plan and design owing to the proximity of Roman buildings. Albi Cathedral (1282-1512), a fortress church, consists of a large impressive vaulted hall with an apsidal end, and having a
series of flanking chapels separated by internal buttresses. possesses an unrivalled fifteenth century rood screen.

ville (1488-1534). In the south of France

Beauvais Cathedral was originally built 1225-1272, but was partly reconstructed 1337-1347, the transepts being added in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This building was never comIt has the pleted beyond the choir and chevet and the transepts. highest nave vault in France, being 160 feet, and has a nave width of 47 feet from centre to centre of piers.

The Church of the Cordeliers, Toulouse
century), which



example of


partially destroyed in 1871, was another type, and has some similarity in plan with

that of King's College Chapel,

Cambridge. Sernin, Toulouse, commenced in 1096 (referred to on page 248), is a five-aisled example, the western portion and manystoried octagonal tower belonging to this period.

especially rich in domestic architecture, and throughout the country are to be found castles, town halls, hospitals, nouses, barns, farmhouses, granaries, and other buildings, in which the principles of the Gothic style can be studied. The House of Jacques Cceur, Bourges (1443), is a fine example of the house of a great merchant prince of the period. It is partly built on the town ramparts and has a central courtyard (ISO. 163), possessing a fine staircase tower.



Palais de Justice, Rouen (1499-1508) (No. 164), is an exceedingly rich specimen of French municipal architecture. The
restored by mSSS it Plerrefonand the Chateau Viollet-le-Duc, S. Michel (Normandy;, de Blois


,1498-1515), are examples of military architecture








The south of France has many examples of stone houses, and throughout the country half-timbered houses with plaster filling are still to be seen, as at Rouen, although fire and decay have naturally reduced their number. Students are often inclined to think that Gothic architecture was confined to ecclesiastical work, but it should be remembered that the style was employed in every building of the period.


(No. 159). Short, wide, and high. Length about four
times the width.
Cloisters rare, except in the south,






narrow, and low. six times the width.

Length about

where richly designed examples are met with. Transepts have slight projection, as may be seen in the sheet of comparative plans (No. 155). Side chapels numerous, due to
the popular character of the Cathedral for the worship of saints and * saying of masses. The apsidal east end developed into the chevet by addition of processional aisle and chapels, but


monastic foundation, and characteristic of English Cathedrals. Transepts have bold projection, and a second eastern transept is

and Lincoln. Side chapels seldom met with, due to the fact that the principal cathedrals were churches belonging to monastic foundations. The square east end characfound, as at Salisbury



Nine Altars




Laon, Dol, and

Poitiers are excep-

an east end transept



sometimes double, Notre Dame, Paris (No. Amiens, Bourges, Rheims and
western towers (Nos. 154,

aisles are


are Chichester


and Manchester (No. 119

nearly always (No. 119 G)




probable reason being that the great height of nave prevented a central tower being effective. A woodeny&V//^ often constructed over the crossing, as at Amiens
(422 feet high) (No. 165 B). Central spires are common

the only exceptions (page 305). The central tower the most successful and predominant feature, as at Gloucester (No. 1 1 5 H), Hereford (No. 115 Rochester





n6A), and Norwich (with spire) (No. 1160); or combined with one
western tower,as at Ely ( No. 1140). A single western tower is characteristic of parish churches.

Salisbury (with spire). (No.

attempted in by placing four at the angles formed by the junction of ic nave and transepts, and two at

Normandy. Towers sometimes


the west end, with
only, as at Laon.

central flf-che

Towers frequently arranged as a group of three, viz., two western and one central, as at Lincoln (No. 1 1 6 B), Canterbury (No. I i6c), Durham (No. ii4B) and York (No.
115 A).




jencral largeness ot parts.

houses never polygonal.

and Chap-





general smallness of parts. Chapter houses are often polygonal.


H O O U ^ w

The characteristic west front Wells Cathedral (No. 156). Buttresses often nearly vertical. or were in the apses of circular. development * in the later period being flam" boyant tracery. D. and elsewhere. as at Gloucester. tracery was seldom used. 121). otherwise clerestory is comparatively low. Early buttresses Later ones much pronounced. being " Perpendicu- Circular windows in west fronts (Nos. Windows develop on " " but plate the same English work. Wooden roofs of an ornamental . These are always steep and ornamented with metal ridges and finials (Nos. - Doorways Openings. Roofs. being necessary of height and width of aisles and naves. specially characteristic of lines. 147 M). 141). approaching flalness in later periods (Nos. Canterbury. D. without offsets (No. Rheims. These are of moderate to pitch. Notre Dame. B. B. Walls. 116 C. Paris. 156 and 161) and transept 153 B). 115 H. variety of clerestories and richness of vaulting. Buttresses usually formed with offsets have chapels between 157). Open tracery parapets are typical (Nos. They were used with special effect at the east end. although found at Chichester. lar" tracery. Later buttresses of deep projection are are projections. 164 and 165 c. Transitional buttresses may be seen at Salisbury with curious weathering. Paris (No. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are steeper the higher they occur. They are constructed with double timbers of special type to surmount high vaults. and deeply set in west fronts. larger and finer than in England. c. 153). \\ith intricate tracery. 154 and 164). FRENCH GOTHIC. D). emFlying buttresses largely on account ployed. and single-framed timbers were used. 133). and there are seldom double -aisles or chevet. them (No. 156. The characteristic west front is Interiors owe much to the elaboration of triforium. There is an absence of cusps in late French tracery. especially churches. are special features. and Salisbury (Nos. and strongly marked with offsets and pinnacles. Early buttresses were a development from the slight Walls. Windows have much "plate" the final tracery. (Nos. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are flatter the higher they occur. and provided with a projecting porch. c. the final development. complex piers. 113. ENGLISH GOTHIC. 1150). treated ornament- Carpentry was more advanced. is Openings. Durham. 161 and Coutances and 162). Battlemented parapets are typical (No. and were highly ornamented with niches and panelling. Flying buttresses are not so prominent a feature because the they are considerably less ornate than the English examples. often placed laterally. - Doorways elaborate and rich. Interiors owe their effect largely to their great height. England. Roofs. /22. (No. as at Notre Dame.i8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Circular windows are not much used in ends (No. Wooden roofs. Westminster Abbey. flat the Romanesque projections of sometimes semiperiod.

very slight development taking place. 148 G). 109 and 112). Vaults were specially characteristic of the style. The vaults have level ridges and have longitudinal and transverse ridge ribs. which. besides an early application of stiff leaf foliage. probably due to the influence of carpentry. These were and . as part of design of interiors. being of large section. and was preferred to circular columns. 165 G. great height being a characteristic. the Early English period (No. Vaults were used more in the cathedrals than in parish churches. early carved capitals usually having "stiff leaf" foliage. J. of the Capitals with foliage Corinthian type lasted well into the style. Vaults. is The clustered nave colums are characteristic. E. Capitals of a classic type were only occasionally employed. in D). as in Salisbury Cathedral (No. 122). FRENCH GOTHIC. 1 58). Q) was characteristic. 1480. rich. in to the vaulting (No. John's Chapel. Paris (No. character. and their evolution in each period is shown The development was on No. ally. Plain circular E. 1 1 1). Coverings of lead were generally employed. 165. as in Notre Dame. 158). and also the octagonal or polygonal (No. Tower of London (No. of great variety. There was a difficulty in bringing down the lines' of the vaulting with this type. of moulded characteristic. The joints was peculiar to England. not much developed as part of design of interiors. 146. or placed 129) The diagonally (No. In the south is found the square pier with attached three-quarter a special feature. 112 and of the severies are at right angles or parallel to the wall ribs (No. K. 146). The^e are and not Mouldings. 165 H). These vaults are usually domical and ridge ribs were rarely employed. F. Fan tracery vaulting (Nos. and are due to Roman tradition. F. Columns. L). preferred. sometimes of wood. especially The square abacus (No.FRENCH GOTHIC. 2ss larger in size. highly developed. Mouldings. employed. and the crocket capital (No. joints of the severies are parallel to the wall rib. gave a strong backbone the Pendants are frequently used " " flamboyant period. except in often Moulded "bell" capitals were employed in all periods. The mouldings of the pier arches sometimes die into the pillars without capitals. as when the shafts started just above the square abacus of the arcade columns (No. and clumsy expedients were in use. The round abacus (No. Coverings of slates were often 381 ENGLISH GOTHIC. 135). as at York and the Cloisters of Lincoln. 165 P. Moulded Normandy. as in the S. " bell " foliage rarely met capitals without with. and intermediate and lierne ribs seldom used (page 288) (Nos. and A bold. and in have bold projection. The early adoption of attenuated shafts as a continuation of the vaulting ribs being taken as the basis of the pier formation avoided any such difficulty as was met with in France. of less variety. Columns. H) derived from the classical feature was F. shaft piers columns (No.K) was much used.

Much of the best stained glass has. la Commission des Monuments Historiques. earlier of large whereas the later examples consist figures surrounded with representations of the niches and crocketed canopies as executed by the sculptors.andwas of great refinement (No.). so rich as in England. and it would appear that hangings were imitated tions. 1 d'Archeologie. former being the most complete. according to the intent of the artists of the epoch. however." 3 vols. 147 A) is common. Color decoration in frescoes and as applied to sculpture seems to Stained glass was developed on similar lines as in France. Paris. 161). in a prevailing tone of blue tending to violet." 4 vols Pans. Decorative figure sculpture of the highest type was attained. and often were kept some distance from window openings. Features and details are of great refinement. being conventional in the Early English." Baudot (A de) Large folio. -" La Sculpture Francaise. and Chartres possesses examples which." 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. 165).). Rheims (No. and is particularly seen in the great doorways of the figure sculpture was not carried out west fronts of Notre Dame (No." 50 collotypes. " 1893 M anueld'Arche-ologieFran 9 aise. . the west front of the of Chartres. Color decoration to wall surfaces have been fully developed.. where they are inclosed in niches or tabernacles surrounding the arch in successive tiers. 1884. Paris. Corroyer . Decorative G. Amiens. 1850-1872. and in the north and south porticos so extensively as in France. and sculpture was much employed. early examples of the carving varies considerably each of the periods. Features and details are coarser. in style. 156). folio. in painted wall decora- The painted roofs the Perpendicular notable. in The naturalesque in the Decorated and again conventional in the Perpendicular. Folio 1870 Cathedrales de la France. being in small pieces heavily leaded. the examples. G. 1899 ou Rudiment -"Abecedaire. less attention ENGLISH GOTHIC. been destroyed. especially in the South of France.." 2 vols. as at Canterbury." liurges (W. and pier arches applied to capitals as well as to door and window openings. give an idea of the general effect of an interior. and screens of period are 5. but the Cathedrals of Wells and Lichfield. 8vo. " Architectural Drawings. "Archives de folio. Paris. Stained glass was much developed. much attention being given owing to the smallness of scale. Ornament. FRENCH GOTHIC. The carving of such features as gargoyles. are rich in this respect. on being given to these account of the largeness of scale. Gothic Architecture.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.902 " (E. crockets and corbels was either of floral forms or of animals and birds. finials. Ornament. and Westminster Abbey. " " The ornament dog-tooth (No.


" 410. E.). .). 410.-" A Monk of Fife.. Monographic de la Cathedrale de Chartres. E. "Architectural Sketches on the Continent. Norman)." translation of the article Paris. Religieux du XII Siecle en France. Gonse (L. " Dictionnaire Raisonne de 1'Architecture 10 vols. A. H. Viollet-le-Duc (E.. Verdier (A. Franchise.). 1889. Lassus (J. 1869-1872. "Specimens of Medieval Architecture.." 2 vols.) et Cattois (F. MacGibbon (D.). New York." " (C. et de la Renaissance. B."Architecture Civile et Domestique au Moyen Age. Paris.)" " L'Architecture du V..)." 1858. P.). 1828. Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. K." Johnson (R. 1859. " Lassus (J. (].). Siecle.). 1895. (A." 2 vols. M. 8vo. " L'Architecture Normande aiix Xl e et Ruprich-Robert (V. The most famous Loba. J. 410.) et Viollet-le-Duc (E.). "Architecture Monastique." i vol. Paris.). " 1899. Lenoir. 1888." " Blisset (X. Newcastle. e " L'Art (K. " Specimens of Early French Architecture. M.. P. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. R. York. 186-?." Folio. " The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera. Moore New Development and Character of Gothic Architecture. 1864." 2 vols.). 410 Paris. Paris. 8vo. and 4 Large Folio.). and 410 text." James (G. XI c I Siecles. 1902. " "Construction" has been issued under the A title of By G." 4to. Nestield (E. Shaw Folio. B. 1867-1881. Huss.). 8vo. L'Art Gothique.384 Gailhabaud royal folio. Paris." 1862.). Monographic de Notre Dame de Paris. A. Paris. Pugin (A. au XVI.).-" Philip Augustus. Lang (A." Rational Buildin-" \ Historical Novels. A.). " Male Edinburgh. (R. folio. Paris. Paris. 1858." vols." 8vo." Folio. folio. C. 1852-6.

but has greater extremes of heat and cold. iii. Ghent. became united of the first Duke of Valois to Margaret. being specially noticeable in domestic i. pillars lofty The keystone light and small . the towns with independent municipalities rivalling each other in the arts of war and peace. INFLUENCES. notably Guildhalls and Town vi. Many buildings. Germany. The mediaeval architecture of these countries developed with the social progress of the people. Stone was used in Brussels Cathedral and other examples. and other cities. and granite was also available. in. Louvain. under whose dominion the Netherlands were at different times. were erected. that locked each ribbed aisle and a fleur-de-lis or a quatre-feuille ." Was The And SCOTT. Historical. Flanders. reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the merchants of Antwerp. Geological. Belgium being under French. Social and Political. Religion.A. ii. corbels were carved. as work. as a Burgundy by the marriage . The whole of the Netherlands c c F. Geographical. Climate. This was greatly influenced by the religions of France. and Spain. Halls. between the Germanic and Romanic races of the European peoples. With base and with capital flourished around Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound. v. large in conception and rich in detail. grotesque and grim. the pillars with clustered shafts so trim. i. and weavers to fief of France. thus accounting for the dual influences found in its architectural development. " The darkened roof On rose high aloof. the heiress of Flanders.BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC. and Holland under German influence. The district abounds with clay suitable for the making of bricks. the cathedral at Tournai being wholly of that material. and the consequent effect upon the architecture was considerable. The country of the Netherlands lies wedged it were. iv. as in the small house facades in the towns. This is similar to that of England.

' le aisles. 3. remarkable for nave and Baying Cht Dordrech *> Ypres. 111 ' ' ^ Ut Ghent . 2. Much of the ornament in many of the fine. 167) is h ne S Ch " r( B el ^ um and is chevet. complete developed Gothic. and the choir has large side chapels The vaulting and nave windows date from 1350-14^0 Antwerp Cathedral (A. descendants of the French kings. 1146-1338) is illustrating the styles of three -successive periods. EXAMPLES. Brussels Cathedral (A.transepts" with four towers a lantern are of the Transition with period.1555)? During the Middle Ages the cities of the Low Countries were the richest and most powerful in Europe. although somewhat resembling German. which for this class of buildings is unequalled in other Dutch architecture. Early in the sixteenth century the Netherlands belonged to Charles V. that of the hilly part partaking mixture level part (Flanders) partaking of French character. a good example. owing to iconoclastic zeal. The Dutch character of simplicity is translated into the barn-like churches. of Spanish features is observable in many of the domestic buildings. and iM are other well-known examples. the choir (1226) being generally considered the Gothic work in Belgium. and were constantly at war with one another. and lofty churches of the fifteenth century has. and the Romanesque and choir. The eastern termination has a half-developed chevit. and for this reason the architecture of Holland is of less interest than that of Belgium. fully r l * . 154 c. 1226-1280) (No. large. with its single western tower g the . been destroyed. but in the Town Halls a national style of architecture was evolved. French ideas in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. and that of the types. A The architecture of Belgium during this period was of two main of German. The cathedrals show a general inclination to the general disposition of their plans. The f the latterof equal heights. (15197. very light and elegant in character.D. 1352-1411) (Nos'. countries.D. were brought together under the rule of the Dukes of Valois.D.386 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and narrow aisleless tranwest front 1422-1518). ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 167) is one of the finest examples. The nave is the circular-ended . (A. however. Tournai Cathedral . has a national character of its own.




c. cloth. form a class of building suited to the needs of the community. Walls. and the lower portion. Ghent (No. and their free and open appearance may be compared with the halls of Florence and Siena. its chequered history being referred to by Longfellow : " In the market-place of Bruges Stands the belfry old and brown . COMPARATIVE. ' SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. and are several stories in height. which were very powerful. that at Antwerp having seven aisles being regarded in other countries as non-Gothic in design. and there are several examples in the market-place of Brussels. 168). feet high (No. surmounted by a high roof with dormer windows in tiers. 167 F). the central portion being carried up as a tower. 168). The possession of a "beffroi" (belfry) attached to the town hall was an important privilege granted by charter. are also fine. the upper octagonal portion of which is richly ornamented (No. at 168). The French chevet was also adopted. the Gothic fa9ade(i5i8-i533) contrasting with the Renaissance facade (1595-1622). frequently used as a record is one of the most picturesque of these towers. especially which the country was renowned at this period. These. is a somewhat striking example of comparative architecture. The Guildhalls were 4. Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded. and forms a landmark for many miles round. Short and wide plans after French models were the cathedrals. A. along with the trade halls and guildhalls of which Ypres is probably the finest example. In domestic work the long. Openings. which was of massive construction. built in two distinct styles. was The beffroi at Bruges. unbroken fa9ades and greater symmetry and regularity of the scheme are characteristic. 352 office. Many were designed on the same lines. the Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200-1304) being exceptionally also built as meeting. Plans. The Town Halls are exceptionally fine those at 'Brussels (1401-1455). This reflects the independent and prosperous condition of the medieval towns." . Louvain (1448-1463). 169). B. adopted in (No. Bruges (1377) (No. very characteristic. 169) being the more important. and Ghent (1481) (No.places for the separate trades or guilds. Still it watches o'er the town. for The Town Hall The Trade Halls for buying and selling merchandize.390 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The windows are richly ornamented with .

H S3 W 33 o .

In domestic either hipped (No.. Antwerp. Ysendyck Jas. " Goctghebuer Ghent. clustered piers. at Mons. A peculiar feature is noticeable in some town hall where a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches means of a long keystone from a concealed arch. 1858-1868.." Documents Classes (J J.. Stroobant Belgique. J. c. tracery. d'Architecture de Sculpture en Verschelde Brussels. Waudru. c." Bruges. is fully decorated 5. "Study Book Architecture and Art. and are by crow-stepped and traceried Numerous turrets. (P. buildings.). have steep pitches. Jacques at Liege with paintings of a rather later date. and bold combine with the tiers of dormers to complete work roofs the rich profusion of the walls below." et 4 vols. regularity in position and panelling. Haghe King " (L. nor the grace of English. REFERENCE BOOKS. blue stone is combined with a red brick filling-in of the vault. 410. Choix des in Monumens des Pays-Bas. possessing neither the vigour of French. Mouldings." of Mediaeval 1840-1850.). sculpture. (C. and S. is well exemplified at S. 1880-1889. In S. Ornament. and bear a similarity and which are marked features in these large Roofs. in a scheme of permanent decoration. 5 vols. Sketches Belgium and Germany." 3 vols." (Historical Novel. 167 B." Monuments Folio. " The Ancient Domestic " Edifices of Bruges. mouldings.) . " de 1'Art dans les Pavs- Mary of Burgundy. 1827. folio. as at Liege. Coarse profusion is characteristic of Belgian arcades. (T. instead of E. Folio." 1075.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1878.). (F. folio. D. Van).). Gothic. The use of round pillars in the nave.). D). Gudule. H. 169) or ended gables of picturesque outline. by F. chimney stacks. Brussels (No. Columns.

and latticed passage wet . i. . 258 for German Romanesque. as well as ecclesiastical. i. Religion. Social and Political. Germany was flanked on the east. INFLUENCES. . Sown close among the strewings of the floor And either wall of the slow corridor roods away. Climate." . The plains of Northern and North Eastern Germany produce no building material but brick. . iii. Was dim That spanned his head from nape to crown these Mary's gold hair. interesting feature in the religious life of Germany. the truth as to the individuality of the architects will not easily be made out. Geographical. with deep device of gracious things Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings Shut to the side or Peter with straight stole And beard cut black against the aureole . rule of many of the bishops. a lordly house there was. Geological.) Some From rush flowers and lilies ripe to set. The most French Revolution. Owing to this situation it had direct communication with all the great European States. found in the centre and south.GERMAN (See page " GOTHIC. Trade guilds acquired great importance during this period. which has a Stone was great influence on the architecture in these regions. page 281) having been credited with much influence in the design and working out of the Gothic style. west and south by large and warlike empires having strong racial differences. and timber in Hanover and the north-west. v. The River Rhine was an important factor in the rise of cities founded in the earlier period. thick to the girdle tie Wherein was bound a child with tender feet Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it. ii. (See page 258 in German Romanesque). Cool with broad courts. was the civil. Some of these episcopal principalities were not finally abolished until the period of the iv. In the absence of records. prior to the Reformation. that of the Freemasons (cf.

2. exercised considerable influence on the peaceful arts." because no king was universally acknowledged by all Germany. reluctantly adopted at the time when it in France. as in the latter country. neighbouring 3. (Nos. This may be ascribed to the monumental character of buildings in the Romanesque style. although expressed in a somewhat meagre manner. the In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries heart and centre of the Western Empire. 'a brick architecture was developed. The years 1254-1274. in the valley of the Elbe. therefore.394 vi. EXAMPLES. The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed directly from France. known as the "great interregnum. but the Romanesque In Northern Germany. has that special character belonging properly to the material. were times of great confusion and lawlessness. page 234). although not equalling that in the valley of the Po. Historical. was attaining its great perfection precedents were long adhered to. no c and 170) may be cathedral in this style. 6aStern P ortion bein a g It resembles Amiens and dimensi di rect copy in plan cathedral of North Europe. Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the Lombard league of the north Italian towns (cf." an alliance of the great commercial towns of North Germany. giving a superficial e nced in and the choir was . which had been developed to a greater extent than in other countries. Gothic was. and was not a pure development of the Romanesque. having an extreme a width of 275 feet. until the house of Hapsburg Germany was came into power in 1273. of the bmlding being completed according to the original design in the nineteenth The clear width of nave between century piers is 41 feet 6 inches and C m Th! remainder '. regarded Cologne Cathedral as the great 9 B) ' ' ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. no Gothic building being erected in before the thirteenth Germany century. The " Hanseatic league. completed in f u "7?. as at Lubeck and the which. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. cities. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. ' " " .


has a regular and western towers. . are other examples of this type. Quintin. to reduce the importance of the nave. Munich Cathedral. Stephen. Stephen. 1377-1477) is spacious and lofty. Martin. Vienna (1300-1510) (Nos. characteristic of wall. and their lives the walls Were builded with his own into As offerings to God. spire similar to that of Cologne. Mayence. while rendering the interior more spacious. and fine choir stalls. added in 1859-1869. great master Children that came As day by day Grew old and died. The western towers have open-work spires. the three aisles nearly equal in width and height. . has aisles and a " Hall Church. S. nave of the same S. being notable for the small ratio of support in regard to its floor space. The cathedral " was built by A Erwin von Steinbach but not he alone. to see these saints in stone. octagonal apse without ambulatory. Built bis great heart into these sculptured And with him toiled his children. no D." LONGFELLOW. Elizabeth. and S. Barbara. Landshut (1404). and one great roof . was to raising abolish the triforium and clerestory. Lambert. The western tower is 529 feet in height.is characteristic in having no clerestory or triforium.D. 172 and 173). Marburg (1235-1283) (No. For many generations labour'd with . is the " Hall Church. The architect stones. a remnant from Romanesque traditions. and a polygonal eastern apse without ambulatory. And on and on and is not yet completed. and still the work went on. being therefore Vienna. Freiburg Cathedral (1283-1330) has a plan." as are also S.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Ratisbon Cathedral (1275-1534) (No. with The small triangular Ulm Cathedral (A. open-work spires porch is a peculiar feature. out of the blocks they rose. S. Hildesheim. of his craft. S. him. but with a total height of 385 feet. height. Kuttenberg. . It has an arcaded gallery to the eaves. 172). known as the the side aisles to the same height as the nave. 171). and to do away with the necessity for flying buttresses." The result of typical form. . and S.


Lubeck Cathedral (choir and Lubeck. In the domestic architecture the roof was a large and important feature. are notable. The Rathhaus at Liibeck and other cities. and artistically treated. A.398 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. instead of being at the (No. and at east and west ends Plans. of air. and these exhibit great variety of design in scrolls and other features. as at Marienburg and Meissen in Saxony (1471-1483). and dormer windows are plentiful. 172 D). SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. sometimes only one central tower occurs. and frequently contained more stories than the walls " " for the large supporting it. with their stepped gables. are evidences of the prosperity of the inhabitants of these times. Hildesheim. COMPARATIVE. and express the possibilities of design in that material. as at Naumburg. aisles) and the Marien Kirche. 4. The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne. and a square outline is not uncommon. being used as a drying ground and planned with windows to get a through current monthly wash. Miinster and Ratisbon are the best known. the ridge being generally at right angles to the street. Halberstadt. (1280).) the round-arched and (b. as in some English cathedrals. found at end of transepts. These were based upon (a. Magdeburg (1208-1211). less open than usual in German work. and the original stained glass exists. the covering the church in one span. . Entrances are often on north or south. The chevet is uncommon. to the general plan Triapsal plans are frequent (No. German style of churches. Lubeck. . Apses often semioctagonal. while at Landshut and elsewhere. 170).) the French plan. gables are the result. The planning of the roof-ridge parallel. the party walls being apparent. to the street in towns influenced the design considerably (see page 536 in German Renaissance). Tower porches occupy one of which is completed and has of transepts only positions a splendid spire. Twin towers occur at west end of Ratisbon Cathedral 171). The vaults are traceried. are types of the brick architecture of North Germany. Town Halls (Rathhaus) at Brunswick. In later work. or at right angles. Heilberg (1350). Freiburg. and Prague. and the town gates of Castles were erected the Baltic provinces. thus in Nuremberg the ridge is generally parallel to the street. in goodly numbers. although it occurs at Cologne (No.



consisting of two different sets of mouldings. Tower roofs of the Romanesque form were still used. 170 and 172) and E. D D . as at Freiburg. appearing and disappearing in and out of the same stone. and the use of two tiers of windows was due to the lofty aisles (No. The typical examples are Strasburg (1429) (No. spires were much used. being weak. roof. but vaulting in oblong bays afterwards became general. starting as low down as possible. and were Vienna (No. 172). The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque style simply copied. but the junction of the insufficiently marked. Cologne (No. Ratisbon (No. Tracery was elaborated. Cologne. though ornamented. corresponding with two aisle bays. Openings (No. the tendency being to make them lofty posts carrying the. In the north the clerestories are excessive in size. 172). with a wooden roof. both as regards its size and excellence of construction. F). thus interpenetvation of mouldings (fifteenth century) was a very characteristic treatment. The special German feature is the immense roof. Walls. The resulting complicated intersections required great skill in the geometrical setting out and execution. Square vaulting bays to the nave were often adhered to. Oppenheim. Mouldings. Roofs. the mullions being often cut across the openings behind. no c). Complexity rather than simplicity was striven after. Tracery was employed on the outer and inner wall surfaces. not the columns found in early French Gothic. as also in Bavaria and at Munich. the outline. but were D. and elsewhere. 154 E). tracery windows being used in later Excessive height F. double examples. 173) Cathedrals. 171). to provide a great expanse of stained glass. 172 F). Piers usual in naves (Nos. Great attention was paid to the vaulting. 401 take They sometimes have towers over them. B. without reference to their origin and meaning. a characteristic.GERMAN GOTHIC. Ratisbon. and the place of transepts (No. spire Towers with was often Freiburg (1300). and churches of this material abound. sometimes covered only. 174 is E. Churches were nearly always vaulted. each being provided with its own base and capital. c.A. 173). and when the aisles are equal in height to the nave it is the recognized German type known as the "Hall Church" (No. Lubeck in the north is the centre of a brick district. which was due to the side aisle being made nearly as high as the nave. F. owing to the height of the aisles. Columns. west end. Open-work tracery spires indicate the same liking for this feature which is seen in the Rhenish Romanesque churches. covering nave and aisle in one span (No.

2 vols. Leipzig. the carving was superior feature (No.-" Architectural Notes on German Churches. Lubke (W. They form an important feature of German decorative art." 4 vols. " REFERENCE BOOKS.). as at Ratisbon (52 feet).. j). 174 A. folio." Deutschen 8vo. Histoire et description de la Cathedrale de Cologne. " Denkmaeler Deutscher Baukunst. the -shrine itself being closed by a pierced iron grating.. 1873. Boisseree (S.402 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." (Historical Novel.). c." Anne of Gierstein. as at Cologne. Foliage was treated in a naturalesque manner. and the 5. Study-Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art. the tracery of later windows sometimes representing the branches of trees ("branch tracery "). . . many The enforced use of brick in the north employment of sculptured work. 1852. and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a common In general. all erected in minature. 1855-1869. Ornament (No. and in cases were most elaborate. 1858-1868. Moller Leipzig.) Leipzig. They usually represented a Gothic spire with its traceried windows." Folio Denkmaeler der Baukunst der Mittelalters in Sachsen. and they are sometimes of great height. Hartel (A. Munich." vols.). Examples are found throughout Germany.. The Tabernacles or Sacrament Houses were developed in this period. to the design.. " Baukunst. and canopies. and either placed against a wall or isolated " and were used to keep the " pyx with the eucharist. J. Denkmaeler " der Germany. dating from the time that the consecrated Host above the altar went out of use. in which technical display was more considered than grace of outline. and the Lorenz Kirche. folio. Nuremburg (64 feet).). 1836-1850. Foerster (E. 4to. H. G. Stained glass and ironwork were well treated. 1891. was unsuitable for the its place moulded and of decoration.)." Architektonische Detaile und Ornamente der Kirchlichen " Berlin. and therefore scale is destroyed. Features such as pinnacles are larger the higher they occur. " Ecclesiastical Art in (G. whereas in English and French work the features do not increase in size. vols. Baukunst." 4to and folio. tapering upwards in many stages.). being placed at one side and forming a lofty and towerlike structure. pinnacles. 1842. statuary decoration." Scott (Sir Walter). and in colored brickwork was used as a means interiors are plain and bare in character. They are of stone or wood.). Ulm (90 feet). King 4 (T. 1843. Whewell (W). Puttrich (L." 12 folio. 174).


many large buildings. and white marbles were used in stripes. Lucca.) " give thee twelve royal images Cut in glad gold.ITALIAN GOTHIC. " i. Geological. such as mosaic work and fresco decoration. The preference for opaque treatment. through the Lombardy was connection of this part of Italy and Germany geographically by the Brenner Pass. 182). German influence in Geographical. was inherited from the Romans. effected and also in panels. (See page 228 for Italian Romanesque. such as the Hospital at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia. 181). The colored marbles of ment of this style was important. the architect relying much for effect upon and disposition. Among the little sleepy pearls to be I will A shrine lit over with soft candle flame. and other places. The work at Venice was similarly influenced by an oversea trade connection with the East. which. Siena (No. The influence of materials in the developii. Red. for the reasons mentioned above. The influence of the climate and brilliant atmosphere is apparent in the small windows. with thick walls. And the strange Asian thalamite that was Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea. i. their color . Climate. INFLUENCES. iii. were necessary to keep out the glare and heat of the Italian sun. factors which also hindered the development of tracery. as in Florence (No. Genoa. having been erected in these materials. black. Orvieto. Northern and Central Italy supplied abundant and beautiful material for the elaboration of plain wall treatment. while the climate counteracted effectually any desire the Italians might have had for the suppression of the walls by the employment of large windows of stained glass. The brick and terra-cotta of Northern Italy has left a decided impress on the architecture of that district. with marvels of wrought stone For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas.

The maritime commonwealth of Genoa considerably reduced the power of Pisa in 1284. 259) distracted Italy from 1250 to 1409. Orvieto. Oscar Browning in his Italy. 181. was^so great that the verticality which marks the Gothic architecture in the north of Europe does not pervade the Italian examples to the same extent. To the Latin conquest of Constantinople. the effect that each holiday they blew trumpets. all commerce was transferred to the cities of Italy. as shown in the Classic forms and decoration. in which political life was full of rivalry and activity. The erection of the Cathedrals of Siena.) the to mask the flatness of the roofs (Nos. Historical. for the citizens being dispersed during the sixty years of Latin occupation. Milan and Lucca was largely due to the civic pride of the various rival cities. Siena and Florence. The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a century in advance of northern Europe. is mainly attributed the sudden development of the formative arts in the thirteenth century in Europe. Social and Political. The churches are especially noticeable externally for (a. 182) (b. 1203. and for nearly seventy years (1309-1376) resided at Avignon. 405 The real power of the Pope as head of the Church died with Gregory X. while the numerous Town Halls Tasso has a line to attest the growth of municipal institutions. losing authority and influence during their absence from Rome. Rival Popes existed until a settlement was arrived at by the Council The factions of the Guelphs and Ghibelof Constance. and small wars were of constant occurrence. Pisa. The succeeding Popes were under the influence of the King of France. as the head in arts. and were very powerful in consequence of the wealth and industry of the cities over which they held sway. learning and commerce. a sub" Mediaeval ject dealt with by Mr. Florence. and proceeded Yet other countries looked to Italy to sack the adjoining town.) the tendency aisle roofs by a mere screen wall forming the west facade. and many Greek artists were In the thirteenth established at Venice. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. century successive members of the Visconti family ruled as Dukes of Milan. Western lines (pages 230. 2. and the latter was conquered by Florence in Florence became one of the chief states of Italy under 1406. in vi. the powerful family of the Medici (page 447). . iv. of The influence of construction Roman tradition. without .ITALIAN GOTHIC. Religion. The poet Dante (1265-1321) has in his great poem presented a summarized picture of the age. Italy into small principalities and commonwealths. in 1415. (1271-1276)." at this period was cut up v.


Mosaic was used externally in panels. if carefully burnt. sufficient projection not being obtainable for cornices. and a smallness in detail followed. Corinthian capitals of modified form and the Roman acanthus were constantly used in Gothic buildings (No. which was eminently suited to the material. 182). at the Frari Church at Venice and elsewhere. giving a A flatness and want of shadow^ special character. And sombre. . who allowed the material to express its own capabilities without trying to disturb its architectural function. The treatment of moulded brickwork has never been carried to greater perfection than in North Italy during the Gothic and Early Renaissance period. 184). but the crowning cornice (No. (c. Sculpture partakes of classical purity. There is an absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance or the buttresses." TENNYSON.) the great central circular window in the west front lighting the nave and comparative unimportance of the mouldings. Porch pillars on the lion resting. for example. although the effect of sublimity is perhaps not to be obtained in so small a material unless used in the broad massive manner of the Romans. are characteristic features. in their plastic state rendered much ornament easy of application. 407 reference to the slope of the roofs behind (No. 181). which. in continuation of early ideas and practice. . . as at Verona. is necessarily characteristic of brick buildings. Stone of different color was also carried systematically in patterns through the design. and this was always tolerated by the Italians. and the employment of elaborately carved projecting porches at the west end. the columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and other animals. The Italian use' of the details were small brickwork was essentially the right one and designed with taste. colonnaded aisles. (d. On the other hand.) the flatness cheir place being more than taken by the beautiful colored marbles with which the facades were faced. but it enters far less into the general composition and meaning of the architecture. as. are as durable as most kinds of stone. and is in this respect superior to that exhibited in northern examples. especially in civic buildings. and the broad surfaces covered with fresco decorations. and the effect of variegated color was relied on instead of depth of shadow a perfectly legitimate and expressive use of material where small and colored units are used.ITALIAN GOTHIC. Terra-cotta and brickwork. old. " Stern and sad (so rare the smiles Of sunlight) looked the Lombard piles . there is no beauty of detail or of design on a small scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded bricks.

laid upon the upper surface of the vaulting. with the exception of Seville. the nave terminating with a circlet of columns in the French manner. c. Bologna. having a central crowning an internal dome. in the place of the ordinary capitals. It is the largest mediaeval cathedral. " 175). Many archiincluding Palladio. Milan. 175. B. a hundred spires. The domes in 1475." TENNYSON. Padua (1237-1307) is a remarkable design. The churches and palaces at Bologna. NORTH Milan Cathedral (A. whose summits are treated with canopied niches.D. both in character and details. and double aisles of extreme height. 176 B. 1440.408 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. nave and tects. The feature of the designed by Brunelleschi in A. which is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles of glittering marble (No. closely resembling S. lantern in on either side. exemplify the influence of brick and terra-cotta on the architecture of the The Certosa. interior is the range of immense shafts to the nave (No. To the Ambrosian ritual is due the absence of side-chapels in the original scheme. The roof is very flat in pitch. domes instead of five. and there is a marked German influence. would. where terra-cotta was largely used. but with seven and the front porch omitted. the space. if completed. Vicenza. being constructed of massive marble slabs. filled with statues. In plan it consists of a nave with a very small clerestory.D. 3. the chanting quires . S. in emulation of Florence Cathedral. erected by the first Duke of Milan. the glory mount of marble. Mark in plan (page 208). Cremona. ITALY. and resembled (No. c). and the great Hospital. Padua. the gloom. At the crossing of the nave and aisles is a vault crowned with a marble 'spire. and is built entirely of white marble. district. 177). Externally. The giant windows' blazon'd fires . and Genoa contain specimens of brick architecture with pleasing moulded details. have been one of the It was to have consisted of a largest churches of this period. O. were added Antonip. 176 A. Verona. 1385-1418) (Nos. . O Milan. S. commenced stages. Pavia. the character of the whole design is expressive of richness and lacelike intricacy. EXAMPLES. is the most important work of this period. 177). aisles and outer chapels in section the Cathedral of Milan west front. ! A The height. commenced in 1390. have produced designs for the unfinished in 1396. Petronio. but inclosed in a German polygonal apse.


MILAN CATHEDRAL. . Interior. looking East. 177.ITALIAN (NORTH) GOTHIC.

Giovanni e Paolo (1260-1400). and it must be remembered that the Venetian state occupied a prominent position as a great trading centre in the Middle Ages. 178 and 179 B) (facade A. so heavily loaded above. The Doges' Palace. The lower columns seem to rise out of the ground. a Dominican church. Anastasia. the otherwise blank walls being broken by a few large and richly ornamented windows. and S. the extremities of the design being left comparatively solid.D. one originally advanced in front and surrounding the main building. the latter being peculiar in having - two western towers. in imitation of bricks. (1362). The delicate and light carving in low relief which occurs in the capitals of the arcades is justly celebrated. are magnificent examples. Pisani (No. The Palazzi Foscari. 179 c). The Ca d' Oro Palace. 182). No. orders. open arcade of two stories. 1424-1442. by G. thus producing the effect of a central feature inclosed by wings. is Venice remarkable for the civic " Where Venice sate in state. but was rebuilt and extended over the double arcade in the Venetian style. . are other examples of the secular architecture of the period. A general idea of . Siena. also by the Brothers Buon. The latter was partly destroyed by fire in the sixteenth century. is of the Basilican type. are notable examples. throned on her hundred isles.ITALIAN GOTHIC. especially is Venetian in character. The Ponte alle Grazie (1237) and tne Ponte Vecchio the Bridge over the Adda at Trezzo. and an English type of plan.1280). with rose-colored and white marble." S. Pavia. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (1250. Venice (Nos. Andrea. as is also the grouping of the windows towards the centre of the facade. the excellence of marble as a material for carving being largely responsible for the refinement of execution in this example. is another fine specimen of the The tracery domestic work with which Venice abounds. Vercelli (1219). and has a fine campanile adjoining the church (cf. 179 A and 180). . Verona (1261). both at Florence constructed in the fourteenth century and afterwards destroyed and the Bridge over the Ticino. a Franciscan church. S. and the solid and connected character of the tracery gives some stability to the design. with six eastern chapels. her power and richness being due to the supremacy of her navy. Buon) is the grandest effort in Each facade consisted of an civic architecture of the period. 411 and domestic architecture of this period. and Cavalli are other well-known examples. showing the influence of the Monastic The latter by Niccolo Pisano. and B. Venice (Nos. and S. having no bases. Contarini-Fasan. arranged in patterns.


.ITALIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES. SCALE 5Q. Q 100 ft U ! -. . . tfrttfe&fefei |l II.J P ^?l @ MlL 179. .




being contrasted by blank white-washed chiefly The Baptistery (originally the Cathedral). 179 D).D. is a wellof open tracery is The Campo Santo.D.ITALIAN GOTHIC. 181). James's and the building in Lothbury. as in the adjoining cathedral. 1324). but E E . and is built in red and white marble. Siena Cathedral (A. but remodelled by Arnolfo in A. allowed of a cry. 182) is remarkable in having a dome. The Palazzo Vecchio. obtained from the old front of S. was added in 1420 by Brunelleschi. Florence (1294). S. Pisa (1278-1283) (No. Maria Novella.D. the absence of a triforium. are examples of the vigorous secular architecture of the period. of Arnolfo di Cambio.A. opposite the CENTRAL Florence Cathedral (No. and for the marble facades The cathedral was erected from the designs in colored panelling. spire can be traced. is The Campanile (Nos. while the facade was completed in 1887. adjoining. Florence (A. 181). Florence (1376). is ITALY. 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. covering an irregular hexagonal space at the crossing (No. having an unusual development in the arches (No. The ground falling towards the east end. and the octagonal dome. 1294. in four stories of increasing height. is a well-known example of the same type. 58 feet in diameter. (Sta. 91). (A. the nave itself. Tracery of an elementary character is introduced into the windows in this (A. is an octagonal structure faced with pilasters and richly colored ornamentation.pt being formed under the sanctuary. and characteristic rose window. and the Loggia dei Lanzi. with three portals of equal size. Venetian Gothic Hall. 1243-1284) (No. the Palazzo Publico. which is used as a baptistery. the tenth century. buttresses arid pinnacles (No. erected in Spandrels. Internally the fine effect promised by the plan is not realized. 184 c). being further remarkable for the fifteenth century bronze doors by Ghiberti.D. in piers and arches. by Arnolfo di Cambio (with its remarkable tower). Croce. and for its facade in black and white stripes. of England. 1278). 1290) resembles that of Siena. known example. 176). Siena. is 417 Bank Piccadilly. by Giotto square on plan. 176 D and example. The unfinished elevation of this east end is a grand design. is an imposing example erected by the Dominicans. Orvieto Cathedral F. Maria dei Fion) (1294-1462) remarkable for the wide spacing (55 feet) of the nave arcades. and S. and inserted in the solidly designed lower story are sculptured panels of great interest and Below the present tile roof the start of the intended beauty.D. Florence (1298). vast masses of grey pietra serena stone. 292 feet high.


" Messina and Palermo Cathedrals have plans founded on the Roman basilican type. with a border introducing green and purple porphyry architectural in patterns. In Rome. Both churches are vaulted. while the lower parts of the walls have a high dado of white marble. is a remarkable example of external stones of two colors. but suggesting Northern Gothic in its vigour of skyline. 176) and Siena Cathedrals (No. with detail of an arbitrary style. NORTH. Plans. of a central and two lower towers. and is more harmonious in design than the Siena example. is an example which was from the designs of a German. decoration in Palermo Cathedral 4. CENTRAL.D. AND SOUTH. depending much more on its frescoed interior than upon the architecture proper for its magnificence and character. 183). built of brick and plastered. The main idea striven after in these churches was the unfettered display of mosaic decoration. \ SOUTHERN ITALY AND The referred SICILY. The style has been described as " Greek in essence. as at Florence (No. Assisi (A. COMPARATIVE. It consists of an upper and lower church. but without mouldings or even receding planes (No. influences at work in these districts have already been to in Romanesque (page 239).ITALIAN GOTHIC. and Saracenic in decoration. Maria sopra Minerva (1280) being quoted as the only Gothic church in Rome. Francis. E E 2 . Roman in form. and received a complete treatment in painted decoration by Cimabue and Giotto. resembling in their effect the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. The pointed arch was used. It is imbued more considerably with Northern Gothic mainly of one period. S. the facade dating from 1310. 179 D). 1228-1253). in which the principal personages of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic style. and is very northern in detail. with borders of arabesques in gold and color. Jacobus of Meruan. the apses in At the west end is a group consisting particular being very fine. The endeavour to create a great central space in A. the naves having timber roofs of great elaboration and intricate construction. 419 feeling. the churches. S. shows the influence of Etruscan and Roman models. churches of the Basilican type were erected throughout the Middle Ages. The nave is now restored with an open timber roof of the Basilican type.

being compositions in marble facing. c. sometimes beautifully decorated. flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. central lantern tower. the The be compared with English work. and even inlaid with glass mosaic known as "cosmato" work. 182). 181). and lofty pinnacles. Mantua and Pistoja. and Milan Cathedral (No. are an advance on the Romanesque lanterns at the crossing. Verona (No. the triforium being usually omitted. A moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches. 176). in diminishing stages. and in panelling at Florence (No. like northern examples. in many cases not finished on the score of expense. The marble was used in bands of two colors at Siena (No. B. and often have no relation to the structure or roofs behind (No. The best known are at Florence (No. This surface treatment was borrowed from the Saracens. usually isolated. and may valle. These lofty pierced by a small. 181 and 182). The absence of large windows obviated the necessity for projecting buttresses. These slender shafts are often twisted. 178). 1840). Facades are treated independently as decorative compositions. From the absence of vertical features and shadows in the facade. as at Florence and Milan (No. Lucca. instead of the moulded mullions of northern Gothic examples (No. continuing the Romanesque tradition. 182). with northern methods. 181). 182) and Florence (No. arcades practically include the aisles and nave in one composition and give the effect of a single hall. Openings. and may be compared is obtained by deeplymoulded string courses. the side aisles having oblong ones. The windows are often semicircular headed. The most imposing external feature was frequently a dome. The nave vaulting is frequently set out in square compartments. 181). Walls. These facades are often incomplete. 176). and the clerestory reduced to the unimportance of a vault spandrel. from the family of that name. in which effect while the capitals are richly sculptured. thus reversing the Northern Gothic practice. Siena (No. each having three high gables. window.420 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. as at Siena (No. projecting buttresses. which are frequently inclosed by square lines as a frame. the high and flat walls being usually comparatively solid throughout their length. 184 K). as at ChiaraCertosa at Pavia. Venetian tracery is a special form of geometrical combinations (No. . 182) and Orvieto. and able themselves to withstand the pressure of a vault (Nos. as at Florence Cathedral (No. The widely-spaced nave arcades are characteristic. Pavia. have square shafts without buttresses. 176 D) and the Certosa. and developing no spire growth. and have shafts with square capitals of Corinthian type. and generally circular. Towers.

by their height and size. such as Giotto's chapel at Padua. D. 421 of low pitch. These have a flatness and squareness often little changed from Roman work. and peculiar treatment of tabernacle capitals. and the Sistine chapel at Rome. but the continuous sequence in the design of such features. 1877. In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers. the pulpits (No. E. pavements and choir stalls. and of small importance in the design. and in the veneering of the facades with colored marbles. that the decorative character of the style is best seen. as may be traced north of the Alps. G. but on the other hand. 184). being scarcely visible from below (Nos. H. 179 and 180). It is in the carving and mosaics to the sumptuous altars and canopy tombs. of the Scaligers. Opaque decoration was preferred to translucent the art of fresco. 184 B). leading up to the golden age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. History of Architecture in Italy from the Time ." Folio. Classic tradition led to a refinement and an elegance which contrasts with the grotesque element found in northern work. the most interesting being those due to the use of brickwork in the facades. with capitals and bases. Iron tie-rods -were often used to prevent the spread of roof timbers owing to insufficient Roofs. Mouldings are throughout subordinate to surface decoration.A. by constant exercise upon the noblest subjects in the grandest buildings. Mouldings. Commercial and Street Architecture of France and Italy. is not observable. 5. although there may be capitals at the impost.). at . Ornament (No. They are often in contradiction to the steep gables of the facades. F. are shells for painted decoration. The piers of the arcades in the churches are times surprisingly clumsy in plan. 184 A. almost devoid of architectural In carving (Nos. E. is an examp'e rich decoration. borrowed from northern Europe.). "Examples of the Municipal. Round piers. F. and the section of an arch mould is often identical with that of the jamb. Columns. These are r buttressing. L) and sculpture features. Verona (.ITALIAN GOTHIC. Some buildings. four pilasters combined back to back being a common section.1329-1380). REFERENCE BOOKS. recalling Roman work. \produce the effect of a columnar interior (No. were also used. G. A Anderson (R. the general design is often neglected in the attention bestowed upon accessories. B. " Cummings (C. and treated solely as a field for mosaic and other elaborate decoration. and many of the churches at Rome have " elaborate inlay mosaic work of " cosmato design on their arches of The Tomb and twisted columns. 177).


" Street (G." Folio. Nesfield (E. Henty (G. " Hittorff (J." atlas 1886.). " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy." 8vo." Folio Denkmaeler der of plates. (H. 2 vols. 423 REFERENCE BOOKS of Constantine to the Continued. H." 4to. . Architecture Moderne de la Sicile." 2 " 3 vols. 8vo. Ruskin Schulz "Stones of Venice.).. I. Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages.. 1901. Waring (J.) et Zanth (C. 1860. Mark.). \in Italien. Unter-Italien. "The Lion of S. Knight (H.ITALIAN GOTHIC. Paris.). Kunst des Mittelalters in and text in 2 vols.) ' . Griiner(L. B. 1862. 4to." Boston. 8vo. " Rohault-de-Fleury (G. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture. W. G." " Ziegelbauwerke des Mittelalters und der Renaissance Folio. 1850.). 1835." Folio.)." 2 vols.).). W. Berlin. L." (Historical Novel. vols. (J. Dawn of the Renaissance. Paris.) and Macquoid (T.. " La Toscane au Moyen Age. Dresden. 1874. 1874.. 1842-1844.). R.). E. 1867." Folio. 1889. folio. "Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy. Strack (H.).

SPANISH GOTHIC. The kingdom of Granada. the finest in the country. and led the way to heaven. while in the south the climate is sub-tropical. to vulgar mind unknown) .ooo feet above the i. who taught. or in arts excelled blood Chiefs. . iv. Geographical. is cold. Burgos. divided by sierras. and prodigal of . Climate. . with brick bonding courses and quoins. TICKELL. in the north. Stone was the material generally employed. and the subdivision of the country by sierras. as in the towers and gates of the city of Toledo. were used in places. Rubble-work. INFLUENCES. who once the reins of Empire held In arms who triumphed. Stern patriots. which the country throughout possesses. i. Constant warfare with the Moors gave a certain unity to Spain. Geological. or chains of low rocky hills." . Religion. by whom impartial And saints. but granite and some of the semi-marbles. which is that of a series of table-lands of varying elevations. was surrounded by mountains which inclosed a fertile plain. and exposed to keen winds even in the summer. 1 Oft let me range the gloomy ! aisles alone (Sad luxury show Along the walls where speaking marbles What wor hies foim the hallowed mould below Proud names. The existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some parts. . stood Spanish architecture cannot be underwithout a knowledge of the geography of the country. ii. where the Moors held out until the close of the Gothic period. 3. laws were given Just men. who for sacred freedom stood. graced with scars. This varies with the structure of the country. iii. Allegiance to the Papacy has been a characteristic of Spain. and Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance. The arrangement of the choirs and the size and sea. the struggle being a war of religions as well as of races. was used under Moorish influence with much taste and success.

Leon. These fretwork screens occupy the whole Elsewhere buildings. for which the Saracenic art is everywhere remarkable. and Portugal were all growing up and gradually driving the Mahometans into the southern part called Andalusia.. the Christian states of Castile. after which Mahometan influence gradually declined. The study of the history of a country. and lace-like. and won back Seville and Cordova. This influence occasionally reached far into the north. such as the horseshoe arch. Social and Political. less of ' Moorish influence. Navarre. and for 800 years their influence was continuous. After many intermittent successes. as already mentioned. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. owing to the superior education and ability of Moorish workmen. In the Spanish peninsula. was during the reign of S. v. vi. Aragon. this influence made itself felt in Saracenic features. The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors seem to have been executed by the aid of Moorish workmen. gained by the Christians. Historical. sown by the spirit of conquest and aided by the wealth of the conquered Moors. and are rich in detail. and the exuberance of intricate.D. and. 710-713 (page 655). which has been occupied at different times by peoples of various races. 2. In the south. . 425 importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals were due to the ritual. under window. there was always more or Moorish influence. after which. the country was invaded by the Moors from North Africa. was the turning It point. pressed into the east of Spain until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to the Mahometans. The evidence of this is to be seen in the stronghold of their power the south of Spain where the curious construction.SPANISH GOTHIC. King of Aragon. and the final expulsion of the Moors did not take place till 1492. the Moorish capital. After the Romans left Spam the Vandals and Visigoths took possession. for although Toledo was captured by the Christians in 1085. as the capture of Toledo (1084) by Alfonso VI. called the Conqueror (1213-1276). Ferdinand (1217-1252). is specially required in the case of Spain. always necessary in order to properly understand the development of its architecture. and from Toledo. the Spanish conquests were gradual. James. the pierced stonework tracery of Moorish design. that Gothic art took root. who united Castile and Leon. A. the richness of the architecture. detail are everywhere apparent. in later times. the battle of Tolosa (1212). were covered with intricate geometrical and flowing patterns and rich surface decorations. as in the Jews' synagogue at Toledo.

In the later period. with a singularly shallow Toledo Cathedral . as Barcelona. The cloisters of many of the cathedrals. which. broad wall surfaces and horizontal lines are special features of the style. transepts and a complete chevet. Contrary to Northern Gothic. 186. (A.D. the grafting of classical details on to Gothic forms produced some of the most picturesque features imaginable. it may be said that a liking for excessive ornamentation without any regard to its constructive character is apparent. which is octagonal. 1487). the nave being reduced to a mere vestibule. The Gothic style was best developed in Catalonia. (completed 1149). 1227) (No. The "coro" or choir is in the usual position to the westward of the crossing. is a five-aisled church and resembles Bourges (page 368) in general idea. and a richly-treated lantern over the crossing which was in The It French Romanesque models of Aquitaine and Anjou.426 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. with their openwork spires (No. were both influenced by the Southern S. owing to the space between buttresses being utilized internally for chapels.D. 187 D). 190 L). and has the choir mclosure west of the crossing. lantern extraordinary importance detail* (A. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. Toledo. Leon Cathedral goes beyond its French original at Amiens. as in most parts of Spain. where. recall Cologne. It is about the same length. and generally. on the other hand. are characteristic. EXAMPLES. Isidore. which has a dome over the crossing of nave and transepts. it has a special character. 1230) is irregular in plan (No. owing to the grand scale of the single-span vaulted interiors. over 50 feet in diameter. due to the influence of Northern French Romanesque. and old Salamanca 1120-1178). but nearly 50 feet wider. in the expanse of window opening and tenuity of its supports. remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late completed 1567. 185). as that of the Capilla del Condestable (AD. In this church the nave is covered with a barrel vault and the side aisles with cross vaults. has two towers to the western fa9ade. Santiago de Compostela Cathedral (A. and the peculiar treatment of the interior is shown m No.D. 1078). and Lerida. Leon Cathedral (A. though on French lines. is an example of a building with nave. The exteriors usually are flat in appearance. Burgos Cathedral (known as the "cimborio "). 3. while the size and of the side chapels are striking.D.




erected on the site of a same size. Barcelona (A. double aisles. The peculiarity of plan. Gerona Cathedral is a further development (No. are the chapels. of the It Cathedral (1401-1520). 187 A). Maria del Mar. in It is typically having a rectangular outline. 55 feet wide from centre to centre of piers. but confused and weak in its lines. is the largest mediaeval cathedral in any bears a considerable resemblance to Milan Cathefanciful in detail. dral. The vaults rest upon a splendid example of a town church. Thus one aisle of Seville represents As show ng : may the size of the nave and choir of the abbey. and side chapels. Seville mosque country. Barcelona Cathedral (A. loaded with bosses of a purer Gothic style. but it differs from most of the great C atinental churches in having a square east end. as at Albi in the south of France. and is repeated four in addition to which there is the great nave. The vaulting is rich. The Central Hall Courts. times . although the total length of Seville is little more than that of -the Abbey. S. as some would prefer to say. flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary S. will give an idea of this interior. but there are no aisles. although only 48 feet in width. 189) shows the lace-like character of detail derived from Moorish influence.D. in places. and of the same depth as the aisles. the space between being used as chapels.D.430 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 187 B). and only small clerestory windows in the spandrels is of the vaults. while the nave arcades have twice the span. 187 c). cathedral of Seville it the extraordinary size of this be pointed out that each of the four side aisles is practically equal both in height and width to the nave of Westminster Abbey (page 309). was no doubt caused by the structure being made to fill up the space occupied previously by a mosque. Externally there is but is less The parroquia a certain shapelessness and absence of sky-line. or. (parish) church is separate. 1328-1383) (No. having a nave. is remarkable in that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttresses. . church Severe simplicity is the characteristic of the both inside and out there are no features but a few well-studied mouldings. Gregorio. and the aisles and nave of great height. Surrounding the church. which are internal features. but included within the cathedral area. no triforium. Valladolid (No. From these comparisons an idea can be obtained of the immense size of this Spanish cathedral. 1298) (No. 73 feet in of the Law width. an immense retdblo or reredos upon the sanctuary is placed apsidal sanctuary. in diameter. in four compartments. . and 130 feet high. the spacing octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet There is being wide. Spanish and small apse. the nave being one vaulted hall. in which of wood.

S. showing Octagonal Dome. 188.SPANISH GOTHIC. TOLEDO. Interior. . JUAN DE LOS REYES.


1262). on the lines of the facade of Notre Dame at Paris. 185). 190 L). in design. Leon (A. as at Seville. the great A. Toulouse. There is much flatness and absence of skyline in the exteriors. 73 B). (A. Rouen.A. as at Burgos (No. A. Rome (No. and Norwich Cathedral (No. stained glass (Nos. 127). south of France. much Roofs. 188).SPANISH GOTHIC. 433 S. B. the later work being characterized by extreme. 187) of many of the naves is a prominent characteristic. although the lines are not always tion. all showing French influence. as S. but also a large part of Even in the the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as well. rather F. are characteristic. c. Vaulting was used freely. those at Burgos being worthy of attention (No. Clemente. 186 and 188). COMPARATIVE. Traceried open-work spires. bosses. Openings. ornamentation. and the parish church is often included in the area of the cathedral. Burgos having in place of gables effective horizontal arcades. south.D.D. "Walls. externally roofed with stone.D. These were carried to excess in Leon Cathedral. Thecimborio.D. Toledo. which are intricate in and ingenious in construction. 1260). erected by Ferdinand and Isabella. 118). and were design probably inspired by Moorish work. Juan de los Reyes. The position of the choir is generally to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts. used. as in Germany. In domestic lonia. and Valencia and S. or dome is nave and transepts. Sernin. and Burgos Cathedral being D. Internally octagonal vaults. 'as at Seville. as seen in work the best examples Barcelona municipal are to be found in Catabuildings. comparing in its intended purpose with Henry VI I. In regard to the plan of the cathedrals. and Valencia town hall. In design French models were favoured. 4. and Lerida Cathedral (No. and ribs producing a rich effect. openings are of large size. but developed in decorathan in construction. width and comparative shortness (No. and Barcelona Cathedrals. at the crossing of the similar in treatment to examples in the S. 's Chapel at Westminster. resemble each other in plan. F F . 187 E). were favoured. is a rich example of a sepulchral chapel. such features as tracery. which has not only a glazed triforium. Ouen. and also seen at Westminster Abbey (No. Chapels are numerous and large. 1476 (No. and even wild. Plans. are other examples of early date. an arrangement probably derived from the Early Christian basilicas. Valencia 1298) (A.

Hants. similar in effect to those of Milan. 190). extending through nave and aisles soffits attract attention on entering. Refinement is not the usual characteristic F. arches. N). but without Carved capitals of characteristic form the tabernacle capitals. 187 c) being no less than 73 feet span. figures. of Spanish art. including The boldest and most original vaults are the great flat duvet. are indicated in No. and the latter of such solidity that the effect of metal is obtained. and give scale to. the formality of the long and vertical bars being relieved by figures beaten in repousse. to compare in interest with English vaulting good. This feature is usually constructed of wood. In the south. the former naturalistic. notably that at Christchurch. 190 c. Toulouse. Barcelona (page 430). that at Gerona (No. if sensational. Sernin. and reaches up to the vaulting. and however deficient in other qualities. are probably the richest specimens of mediaeval woodwork in existence. in hammered and chiselled iron. In Catalonia the best and In most artistic work was produced in a restrained manner. and elsewhere. 186 and 190 H). In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed for all the arcades. and by freely . heavy in outline.434 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. wide interiors. M. Those at Toledo and Seville. Original and arbitrary forms were mingled with features borrowed from France. Painting and gilding were used to heighten the effect. and their curves frame the view of. Ornament (No. being usually Flemish in style. j. S. The most decorative feature in G. K). canopies and panelling (No. that form galleries across the western ends of the churches. Their rich in three spans. and strong to gaudiness in coloring. every moulding has its purpose and expression. Mouldings. 190 E. but this is far from being the character of other more numerous examples in Spain. or alabaster. it combines in producing the notoriously impressive. Oviedo. naturalistic. The favourite feature of a lantern at the E. Spanish churches is the vast retablo (reredos). the interior of the church beyond. are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567). and is crowded with niches. and expressive (No. which at Burgos crossing gives importance to the central piers. and having a total length of 270 feet. 190 H. were successfully vaulted in a simple style. in one span. or in duplicates attached back to back. and nothing was accomplished. which is often as wide as the nave. Columns. 'Rejas. and contrast with 1 (No. 86) the great octagonal piers at S. interiors of Spanish churches.' or rich and lofty grilles (Nos. resembling the great English altar screens. are also characteristic. stone. Stained glass was used. Sculpture in stone or marble is often life-size. F. as at Seville. Maria del Mar.


N. 1859-1879. lecterns and choir desks were also elaborately treated. " Roulet (M. pulpits." Folio. Barcelona Cathedral having some resembling those at Chester. (not completed).COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " Espana Artistica y Monumental/' 3 vols." (Historical Novel.). F. each provided with a separate canopy and crowned with a tall spire. ' . 89 parts.). BA .. B. REFERENCE BOOKS. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain.) folio. employed crestings and traceries adapted to the material. Villa-Amil (G. " Waring (J.Architectural Studies in Burgos." 8vo. are common. while bishops' thrones. My Brother. P. Magnificent stalls. Waring (J. " Street (G. Paris. God the King.). 5. " Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana" (a magnificent work issued under the auspices of the Spanish Government). E. 1850. 1842-1850.) and Macquoid (T. atlas folio Madrid. 1852." Folio. Few things in Spain are more original and artistic than these Rejas. . R. de). 1874. Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain.

brought back harmony. spread from thence to France. Lay.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. That hoped to leave eld temples in the lurch. The Eastern empire did not come under its influence. of Classic Architecture in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century. and over the whole of Western Europe over what had been the Roman empire in the West. Germany. to a desire to break away from Romish influence. that inordinately glow." BROWNING. were now falling before the Turks. This desire was originally fostered by Wycliffe in England (A. for the Greeks in the East. The Renaissance movement. Religion. its world late born. or re-birth (Renaissance). In this section the Renaissance movement as affecting the whole of Europe will be dealt with. and England. among the Teutonic races. made ripe of ihe archetype Extant for wonder every upstart church. arising in i. and must be grasped in order fully to understand so great a change. which aided the spread of knowledge. cSe a1 -! ^ to each country. and o'ershadowed it. are instructive. " IN New structures. Corrected by the theatre forlorn That as a mundane shell. and by Martin . to Subdued.D. and the diffusion of freedom of thought. Geographical. iv. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. led. THE causes which led to the re-introduction. < !h. INFLUENCES. the spirit of inquiry. The invention of printing. Italy in the fifteenth century. 1377). who had been the most civilized people in Europe. i. By many a relic .

who governed with Three great inventions authority.D. and the Roman fora. the Colosseum. and where comparatively few churches the Gothic manner during the Middle Ages. Historical. at the same time giving it a special character (page 496). where feudalism had never fully established itself. and domestic architecture received a special impulse from the diffusion among laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII. in religion 1521. as a set-off to the writings of the mediaeval philosophers. written in B. the former influences the public taste. whose learning was an important influence in an age which was ripe for a great intellectual change. and where the municipalities had developed a spirit of municipal Italians.438 Luther in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. one of the few Greek scholars of the period. Erasmus (1467-1536). a revival of ecclesiastical architecture took place. on the other hand. where the Reformation took no had been built in hold. 1453 caused an influx of Greek scholars into Italy. 1517). Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected. practically a direct return was made to Roman forms. Germany (A. was Vitruvius' book of Architecture. which was translated into Italian in A. A new intellectual movement v. and thus Dante (1265-1321). because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on the New who had at hand the ancient Roman remains. Social and Political.C. worked hard to direct the public attention to the original text of the Testament. and to the Greek classics. vi. manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture. which caused a revolt against mediaeval art. such as Pantheon. therefore. in which countries Reformation Renaissance in architecture. Again. civil by a fresh building era in northern Europe. under powerful rulers. and the subsequent fall of Constantinople in A.D. Petrarch (1304-1374).D. and kept large standing armies. 50. In Italy. and in every important town Renaissance churches were carried out on a grand scale and in a most complete manner. The Jesuits who headed the counterreformation carried the style into all parts. In Italy. the Basilica of Maxentius. the remains of the great baths. Thus a revival of classic literature produced a desire for the revival of Roman architecture. of Greek and Latin authors brought to light about this time. and Boccaccio (1313-1375) aided in the spread of the newly-discovered classic literature. proceeded side by side with This renewed vigour in thought and literature was accompanied In England. the enterprise. whose authority had for so long borne an exclusive sway. was a general grouping together At the beginning of the sixteenth century . there of the smaller states into independent kingdoms. among the MSS.

which had changed the whole method of warfare the mariner's compass.. printing. but merely a minute planet in the solar system. were their pupils. whether plain. were applied in many novel and pleasing forms. as Ghiberti. The main features in the style were the Classic orders (Nos. the headquarters of the new movement. sculptors. and a style built up which has become the basis of all modern styles. In place of such evolution there was the worship of style. but columns and pilasters. viz. 262). Donatello. which were often used decoratively. and of the sixteenth century in other parts of Western Europe. who were at once painters. The Renaissance of the fifteenth century in Italy. Buildings designed for more modern wants were clothed in the classic garb of ancient Rome. therefore. It is true that Roman precedent was the basis. Galileo (1564-1642) proved that the earth was not the centre of the universe. indeed. 38. a system in their application being gradually evolved. and Corinthian. which led to the discovery of the West Indies (1492) and America. as by the Romans. which favoured that stirring of men's minds which caused the reformation in religion. and goldsmiths somewhat naturally only looked at the finished results as the goal to be aimed at. silversmiths. architects. Copperplate engraving was discovered in the third quarter of the fifteenth . The development of the schools of painting also had their influence on architecture. jewellers. From their well-known good taste. and often to a great extent applied regardless of the materials of their execution. of the past results of the nature of materials as formulated into systems. and often. and at other times with their true constructive significance. architects consulted them.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. and it was by their help that the Renaissance commenced and expanded. and were not troubled about the means to such an end. but it must not be supposed that in this development no advance was made. Ionic. century. fluted or panelled. 439 had an important influence gunpowder. in the fifteenth century possessed skilful jewellers and excellent medallists. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. lastly. Italy. and Brunelleschi. and aided the tendency which caused structures to be looked upon as works of . Men. . with entablature and details. and the foundation of colonies by European states and. and the revival of learning. was a break in that orderly evolution of architecture which is based on the nature and necessities of materials. the Doric. 2. Such results were worshipped for their own sake. that is.

and sculptured in the workshops before being laid a method which produced skilful and intelligent masons and stone dressers. also. continued in the matter of construction to a large extent to follow the traditions of the Middle Ages. being often designed by men trained as painters. In . but perceiving that this form was merely an envelope. was regarded rather as a picture with pleasing combinations of lines and masses than as a structure of utility. therefore.e. and obliged the sculptor to make the decoration suit each piece of stone. instead of being dependent mainly for their form and effect on structural necessities. dignity. In the Renaissance period the new mouldings and carvings could be executed with more exactitude and less expense in situ. 195). and. or brick was not followed. and fountains. stone. A building. as in many of the Roman palaces (No. The wide and narrow spacing of the pilasters in the Palazzo Giraud is a novel form (No. fonts. becoming largely independent of constructive exigencies. i. in which their principles were followed by their pupils and followers. In the decorative detail. moulded. where the column. and to a greater extent an art of free expression in which beauty of design was sought for. the period may be looked upon as the age of accessories. frieze. a want of harmony between the jointing and the architectural features often resulted. and cornice were employed as elements of composition with special regard to the artistic result and with considerable originality. to ignorance of Roman methods. For the same reasons. by the whim and fancifulness of the designer. monuments. an advance was made. and tombs. altars. which did not separate the structure from the decoration. It would be a great mistake. and thenceforward the necessity of making the jointing accord with the various architectural features being no longer imperiously felt. Architecture ceased to a certain extent to be subject to the considerations of use. attracted by the mere external appearance of ancient Roman art. 197). for new and delightful combinations of features were introduced. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and architecture became to a great extent a personal art due to the fancy of individual architects. or goldsmiths. Owing..440 art. were designed in great numbers. were special features of the style. therefore. it will be observed. gold and silver work. to state that Renaissance architecture was solely imitative. Such structures often have a princely sculptors. in which iron. pilaster. because the architects of the period. there was an endeavour to reconcile the Gothic and the Roman methods of construction. Speaking generally. In the Gothic period each stone was finished. many of whom founded schools of design. the Roman manner of forming the main walling of concrete and casing it with marble. the body and facing were one and the same thing constructively.

plastered and painted with colored decoration. with elliptical soffits. gates. as in the Palazzo Riccardi. it appears that the groins were now formed by means of the ordinates The Renaissance architects Dome. and before proceeding to consider the development in each country. spans. passages. 191 and 192). palaces. a comparison of a few of the more prominent characteristics of the style with the treatment which obtained in Gothic architecture is given. Note. Although important types of church design were evolved. a straight in E). in 1404. 209). Likewise. Renaissance Vaulting. 3. 254). In the beginning of the fifteenth century the Gothic principles of ribbed vaulting were abandoned. or added to many old buildings." in which windows were formed. 202. in Which buildings the wall was frankly treated as architecture. groins forming on plan instead of the wavy line produced by the intersection of a semicircular vault with one stilted above its of l* followed the Byzantine treatment in importance by lifting it boldly from its substructure and placing it on a " drum. giving place to the revival of the Classic method of solid semicirThis type of vaulting was much used cular vaulting (page 117). facades to town buildings. and was besides frequently built of wooden framing. thus making it a great external dominating feature (Nos. yet the main the most characteristic monuments were the municipal buildings. erected. 212. and are the finest examples of a class of work for which these craftsmenThese accessories of architecture were architects were famous. and staircases of Renaissance palaces and churches. tombs. both in Italy and in elsewhere. 441 metal work the bronze baptistery gates at Florence were won competition by the sculptor Ghiberti. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). as at the Vatican palace by In cases of cross-vaulting with narrow and wide Raphael. Venice (No. oratories and public fountains were special creations.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. the Palazzo Pesaro. Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes which led to the revival of Classic architecture throughout Europe. country houses and elaborate In addition. and was in no way imitative of ancient Roman buildings. they were the first to introduce as an architectural "motif" the wall of massive rusticated masonry with arched openings. in . but increased it " (No. Florence (Nos. and elsewhere. chapels. in the halls. line springing. often of remarkable richness and beauty.

particularly sought after (Nos. 117. 200. 155. 128 The tower and spire are predominant features. Interiors of churches were planned on Roman principles (Nos. GOTHIC. 223. is not too much to say that. and are covered with stone vaulting 123). 205. which. a nave of the (Nos. 255). and are often crowned with a spire (Nos. are exceedingly fine. 213). Grandeur gained by multiplicity In (Nos. Paul. S. 198. parts are many. beauty of Picturesqueness and individual features portion of part to part carefully studied (Nos. Materials are small in size. Plans. built in blocks of unstone. Grandeur gained by simplicity and (Nos. and carry out the Gothic idea of multiplicity. structed in These ashlar were con- K. 212. Compare 213). Compare Cologne Cathedral (No. also of brick and rough flint work. A. no. Stucco or plaster were often used as a facing material where stone was unobtainable. i. Fewness a tenlargeness of parts have dency to make the building appear less in size than it really is. the nave being divided into three or four compartments (No. not built in horizontal layers . and carry out the Classic idea of fewness of parts. as rubble or flint. the rest of the walling being of rough materials. 254). and covered with domes and pendentives. Symmetry and pro- Plans. Towers are sparingly used. 121. The parts are few. 192). 20 1. 136). 113). by which a general effect of grandeur is produced. The use of the material according to its nature was lost.e.442 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and finials help to emphasize the vertical The dome is a pre- dominant feature (Nos.. and Bow Church (No. Walls. in the lower stories. 112. turrets. 199 and 203). consequence of the large number of parts. 213. the building appears larger than it more really is. 159 and 187). Towers are a general feature. Small towers. or open-timThe roofs (No. and 173). Materials are large. Interiors are more irregular. 116. or carefully indented with patterns Angles of buildings often of ashlar masonry or smooth-faced stone. Walls. each piece in a wall has its value in this style. 252). 115. B. COMPARATIVE. as in Florence. 181. as in a mosaic. 175 and 189). rusti- smoothed (No. was occasionally rusticated heavily (No. A. Angles of buildings often cated. 4. masonry of smooth-faced walling. Paul (No. 125. London (No. 253). 140 and 154). 223 and 254). bered same length as a Renaissance church twice as probably divided into many compartments. at S. Masonry was worked according to the nature of the material to It a new and significant extent. RENAISSANCE. the design being paramount. 197). 193. 114. 2 54). and when they occur are symmetriIn England those cally placed. 203. tendency (Nos. . These were often constructed of uncoursed rubble or small stones (No. 162.

. occupied by windows. but were made much of in France and Germany. Open-timbered roofs occur. though not necessarily so. Open-timbered roofs a beautiful feature of the style. 94 F j and 143). the use or non-use of which means of decoration influenced number of the the size and openings. were often provided with small circular shafts and carved capitals. were placed where wanted. Paul. i. Boldness and richness of sky-line (Nos. D. or square- C. with a bright atmosphere. but the tendency was gradually to plaster them up (Nos. as S. Openings. of great richwith mouldings ness. 94 K) projecting from the wall face was revived. window 246). 143. Openings generally come over one another. without much regard to symmetry of composition. the windows In northern Europe. 125. Domes have usually an internal plaster soffit or ceiling. All roofs other than domes were hidden in Italy. 125. 161. Roofs Vaulting was developed by means of the pointed arch. roofing is an important element in the design. and often have stone mullions or the solid dividing uprights are small. 1 headed (Nos 194 E and 206 A). and are symmetrically disposed with reference to fagade. Often little attention was paid to the centre lines. 242 and 243).RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. with a dull climate. 121. on the setting out of the ribs on which the severy of the vaulting and on the grace and rests. Roofs. RENAISSANCE. Openings Doorways and other openings are surrounded by such architraves. Roman form without ribs. are divided by mullions. dow openings Nos. The Classic system of moulded architrave (No. C. The dome over a large space was generally constructed with an inner and outer covering. This treatment was for the introduction of painted glass. 132 j. upon which they depend for their beauty. as Jacobean halls. and are painted in colored fresco. must be reckoned as a means of effect. 142. Openings. 156 and 161). the most perfect specimen England being Westminster Externally 113 H).e. 253). in the for effect on the richness of the carved bosses. windows of the earlier period are large. and crowned either with sloping parapet or ornamented timber barge boards (Nos. 193 and 211 K) or of semicircular form (No. . with a low pitch (Nos. the placing of openings over one Windows and doors another. in formed receding planes (Nos. 138 and 150). In Italy. Vaults are of simple D. and in conjunction Hall (No. The influence of climate on these was important. and of considerable size. 206 D and ( Door and winare semicircular 2 1 4 C). beauty of these curves (Nos.) Simplicity of treatment and breadth of mass are prominent characteristics 443 GOTHIC. with chimneys. Door and window openings usually pointed (Nos. London (No. 162. space vertically (No. . 197 and 200} and intricacy of mass are prominent characteristics (Nos. and 173). Gable ends of churches and buildings generally were formed as pediments. Gable ends are steep. 211 A. often richly carved. 109 and depends and are in 112). 193. 164 of the style.

however. H and 254). high roofs. Ornament. 194. 191. 164. The contours of mouldings follow as may be seen in the architrave (Nos. 156. 204. 154. or pierced with open tracery (Nos. 198. varying in outline and treatment in different centuries. sometimes. Stained glass was used. 147). often and on 215). such as buttresses and horizontal features generally (Nos. 146). 133 and 147). G. splay (No. 128. and partly the raison d'etre of the immense traceried windows. 219 and 248). 214 and 218). figure The as human a scale.i95. and structurally as for porticos (Nos. 160 The relative proand 177). recesses in the early peiiods. which was lavishly applied to interiors. 123. 207. RENAISSANCE. and in the Florentine palaces is bold and impressive (Nos. 198 G. 196 197. Mouldings. 192 and 198). Mouldeffect depend chiefly for upon light and shadow. but many new combinations of mouldings were The contours and mouldings portions are Roman lines. 210 The parapet. 205. they ex- columns and orders were revived were entirely structural. 209. as fresco or mosaic. 161. or wreathed with foliage bands of " and fruit. numerous pinnacles. figure The human abandoned statuary being often much larger than life-size and 254) (Nos. E. 165 A. or and used decoratively in fa9ades. which acted as a frame . Can spare the shapely Grecian column. 162 and 185). GOTHIC." pressive of pressures upon the piers to which. 205 little to as a scale. battlemented. Where used. and by their frequency and importance produce an effect of horizon ta/ity. 200. Mouldings.444 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Cornices and Classic other features of origin (Nos. 192. being the chief glory of internal decoration. with towers and spires. I. and are refinement beautifully carved. effect of verticality. Columns. or in later times based on a diagonal designed. they were attached (Nos. 193 A. often mark F. The principal cornice plays an important part in the style. took the place of a cornice. Cornices. as Stained glass was extensively used. being an essential quality. casting a deep shadow. 153. Cornices. - The Columns. and was less strongly marked than the boldly projecting Classic cornice. The shafts were often rusticated. 197 and 209) are strongly pronounced. 207. 158. gay or solemn. turrets (Nos. K. produce an Ornament. portion of height to diameter does not exist. Tablets and string courses of carved ornament occur (No. all the best efforts at color being obtained by means of opaque decoration. 210 and 212) occur in every building. 191. and the capitals and bases were either heavily moulded or carved with conventional foliage. fluted spirally. F. 200. 197. string bands. of circles joined by inclosed in rectangular fillets. 145 G. from no building. each story (Nos. adhered and 177). 206. asintheRomanmanner(Nos. 209. Classic E. 'thus helping in giving relative value to parts (Nos. balconies. ings Vertical features. G.

and elsewhere. such as pinnacles. sculptors. REFERENCE BOOKS It is (refer to each style). 133. where possible. themselves being enriched. peculiarities of the necessary to glance briefly through the chief Renaissance style or manner in each country.e. 214 and 218). " Sgraffito scratched decoration. Milizia. Library. by " Michael Angelo. Interest in their works will be much increased by reading of the influences which directed these master-minds. for its reception (Nos. i. but in the best examples. possesses a decorative character in harmony with the architecture. and colored plaster. RENAISSANCE. 165.B.I." by Quatremere de Quincy. buttresses. and. as in colored marbles of central Florence 181. 124 E. Great efficiency in the crafts is noticeable in the work of the Renaissance architects early (Nos. by Fra Giocondo Consiglio (page 490) at Verona. Color for exteriors was dependent was sometimes applied to the exteriors. 194. and the various incidents in their lives which tended to influence their work. the social and political causes which were at now work. translations of which are published. Carving was often grotesque and rudely executed (Nos. and \ e. Italy (see No. Rome. The student should study many excellent examples which have been collected in the architectural courts of the Crystal Palace. . it will sometimes be convenient to group them into schools In this respect much information may be for that purpose. for it is only by a close study of the details themselves that the style can be thoroughly grasped. examples of their work being in the Victoria and Albert Museum. in the Sistine 445 GOTHIC. Chapel. noticing the influence of climate and race. and the biographies of G. and others.. GhiDelia Robbia. as in the Palazzo del on the actual material. the Victoria and Albert Museum. 5. This was effected by the construc- who were 206. As about this period the names of architects begin to be prominently mentioned in connection with their own designs. Donatello.. derived from reading " The History of the Lives and Works of the most celebrated Architects. tive features. Vasari. often painters and berti.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. and arches. 153 B and 175). and will be found in the R. 174 and 190). Note. Cathedral).A.g.

i.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. Geographical. more vivid that it slept awhile 'Gainst the glad heaven.) (See page 404 for Italian Gothic. all But pure form nakedly displayed^. and this was due to various social and political causes. being." . They And love not fancies just betrayed. which. all resumed. BROWNING. studious heads out again. o'er the white palace front Come The The The interrupted scaffold climbs anew walls are peopled by the painter's brush. artful tricks of light and shade. one of the powers of Italy. . THE FLORENTINE SCHOOL. the penetrating eyes . namely. in fact. It must be remembered that Florence was more than a city. and the calm.) " Come. which will be enumerated shortly. "Florence at peace. 1 (See page 227 for Italian Romanesque. The quarries of Tuscany supplied large blocks of stone and marble. statue to its niche ascends to dwell. Rome. leave your Gothic. worn-out story. i. each art You boast. were easily obtained for building purposes. As if a spell broke. and Venice. The ii. And things absolutely made." C LOUGH THE Renaissance of Italy varies considerably in the chief centres of the great revival. Florence. activity and influence of the Florentines caused a Pope to declare that they were the fifth element. INFLUENCES (see page 437). although its dominions included only a small part of Central Italy. being near the surface. and the monumental character and massiveness of these materials considerably influenced the style of the architecture. Geological.

The Medici dynasty. and swayed its policy. Or palace how the city glittered Through cypress avenues.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE. and among these were : Robbia (1400-1482). his influence on the minds of his generation was not lost. sunny-sweet. famous for his bas-reliefs and statues at Florence and elsewhere. the sculptor of the bronze gates to the Baptistery. Michelozzo. and architects. the bright and sunny climate rendered large openings for light unnecessary. Lippi. Donatello. Florence commenced to grow in importance on the removal of the inhabitants of Fiesole to the banks of the Arno in 1125. 447 Climate. and was the patron of Brunelleschi. and Benedetto da Majano (A. so intimately connected with the rise of Florentine art. safety and defence were primary motives in building. iii.D. Pietro and Lorenzo Medici succeeded Cosimo. 1464) He founded the Medici Library and Platonic Academy. and others. 1431-1484). Religion. who v. In Italy generally there was a of national enthusiasm and patriotic feeling and an endeavour to assimilate the old Roman magnificence in art. Masaccio. famous for glazed reliefs in terra-cotta.D. employed his wealth liberally in the advancement of art. and soon became the general standard of value in Europe. it is worthy of note that the golden florin was first coined in that city in 1252. the palaces being in reality semi -fortresses." At this period Florence produced the great iv. As rival parties in the city were engaged in constant hostilities. and Florence "the Athens of the Renaissance" became the centre of the revival in art and literature. Donatello (1386-1466). . Ghiberti (1378-1455). The artists of the period were often at the same time sculptors. is The character of the climate well indicated ' ' by Tennyson : In bright vignettes. and each complete Of tower or duomo. Historical. was founded by John of Medici (died 1429). Savonarola. and although suppressed by the Pope. Dominican preacher. As showing the commercial prosperity of Florence. gradually usurping His son Cosimo (died supreme authority over the State. Social and Political. ' a general council to reform the Church. In art he tended to the Puritan theory. wave took the popular side against the nobles. Mino da Fiesole (A. some of which are in the Victoria and Albert Museum Lorenzo . reproductions also being in the same Museum. Among other causes which affected the development of the style. the Sistine frescoes bearing witness to his power over Michael to call Angelo. 1442-1497).della painters. vi. Luca . at our feet. whose reforming energy divided He looked to the French king the city.

who. took the town in 1530. 192) of the Florentine palaces give to these buildings that character of solidity and ruggedness for which they are remarkable. as in ancient Greece. being divided into the hostile camps of Guelphs and Italy. and the latter gradually became the chief power in The grouping is 1406. and in fact of features of any The massive kind. acting on behalf of the. During a siege of eleven months. and also in the fourteenth century the artistic capital. the Grand Dukes of Florence. especially under Cosimo I. The palaces were all built round interior courts. (1537-1564). Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) took part in these conflicts. afterwards as the Kingdom of Etruria. Ghibellines (pp.Ghibellines. The columnar arcade is . however. gives a marked character of simplicity to the style.. until in 1737. of France occupied Florence." The sparing use of carved detail. but in 1860 it was united to the Kingdom of Italy. suppression of political liberty followed. His successors. during his brief invasion of Italy. being proportioned to the whole height of the building. the former being generally successful. the Duchy passed In 1801. Paolo. the walls resting on columnar arcades (No. but the Medici. 230. In 1494 Charles VIII. as the Republic. it enjoyed political freedom with the exception of the years 1807-1814. as in the Riccardi Palace 191 grand D). in spite of successive banishments. The Michael Angelo acted as the engineer of the republic. is specially noticeable in the design of the palaces. The short-lived republic of Savonarola (see above) followed. 191). which are therefore called "astylar. possibly derived from the arcaded cloister of the mediaeval monastery. blocks of rusticated masonry in the lower stories (No. during which time it was incorporated with France. During this period the nobles were at constant feuds with each other. the House of Medici becoming extinct. and.448 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The effect of these palaces is considerably aided by the massive cornice which crowns the structure. together of the independent commonwealths of a feature of this period. as decorative features. a special feature. followed. but eventually the wealthy family of the Medici became the ruling power in the State (see above). one Italy Pisa became subject to Florence in city bore rule over another. The general absence of pilasters. (No. 259). ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. as in the Ospedale degli Innocenti and the Loggia S. who. greatly extended the Florentine dominions. were finally reinstated by the Emperor Charles V. 2. and into the hands of Austria. and mural monuments and altars are exceedingly rich with sculpture and decoration. Siena being ceded to him in 1557 by the Emperor. which arose from his claims on the kingdom of Naples.

D. the latter having aisles formed round the transepts and choir. The groups : types of doors and windows may be divided into three (0. and outer shells. 1425) (No. and Riccardi Palaces.D. will be briefly enumerated. in the centre of which is a circular column supporting a simple piece of tracery (Nos.A.) The arcade type. and a flat wooden ceiling to nave. and S. Note. Lorenzo. as employed in the' Pandolfini Palace. his main object being to complete the unfinished dome over the Cathedral of Florence. Spirito. as in the courtyard of the Pandolfini Palace' and in the Palazzo Riccardi (No. with voussoirs having horizontal joints.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) KE&AISSANCE. (b. ascribed to Raphael. (c. 176 and 181) was Brunelleschi's principal work. Florence (A. and also shown in . and consoles on either side support a horizontal of pediment cornice. The Dome of Florence Cathedral (A. 1420-1434) (Nos.D. usual in the heavily rusticated examples. 3. the chief works of Brunelleschi. constructed of inner pointed in form. EXAMPLES. It is said that it was constructed without any centering. a Florentine by birth. BRUNELLESCHI (A.No. 194 F. 1377-1446). Pitti. and is raised upon an octagonal drum is in which are circular windows itself is lighting the interior. Alberti. 192). It covers an octagonal apartment 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. as being the leaders of the Florentine school. 191 and 194 D) . this being the final development. and others. and is probably the earliest F. G G . studied the features and construction of the Pantheon and other examples of Roman architecture. as at the Strozzi. his design being accepted in competition.) The order type is that in which the opening is framed with a pilaster or column on each side supporting an entablature above. are both examples of churches on the basilican plan. 193). Having reached the period when the personality of the architect has increased in importance.) The architrave type is that in which mouldings inclose the window. being constructed on a Gothic principle with eight main ribs and sixteen intermediate The dome S. Florence (No. consists of a round a'rch. and ribs. which henceforth exerted a considerable influence over his works. 193 D).




1472-1512) (No. 193). 191 and 192) and the Pitti Palace (1440). 1447-1455). is particularly notable and important as the type of many modern Renaissance churches. and consists of a single nave with transepts. a thirteenth century in the revived style.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE. is a refined example of his smaller works. Florence the first 1451-1455) is known as which superimposed pilasters were used. but the fa$ade (A. Renaissance building in S. " De those of Brunelleschi. the interior ornamented with a single order on pedestals supporting a barrel vault. c). The perfection of the proportions makes the interior of this church one of the grandest in the style. 193 A. Florence 1470). S. and shows a lighter and more refined character. in the drum or lower portion of w hich are windows lighting the interior. Florence (in S. The chancel is apsidal. ALBERTI (1404-1472) was a scholar deeply interested in classical literature. although dignity was lost compared with the Pitti Palace. was remodelled was never completed.D. Francesco. and his works exhibit more decorative treatment and are less massive than He wrote a work on architecture. was one of the churches in which consoles were placed the side aisles to connect them with the nave. Croce) (A. which is entered through an open colonnade of six columns supporting a decorated vault and forming the front fa9ade. alternating with entrance vestibules.D. Maria Novella. in both of which he appears to have been associated with Michellozzo (1397-1473). Andrea.D. The Ruccellai Palace. consisting of a dome over a square compartment. Chapels.D. B. Mantua (A. r . Rimini Gothic church. in the facade over S. lighted by three windows. (A. Re ^Edificatoria. 453 instance where isolated fragments of entablature are placed on each column with the arches springing from these. Over the intersection of the nave with the transept is a dome. 1420) (No. by the reduction in size of the great crowning cornice. are examples of the massive rusticated buildings with heavy crowning cornice for which the Florentine style is noted. take the place of the customary aisles on each side of the nave. and the front is reminiscent of a Roman triumphal archway. first (A. The Pazzi Chapel. The Riccardi Palace (1430) (Nos.D. which cause the entablature to be mitred round the pilasters of the order which carry the lunetted half dome of the apse." which largely influenced men's minds in favour of the revived Roman style.

" Folio. P. 3 vols. or I dieci Libri de' 1'Architettura. " Das Ornament der Italienischen Kunst des XV. Grandjean de Montigny (A. Ten Books. folio. COMPARATIVE 5. Alberti (L. Paris." Romola. Berlin. Von. Eliot di Architettura della Citta di Firertze. Jahrhunderts. (J. Kinross (J. J.." 8vo. and the Gaudagni Palace." 410. cinque libri d'Architettura. " I Serlio (S. J.) et Famin (A. (see page 490). 1891-1895." Folio.'' Melani (A. examples.). Anderson (W. Munich. Peake." .).).).). 1885-1894. in Italy. " Oliphant (Mrs. " Die Renaissance in Italien. 1874. Dresden. "Detail and Ornament of the Italian Renaissance. both by Cronaca.)." (George). The Strozzi Palace (1489) (No. Buildings. REFERENCE BOOKS." .). 1902. Le Fabbrichecivili Ecclesiastiche eMilitari." Burckhardt " Die Renaissance " F. Schutz (A.). 194. 1882. Sanmicheli(M." 4 vols. H.). V.." 2 vols. Reinhardt (K. " Details from Italian i82. 1867. Gruner (L." 1890.)." 1888. Paris. 191). 1888." Architectural Studies in Italy.454 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.)." Toscana." Fletcher (Banister " Andrea Falladio." Folio. Strack(H.san< 1882. GENERAL. "The Architecture of the Renaissance 8vo." Folio. "Scelti Florence. entitled "Architecture in 1726. B.. 2 vols. Characteristic Florentine ornament is shown in No." English translation by R.). " Manuale di Architettura Antica e Moderna." Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana. "Central und Kuppelkirchen der Renaissance in Italien." Folio. in Italien. J." Folio. 1886.). are other Florentine.. folio.Makers of Florence. plates in folio and text in 4to.. folio. Raschdorff (J." Folio.).)." 1832.). &c. 1899. 1854. Nicolai (H.) . entitled " The Five Books of Architecture made by Sebastian Serly. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. Geymuller (H. Hamburg.). 1818. Ruggieri (F. Folio.) and Widmann (A. "Architecture Toscane. Gauthier (M. " Genua. G. 1891. " De re redificatoria. Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces of Italy. 4." (Historical Novel. Berlin." English Translation by Leoni." Folio. 4 vols. " Les edifices de la Ville de Genes.).). C. 1901. Anderson (W. Oakeshott (G. Note. " 1611.). 1738.). Stuttgart.


Social and Political. The ruins and new buildings are important as forming models for influence the whole of Europe. and great patrons of art and learning. Geological. and fortified palaces were not necessary as in Florence. Historical." \vild ! ! POPE. The remains of old Rome. 1415. Splendid new palaces and churches were erected. such as the ii. extracted. by rendering the papal influence universal v. the factions of the barons continued unchecked. the popes took a more prominent position as Italian princes. which naturally exerted great influence in any new development. Pantheon. The unique character of Rome as an was its prestige as the capital of an empire that had crumbled away. popes took place in 1376 under Gregory XI. as sacred and secular capacities were The Jesuits.. iv. and Caesar Borgia. proposed to effect this by absorbing the Italian leaf by leaf. Rome was the home of the old classic traditions. broken temples spread. and whose architecture was now being revived. states as one would eat an artichoke Julius II. founded in the often combined in the same pope. (see below). formed the quarry from which much of the material for the Renaissance buildings was (See pages 112. Raphael.) Religion. in consequence of which party spirit was checked. and others were eminent. Geographical. 1376 helped to restore her to her former position of importance and prosperity. except during the brief rule of Rienzi's republican state in 1347. 404. vi. During the absence of the popes at Avignon. " See the How Rome With waste of all-devouring years her own sad sepulchre appears nodding arches. and the decoration of old ones carried on by successive painters of whom Peruzzi. and colonnades. i.D. INFLUENCES (see page 437).COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE THE ROMAN SCHOOL. later Renaissance period. who afterwards spread abroad the style of the Renaissance in other parts of Italy and beyond. In Rome a central government existed. During the fifteenth century the popes were temporal princes. Hi. Colosseum. From the time of the Council of Constance. ncphc\ to Alexander VI. and during the fifteenth century they greatly extended their temporal dominions in Italy. i. besieged Bologna in person. Climate. Some hoped that Italian unity would be effected under the papal sway. The return of the The scandal of rival . A school was created for artists and workmen. The return of the popes from Avignon to Rome in A. existed to counteract the Reformation. Michael Angelo.

3. the first Roman architect of note. but it was replaced by that of France. and was probably a pupil of Alberti.D. after which Rome rapidly gained in wealth and prestige. a warlike and ambitious pope. practising first in the city of Milan. and founded the new cathedral of S. in imitation of the Colosseum. BRAMANTE (1444-1514). extended the temporal power. 197). 195) are examples of Bramante's later works. 1495-1505) (No. but studied at Rome. an abbey church of the fifteenth century.D. and a general attempt at correctness and conformity to the ideas of ancient Roman architecture preThe size and simplicity of the palaces of Rome produce vailed.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. and was not always exerted for good. He was a Florentine by birth. led in 1870 to Rome becoming This remarkable revolution was effected the capital of New Italy.. but never by another superimposed . without Rome ceasing to be the headquarters of the papacy. was born in the year that Brunelleschi died. Maria della Grazie. The Classic orders were largely used in the facades and courtyards (Nos. but is most successful and suitable in detail for the terra cotta with which it was constructed. Peter and the Vatican. transepts and dome. 457 popes at Rome and Avignon was terminated in 1415 by the Council of Constance. though checked in 1848. Spanish influence became powerful. which was sometimes crowned by an attic. is essentially transitional in style with Gothic feeling. The growth of the power of Austria was next felt throughout the Peninsula. 1492). an effect of dignity (No. to which Bramante added the choir. S. 196 and 200). in the EXAMPLES. 196) and the Giraud Palace (1503) (No. in which a more pronounced classical tendency is seen. . 1527. 195. educated as a painter under Andrea Mantegna. for the last and seventh time. Milan (A. by the Emperor Charles V. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. which was strong under Louis XIV. order. Rome was. which they endeavoured to attain by making a whole building appear to be of a single story thus two or more stories were included by an order of pilasters. Julius II. until the rise of national feeling which. form of Arcuation was only sparingly introduced. The Cancellaria Palace (A. 2. The principle which animated architects in the later school was that of unity. and in the ducal dominions. except tiers of arcades. taken and plundered on the 6th May.

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The Tempietto in S. BRAMANTE'S PUPILS AND FOLLOWERS. bold and grand designs for the Courts of Law (never finished) near " for S. D). Peter (No. and circular-headed openings. Rome (A. Damaso.D. by Vulliamy. founded in design on the small Roman circular temples. Todi (1508-1604) (No. The Massimi Palace. Rome (Nos.D. London. was founded on this design. 196 c. and contained windows. 1485-1546) erected the This is the grandest Farnese Palace.B. both in design and detail. Mark (No. Pietro in Montorio (1502) is a perfect of gem (No. ornamented with cupids holding festoons. framed by square lines His " Ultima Maniera " is seen in the (Nos. is interesting. The Villa Faniesina. Park Lane. da Sangallo the younger (A. buildings at Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536) was the architect of Rome. section. a system afterwards made use of by Sansovino in the Library of The remarkable frescoes of this building S. Bramante's works every European country. 210). Rome (A. Ant. 199 architecture. whether of plan. and is executed in brick walling . and able to execute works so finished in detail. Transactions. and detail thus he uses flat pilaste'rs.D. an example full of refinement and beauty. by Bramante. which appeared in the R. erected in 1484. had its later cloister court of arcades supporting columns constructed in 1504 of the middle period especially exhibit great refinement in mouldings.D. and few architects of the school were several so well trained. by Cola da Caprarola. 196 A and 206 D).I. is ascribed to his influence. 1536) (No. and in his " projects An article on "The School of Bramante. or elevation. S. is a two-storied structure (each story comprising an order) with boldly projecting wings. is especially interesting in the way the convexfagade has been treated. exerted on the development of the Renaissance in 'Rome and in . 199). Maria della Consolazione. the Tiber. were executed by Peruzzi and Raphael. but is overladen with pilasters. 197 and 198). who may be called the " continuator " of the style of Alberti. B. 461 The Cortile of the (A. c).ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. carving. The latter was central arched loggia and rich crowning frieze. of all the examples of the school. the internal diameter being only 15 feet A. 1503). the Cortile delle Loggie. and Greater and Lesser Belvedere Courts in the Vatican well-known examples of his secular work." by Baron von Geymiiller. S. Dorchester House. 203 D).A. 1506). 1891. are S. Rome. as tending to show the influence which Bramante. Maria della Pace.

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1492-1546) was a pupil of Raphael. and with such objects as vessels and shields.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. and the use of hard stucco with painted decorations was one of the things he learned from these remains. (A. The Pandolfini his death). Columns or used only in a special way to form frames -to the windows. but did little. The surface of the vaulting was found to be painted with studies from the vegetable kingdom. 198 B) was added later by Michael Angelo. Lorenzo in Miranda.D. (page 497). to the garden and the painted ceilings are remarkable. 1483-1520) was the nephew and pupil of Bramante. and a reduced cast of a portion of it may be seen in the Italian Renaissance Court at the Crystal Palace. 1516). E). 1507-1573) exercised great influence by his writings. London.D. the stucco decorations being by Giulio Romano. which was a special feature in the original design (No. He designed the facade of S. 201) is a pentagonal semi- Rome . is one of his best known works.D. Florence. The internal open court (" cortile ") is in the style of the Colosseum. each of the stories being well marked horizontally by pilasters are projecting string courses. It is quadrangular in plan. which is a one-story building." Being taken back to France by Francis I. and the design is perhaps the nearest approach made on the part of a Renaissance architect to reproduce the features of a Roman villa. w hich he carried out. and was the architect of buildings at Mantua. now the Etruscan Museum. London. decorated with the Doric order. and also the Villa Madama (A. BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA (A. and the "motif" was followed for the Reform Club. the "motif" being afterwards followed for the Travellers' Club. and comprises The recessed arcaded facade large saloons round a central court. with figures of men and animals. and was the author of " The Five Orders of Architecture.D. 238 D. At Rome. The designs for the decoration of the Vatican Loggie. all blended together in fanciful schemes. but authorities differ as to his exact responsibility for the designs ascribed to him. were based on these Roman examples. The Villa of Pope Julius. r G. The excavation of the Baths of Titus gave Raphael an opportunity of studying the interior decoration of ancient Roman buildings. rendered pleasing by bright coloring. is Palace. 463 with travertine dressings from the Colosseum.D. Raphael (A. 1550) (No. Giulio Romano (A. erected in 1530 (ten years after one of his most famous designs. The Palace of Caprarola (No. he was engaged on S. Peter. he exercised a great influence on the development of French Renaissance architecture. including his masterpiece the Palazzo del Te. The grand crowning cornice.


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" No single parts unequally surprise. extension of the nave and aisles toward tne east practically bringing the whole scheme to a Latin cross. and the dome is beautifully decorated in mosaic. 150 feet high. 1540-1644) (Nos. and many architects were engaged upon In plan (Nos. a famous Florentine sculptor. He life.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. within a " baldachino. The Gesu Church (A. 1550) (No. 203 E). recalling Hadrian's tomb in mass and outline. Peter. This w as probably effected so as to inclose the whole of the area of the previously r The nave. Peter. The walls are faced with plaster. Rome (1506-1626). 1508). over the alleged. while the internal circular court is suggestive of the Colosseum at Rome (see the Chateau de Chambord. MICHAEL ANGELO (A. four bays of immense size. late in but reckless detail mars his work. smaller works. 1568-1632) (No.D. The interior (No. Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici. 1474-1564). was the most important building erected in the period. grand examples of one-order buildings. (A." 100 feet high. also turned his attention. The high altar stands under the dome. All comes united to th' admiring eyes. S. 204) has one gigantic order of Corinthian pilasters. and painter of the roof of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (A. crowned with semicircular barrel vaults. 193 D). The two small cupolas at S. producing a rich effect. S. and the short transepts are terminated by semicircular a'pses. tomb of S. 203 and 213) it was a Greek cross. fortress situated 467 on the spur of a mountain looking down into the valley. Peter. 1524). the later it.D. both at S. 137 feet 6 inches in diameter. to architecture. the central crossing is covered by the dome. and the Laurentian Library (A. 1520) (No. 199) is one of many is Rome designed on the lines of S. the western arm being precisely similar. finished the Farnese Palace. A vestibule at the East end extends the whole width of the church. His principal works at Florence were the Mausoleum (or New Sacristy) (A.D. Peter (page 471). 75 c). consists of existing church (No. Andrea.D. Lorenzo. Rome. H H 2 ." POPE. 200 and 201). and the unfinished municipal palace at Bologna. page 500). are other works.D. but perhaps his best work was the reconstruction 'of the Palaces of the Capitol (A. having statues of his patrols. 199) one of his earlier and a simple oblong on plan having an elliptical dome with pendentives. and colored to imitate marble. and carried out the Dome of S. 80 feet wide. the chancel being at the west end.D.D. Peter (No. representing the Fall and Redemption of Mankind.

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203 j. with a central dome (No. Peter was recognized as a model of which numberless churches were erected throughout Italy. Antonio da Sangallo the younger succeeded him A. Death of Raphael. 1564. 203 L. Raphael's suggested ground original plan to a Latin cross. roughly executed in travertine. the drum of which he completed. 1536. by Raphael. The view of the dome from the east except at a distance. He rejected Michael Angela appointed architect. the detail is rendered less offensive by its smaller scale.D. Baldassare Pevuzzi appointed architect. disappeared. S.D. His suggested plan is shown in No. A. 471 The exterior (Nos. Giocondo (d.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. 1513. and simplified the form of the aisles. idea of the building. the construction of the great dome. which A good inclose one of the noblest entrance courtyards in Europe. 1515).D. 203 and 205). 1516). 1520. 203 c) and lofty His plan is shown in No. the original architect. . 1514. The capture and sack of Rome disorganized all artistic work. A. strengthened the piers of the dome. Giuliano da Sangallo (d.D. 1536. 202.D. The A. with an attic 39 feet high surrounding the entire building. 203 M. end. campanili. 137 feet 6 inches internal diameter. but died A. 108 feet high including entablature. Proposed a picturesque design of many orders. as architect (d. in which. shown in No. is to be obtained from the model at the Crystal Palace. and A.D. 203 B.design in the form of a Greek cross with entrances at East His design for the dome is shown in No. however. A. 1546. restored the design to a Greek cross. which were to give scale to He planned and commenced the interior. a synopsis of the history of this building Bramante. Foundation stone laid. and at his death (1564) left drawings and models for the completion of the work up to the lantern. The design owes much to the circular four-fold colonnades added by Bernini in the seventeenth century. following is : Fm plan is A. were entrusted with superintendence Division of opinion existed as to altering of the work. D.D. Vignola continued the building of the church. the top of which is 405 feet from the ground. 1520. Death of Bramante. as in most drawings of the church.D. which had shown signs of weakness. A. in its general distribution. 1546). the innovations of Sangallo. has an immense order of Corinthian pilasters. in which process the masterly planning of the accessories.D. is nearly cut off behind the screen wall of the now extended nave. Raphael. formulated a 1506.

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in yards. These (Nos.D. erected the dome from Michael Angelo's wooden model. 109 ft.dome. Other examples in Rome are : (A. instructed by Paul V. 138 ft. yds. by Maderna. Giacomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana A. 1629-1667. 80) 9.150 118 Cologne. Note. Carlo Maderna.D. 1735).000 148 S. 1605-1612.D. The Portico to S. 204) with metal taken from the portico of the Pantheon. campanile.D. 202. 1543-1607).000 7A 156 205 Pantheon (No. He also erected the brazen baldachino under the dome (No. Quirinal and Vatican Hills. excellent in themselves. the Palazzo Barberini.D. 206. which is very interesting. and the Chapel of Sixtus V. Maria Maggiore (A. by Galilei (A. already mentioned. by Fuga (A. COMPARATIVE (see page 490). and the Fountain of Trevi (A. 1612.35O 170 Area in Length sq. Giovanni in Laterano. Compare plans (No. 203 K. 176). 176). 1574-1590) on the Lateran. in front (Nos. 1734). and erected the present contemptible facade (No. lengthened the nave to form a Latin cross (No. (No.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. 213) S. : Milan (No. 10. Sophia 8. 203 E). Bernini erected the fourfold colonnades inclosing the piazza. 1590). 6 in. S. but effected nothing. 4." BROWNING. The Palazzo Borghese (A. In Baron von Geymiiller's book. Characteristic Roman ornament is shown in No.D. 203 E). 6 in. with scheme. Rainaldi appointed architect and prepared designs A. A.D.D.D. 1585-1590. 6 in. A. Maria Maggiore.. Diam. E and 205). are ineffective in relation to the whole mass. Peter. also by Fontana. Paul. and also a comparison drawn between the fundamental principles of design which characterize each plan. 1743). there is a the portions of separate dates colored differently. Giovanni in Laterano The Facade of S. The Papal Palaces The (1586) is portico to north transept of S. . 54). in S. for " With arms wide open to embrace The entry of the human race. 107 ft. 202. 18. of . 473 adding the cupolas on either side of the great dome. 650 feet wide. 142 ft. Florence (No. were by Fontana. 137 ft. 203 K).D.


Folio.. Stiack (H.-X.). 5." .. 1720-1721. and the peculiar formation of the coast. Broad." SHELLEY INFLUENCES (see page 437). Paris.. " Les Geymuller (H.de). The history of the Venetian state was always influenced by the proximity of the sea. 404). and dome. of text. Paris. Lytton (Lord). folio and Le Vatican et la Basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome. (G. And before that dream of light.). Paris. quivering line Of the water's crystalline . F. 1891. peopled labyrinth of walls." Rienzi. Suys (T." The best English editions are those by Leoni and Ware. effect of this commercial prosperity lasted well into Renaissance times (pages 232. Geymiiller(H.. Berlin. de Plaisance de Rome et de ses Environs. 1818. folio." Palais Massimia Rome/' Folio. Paris. " B. 1776. Pierre de Rome/' 2 vojs. ! A Column. 1855.A. Paris and Vienna. "Studio d' Architettura Civile della Citta di Roma. L." 4 vols. " Choix de plus Celebres Maisons Percier (C. tower.3 vols. B..).)." J Historical Novels H THE VENETIAN SCHOOL. Amphitrite's destined halls. M. Roma. :> 4 vols.) et Fontaine (P." 1 Quattro Libri dell' Architettura. de). Venice lies." Folio. 11 Palazzo di Caprarola. L.) et Haudebourt (L. Rome Moderne." Letarouilly. Vicenza. Maccari (E). As within a furnace bright. i. folio. and the .). -The greatness of Venice was founded on Oriental commerce. 1875-1880.). Berlin.). the sapphire-tinted sky. 4to vol. red. de). Palladio (A. due to her important geographical position. F. 475 REFERENCE BOOKS. Trans.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. 1891. Fabbriche e Design! di Andrea Palladio. Jahrhunderts. Fontana " ''Edifices de Letarouilly (P. folio. 410 and folio. The Honour of Savelli. 1882. half-reclined On the level.IX. Lo the sun upsprings behind. ) Yeats (S. Scamozzi (O. 1868. " Underneath day's azure eyes. " 2 vols. Which her hoary sire now paves With his blue and beaming waves. Rossi (D. radiant. Geographical.I." Folio." 3 vols. 1809. u Baudenkmaeler Roms des XV. and Shine like obelisks of fire. Ocean's nursling. Raccolta delle Chiese di Roma." " P." R. Projets primitifs pour la Basilique de St.). "The School of Bramante. Panting with inconstant motion From the altar of dark ocean spire To i.

The Venetians had a beautiful type of Gothic architecture of their own. and eventually in 1715 the whole of her possesYet " the sions. and. Geological. The government of Venice was republican. being great. Social and Political. and merchant princes. being farther from Rome. to which Venetian nobles were appointed governors. different effect it The Renaissance movement had a very . exist in many houses. between the periods of Gothic and fully-developed Renaissance. tolerance of Venetian policy is shown by the erection of the Greek church. the learned theologian Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623) The being the adviser of the State during this crisis (1607). Strong loyalty to the State even the clergy was manifested during the attempted interdict among of Paul V. Constantinople was taken by the Turks. breezes. palaces.476 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of peaceable citizens vi. Venice was engaged in conquering the surrounding towns. except in North Italy. Venice continued to maintain a semi-independiv. Venice has the appearance of a floating city ii. renders chimneys more prominent than in other Italian cities. owing to the previously existing circumstances of the two cities. were not so much under the influence of that city as was Florence. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. By the discovery ot the new route round the Cape to India by Diaz in 1486. Religion. due to her political necessities in those days of growing temporal power. its commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. were taken from her.the architecture of upon Venice from that which produced upon the architecture of Florence. important influence on its art. Therefore. an interesting example of the local Renaissance." 2. This favours out-door life. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Venetians were at constant war with the Turks. the earlier buildings . though tempered by sea The northern position called belvederes. as at Florence. arts which had meanwhile been silently developing shed a glorious sunset over the waning glory of the mighty republic.. Climate. the heat in summer iii. In the middle of the fifteenth century (1453. ence of the Pope. and the supremacy of Venice in the East was undermined. v. churches. founded in the sea. there was a period of transition. and houses being set upon a structural formation having an piles in a shallow lagoon. During the whole of the fifteenth century. Historical. such as the palaces which line the Grand Canal these however were not fortresses. Open top stories. and the rivalry of the leading families led to the erection of fine and lasting monuments. but the residences .

D. 209). was executed in 1584 by Scamozzi. in which windows were sometimes placed more graceful kind than that of Florence. balconies (No. 210 F) details. heavy rustication being used to contrast the basement with the upper part of the facade (No. the detail became large and projected boldly. for instance. B). one order higher round S. the Giant's Staircase. The regularity of the disposition of a Venetian facade is described by Browning.' leaving comparatively solid boundaries to the facades (No. but the continuation of the design. 210 A. 1554. In Longhena's works and other late examples. and have no great projections. in general. in consequence of the houses being situated on the side of The canals. Door on door exactly waiting. by Ant. 208). SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. as at Florence. in contrast with the great crowning Florentine cornices. 1536) was erected by Sansovino (No. being erected by Sansovino in A. The Library of S. of a lighter and being used freely in all designs. and having a straight frontage with the water. London.D.D. 210) was commenced Rizzi.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE. columns and pilasters (No. . 210). The Court to the Doges' Palace (No. A special Venetian feature is the grouping of the windows near the centre. 3. in S. EXAMPLES. Extreme depth was sometimes ^iven to the frieze. who talks of the " Window with window just The mating. rustication of walls. is unusual. as. The architecture of Venice is. Mark's Square. 207). and a cornice usually marks each story (No. The facade of the Geological Museum in Piccadilly is founded on the design of the lower part of the courtyard facade of this 1486. and give light and shade to the facade." is In the later period perfection of details characteristic of the Venetian Renaissance.D. in the 477 style having Gothic in conjunction with Renaissance notable instance is in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the Doges' Palace (No. which facades are comparatively flat. A. Mark (A. 1479-1570). 209) are graceful and important features. new A (see below). having the same effect as the recessing of portions of the structure. producing strong effects of light and shade. palace. Mark's Library and the palaces by Sansovino (A. giving access to the upper portions. This design has been followed for the Carlton Club.







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1530). the plan derived from S. 1549). with a Renaissance treatment of tracery. Zaccaria. 211 c. 1536. held to be founded on (A. has no aisles. 1480) (No. Francesco della Vigna. by Pietro Lombardo (Nos.vaulted bays. 207 and 208). 212 and 213 E). Mark. The walls are faced internally and externally. reliefs in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. the central space being covered by a circular dome. Marco (A. S.D. S. 1451-1493). by Sansovino (No. the facade of which was by Pietro Lombardo. by Longhena (No.D.D. and S. The Cornaro Palace (the Army and Navy Club. S. a feature which also occurs at S. 1534-1562). and has a peculiar treatment of column rustication. architect. II Redentore (A. being a modified copy). semicircular pediment on the facade. The Scuola di S. Salvatore (A. has a fagade (1562) by Palladio resembling S. A secondary dome covers the chancel. as shown in No. and S. or Mint. 1650-1680). which projects on the side opposite the entrance. has to each story an order of engaged The windows are columns the earliest example in Venice. 1576) and S. Maria della Salute (A. with domical and barrel. Giorgio dei Greci (A. is a rich example. 1481). 211). and the Pesaro Palace . The Vendramini Palace (A. by Sanmicheli (A. Characteristic Venetian ornament is shown in No.D. 211).D. S. the facade of S. 485 The Zecca. although the facade of the latter was by Scamozzi (A. Mark. and a small tower also carried up. London. by Sansovino (A. with delicately carved and different colored marbles. by Sansovino (A. (A. Giorgio Maggiore (A.D.D. 211). 1632).D. 1538). Giorgio Maggiore.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE.D. as exhibiting the difficulties of adopting the Classic orders to the facades of churches of the basilican plan.D. which is covered with a roof of semiThis is emphasized by a circular form. The sacristy is beneath the raised choir. 1560) were both by Palladio (No. 1456-1515). 1575). These churches are instructive. 1485-1533). Giobbe (A. 212) over the aisles. 1532) the Grimani Palace. by Longhena (Nos. was erected by Sansovino. groups most beautifully with the surroundings on the Grand Canal. not uncommon in Venice.D. and the choir is raised twelve steps above the nave. Zaccaria (A. S.D. 214. whose drum is connected to the outer walls by buttresses (No. are later examples. In plan it consists of an octagon with chapels projecting on each side.D. Note. are other examples of the early or transition period. semicircular. contributes to the picturesque grouping of the exterior. a transition example. and has curious sculptured perspective. their fanciful shapes contributing to the rich effect. 209).D.D. are other churches worthy of note. by Pietro Lombardo. by Tullib Lombardo. Maria dei Miracoli .



215 and 216 A. A second method was to comprise two floors in the height of the order (No.D. still their publication in books had a far-reaching influence on European architecture. VICENZA AND VERONA. Vicenza (generally known as the Rotonda). This is generally known as the Palladian "motif" and was produced in this case by the necessity of making each bay correspond with the Gothic hall. and the entrance gateways through the fortifications of Verona are excellent instances of his power of giving character to his works. 1518-1580) and His churches are referred to above. 1570) (No. 1560). 216 D. an architect of ability.488 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. separated by arches supported on a minor order.D. with a pillared portico on each face leading to a central rotunda.D. the scene of his labours. . 216 H). the lower story being rusticated. 216 G). Verona owes many of its most important buildings to Sanmicheli (A. originally erected in the mediaeval period (about 1444). is an interesting building completed by Scamozzi. which appears externally as a low It is dome above the main building. and were often never fully carried out. is an example of the application of the features of Classic architecture carried to an extreme (Nos. 1556). as the Palazzo Barbarano (A. E.D. 1556). These arcades (Nos. c) were designed by Palladio in 1549. who was also the originator of a new system of fortification. and measured. to obtain scale in that feature. the Palazzo Tiene (A. owes its importance to the double-storied Renaissance arcades. hipped copied elsewhere. The design Lord Burlington at Chiswick the tiled roof. The Villa del Capra. the Palazzo Capitanio (formerly Prefitizio) (No.D. B. and are counted in the Venetian School. His designs were mostly erected in brick and stucco. the Palazzo Chierecati (A. F and and the Palazzo Valmarana The Teatro 238 B). and unity and dignity There are several examples in Vicenza in.D. (A. and the upper ones having pilasters. He indefatigably studied. and it has also been England and on the Continent. The Basilica at Vicenza. all the Roman antiquities. and he wl& followed in his methods by Inigo Jones (page 567). and are his most famous work. being built in a beautiful stone in two stories of Doric and Ionic orders. These are notable cities possessing many examples of Renaissance architecture.D. Olimpico (A. a square building. Vicenza was the birthplace of Palladio (A. the whole composition. both in ways from the angles ol was utilized by (page 581). 216 G). as may be seen by the drawings in his book on architecture. with the stage built in perspective. of both of these methods. of which it forms the frontispiece. all of this building Although Palladio's designs were mainly executed in common materials such as brick and stucco. 1580). 1484-1549).


Where an open site permitted. The style of pilasters (No. 1550) (No. which dispenses (Nos. with orders and makes each story complete in itself. Two or more stories are united by an order upon a graud scale (No. the dome over a circular space (Roman type) (No. the Roman barrel-vaulted type (No. and corrected by breaking them round the columns. sgraffito Characteristic ornament is shown in No.4QO by a bold and COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The style of fenestration and rusticated quoins The astylar treatment. Rome. In church work. In church work. were used. to the Roman. . 193 j). and the Basilican (No. 200). The Palazzi Pompeii (A. 217 A). the dome on pendentives and Basilican plan (No. ROMAN. 19 1. 191 and 192). The style of columns (Nos. B. are the best known examples of his style The Palazzo del Consiglio (A. were all followed. Staircases. Venice. the Roman coffered and vaulted nave (No. complex. More varied planning on a grander scale (Nos. 196. Windows are disturbing elements. placed in a central area. 193 E). he gave great extension original treatment. Walls. 193 A). Canossa. In church work. Staircases. were used. Note. The utmost to adapted town. circular and elliptical. Plans. AND VENETIAN SCHOOLS. while subordinated as a whole by the great top cornice (No. Venice. and Braschi palaces and the Scala Regia of the Vatican.D. Florence. 4. Stories are defined by an order to each. without which the designs would have the unity of Greek temples. and at Verona. are features. simplicity and compactness.D. and the dome on pendentives (No. Rome. 208). 193) were vaulted by ascending barrel-vaults. . belong to this school. Bevilacqua. In the multiplicity of parts the style allies itself Florence. 207 and 209). In pure wall treatment it is akin to Egyptian art. surrounded with arcades. 195). a broken. 211 D). COMPARATIVE. with columnar supports. 191) was adopted. 1500) at Verona was erected for the colored by Fra Giocondo. 199 c). the Byzantine domical treatment (No. 199 G). as those in the Barberini. and picturesque disposition was adopted otherwise a straight front to the canals had to be adhered to (No. 211). 198 and 199). and is chiefly remarkable " " work of the facade. 218. Corsini. planning Staircases inclosed by walls (Nos. A. Excessive separation by the entablatures is modified. in which to the use of rustication as a means of effect. THE FLORENTINE. a style of rather than country buildings. as in the Colosseum.

217. .


196). Domes mounted upon a high drum and crowned with a lantern are universal in churches (No. the low dome over the crossing was a favourite Florence. treated with coffering or stucco modelling (No. to staircases. 191). Raking vaults feature (No. were not regarded. Openings are small. 210 A). Venice. Rome. 197and 200). 194 D). and later on with orders on a small scale. 199). Roofs having balustrades preferred (No. were adapted to palace facades. after the style of the then newly-discovered Baths of Titus. 192). 197). 191). surmounted by pediments (No. 192). 211 and 212). generally frescoed. Venice.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 195. wide. E. Roofs rarely visible (No. and simple cross or waggon-vaults in halls. Florence. obtained by window spacing. as in the Colosseum. The typical opening is an archway in rusticated work. D. Vaults of a similar kind were more elaborated. Pictorial effect was attempted in the vaulting of halls and staircases. the arcade and colonnade. was continued from previous periods (Nos. and severe in treatment (No. 197). and S. though columns were used to arcades. Openings seem small in relation to the great order adopted (No. Columns. and even such features as balustrades were not regulated by use. Domes are grouped with towers in churches (Nos. as at the Certosa. 198 H). Pavia. Rome. 493 Openings. Openings are large. c. forming a semi-tracery head (No. .spaced. 193). Florence. the arches springing direct from the capitals (No. The application of the orders on a great scale is the " In their use. but by the system of proportion to the order employed (Nos. Rome. Roofs. 207 and 209). 195). In courtyards. Maria della Grazie. The treatment of a centre and two wings. A square-headed opening was treated with a framework of architrave mouldings (No. In churches. and close set . Early examples do not have the orders (No. arches resting directly on columns are typical (No. numerous. 191). the low internal cupola was often covered externally by a lofty structure in diminishing stages. Milan. divided by a column carrying two minor arches. internal necessities of the building. and the motif' of the style. Flat pitch tiled roofs are sometimes visible (No. In Milan and other North Italian cities. the scale of openings.

. Mouldings. scrolls. painting and its application to buildings the artists of the great schools of Italian painting had an by important decorative effect on all the schools. 191 and 194). 1851. . Close adaptation of the features of the Classic orders marks the Roman style (Nos. having more variety than prevails in the sternness of the former. Those between are few and simple. 1838-1840." " Venezia "(published by Ongania). Palladio.). Calli e Canali in Venezia. "The Architecture of Andrea 1715. was abundantly used in the three schools. Prominence of detail is characteristic Venice. were reduced to the minimum. . 1890-1894. "Makers of Venice. Decoration. 8vo. Venice.). Florence. Florence (No. Ruskin (J. L. introduced their arbitrary details. which contrast with the plain wall surfaces. Venezia. '42. and great projection. out (Nos.. 1851-1853. 198 and 206). despising the sound methods of the earlier of the late entablatures have deep soffits and keystones. Venice. F. Renaissance works in Venice . as in the great stone shields at the angles of palaces (No. 210 and 214). folio. is collected in masses. " Vicenza.. folio. 214). 192). 194). such as carving and sculpture. Oliphant( Mrs. Every spandrel has its figure.)."/ ) . '21. ." Folio. projections. 208 and 209) projecting columns were preferred to pilasters. REFERENCE BOOKS. Ornament. Venice (No. Stands midway between Florentine and Venetian work. London. " Le Fabbriche e i Monument! cospicui di Cicognara (Conte F. " L'Architettura " ..494 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE." 2 vols. until Michael Angelo.). the details Classic examples (Nos. architects. and his followers. Moulding stories Rome. 1893. Marion). 207. 209). and masks. The revival of fresco Sculptured ornament to friezes carved with infant genii." Crawford (F." 3 vols. and the high relief of sculpture competes with the architectural detail in prominence fruit (No. and entablatures were usually broken round these .). while spandrels have figures in high relief (Nos. 208. Paoletti (P.) Examples of the Architecture of Venice." Stones of Venice. 3 vols. Schmidt (O."Marietta. G. Ruskin (J.)." Folio.. 206). to give full effect to the of which were based on grand crowning cornice. 5.'' XT Hlstoncal Novels. and less exuberance than is found in the latter. 1898. Rome (No. Decoration is equally spread throughout the facade. The problem of successive tiers of orders was worked Venice. e la Scultura del Rinascimento in Venice. Leoni (G.

and is probably the most important of the early examples. The arcaded galleries. Brick and terra-cotta were the materials chiefly to hand. Milan (A. is famous for its chancel wall. 217 B). and were employed in the Church of 5.D. former times had built Milan Cathedral (page 408). Many of the palaces were painted wholly in one color. by Filarete. there were many noteworthy buildings which be briefly referred to. . the detail is delicately and richly modelled. which was erected in the Gothic period (A. and in the great courtyard of the Ospedale Maggiore (A. The dome is interesting as a Renaissance copy of a type used in the Gothic period as at Chiaravalle and elsewhere. by Bramante. who in of Italian towns.D.D. principally designed by Alessi (A. The Certosa. and for its octagonal sacristy. and Venice. as it is now. greatly encouraged art. by Borgognone. Although these cities formed no distinct school. 1396). gives them a very bright appearance. the arrangement of the vestibules. as Florence. to resemble stone-work. and flights of steps. very suitable to the material employed. by Bramante. 1457). Satire. a pupil of Michael Angelo. S. supported by large consoles (No. of Gothic feeling may Milan was. has the west facade (A.ITALIAN (MILAN AND GENOA) RENAISSANCE. Palazzo Rosso (red). 1474). as the Palazzo Bianco (white). in the Renaissance style. the leading lines being essentially Lombardian Gothic. Rome. D). courtyards.D. The Genoese palaces are remarkable especially for the entrance courts. rusticated. It is in marble. The Palazzo Municipio (Doria(No.D.D. and the bright coloring. the windows occupying the square intervals between these brackets. the niches with statues executed by the greatest sculptors of the day. and is specially remarkable for the small scale of its parts. although clothed with Renaissance details. and received their name from it. 1476). 1492) (page 457). which was covered with stucco. 1500-1572). make it one of the richest and most is and perfect specimens of the arts of the architect and sculptor. The building material at hand was brick. one of the richest and most populous The powerful family of the Visconti. near Milan (page 408). 495 MILAN AND GENOA. treated in perspective. and . in which advantage was taken of the sloping sites to produce beautiful vistas of terraces and hanging gardens Genoa These buildings usually have their basements pilasters were freely introduced as a decorative feature while the facades were crowned by a bold projecting cornice. Maria delta Grazie (A. a Both these buildings possess a considerable amount Florentine. with the help of the Italian sun. 217 . Pavia. and the wealth of beautifully executed detail. has some remarkable buildings.

Such work is to be distinguished from the mixtures of certain forms of the early Renaissance. the ornamentation was carried out to an style. Carlo Madema (1556-1639). Maria di Carignano (A. 218. which was followed in the seventeenth century. 1855. can Renaissance movement. and twisted columns are also features of the In the interiors. was adopted by them for its essentially modern character. Rubens (P. Sinuous frontages." Folio. The Rococo." Les plus beaux edifices de la ville de Genes. " Architecture italienne edifices Callet (F. Maria delta Vittovia by Maderna.). 5. and the Palazzi Durazzo. 1564) (No.496 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Bernini (1589-1680). coming after the reign of a highly systematized classical style. Milan. P. The application of classical of bad detail. Gauthier (M.D.'' Palazzi antichi et Dresden. and broken and curved pediments." moderni di Genova. huge scrolls. are the best known. were among the more famous who practised this debased form of art. B. beneath the trappings in the later period of the be traced elsewhere. or Baroco. because the Rococo period. This style. " Die Renaissance Architektur der Lornbardei. Cambiassi of also by Alessi. Pans." : Folio.). and Tursi) (A. Agnese by Borromini. and among the most prominent examples are the Roman churches of S. 1818. publics et particuliers de" Turin et La Certosa di Pavia. commencing at the time when the movement in religion connected with the Jesuits was in progress. and of the period. its almost universal extension style being a ideas to monument to their activity. Paravicini (T. 1552). 217) S. Balbi. ornament is shown in No. and consisted of exaggerated and badly-designed detail. P. 1878. represents an anarchical reaction. Paris." Folio. often overemphasized by gilding and sculptured figures in contorted attitudes.) et Lesueur (J.).). extraordinary degree. REFERENCE BOOKS. THE ROCOCO STYLE. and a strained originality in detail. and many churches at Naples and modern forms. V. C. Characteristic Note. . Peter.D. and the features described are specially to be seen in the Jesuit churches throughout Italy and the rest of Europe. when the was commencing. Rome. broken curves in plan and elevation. without regard to fitness or suitability. and Borromini (1599-1667).). and F. cornices made to break round them. Durelli (G. are the characteristics Columns were placed in front of pilasters. was designed on the lines of Raphael's plan S." 1663. 1853. style is a debased application to architecture of Renaissance features.

Geological.A. in vindication of their claims to the thrones of Naples and Milan. brought to France by Francis ticcio. the old order remaining until. Serlio. iii. INFLUENCES (see page 437) Geographical. were not permanently extended. iv. and is a stone city. Refer to pages 246 and 362. which had an universal influence upon interiors. Religion.) "In all new work that would look forth To more than antiquarian worth. ii. in a quarry of a fine-grained building stone. v. Cellini. Refer to page 246. and from Paris emanated any movement. F. which hereafter. in 1494. style. K K . in 1527. Paris at this time was the capital of a compact and rapidly consolidating kingdom.the end of the eighteenth century. Climate. The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. Paris is built. PrimaIn the later period. as London is a brick city. France had now more clearly defined boundaries. and Cortona. The number of chateaux erected during the early periods of the Renaissance in France was due to many social causes. in spite of the conquests of Louis XIV. had little effect upon churches. and Napoleon. Palladio's pediments and bases. so to speak. will find their places. it was the domestic work which took the lead in this period. and furniture. marks the distribution of Italian artists France. Social and Political. i. The Reformation maintained practically no hold in France. Thus the Louis XIV.) (See page 362 for French Gothic. not only in architecture. the Jesuit style (page 496) prevailing in those built during this period. I. As. Vignola. Refer to pages 246. Or something i. 362.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. the Italian Bernini was . (See page 246 for French Romanesque. and workmen over Europe." CLOUGH. the supply of churches erected during the mediaeval period proved adequate. but also in science and literature. such. Rosso. and by Francis I. moreover. Among the chief of the artists were Leonardo da Vinci. and more especially many returning in the train of the French kings.

. In these wars the French kings. Louis XII. and in 1508 Louis joined the league of Cambray formed against Venice. Francis I. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Spaniards at the Battle of Pavia. and the accession of Louis XL. and drawn into the Renaissance movement. 1572. 1515-1547' Henri II. became an absolute monarch. of France. 1498-1515. led to a general coalition against him. although failing in their actual object. 1547-1559. 1461-1483. in A. (1610-1643) Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the royal power.) The Early Renaissance Period. A band of Italians journeying from the guest of Louis XIV. the religious' wars. comprising the reigns of: Henri IV. lomew took place at Paris. and others weakened authority by their attacks. Historical. Charles VIII. /56o-i574. Ch le * IX . The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 led to a further emigration of Protestants to England. 1610-1643. and prepared the ground for the great revolution that began in 1792. 1589-1715 (or seventeenth century). distracted the country. 1543. The style may be divided into three periods (a. and Louis XIV. Francis I. 1589-1610 (introduced classic type). ascending the throne in 1643. in the Netherlands and Germany. During the first half of the sixIn 1494 teenth century Italy became the battlefield of Europe. were thus brought into contact with the superior civilization of Italy. 442. 1525. 1559-1560. During the reign of Louis XIII. Francis II. Florence being the ally of France during all this period. Charles VIII. 1574-1589. The English were driven from France in vi. (1715-1774) the evil effects of despotism and bad government became more marked. His conquests. BarthoCatholics. Rousseau. place to place was responsible for much of the picturesque early Renaissance south of the Loire. and the writers Voltaire. and Louis XIV. Louis XIII. marched through Italy. between the Huguenots and The Massacre of S. 1461-1589 (or sixteenth century) comprising the reigns of: Louis XI. ' Refer to pages 439. after which there was an emigration of Huguenots to England. : Henri III.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and to his great defeat at the hands of Marlborough. 1461 practically led to the consolidation of France into one kingdom by the reconciliation of the Duke of Burgundy.) ine Classical Penod. 1483-1498.f. claiming the kingdom of Naples. From 1558 to the end of the century. ^d . 2. Cardinal Mazarin continued his policy.D. In the reign of Louis XV. at the same time becoming more absolute in their own country. 1643-1715. (0.

193. 212). where the chief buildings were erected (No. K K 2 . wreaths. 219).) The Rococo Period. city palace as in Florence. Rome. more in keeping with the country surroundings. or Rome is principally seen from the street. (. is seen on all and the importance of a (No. Considerable variety however arose in use and disposition . The latter reign 499 was a period of remarkable artistic activity. only applied to the front fa9ade Principal buildings erected in the country. 211. Eustache (No. and direct A period of transition in which Renaissance details were grafted on to Gothic forms. Chateau de Blois(No. 221) was sought for in these buildings. 195 and 207). 220. country chateau sides. or on the straight waterways of Venice. as at the Church of S. the architecture being correct and dignified with a large use of the orders externally. and the architectural features were often appltgue. Early buildings were principally chateaux for the nobility. shells and figures form important elements. and Louis XVI. Influence of Rome less apparent. Predominant characteristics are stateliness and a tendency to Classical horizontality. 1715-1774. 203. and a tendency to Gothic verticality (No. who vied with each other in the erection of these important structures. i. so that every fa$ade was of importance. 220. in consequence of the comparative fewness of these buildings erected in the Middle It was essentially a Ages. as Chambord (No. The picturesque disposition ot Gothic origin. 221). 222). 199. while internally a fanciful style of stucco and papier mache decoration of scrolls. church-building age (Nos. prising the reigns of : 1774-1793.e. 192. being palaces for kings.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. A return to Classic forms occurred. comLouis XV. in buildings erected Principal towns. 207). dukes and wealthy and powerful popes (Nos. It was essentially Predominant a palace-buildingepoch(Nos.of the revived architectural features (No. picturesque grouping from every point of view (Nos. 1715-1793 (or eighteenth century). Severe Classic disposition not only appropriate but necessary in the narrow streets of Florence and Rome. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. nymphs. In order to understand better the architectural character of French Renaissance it is compared with Italian in the following table : ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. although the number of Italian palaces of the epoch is very large. characteristics are picturesqueness. Venice. 222). partly because of distance from the headquarters of the Renais- A A sance movement. as Florence. "220). The large number of the churches of the jVliddle Ages sufficed for existing needs. being palaces built for royalty and nobility. Venice. Paris. and in ornamental features. Influence of ancient Rome and her buildings apparent in greater purity of sculptured detail. 204).. mostly on the banks of the Loire. 221 and 223). Early buildings were principally churches.

E. The pilaster treatment of the fa9ade. i 515-1547). The Chateau de Bury (A. A Scottish the emblem of Francis I. The Chateau de Chambord (A. by Pierre Nepveu. (A. in front of which is a screen The wall. The country houses of the nobles in the Venetian territory. and the repetition of the carving of the salamander. The Chateau de Blois I. The chateaux on the Loire are irregular Gothic castles. and which contained the reception rooms. with slight modifications dependent on site and local necessities. up to the present day. with a coating of Renaissance detail (Nos. are long wings containing the is servants' apartments on one side. The above description applies equally to French town houses. near Blois. forming two sides of the court. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.D. 220 and 221) over features essentially Gothic. a courtyard being an exception (No.. whereas in English country houses after the time of Henry VII. 220 A. but with a colonnade facing the court. was largely employed. and offices and stabling on the other. and attached to these.. erected by Louis XII. entrance is in the centre of this wall. is and Francis Edinburgh. introduced from Venice. 219). It consists of a large square court. 3. are symmetrical and stately. 1520) (No. D. and square internally. the famous " Staircase Tower" by Francis I. porteThe screen wall is flanked by towers. the windows all face outwards. as in the ancient Roman atrium' (the courtyard corresponding to the atrium). or carriage entrance. B). In French country houses the windows face on to an internal courtyard. 220 c. 131 and 244). version (minus the staircase) is to be seen in Fettes College. the mullioned windows showing the preference for the square section of mullion. as mentioned above. the letter F decoratively formed among the carved balusters. and is provided with a. is one of the most famous erected in the . FRENCH RENAISSANCE. In shell ornament. which contained the family apartments. cochere.D. 1508). ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. and vaulting bosses. and 221). 219). circular externally. These are connected at the further end of the court with the main building (Corps de logis) in which the family resided. Behind this main building was the garden. 131). are interesting (No. a typical example and may be compared with a typical English plan (Nos. one of the more important examples (No. EXAMPLES. 1526) (Nos.D. and in the centre of one side was Each of the side wings to the court is placed the chapel. 2 16 D. solid externally.500 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. one story lower than the main building. are notable. F). and the The rich crowning cornice and carved roof dormers. in the style of Palladio. (A. with no traces of Gothic influence (No.D.


i ' F/tto If BfID flf 7Ef ^ ' e&sanrj r3^r=inn.tBl.FRENCH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES. I II llJlllilJ. I. . K U PI | IJU' 220.

make this example one of the most characteristic of Early French Renaissance buildings.D. whose crowning lantern is the central object of the external grouping. the Chateau de Chenonceaux (A. and the general vertical treatment of the features. 1515-1578). or "donjon.D. the chief interest of this example lies in the sumptuous interiors. and protected on three sides. commenced the work in 1540. advantage to the pentagonal semi-fortress of Caprarola (No. a complete history of the progressive stages of the French Renaissance style. as shown on No. Pierre Lescot (A. 1520) 1515-1523). Contrary to Blois. with four halls as lofty as the nave of a church. of sky-line. and standing for the most part on a bridge over the water. The general design of the Louvre was originally intended to cover the ground of the fortified Gothic palace which it replaced. Paris. the flatness of the projection to the pilasters. The Palace at Fontainebleau (A. Rideau Germain-en. whose favourite residence it was. 503 Loire district of central France. 220 F. There is a remarkable irregularity in its plan. yet richness.D. was surrounded. where possible. and Vignola and Serlio seem to have worked on the design. arranged round a courtyard. corresponding to the keep of an English castle.D. and possesses a semi -fortified The traditional circular towers of defence. 220 E). architect. This may be taken as the most important building in the style. and its construction lasted from the time of Francis I. character. which give to the building its characteristic confusion. The central feature. built up in a cage of stone. due in part to the convent it replaced. in consequence. These conical roofs are broken up. 220 feet square.D. 1528) was erected by Le Breton. The present design consists of two stories and an attic (No. L. are incorporated in a palace design infused with Italian detail. An English version is the Royal Holloway It may be compared with College.. (page 463). the first architect. Egham. The main block. as in the saloons decorated by Benvenuto:: Cellini. Other noteworthy examples are the Chateau d'Azay-le. but the original design .Laye (A. to Louis XIV. for Francis I. the building exhibiting. 225 K. The smallness of scale in regard to mouldings. The Louvre. by Vignola . (A. 225).FRENCH RENAISSANCE. The exterior is remarkably plain. roofed with slate covered cones. "is square on plan. especially the high-pitched roofs. and the Chateau de S. Primaticcio and Serlio (No. 400 feet square. the ornamented chimneys. At the junction of these halls is the famous double spiral staircase. and tunnel-vaulted with coffered sinkings. M) and tall chimneys. 1539). 201). under Italian influence. picturesquely situated by a lake. the Gothic feeling throughout the design. by rich dormers (No. by while the fourth side was defended buildings inclosing a courtyard by a moat..

u .

D.D. as mentioned above. due no doubt to climatic influences . in which a certain richness and dignity are added to the picturesqueness of the earlier inclinations periods. 1510-1572) is Under Henri IV. B. and additional stories were added on the north and south sides of the court to make up the necessary height to the eastern block. entablature was pierced for admission of windows. whereas the Louvre stories. 1610-1643) the Louvre. Under Napoleon I. Under Napoleon III. the Louvre was finished by Visconti. 1515-1570).FRENCH RENAISSANCE. the upper of Composite pilasters. 1589-1610). and other architectural features. The lower order is of Corinthian. reign of Henry IV. the details being coarsely carved Corinthian columns run through two stories. 600 feet in length. commenced in 1456 by the This was formed of open colonnades in two architect Filaretc. windows. the throughout. (A.D. The destruction of the The Tuileries Palace. The problem of effecting a proper junction between this palace and the Louvre was a crux of long standing because of the want of parallelism between them. but was finally effected under Napoleon III. without any reference to construction or fitness. Under Louis XIV. consisting of a solid-looking basement.D. by Philibert de l'Orme. (1863-1868) and the Republic (1874-1878)) was constructed to connect this building with the Tuileries Palace. the northern portion fronting on the Place du Carrousal (completed by Napoleon III. (A. (A. 1564-1572) was Catherine de Medici. and an order of pilasters of less height was provided is for the attic story. com(A. broken up only by pilasters. above which is an open colonnade of coupled Corinthian columns. two stories were added by F. The sculptured work by Jean Goujon especially noteworthy.(A. the Pavilion de 1'Horloge being added to form the centre of the enlarged court fagade. du Cerceau. Perrault added (1688) the eastern fagade. 505 The only only included a court one-fourth the present size. Only a portion of one side was erected. and triangular or circular pediments were placed over pilasters. forming one of the most pleasing specimens of modern French art. Under Louis XIII. and shows the debased of the period. consisting of In the a domical central pavilion with low wings on either side. the gallery facing the Seine was erected (1595-1608) by Du Cerceau. was doubled in size by the architect Lemercier. throughout of solid walling. by the addition of the fa9ades north and south of the Place Louis Napoleon.D. courtyard in Italy to which that of the Louvre may be compared is the Great Hospital at Milan. during 1852-1857. Paris for menced . as built by Lescot.

D.D. The Luxembourg Palace. Pierre at Caen. Beaugency. the mansard roofs treated separately for the pavilions and central portion. (A.D. the intention being to imitate the bold and simple treatment of It resembles the Pitti Palace. architect. 1533) by Ballu and Deperthes in A. fountains. was erected by De Brosse for Marie de Medici of Florence. are very fine. later examples in Paris are the Arc de Triomphe 1806) by Chalgrin the Library of S. has rendered the connecting galleries architecturally ineffective. 223 E. . in which Renaissance details were often grafted on to Gothic forms. It is now used as a Senate House. pulpits. facade (A. Rouen. Florence. terraces and arbours.. and general refinement of detail. . Orleans. 1843-1850). i. and additions to churches." 315 feet feet and three stories in height. Paris (A.320 feet. altars and doorways.506 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. treatment of the. Florentine buildings. and many others throughout France. near Paris (1658). a corp de logis. Genevieve. 1664. 1871 and the Opera House (A. 223 G.D.D. and the apses of S. the central projection design. . H). in . with its astylar the Louvre. thus giving a total of Le Notre laid out the gardens which. near Paris. " It has a French type of plan. F.D. are examples. Denis Cathedral.. as the House of Agnes Sorel. from which wings project by 170 230 feet. the Hotel de Ville. 1515) in S. the Classic orders to each story. In addition to the important buildings mentioned. was erected by Francois Mansard. Tuileries during the Commune in 1871. and is shown in plan and It is notable for the effective use of elevation in No. by Jules Hardouin Mansard (1647-1708). courtyard. 1611) (No.e. . however. as England. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. The .D. The Chateau de Maisons. measuring 320 feet and each wing 500 feet. 1863-1875) Amongst (A. reconstructed in its original style of the Early Renaissance (A. The tombs of Louis XII. by Gamier. the Hotel de Bourgtheroulde. for Louis XIV. and is remarkable only for the uniformity and tameness of its The dimensions are very large. early examples of the incoming style consisted mainly. in the The Palace of Versailles was commenced in A. and having screen and portecochere in front. with their 1.D. by Labrouste completed by Visconti the Hotel de Ville. . enclosing a courtyard. and Cardinal d'Amboise at Rouen the portals of the church of the Trinity at Falaise the external pulpit at the Chateau de Vitre. there are many charming examples of the style. of tombs.



The Pantheon (1755-81). In plan it is a Greek cross. 223 A. over all is an external dome crowned by a lantern of wood. appear independent of the dome. and other Gothic features. Paul and Louis. S. Paris in plan is ability of the masons of the period. Paul. Paul. visible by means of windows at its base lastly. above which rises a dome. The dome is a triple one (No. Etienne du Mont. Amongst the later examples are S. is an unfortunate example of the intermediate period. Paris (1670-1706).FRENCH RENAISSANCE. with painted decorations. 1629) was designed by Lemercier and has a domical treatment with a facade of superimposed orders. shows that the principles of the Italian Renaissance were fully established. being at a different The triple dome is prolevel. London. (A. 92 feet in diameter.D. S. four halls surrounding a central one. The plan (No. 509 (A. covered with lead. illustrating the highly developed technical Eustache. 223 c) as that of the Invalides. was erected from the designs of Soufflot (A. are so formed as to produce internally an octagonal effect.D. Paris (A. laid out on Gothic lines. a typical five-aisled mediaeval church. 1713-81). B). the openings leading to four angle chapels. 69 feet in diameter. provided with openings to form The piers eight. overloaded with decoration The Church of the Sorbonne Sulpice. to its three-storied facade. with the corners filled in so as to make it a square externally (No. 222). but the outer dome is of stone covered with lead. 253). The exterior of the dome is poor in comparison with that of S. with a central opening. Paris. mentioned above. by Jules Hardouin Mansard. vided with windows in the drum. over this comes a second or middle dome. which completed the scheme of the Hdtel des Invalides.D. Renaissance tracery to the windows.D. but clothed with detail inspired from Italian sources. flying buttresses. external stone lantern. by Lemercier (No. commenced in 1670 by Bruant. 1532). The dome. 175 feet high. 1650) the grand two-storied facade being added by Servandoni in A. Paris (A. 1517-1538) is another example to which the same remarks apply. Paris (A. 1750. S. It has a famous rood-screen. clothed with Renaissance detail. with circular As to the exterior. above which is an interior dome.D. rests on four piers.D. 1627). it has high roofs. deeply -recessed portals.S. in fact. with double staircases and carved balustrading in Renaissance detail. 223 D) is approximately a Greek cross. because of the apparent weakness and want of variety of the unbroken ring of free-standing . where an intermediate brick cone supports the . which. The church is. Paul. The construction differs considerably from that of S. pinnacles. thus bearing a similarity to S. or lower portion. The Dome of the Invalides. London (No.D. a kind of apsidal end.


FRENCH RENAISSANCE. The Madeleine. Paris (A. 208 and 220 and 221). be counted as an attempt at an ideal plan of a mansion. The essential differences between Italian and French Renaissance \vill now be treated in a comparative manner. although in many cases features are found which do not exactly correspond with the type. which has. with two lower wings inclosing a courtyard cut off from the street by a screen wall. being divided into three bays. At the east end is an apse covered with a half-dome. or additions to. 191. called the "piano nobile (Nos. The vaulting is ingenious. 196. viz. A. 198. the light being obtained for the nave by a clerestory over the aisles. the cella. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. and being a further step towards absolute copyism.. and has been decorated recently with frescoes by foremost French artists. A. some of which were on the site of. great feature ot Italian houses is the cortile. which are in Italy. in all important examples. In plan it is an octastyle peripteral temple.D. 4. 5!! columns unattached to the drum. showing a direct imitation of ancient Roman architecture. as it would be called in a Classic structure. that the columns are built of small courses of stone. The The castles of the previous period influenced both plan and design of the early chateaux. It is usual for the main wall. ampler space for the important rooms. and elegance has been obtained by a tenuity of support. which at one time threatened the stability of The exterior (No. and that the comparisons state what usually is the fact. covered by flat domes. which often occurs in French buildings. 217). . The typical house plan in the towns has a main block. The interior is fine and original. The external order has a defect. a colonnade or arcade round it. on the first or principal " floor. on Plans. 224) has a Corinthian colonnade the edifice. or central open courtyard. which have a blank wall treatment. COMPARATIVE. through the eyes of which is obtained all the light for the church. 350 feet by 147 feet. but it must be borne in mind that the subject is treated generally. hall castle the first floor. Plans. 1804) was erected by the architect Vignon. and half palace (Nos. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. the cornice to which is carried round the remainder of the fa9ades. to stand on the piers or giving columns of this arcade. Chambord may such castles. The interior of the church has an order of Corinthian columns with an attic over. or portico at the west end. and the architraves are formed into flat arches with wide joints. the joints of which confuse the lines of the fluting.

221). the horizontal lines of their entabla- metry plainness prevails to give effect to the orders. B. special windows (ceil de bceuf ) often occur in it support to D. 223 E). 198 and 210). Symin position was carefully late work. though less ornamented Stone was the chief^ (No. c. 226 R). 191. designs convenience. 220 and gradually gave place to 225) and balustraded pedimented elevations (Nos. to preserve the range of openings externally (No. the main apartments then having an upper row of windows. Walls. but an open top feature story (Belvedere) is a Brickin houses of all classes. the mullions In early. which give sky-line and picturesqueness to the design when viewed from a distance (Nos. Vertical cou221 and 225 K). features. so as not to interfere with the fa9ade treatment. arcades. usually came increasingly into use. 221 and 222). varied by facades Straight orders. In the Rococo period a return was often made to the astylar principle. with circular windows (No. Italian work. but red. 223 E). The gables and window-dressings were crowned by a deep cornice at the top (Nos. which give the' and circular feature. it. Attics are rare. brick was''. Chimneys continue to be marked window orders. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. sometimes combined with c. Openings. ! 9 2 > 1 9S) except at Venice. with elaborately carved dormer windows and chimneys. or Walls. designs were often astylar. (No. 216 and 217). though changed in detail (Nos. material. 220). ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. work was used in large and rough masses with ashlar facing. In early examples were made visible roofs above the tile The French Mansard form preserved invention of the the roof . The mansard roof lent itself to pavilions which mark the angles of the facades. Early 200. or frieze. K). 226 J. but as the orders. position (Nos. B. main cornice. features. as at Genoa and Vicenza. pling of windows was effectively practised. Flat or low-pitched D. 207. the top floor openings were often formed as a deep band. 215 and 216). in attended to Mezzanine floors were much used in large mansions. 192. or were set tures prevailed (No. In the later buildings greater and transoms of the Gothic method continued. High roofs are special roofs are special features. the openings being the features upon which all the detail was concentrated (Nos. if used at all. were masked as far as possible (Nos. attention being concentrated on the prominent stone dormers of the early period (Nos. for the reason that in a narrow street the roofs could not be seen. Chimneys. rather than the Openings.512 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 219. 191. Roofs. 219. are in plaster (Nos. in late examples the use of Classic orders. determined their 199. 224 and 226). lated and the Symmetry reguposition of openings. while the centre often has an attic (No. 196. when excessive prominence and exaggeration of detail marked the window dressAs the attic was rare in ings. Roofs. 195. 197. The attic was a between consoles. 192 and 197). on account of the use of the great cornice. or dressings Later examples. one for each story.

203. 2060. 214 star-shaped J. while sinkings are un- decorative adjuncts to Gothic features. Columns. 193. 199. 200. members. as at Blois. E. 196. where they assume the importance of towers.as at the Louvre. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. influence of Vignola in this respect is visible (Nos. G. 201. Where the orders were employed. which was the type of Palladio (Nos. in the early period the two being combined. panelling of Gothic continued in the early period. style of internal wood. given each story (No. -- Pilasters were either plain. such features acquired to great prominence. Domes were relied upon for sky-line in churches (Nos. F. slates being nailed in the sunk faces of the stonework. modelled plaster were much employed. Venice having some extraordinary examples of its abuse. 221. in the profilings of mouldings were tried Some examples. and the Palazzo del Te.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 225. Ornament The wood times (Nos. Columns usually do not The run through two stories. 219). (No. 225 K). as The tapestry at Fontainebleau. papier mache. In churches especially a single order prevails. the sinkings were treated with a black inlay. F. pavilions. An " order " or column was usually 220). Classic and Mediaeval. E. great cornice. At Chambord (No. or carved with delicate foliage (Nos. Later stucco work suffered in the same way. and stucco decoraIt was tion in white and gold. The architecture gradually acquired a special character from the treatment of mouldings. as (No. Fresco and 214 and 218). to give value to was provided Gothic influMouldings. square or oblong. however. (Nos. ence pervaded the early work. but gradually lost the character The and scale of the material. An " order " was often made to include two or more stories of a building. In early examples. 200. the details assigned to each were used in full. were regulated unduly F. * 218). 217. and combinations of methods.shaped patterns. and hangings of the early period were superseded by the universal Louis XIV. Mouldings.A. have extremely small the top cornice. 204. 192 and 197). Ornament. I n later work it continued. G. and as lent itself it 210 A). Raphael style of decoration was introduced by Italian artists. generally in late work. and devoid of decorative value. 513 FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 206. 191. Compare the Vatican. 225 H). 223). 216). sometimes out of scale with the architecture.211 and 212). L L . string courses were of slight projection. Interiors. as a feature (No. often splendidly carved with arabesque designs. Mouldings are usually large but well studied in profile. Pilasters were Columns. The "Belvedere " gives character to villas. Mantua. but sometimes treated with foliage common. 223). at Orleans. rusticated or panelled in star . was pilaster in Italy preferred rather for its The architectural importance as an " order/' the panelled decoration being often omitted. as in the The arabesques of Raphael. frescoes were. nice The heavy cor- for protection from the glare of the Italian sun (Nos. 194. 226). the later being nearly always balustraded (No.



)." Paris. 5. Pfnor (R. Daly. 1867.).).. Paris. * . applied to every accessory. 1867. " Palustre (L. Rouyer 4to.).)." Chateaux de la Valle'e de la Loire." Hlstoncal Novels - I . A. (L. Paris. Monographic de THotel de Ville de Lyon. I . ." Folio." 2 vols.)." Sauvageot " (C." 3 vols. (E.1 885 (Not completed. Daly (C." 2 vols.. by the features of Classic temple architecture." 3 vols. REFERENCE BOOKS. 2 vols. Paris." Folio. 1859-1867." L'Art Architectural en France.) et Cattois (F. folio. Histoire et Caracteres de 1'Architecture en France. "La Renaissance de Fran9ois I. " Motifs Historiques : d' Architecture et de Sculpture. Sculpture in later work lost touch with the decorative feeling of architecture.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1863-1866. 1861. " " Bastiments de P>ance. a Louis XIII.. Berty " (A. Motifs Historiques Decorations Interieures. and the best available figure sculpture has been used in connection with great extravagances were perpetrated.). Paris. Verdier (A. folio. " Paris." Paris. 1900. as in the fountains of modern French architecture." Folio." Paris.-"A Gentleman of France. La Renaissance Monumentale en France.) et Darcel (A. folio.).." 2 vols. Hotels et Maisons de France. 4 vols.. folio. folio.4to.). Sculpture acquired an increasing importance. Paris. Die Baukunst Frankreichs.)." L' Architecture Civile et Domestique. 1864.). 1 879.. Palais. 4to. John of Strathbourne. folio. 1870. Les plus Excellents (J. 2 vols. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE.). La Renaissance en France. Gurlitt (C.. 1868-1870. folio. 2 vols. " Chetwode (R. and have often no relation to the requirements of the occupants. Chateaux. and FRENCH RENAISSANCE. P. Paris.). 1858.. " Desjardins (T. . Du Cerceau 2 vols. D." Rouyer Paris. Rome. and had the merit of a certain fitness and unity. Weyman (S. " Le Palais de Fontainebleau.} Petit (V.). 1864.)." " Paris. (E. Chateau 8vo...

The absence of stone. each with its own capital and government. of social importance. 1648. influenced largely the architecture of moulded and cut brickwork was used in every that district variety. iv." and the chief reformed seat of learning in Germany. And somewhat of the choir. was . Geological. 'neath my tabernacle take my rest. ended by the Peace of Westphalia in A. iii. Social and Political. Climate. in the great alluvial plains of North Germany. In the latter part of the sixteenth century.) (See page 393 for German Gothic. 393. Martin Luther (1517-1546) attacked the practical abuses of certain doctrines of the Church. Heidelberg was the centre of " Humanism. One sees the pulpit o' the epistle side.) " My niche is not so cramped but thence seats. i. which was under one united head. Goethe and others aroused interest in Greek architecture. translation of the Bible into High Dutch caused that language to become the recognised German tongue.D. thus preventing any national effort as in France. v. Geographical. The Thirty Years' War. old churches. . In architecture little of great interest was produced. and surface ornamentation being formed in raised patterns. and brought about i. Luther's a revolution in the religious life of Germany (see below). Refer to pages 258 and 393. In the eighteenth century the literary works of Winckelmann. those silent And up The And And into the aery dome. ii. continuing to be used. (See page 258 for German Romanesque. with all their fittings." BROWNING.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. the general scale of the detail being small. Refer to pages 258. INFLUENCES (see page 437). The country consisted of a number of small kingdoms or principalities. but the prominence given to preaching brought in galleries and congregational planning. Religion. where live angels. and a sunbeam's sure to lurk I shall fill my slab of basalt there. .

1648. becoming the most powerful emperor since Charlemagne. when the Peace of Augsburg was conall cluded." princes who followed him protested. which was aided largely by the revival of learning. for mutual defence. utterly ruined Germany." commenced in 1618. Refer to pages 439. Charles V. and the Low Countries. princes. This style as in other countries may be roughly divided into three periods corresponding to the sixteenth. Renaissance. under Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. marking the commencement of the Reformation. but made no provision for those people who might be of different religion to the government of each state. The Peace of Westphalia. and caused France to become the leading nation in Europe. passed a decree against all ecclesiastical changes. Hence many Englishmen and Scotchmen served in these wars. style was in vogue. (Charles I. and this marks the period of the German In 1516 he obtained the two Sicilies. It was introduced from France. such as Christian IV. of England. joined in these wars on the Protestant side. of Spain) succeeded to the possessions of the Houses of Castile. who had married a daughter of James I. and France joined in for her own aggrandizement. about the middle of the sixteenth century. The Renaissance style in picturesqueness and variety of grouping. Burgundy. The war of the Emperor Charles V. while the Henri IV. provided once more for religious equality and tolerance in each state. and finally in the great religious war. 442. and carried on in Germany between the Catholic and Protestant Other princes. 1529. Historical. by publicly burning the bull of excommunication put forth against him by Pope Leo X. The Diet of Spires. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which left each state free to set up which religion it pleased.518 vi. and the Catholics against the Protestant princes extended from 1546-1555. 2. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. under the Elector Palatine Frederick. however. and in 1519. called the Smalcaldic League. hence the name This led in 1530 to the Confession of Augsburg and the confederation of Protestant princes and cities. and in 1520 he defied the Pope. In 1517 Luther nailed up his theses at Wittenberg. Aragon. against which Luther and the " Protestant. on the death of Maximilian. and quaintness and grotesqueness of ornament. of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. due in a large measure to the traditions of the preceding style. he was elected to the Empire. This resulted in persecutions. known as the " Thirty Years' War. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. The war had. which may Germany is chiefly remarkable for .

/ w 3 W Q s ffi .


as in Elizabethan work. in a style purer in detail than usually found. and a stone vaulted roof. 1605) (No. with pilasters and entablature to each story. with mullioned windows and Hall. The threequarter columns. with an order and entablature to each story. and the Fveidrichsbau of the later period (A. which have elaborately-carved string courses. 230). in a general heaviness and whimsicality of treatment. with detached Corinthian columns. as is also the vaulting. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.D. with pedestals and entablatures. German Renaissance and it differs from French in lack of refinement. 229 A). are other characteristic examples. but the design suffers much from overits ornamentation. Lemgo. Examples are mostly found in towns. Symbolical statuary was prominently introduced (No. 521 it account for a good deal of the grotesqueness and crudity which possesses. while resembles in some respects our own Elizabethan. The scrolls by which the stages of the gable are contracted are also typical. and Dresden. are characteristic features. The later period.D. 227) of the early period. Berlin. The Gewandhaus.D. marking each floor.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 3. each provided with an order of vase-shaped pilasters. EXAMPLES. Brunswick. Solothurn shaped gables (No. has its eastern gable (A. a connecting link between Elizabethan architecture and French Renaissance of the time of Henri IV. B. Cologne. which commenced at the beginning of the " nineteenth century. It consists of semicircular arcading. It forms. The Hall. Heidelberg Castle has interesting examples of the style. 1590) in this style. Town Town The Pellerhaus. without reference to their applicability. The Rathhaus (Town Hall). is an . or appropriateness. The arches on the first floor are pointed. whereas in France they are principally found in the country (page 499). c). and classical details surrounding the windows. 229 B). in fact." and was chiefly It consisted in the confined to Munich. has been called the Revival. and the (No. Nuremberg (A. and the immense gable comprising four stories. originally executed in the Gothic. 1601). adoption of Classic forms in toto. especially the fagade of the Heinrichsbau (1556) (No. 228). has a fine two-storied porch (1571) (No. Nuremberg and Hildesheim are also rich in domestic examples of the period. 231 A.



Halberstadt (1552).D. Gables assume fantastic shapes (Nos. (A. 1784). and richness was produced by the application of columnar features as ornament (No. 1843) is ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. and having a dome 75 feet in diameter. the Stadtweinhaus. In the later periods B. and crowned by grotesque. 1 method of an internal courtyard was In towns. Munich Dresden (1726-1745) and exhibit a desire is are among 1582) and the Frauenkirche. period as in France. 230) and on the angles of Such features did not appear at Rome. Vienna. The Revival by Klenze the architect (A. The French . It is constructed internally and externally of stone. The latter especially notable. 230). Openings.524 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. applying them to modern buildings. the Zeughaus at Danzic (1605). being 140 feet square on plan. 229 A and 231 E). continuing the practice of the mediaeval period. The Parliament House. A. and the celebrated architect Schinkel (1781-1841) erected the New Theatre. resting on eight piers. by Hansen an imposing edifice. and the Zwinger Palace. Stuttgart (1553). the Rathhaus. Pinacothek. is well known. an abundant practical needs remaining from the mediaeval (A. and the Walhalla. Walls. Michael. the Rathhaus. Munster (1615). mullioned (No. 229 A).EJT. The new churches were few and supply for all insignificant. Heilbronn. for wide. the Castle. the Museum. 1784-1864) of the classical styles in Munich. Dresden (1711). Leipsig (1556). example of rich domestic architecture.D. is responsible for the Glyptotek. In all of these buildings the great idea was to copy classical forms and details. Brick and stone were used singly and in combination. are a few of the picturesque and free examples of the early period. Berlin (A. Plans. c. so characteristic of the period. or scrolly pediments (No. buildings. and the Polytechnic School in that city. S. many-storied houses were erected with adopted. open spaces. both in the fa ade itseffshapes 9 (No. Florence. great roofs. 4. The Gateway. Oriel windows of various" and design were plentifully used. the best known buildings. the Rathhaus.D. the The Brandenburg Gate. which also has the elaborately-treated stepped gables. 2310). Altenburg (1562). or Venice during Renaissance times Windows are large. COMPARATIVE.


Renaissance. The 5.) l Renaissance und .526 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Lichtenstein. (A. F. in the south-east of The first two methods. wherein much fancy is displayed. containing and 230). (Nos. c). Though Renaissance details were affected in the preceding style." (Historical Novel. and the second method permits the use of fantastically. Columns.). Haut (W. E. 227-231). H). as decorative adjuncts (Nos. the worst features of the last age of the Gothic style. Mouldings. 2 vols. 229 E and 231 the usual Classic features were adopted (Nos. folio. 230). . 228 were two methods of treatment (a) making the ridge parallel to the street front. 229 F. Berlin. The imitations of Italian carved pilasters as at Heidelberg are inferior. Nuremberg (No. " folio. j)." Leipzig. were given up." 2 -vols.*' Deutsche 1871-1888. B. O. the stories being marked by rich cornices the columns and pilasters were richly carved. (ft) making the ridge run at right angles to the street. Fritsch (K. The Pellerhaus. Ortwein-Scheffers. Such roofs served a useful purpose. 1891. Pfnor (R. G). folio." Folio. period.. as in the Gothic. Boldness and vigour must be set against the lack of refinement and purity in detail. and many other places.. The many stories (Nos. There being D. 229 A). Stuttgart. allows for the display of many tiers of dormer windows (No.manner." 9 vols. 231 A. Roofs. such as interpenetration of mouldings and other vagaries. and are often supported on corbels. as adopted in : Germany. shows a combination of the Landshut. E. A.. rising one above the other. 1890-1893. 231 D.. F. used as drying-rooms during the periodical wash. 229 and 231).). as generally carried out in Nuremberg.).). c. Leipzig. " Monographic du Chateau d'Heidelburg. Lambert und Stahl Motive der Deutschen Architectur. REFERENCE BOOKS. Sculpture is best seen native grotesques (No. 1859. Ortwein (A. in the Ornament late glasswork is interesting. there being some fine specimens at Heidelberg (No. B. Fresco work was attempted during the revival at the beginning of the century by the Munich school.shaped gables (No. Studium der Deutschen Barockstils. 1892.) Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance/' " (E. 410. The orders were employed in a free. but the art soon died out. G.). 4 vols. Paris. are prominent features in this. large roofs in the town houses.

and continued under the Duke of Alva. the barn-like churches developing no features of great interest. and finally under a Their architectural expression republic became a great power. however. The prominence given to preaching. (See page 385 for Belgian and Dutch Gothic. was limited. Their daring and activity in trade made them one of the chief powers of Europe during the . whether for lack of interest or funds. strongly Protestant. was not. of Spain. Social and Political. is Geographical. and unimaginative. constituted the United Provinces. Brick material of this phase of the Renaissance. mirrored by the erection of monumental structures. which are in general . being mainly Catholics.. i. under the able rule of the Duke of Parma.) " Many In its scarlet bricks there walls.honest. i. Geological. Refer to page 385. rallied to Spain. Refer to page 385. iii. Religion.5V) BELGIAN AND DUTCH RENAISSANCE. led to a revolt in 1568 which lasted till 1609. INFLUENCES (see page 437). Each side had a red brick lip Green and mossy with the drip of dew and rain. and the demand for greater comfort regulated planning. The Belgians. In Holland the character of the Dutch is shown in their buildings. trade in consequence of the discovery of the New World by Columbus." MORRIS. the characteristic iv. were and old grey stone On * the bricks the green moss grew. ii. stone. Climate. but. * * Yellow lichen on the * * * Deep green water rilled the moat. The persecutions begun under Charles V. nothing on a large scale was attempted. Refer to page 385. The increase of riches through matter-of-fact. viceroy of Philip II. but the Dutch. v.

2. Hall. Amsterdam (only worthy Hague Town Hall (A. the the Neo-Grec Domestic Architecture. and with additional . Leyden Town Hall Among recent examples.D. much originality of treatment found (No. 232 G) are other works. 442. Liege. the Stadthaus. still great benefit may be derived from studying much of the domestic and civic architecture for while wandering through the streets of these old-world towns. 1565 one of the most important buildings. but their extensive colonies gradually passed over to the English. (No. Although there are few large or important works erected during the Renaissance period in northwest Europe. erected by de Vriendt in A. this domestic style. the richness and prosperity of this particular city contributing not a little to An order. the Archbishop's Palace. by Polaert. are met In the design of the gables. is of gracefully-designed iron ties (No. Refer to pages 439.D. The Hotel du Saumon. century. leaning rather towards the work found in . 1579) (No. seventeenth century. EXAMPLES. but picturesque in Belgian examples are wild and licentious. Historical. Brussels. 232 D. while Dutch examples are plain. The Spanish occupation of the Netherlands. or row of columns. executed in bright red brick. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.52 8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D. must all and the be taken into account in this section. together with ultimate expulsion of the Spaniards in 1648. . style. as a Catholic from A. ornament with. the Ancien Greffe. vi. mention and for its (A. and 'the consequent influence of Spanish art in the sixteenth the loss of liberty under Charles V. and crowned by a high-pitched roof with dormer windows. Malines. often the matter of design received approaching dulness. 234 D). G). is an imposing edifice.D. and mullioned windows were employed in each upper story. were perfected. the whole design being placed on a sturdy rusticated basement.. including Brick received its due prominence in furniture. The design of houses and fittings a large amount of attention. remained country and a Spanish province under the rule of Spain. 233). and details of internal work. of 1565). many charming specimens of street architecture. is The Town Bruges. with occasional stone courses and dressings. 1506-1712. when Holland freed herself under the House of Orange. Antwerp. in great size). Belgium. the execution of this fine work. 3. the Palais de Justice.




the groundwork of the achievements of the Renaissance in these It was in the modifications of detail that the influence countries. 1878. E. and visible chimney stacks (Nos. COMPARATIVE. being gradually adopted. of varied colors. 232 D). corrupted or original.532 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 234 A. 232 F. H) and stained glass of this age are especially worthy of study. The high-pitched forms continued long in favour. as well as the dormers." (Historical Novel.). 232 and 233)." J. 1880-1889. Openings. Mouldings. of large window spaces. and possessing a certain characteristic quaintness. statuary. and traceried panelling. some of the old German towns. and were Gothic practice (No. 232 c. G. Lysbeth. und Holland. The same defect. and rococo squares. E. B. G. in character. that surround the windows of the previous period (Nos. 232 and 234 c G )> Roofs.) Haggard (H. j). The great development of domestic Gothic formed A. Columns. and often verging on the grotesque. rusticated. B. 5 vols.. The woodwork (No. and otherwise treated in a licentious and grotesque fashion (Nos. rising very often from the and form fascinating studies for water-color sketching. These were numerous in continuation of the arid crowded." Documents " 410. referred to under Gothic. continued in this period. group most harmoniously. G Gables of curly outline. Ornament (No. and the further divorce of detail from construction and material rather accentuated the evil. 234). . 5. F. with- and 234 c. The orders took the place of the niches." according to the critic's point of view. classes de 1'Art dans les Pays- Antwerp. Ysendyck (J.). " George (E. D. Carving of vigorous grotesques occupies any vacant panel or space (Nos.). of the latter was felt. Die Renaissance in Belgien Ewerbeck folio. Plans. towers of many stages (No. these quaint buildings. Walls." 2 vols. 232 D. 4. Italian forms. The orders were used as decorative features. F. van). Leipzig. 232 G and 234 c. that of coarseness.. picturesque. grotesque. of these street fronts are good examples of the treatment Many In Holland. folio. are crowded together in streets and Their general effect and grouping must be enjoyed. being heavily panelled. REFERENCE BOOKS. out too much inquiry into their rationale or detail (Nos. generally much corrupted. H and 234 K). but at the same time thoroughly suited to the use of bricks. E). D)." Etchings in Belgium. sides of canals. R. 1883. " (T. especially. Bas. the " " " motifs being usually Italian.

Religion. made her the leading nation in Europe. Refer to page 424.D. Ignatius de Loyola. in the northern mountains. mark the . or a tower That might with Heaven communication hold. facilitated the development of decorative ironwork. The Reformation obtained no hold whatever The religious aspect of the great struggle with the Moors. It RENAISSANCE. v. Historical. 1492.. and brick was also iii. in Spain. From the latter part of the fifteenth century the power of Spain gradually increased. in which the Goths of Northern Europe and the Moors of North Africa formed the most important elements.) had been as easy to erect Louvre or Escurial. Geological. founded by a Spaniard." COWLEY. (See page 424 for Spanish Gothic. As Babel vainly thought to do of old He wanted not the skill or power. The accession of Ferdinand and Isabella to the throne. ii. iv. Jews Europe. vi. INFLUENCES The position (see page 437). A . i. combined with the vast hereditary and conquered possessions of the Spanish monarchy. and power from the discovery of the new world. and heretics being persistently persecuted. and the national character of the church have already been mentioned (page 424). Granite was much used. until she became the chief power of Absolute despotism was the policy of Philip II. arising i. and this proved a great loss to Southern Spain. Climate. Geographical. employed in certain parts. the universal Architect. The people were a mixed population. of Spain. Social and Political. Refer to page 424. (1598-1621) the Moriscos were driven out of the country.si* SPANISH "For God. The presence of very pure iron ore. Under Philip III. The counter reformation found its motive force in the Jesuit order. and the fall of Granada in A. which by their hard work had been made to flourish.

has an open arcaded . harsh and despotic rule alienated the Netherlands. platero The middle period became more classical. ceased to exist. Renaissance details. in government. marriages. 1597). which was aided by the English. lasting to the middle of the sixteenth century (b) The Classical Period of the latter half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century and (c] The Rococo Period of the latter part of the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. 2. a pupil of Michael . SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. The style of this period. led to an outburst of national resistance. Germany. the Netherlands. checked the power of the Turks The but his by winning the great naval battle of Lepanto. becoming imbued with the Rococo 3. of consolidation of Spain. as in other European countries. as understood by other nations. 1571. Many revolutions followed. story under the roof a specially characteristic feature and details showing the lace-like character of the Plateresque period." from its likeness to silversmith's work. as was the case in Europe generally. and Naples. is called " Plateresque. . from being minute in detail. style.D. Napoleon's invasion. known as Churrigueresque. The University. This Sardinia. and Austria. Sicily. reigning over Spain. away from true principles. EXAMPLES. Philip II. the infantry being the finest at that time in Europe. fell The late period shows that the style. and the of the Armada expedition against England ended in the defeat Provinces were gradually lost.534 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. at the commencement of the nineteenth century. innovations. Angelo. 1560). produced a style as rich and poetic as any other of the numerous phases of the Renaissance in Europe. Alcala (A. and the were due to a succession of great dominions of Spain Charles V. has been slow. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and by the empire was held together by his skill excellence of the Spanish army. the Moors. and influenced to some extent by the exuberant fancy of the Moorish work. 1500-1517). and the chief expositors were the architects Berruguete (d. the expulsion beginning of the Spanish Renaissance. grafted on to Gothic forms. from " " silversmith. and Spain as a power in 1588. but progress. and Herrera (d. The Refer to pages 439. 442. : may be divided into three tolerably distinct periods (a) The Early Renaissance Period. In the early period.



and a handsome It has been storied arcade in the Doric and Corinthian orders. and is an important structure. The Palace of the Escurial (No. the whole of this severe and monumental building being executed in granite." was erected in 1527 by Machuca and Berruguete. and the Ionic order. the lower being rusticated. Alcala. 537 The Archbishop's Palace. but in 1567 Herrera was appointed architect. In plan it is a square. 100 feet by 50 feet. which is of the Bramante school. It has a rich facade " " surrounded by a double patio (No. while the interior possesses a " surrounded by arcades in two stories. are undoubtedly of wooden origin. of small height. 236 A) in the early Renaissance of Charles V. was commenced by Juan de Bautista for Philip II. an ancient square castle of MoorishGothic architecture. leads into an atrium. The palace was never roofed in or occupied. On the south side is a grand staircase inclosed in a space. " The " bracket capitals. adjoining the " Alhambra. The Casa Miranda.D. Granada. The circular internal elevation is an open colonnade in two stories. The Alcazar. to the upper story. is also noteworthy. is the purest example of Renaissance in Spain. exclusive of palace. but much of the stoneIt is generally regarded as the work has remained uncarved. so that mezzanines could be lighted where these occur. Toledo. and consists of a monastery.. with the Doric order to the lower. Burgos (No. considerably extended at later periods. design. inclosing an open circular court 100 feet in diameter. on the first floor in the courtyard. college. has a "patio" or courtyard. best example of a municipal building in Spain. and the whole design. 1548) (No. has one facade (A.. The back elevation is an early example of a many-storied building in the classical style. 238 c). all grouped into one The grand entrance. Both basement and upper story have bull's-eye windows above the lower openings. The Palace of Charles V. and the columns have typical bracket capitals. 237).SPANISH RENAISSANCE. 205 feet each way. It is a group of buildings on a 740 feet long by 580 feet wide. and having off the half landing a grand square two-storied chapel. a feature mostly found in Spanish buildings. and church. Seville. 235). The structure is built in a golden-colored stone. their use being to decrease the long bearing of the architrave. was built (1583-98) from the designs of the architect Herrera. The Casa Lonja (Exchange). and the upper having Ionic columns. palace. the central The feature of the two visible fa$ades being in colored marbles. supported on fine " patio Corinthian columns. in the centre of the long facade. near Madrid.. The external fagade is two stories in height. to the right of which is the college with its site . sculpture is by Berruguete.

showing the Bracket Capital. . " Patio" of the BURGOS. House of Miranda.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. 237.

but at least the design may be said to be suited to the material. which is 320 feet by 200 feet. is the church. 60 feet square. The entire structure. whether in granite or not. and beyond is the great court of the palace. following somewhat the type of the Carignano Church at Genoa. and shows that Herrera studied to some purpose in The principal Spanish feature is the placing of the choir Italy. lying between Behind the church. the whole being silhouetted against a background of mountains. a Greek cross on plan. 186) belonging an example of the wealth of . The masonry is excellent. the The architraves of doors being 10 to 12 feet high. with a slight yellow tinge. the windows square-headed. beneath which is a domed vestibule consequently the interior is. The detail is classical. in effect. and is detail so characteristic of the style. described above. Santo Domingo. and in blocks of great size. at the end of the atrium. without dressings of any without any attempt at grouping. external fa$ades are everywhere five stories in height. flanked by the two towers and surrounded by the great mass of building. The architectural character is so restrained that the structure looks nothing at a cursory glance. as the Vatican does with S. the courts of the palace and the college. Moreover. with three courts 60 feet square. Immediately in front. are the state apartments of the palace. surrounded with three stories of On the arcades. in one stone. so that they are effect to the and inferior in facade at the Alcazar. deriving peculiar its detail from Moorish influence. is an important the early work with excellent figure sculpture. 1524-1610). Burgos Cathedral has a magnificent dome (No.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. Rome. to the early period (1567). is built in granite of a gray color. left of the atrium is the monastery. The taste of Philip II. the palace proper at the east end is only an annex. on a vault. In general grouping nothing could be finer than the dome as a centre. The plan of the church is Italian in origin. 539 four courts. and does not conflict with the church. being of granite with It has a suitable detail. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. Salamanca(A. over the lengthened western arm of the cross. sort. The interior. Peter.D. magnificent reredos in such quietly-toned marbles that its richness might pass notice. and beyond is the great court of the college. however. internally and externally. which material may have influenced the design. is most impressive. and Herrera might have produced something equally plain. and having only the vaults colored. and illustrates " richness of the " Plateresque style (page 534).

Walls Brickwork was used in large. Lanterns or domes are common at the crossing. out of scale. In the latter half of the seventeenth century there was a reaction from the correct and cold formalities of the school of Herrera. as at the Escurial and in Madrid. through the doorways of which. being usually shallow. but (A. 236 A). and in incredibly rough. in which latter building the patio and staircase beyond are as picturesque and fanciful as any in Spain. 1529). is more dis- model is preserved. and also granite. Arabesque pierced parapets or crestings are In churches wide naves sometimes without any aisles are usual. rough. a glimpse only of the patio can be obtained. 236 B and 237). In houses the Patio (Nos.' 540 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1585). but with the Classic orders applied to the piers carrying the vaulting. the transepts and apsidal chancel. Churriguera. by Herrera. Santiago. The general effect of the interior is powerful. which seems due to Moorish influence. forming a class of structure in which Spain is especially rich. forming an open top story. leaving a blank wall below. as at Saragossa. Staircases are often large. The lofty circular choir is radiating supports. without reference either to good taste or fitness. COMPARATIVE. after the name of the architect. . remains incomplete. but a special feature is an arcade (No. but wholly the interior the execution and detail are Granada. but unduly sensational. Malaga.D. an added seclusion. is universal. A. or Spanish version of the Roman atrium. and the ritual choir remaining west of the transepts. Largeness of scale characterizes palaces as well as churches. (A. domed on Valladolid Cathedral tinctively Classic. and Italian cortile. but effective masses.D. by Diego Siloe. on which all the decoration was concentrated. when open. and has even Plans. 236). 4. and buildings were erected in a manner called Churrigueresque. is a grand It is a of the Renaissance churches of Southern Spain. in which fantastic forms were employed for their own sake. Fine stonework was used in other places. example translation of Seville Cathedral into the Renaissance style. The streets of Toledo present walls all but blank (No. constituting a fresh and original departure. as in the Burgos transept and the Casa Infanta at Saragossa. relieved by an elaborate doorway. and Carmona cathedrals have steeples placed alongside. although Herrera's The west faade is imposing. and which was generally treated in a most pleasing manner. ingeniously disposed. B. the Granada Cathedral Gothic system being followed. Gables were never or rarely employed.


Berruguete was the Donatello of the Spanish Renaissance. These were generally flat or of low pitch. often carrying a highly ornamented head (No. Towers. work. 236 A). Classic correctness prevailed until the outbreak of the in wood turned low relief. Internally the great saloons in the early common manca. Roofs. for ten or more stonework. from the top of which the arches spring. and detailed in a style suggestive of Arab influence. 235. the walls. Sculpture varies much in quality. fanciful . a lathe. as in the " Audiencia" at Valencia. and their dressings in stonework are frame-like in character (Nos. Doorways were emphasized (No. narrow. the great mitres.54 2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. much was given special feature which the long bearings of stone architraves are relieved by corbels on either sid^. 239) number of breaks which occur mitred round columns (No. are of of the early period are remarkable. while the sill is often absent or untreated. internal gallery resting upon a great projecting wooden cornice. Columns. by refinement (No. and to in In the early style. period. were used abundantly. have spires of slate or lead work of fanciful outline. and at Toledo they alone relieve the blank. A was perhaps due to the special largeness of scale (No. even in designs of the severe Classic period. as the Palacio de Monterey at SalaAt Saragossa. and the angle towers of the Escurial may be compared with the spire of S. Expression Ornament . 236 B and 237). A the bracket capital (Nos. c. 235. the orders were used in slight decorative forms (Nos. to be hung with feet in height. of an outline suggestive of the forms due E. however. 236 A and 239 D). or shafts. small orders. being of plain draperies. many (No. combined in treatment with the capital itself. importance of a gateway in oriental countries a feature found in Spain owing to Saracenic influence. D. resting on corbels. 236 and 237) the baluster shape. but his figures often are wanting in decorative treatment. Windows were treated with well-designed grilles. due to Gothic and Moorish influences. elaborately detailed. Martin. and reaching to the flat wooden coffered ceiling. 239). to forms is In early work. Saloons sometimes have a light-arcaded Ludgate (London). 239 A). G. Openings. work. the great cornices of the brick palaces wood. 239 D). Columns Rococo F. being decorated in arcades sometimes had very high In the later pedestals. 235) give to the church interiors quite a special effect by the flutter of the in the entablatures In the middle period. Mouldings. walled streets. affording a passage in front of the windows in the main wall.


1889-1892. Roberts (D. The fresco work of the Escurial is merely late Italian. The painting on the sculpture The great retablos of alabaster. " 1893.) Uhde Picturesque Sketches in Spain. 1837.).. Madrid. often was emphasized unduly." 3 vols.) und Gurlitt (C. and the drawing is frequently clumsy. Rejas. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1903." in Folio.). 2 vols. the iron pulpit (No.) and Macquoid (T. atlas folio (not completed). have the character of paintings in oil. folio. 1872.). 239 A. and armour design was carried to great perfection by the Spaniards. and the canvases of Murillo at Madrid and at the church at Seville. usually crude and realistic." Handbook 8vo. " In the Palace of the King. Stained glass tended to be loaded in color and over vivid. Baudenkmaeler Spanien und Portugal. and the architectural detail very elaborate." ." Junghaendel Folio." published by the Spanish Government. Flemish influence. B. Dresden. Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana. N. " (C. 89 parts. 5. " Prentice (A. being apparent." (M. " Die Baukunst Spaniens. 1850. B. the figures being often lifeThe iron size. 8vo. though In the large in scale." 410. Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain. de).). Tile work is excellent in Southern Spain." Folio. The subject of the Renaissance in Spain has been well taken up by architectural students of late years.)." Calvert (A. 235). Waring (J. Crawford (F. 1889-1893. 1842-1850. and the following books contain interesting examples. 239 E) is an example of the elaborate metal work of the period. are also a source of effect (No.). " Folio. 1898. D). 1859-1879. R. (R. " Ford.544 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or wood are the finest decorative feature of the churches. Espana Artistica y Monumental. Berlin. uncommon (No. Digby). folio. Wyatt (Sir M. accessory arts. not of the best kind.). P. and violence of action is is not stone. "Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. M. " Villa-Amil (G. or grilles.. " Impressions of Spain." (Historical Novel. "An Architect's Note-book in Spain.). Paris. to Spain.

ENGLISH ! RENAISSANCE. With distance In kindred The towers of Westminster. The closing of the Continent to travel during . roof's St. i. Geographical. F. Through their soft haze. her abbey's pride While far beyond the hills of Surrey shine softly tinted. Paul's And high dome amid her vassal bands Of neighbouring spires. side by side grace. . Refer to page 278. and show their wavy line. or Holland.6-K IWTfl 240. like twain of sisters dear. might be seen by some to be reflected in the architectural fashion of successive periods.A. INFLUENCES (see page 437). a regal chieftain stands over fields of ridgy appear. It would be hazardous during this period to lay too much stress upon the relations of England with the Continental powers but the relative cordiality of this country with France." BAILLIE. N N . i.


- Terra cotta for ornamental details was introduced by the Italian craftsmen of Henry VIII. 356.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. The historical and other events v. The use of brick received a great impetus after the Fire of London. the tomb in the Rolls Chapel (A. Social and Political. The suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) caused the diffusion of vast sums of money and land. N N 2 . resulting in a tion of life.. the introduction by Inigo Jones of Portland stone. Shropshire. population and cultivation of the land.D. stir in religious matters took place in Western Europe. and thus " Flemish bond. The Act of Supremacy. settled the relation of the English Church to the power of the Crown. by cheapening fuel. and at Layer Marney. partly on account of abuses having crept into the Church. Refer to page 278. as a technical term. had its influence. as in the busts of Emperors at Hampton Court by Giovanni da Majano. and some of these have been The following also aided the dealt with (pages 283. certainly coincided with the worst phase of English architecture. so that the timber architecture of the mediaeval period had died out. and beginning of the nineteenth century. In London. while the ancient nobility was almost entirely annihilated. and also because the authority of the Pope was increasingly felt to be irksome. Religion. a material very similar in weathering and effect to that used in the Renaissance palaces of Venice. Geological. distributed freely among his courtiers. and was again brought into prominence on the introduction of the " Dutch fashion. Climate. which the Popes failed to rectify. has its significance. led to each room having a fireplace. 1559. to other features that did not complicate the architecture of the earlier periods. which paved the way for the introduction of the Renaissance into England were many and significant. and the opening out of the great coal industry. 547 the great war at the end of the eighteenth. In the increase of ii. the funds for which enterprises proceeded from the newly seized revenues. A great increase of warmth was found necessary iii. and wood had been gradually disused as an external building material. Monasteries either fell into ruin or were converted into cathedral churches on the monastic foundation. movement The Wars : of the Roses (1455-1485) caused a terrible destruceighty princes of the blood being slain. In the early part of the sixteenth century a iv. and incidentally. Cheshire. which Henry VIII. Essex (1500-1525). 1516) by Torrigiano. 438). and Herefordshire were reduced. Others were cleared away for the erection of houses according to the new style. as greater comfort was demanded. the forests of Lancashire.


Finally. very largely the architecture. The new nobility and rich merchants were naturally more susceptible to any fresh movement they desired. the Reformation was finally settled. had undisputed the English crown. being anxious to provide themselves with the paraphernalia suited to their rank. Bartholomew in A. meeting with Francis possession of generally with foreign affairs. Flemish and . the wars against the Huguenots in France.D. and Edward VI. Torrigiano. as the hoarded knowledge of the world could then be disseminated. The extended use of gunpowder rendered ancient castles obsolete. or newly acquired wealth. 's Tomb in Westminster Abbey (A. no longer habitable as palaces by a king. from Basle.D. 1512).D.D. Henry VIII. . settling in to England in large the eastern counties especially. bearing an important relation to the introduction of Renaissance art into England. Henry declared the Pope to have no jurisdiction in England. was an event of some significance. craftsmen to England (page 498). endowment of grammar schools and colleges. or as seats by the nobility. 1520. moreover. which play an important part in the development (pages 324. was composed of men who were connected with the new movement. and is usually credited with the design of Longleat House. important country houses. and the Massacre of S. writings of Spenser. The court of Henry VIII.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. from which there was a reaction end of the fifteenth century. A certain John of Padua was also brought to England by Henry VIII. thus influencing efficient execution of the newly-imported Classic Historical. Wiltshire (page 557). thereby In literature the influencing the architecture of certain districts. continued the Reformation. his He mixed I. and amongst the artists. 1572. 557). Burleigh. who executed Henry VII. but Mary's policy was reactionary. Henry VIII. The introduction of printing by Caxton (1476) powerfully aided the new movement. and marks the era of Spanish influence in England. The Protector Somerset commenced building schemes which were interrupted by his execution (A. the erection and The reign of Elizabeth (A. causing the enlargement of men's ideas and the increased spread of knowledge throughout the country. employed part of the funds obtained from the suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) to . Under Elizabeth (1558-1603). Shakespeare. at the 549 period of architectural depression. Rouezzano and Giovanni da Majano. 1558-1603) inaugurated the era of the erection of the great domestic mansions. were : Holbein. and on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. led to the emigration of many skilled vi. and Sir Philip Sidney had considerable influence.German workmen and weavers came numbers. . 1552). and Edward VI. and newer fortresses tended to become merely military posts.


D. Hanoverian dynasty) commenced an era of quiet domestic The growth of London proceeded rapidly." and other windows (No. Charles I. successful merchants. . ELIZABETH (A.D. page 578 Early Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (A. by William of Orange. or fully-developed English Renaissance. page 567 Queen Anne and Georgian (Eighteenth Cen. but art in progress. 551 itself felt. English Renaissance tury). until the Exhibition of 1851 marked the commencement of a revival in all forms of art. arcades. 1558-1603). for in designing the house with forecourt. Elizabethan Architecture was a transition style. England slowly deteriorated. large mullioned "bay. principally erected in cities. oriel.D. and Henry VIII. churches of this period were many and important. . As during the Middle Ages a sufficient number of churches had been erected for the wants of the people. fountains and terraces. formal garden. 1588. . and large chimney stacks were retained. as the Francis I. and the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Page 593. Many . contrasting with the palaces and churches of the Italian RenaisThe influence of landscape sance. page 561 Anglo. 1603-1625). Charles II. The rise of Holland was taking place. relation to details which were at first The style bears the same Anglo-Classic. 51). see below. was in the pay of Louis XIV.Classic (Seventeenth Century). marked the decline of Spanish power in Europe. THE ELIZABETHAN STYLE. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. were country houses erected by powerful statesmen. style does to fully-developed French Renaissance. few were built in this This was also the case in France and Germany whereas period. pierced parapet. and England was much under the influence of French art. gable. . Dutch influence made (the 2. 1558-1603). for many Gothic features were retained and ornamented with Renaissance applied only in a tentative manner. and on the expulsion of James II. 1800page 589 Late Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (1851-1901). architecture may be divided into the Elizabethan (A. (page 536).ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. a special in Italy and finished character was given to the buildings themselves. such as the tower. The examples of Elizabethan architecture. Gothic features. which followed the Tudor style of the reigns of Henry VII.. gardening was important. like those of the French Renaissance. 251 B). following periods: Jacobean (A.D. and newly-enriched gentry.'s attempts to develop art were interrupted by the outbreak of Puritanism. With the accession of George I.


as at Chastleton in Oxfordshire. 1513) with France caused French architectural features to be introduced. as Longford Castle. As already mentioned (page 551). a triangular house attributed to John Thorpe (No. as at Burton Agnes. admitting sunlight and allowing free circulation of air about the building. designed by Torrigiano. Stanway. The gatehouse on the centre of the side forming the entrance.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. The E-shaped plan thus came into existence. The great hall. decoration. as at Hat field House (No. - of building. while above were arranged the trophies of the chase. was lined to a height of 8 or 10 feet with oak panelling. as it pervaded the whole of the ornamental arts in style furniture. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. examples of the style consist works such as tombs. a the sixteenth century. and fittings. and is in this respect a The alliance of James IV. 131 B). an Italian.D. of Scotland (d. and other features. As in other countries. portraits of ancestors. complete in every aspect. London (No. 553 The Elizabethan style represents the attempt to apply Italian architectural features to buildings. being generally regarded as one of small of the earliest examples. 131 F). doorways. 1610) Cranbonrne. EXAMPLES. Gloucestershire. 131 D. The following features occur in the principal examples i. and elsewhere. which was typical of the Tudor period. : . 241). in 1512. Edinburgh (No. The H-shaped plan was evolved by extending the wings on both fronts. Dorsetshire. with kitchen and offices at one end and withdrawing and living rooms at the other. the earliest Elizabethan Mansions. The larger type of house was evolved from the quadrangular plan of the Middle Ages (No. 244 A. 131 B). retained from the mediaeval period (No. domestic architecture received more attention than any other class Two general types of house plan were in use at the beginning of Of these the smaller type consisted of. which the later architects renounced by omitting the side forming the entrance. monuments. but it did not confine itself to architecture only. Yorkshire (A. internal courts for lighting being sometimes employed. as at Holland House. 151 j). 3. as at Oxburgh Hall (No. hall placed centrally. as at George Heriot's Hospital. B). Other fanciful plans showing extreme originality were erected. the tomb of Henry VII. became a detached building. E). . armour. family relics and heirlooms. in Westminster Abbey.


of approach. and gives to the interior an air of spaciousness and dignity. and richly carved with the coat-of-arms of the owner. The withdrawing room. 1580) is 170 feet long by 20 c) is feet 6 inches Hardwick Hall 22.D. frequently relieved by room-like projecting bays those at Haddon Hall being about 15 feet by 12 feet. is the carved oak screen. The broad staircase of oak (Nos. 244 D. the proportions varying considerably from the hall in being comparatively low and narrow in proportion to the length. 113) either with the timbers showing or formed with plaster panels (No. with stone-mullioned windows. The hall fireplace was much elaborated (No.D. 1576-1597) (No. 243) is 109 feet by 18 feet wide. the hall being often two stories in height. and It was generally placed in connection with the hall. 243). 131 E and 245 c) often extends the whole length of the house. were other apartments. 245 wide and 26 feet high. with its heavily-carved newels. " iv. was elaborately ornamented. It served as a means of communication between the wings of the The length is house. feet 5 inches (A. 1559) is 75 feet by 12 feet 6 inches wide. while at the other end is the raised dais with tall bay-window. (A. some of which belong to the Jacobean period. The hall in the later period became of less importance as a living room. Moreton Hall (A. Wiltshire. long gallery on the upper floor (Nos.D. its importance being due to the fact that the chief living rooms were often placed on the first floor and therefore demanded an important almost at the floor means iii. The walls have usually glazed with leaded panes (No. Montacute House wide. The picture gallery" is supposed to be derived from these apartments. 241). pierced balustrading. Aston Hall (A.D. 1618-35) is 136 feet by 18 feet and 16 feet ' The term high. from Stockton House. a chapel (sometimes). ii. or " solar of Gothic times. 555 At one end of the hall. and was used more as a means of communication. Haddon Hall (A. by the entrance.D. Charlton House (Wilts) (A. 250 K). the ceiling being richly modelled in plaster. oak panelling the full height. 166 feet long. the sill of which is level. over which is the minstrels' gallery. There is no feature of an old English mansion more characteristic than these galleries. 242 and 244 E) is a special feature. 1607) is 130 feet by 22 feet wide. the latter increasing considerably in number and importance during this period. and below are dimensions of important galleries. . rich carving.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE.D. and the roof (No. 1589) (No. and the bedrooms. An example of an apartment treated with panelling its whole height and with elaborate carved chimneypiece is shown in No.


for which Cheshire and Shropshire are specially famous. Date. 246). Longford Castle. A. Knole. with circular towers at each angle. 1567. - 1558. A. 1593-1615.D. A. Ralph Simons. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS ELIZABETHAN MANSIONS. 1634. Ralph Simons. College. 132).D.D. A. John Thorpe (?). Date. The Gate of Honour.D. Wilts. Moreton Hall.D. A. Architect. Name. is an example of many of the timbered houses. Kent (No. Burghley. with superA.D. Elizabethan Colleges. 1624. 1550-1559) (No. A. C" Smithson. Pembroke A. Warwickshire. College. Cheshire (A. OXFORD. 1571. and now forms an irregular pentagon on plan.D 1570-1585I A. Worcester. Westwood. The Quadrangle. Clare College. I570-I5751570.D.D A. Caius A.D A. Architect. Westley. triangular courtyard. Wilts.John Thorpe.D. 247). A. naturally gave a great impetus to the new style. Holt. Kent.D. 248).D.D. Thomas Thomas Thomas Thomas Holt. John of Padua (?). John's College (Court). Longleat.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. Northants (No. Holt. l6l2. Holt. and these buildings. Notts. Longford Castle was originally triangular in plan (No. Jesus College. 1580 A. Emmanuel (Court). Trinity College. page 324) were erected during this period. l6l2.D.D. and Jesus Colleges (portions of) and others. Northants. erected in the period. A. Name. Many of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge (cf. 1595. A.D. Merton College (Library). 1600-1624. l6l2. (later fa9ade). S. Wollaton. and central open It was added to in the eighteenth century. 1590. Nevill Court.D.D. 1565-1574. Montacute House. Somerset. A. Wadham College.D. john Thorpe. Penshurst. Oriel imposed orders. 1580. 131 F). A. Charlecote.D. Gateway of the Schools (No. Sidney Sussex College A. Ralph Simons. . Theodore Haveus of Cleves (?). 575. CAMBRIDGE. .D A. 557 Kirby. A. situated within the seats of revived learning. College. 1584.I 589. 1580-1601. as object lessons to the rising generation. list.

u .



A. and many examples in Chester. Holborn. A. A.D. the Hall of Charterhouse.D. 4. 250). 1611. in London. and other of the country towns throughout England. picturesqueness as classic literature and models became better known. Herts (Nos. 241 and 249). Architect. most of which are easily accessible. COMPARATIVE (see page 562). The buildings of this style were most suitable to the wants of the people in whose era they were erected." preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum. Kensington (No. Charlton House. 1607. and an examination of the mansions erected during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. A. 561 Town Houses. EXAMPLES. Elizabethan of these exist. Holland House. Date.D. 1607. 244). 3. Hatfield House. 1603-1625). (A. Some of the detail and ornamentation may be questionable. Name. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Bishopsgate (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum). erected several of the mansions The Jacobean was a development Gothic gradually diverging from of this epoch. and the use of the columns with their entablatures became more general. Sir Paul Pindar's House. J onn Thorpe. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS JACOBEAN MANSIONS. for example. Jacobean furniture design continued on the same lines as the architecture. arid his book of "compositions. E. Many interesting specimens and among them are several houses of half-timber construction. Bramshill.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 5. F. London. as.D. style of the Elizabethan. 2. The celebrated architect. but they were at least the outcome of the social conditions of that age. I. is well worthy of study.D. o o . Wilts. 131 D. THE JACOBEAN STYLE. JAMES i. INFLUENCES (see page 545). Staple Inn. 1607-1612. Hants (No. John Thorpe.A. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 565). will give as much if not more pleasure than the study of the buildings of any other period of Architecture in England.

B. 243). and Haddon (ball-room wing). while many are irregular in plan. Warwickshire. Loseley. as at Montacute.D. A. Date.D. A. 246). Burghley. 1603-1616. and other trees cut in fantastic patterns. 1612. 245 D). Openings. Broad terraces. E). B). Norfolk Hall. the baluster being much employed. and wide flights of steps. 250 D. Derbyshire. The chimney stacks are special and characteristic features. A. Hatfield and elsewhere. 244). as at Haddon .562 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE Name. the Classic orders being used in a very free manner. the broad staircase Characteristic features are (Nos. Parapets are pierced with various characteristic designs (Nos. with yews. Essex. 248). Holland House (No. (Nos. Bay windows were largely used. Penshurst (No. (No. as at Bramshill. THE ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN These are often E or H-shaped (No. Longleat. the long gallery. and Audley End. entrance being in the middle of the letter. 249 and 246) but sometimes they are of cut brickwork. Longleat. 131 D. box. c. being often treated in a prominent manner with orders. 249 and 250 A. Cranbourne Manor House Dorsetshire. Aston Hall. so that they play an important part in the composition and outline of the house. l620. A. Longford. A. 242. 1618-1635. 249). and the two ends forming wings.D. 244 E). 245 c). Loseley Park. raised above the : garden level (No. COMPARATIVE. Hardwick(No. following in a general way the slope of the roof (Nos. as Knole. Bernard Jansen Bolsover Castle. and Holland House (No. 244 and 246). such grouping being often brought about through the work being an addition to a previous Gothic house. 4. The gables are often of scroll-work. 244 A.D. STYLES. Smithson. 246). as at Hatfield House (No. The great hall. Walls. 132 F). B). Kirby Hall (No. 244). Elevations have the character of picturesqueness. 1613. as at Hatfield and Kirby (Nos. and form important features of the style. often placed one above the other in the f^ades. Gardens were often laid out in a formal manner. Blickling . 244.D. the A. H. A rchitect. Hatfield (No. K). are charming features in the style. the shafts being carried up boldly. the Gateway of the Schools at Oxford (No. Audley End. Plans. with balustrades. and very often a chapel (No. . 244 B). and Kirby Hall (No. near Guildford.


and elsewhere. 250 H. strap ornamentation (No. scrolls. more especially in pilasters. as in Nos. as at Hatfield (No. M). and tiles were both used. Roofs. often banded or carved at intervals. centre which is perhaps the most licentious specimen of the style. purity. but founded on Classic originals. 248. seems to have influenced in many ways the sections employed (No. and Hatfield (No. Grotesquely carved figures as terminals occur (No. 241. c). 249 and 250). in imitation of the damascened work which was at that period so common. 244 A. (No. 244 A). flat. interlaced in grotesque patterns. none return too late. " Through this None come wide opening gate too early. and attached as if by nails or rivets. 244 A and 248). Arcades were often introduced. and pilasters were similarly At Longleat. and and festoons were preferred . High. and turrets were in common use (Nos. Large heavily-mullioned windows (Nos. and oriel windows are common. "Strap" ornamentation was formed of about the width and thickness of a leather strap. and the use of convex mouldings. and crossed by horizontal transoms. F. especially in the form of recessed loggie. Bramshill. pierced. Arcades were much employed. 249 and 250 G). 244. Dormers were largely used. 250 G). 243. occur Lead both separately and in the same design (No. The balustrade. 246. and 247). corresponding to the comparaBramshill has a fa9adetive unimportance of the upper rooms. Mouldings." D. Doorways are often elaborate in design. (Nos. or battlemented. 249). G. ribbons. arcaded. through and on piers and in spandrels. These are local and coarse in many instances. This type of detail is also found in pilasters. to Gothic foliage types. the most Italian-like example. or low roofs with balustrades. 250 G).564 filled in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. accompanied by bulbous Square columns were used. 249 and 250 D. is a constant feature (Nos. France and Italy. as in the ceilings (No. as at Bramshill (No. are special features adopted from the late Gothic period. Plaster work. 250 K). as at Bramshill (No. the topmost order is the smallest. Columns. 250 in carving generally. 250 M). 246 with leaded glass. A typical cornice consists of a large cyma and small ogee moulding above a corona of little depth. as at Bramshill (No. 250). It is considered by some to have been derived from the East. banded with swellings (No. 250 E). The orders were employed rarely with E. a characteristic treatment being the reduction downwards. Ornament by raised bands. as at Hatfield. and also stone slabs in certain districts. 250 G). treated or panelled. 249). j.

). 1846.). (Gloucestershire. G. (F." 4to. Old Cottages. folio. ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN. Plaster (Nos. " 1893. " Old Cottages. Habershon (M. Architecture of the Renaissance in England. 251 F) the pulpit from North Cray Church. occurs in pilasters and pedestals.)." Folio. Gotch (J. A. such as the monuments to Elizabeth (A." 2 vols. monuments and tombs (No. Tapestries continued to be used for walls. " Observations on the Architecture of England during the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I." Folio. 243 and 250 M) was used for ceilings with great skill in design and adaptability to the material. Parkinson and Ould. 1837. Cambridge (No. . and broad friezes were sometimes modelled with much quaintness and grotesque feeling. Herefordshire. . color decoration little or no progress. 251 H). 250 G).. as at Hardwick. Mansions of England in the Olden Time. a large number being found in churches throughout the The chapel screen country. are very numerous and charac- making The teristic. 250 F). J. 410. . or the projection of blocks of stone of prismatic form (No. and the tablet from Peterhouse College Chapel. " Gotch (J." 1839-1849. " Buildings in the Cotswold District 1904. 251 o) Convocation Room. etc.). . REFERENCE BOOKS. 5. 251 A) the bookcase from Pembroke the throne and stalls from the College. "A Collection of the Ancient Timber Edifices of England. Dawber " 1891-1894. and many being richly colored. 242." 4to. mantelpieces.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 565 Prismatic rustication. Cambridge (No. Richardson (C." 1901. " Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and Sussex. from the Charterhouse.). will indicate to the reader the manner in which Renaissance features were applied to the arts and crafts connected with architecture.D. " 4to. 1904. and other Halftimber Buildings of Shropshire. Oxford (No. . Nash (J. 251 E). and the tomb of Lord Burghley (No. Harrison Guildford). and Cheshire. 251 G) the cistern now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. "Early Renaissance Architecture in England.). 1900. and other Stone (E. " Studies from Old English Mansions. and in later times colored stones were inserted in their stead." 4to. Annals of an Old Manor House " (Sutton Place. Davie (W. 1604) and Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster Abbey.). Kent (No. 251 c) the doorway in Broughton Castle (No. Clayton (J. Guy). " The Ancient Half-Timbered Houses of England. . screens. Richardson. 1836.)." 1841-48. 251 j). Farmhouses. A.). Farmhouses. London (No. entrance porches.


H. B. Renaissance Architecture." Kenilworth. 3. OR SEVENTEENTH CENTURY STYLE.) "John Inglesant. (1660-85)." ReedQ. The following are among his principal Buildings Chilham Castle. i. and on his return introduced a purer Renaissance style. " Old Halls in Lancashire and Cheshire. his works being carefully studied by him." Folio. James (1685-89). 1839. The transitional Elizabethan and Jacobean styles at length gave way before the influence of Inigo Jones and Wren. The Commonwealth intervened. 2. founded on Italian models and ornamentation. THE ANGLO-CLASSIC. many of Inigo Jones's designs." 4to. 410. 1884.). Gotch's text-book on James I. (1573-1652). the reigns of Charles I. (1625-49)." His toncal Novels. The Italian architect Palladio was Inigo Jones's favourite master in design. and checked the execution of transitional of brick with stone dressings. but returned to He revisited Italy in 1612 for further England in 1604." The Fortunes of Shorthouse (J. the Commonwealth (1649-60).). Kent (A. with radiating side wings forming a horseshoe court at the back.D. "Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and Folio." Taylor (H. EXAMPLES. is a : example . and with a porch having the baluster-columns of the earlier periods." Scott (Sir Scott (Sir Early ] Walter). 1902. and especially at Vicenza. INFLUENCES (see page 545). Continued. Tanner (H. He was invited to Copenhagen by the King of Denmark." Walter). E-shaped facade. and thus Palladio had a great influence on English architecture. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER." Nigel." Shaw (H. " Details of Elizabethan Architecture. Palladio's native town. Comprises.) "Sir Indar. A good " selection of these are reproduced in Mr. who are considered the founders of the Anglo-Classic style. William and Mary (1689-1702). 1840. "English Interior Woodwork of the XVI-XVIIIth Centuries. study. Charles II.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE 567 REFERENCE BOOKS Richardson. influenced the work of Inigo Jones.). John Thorpe's Original Drawings in the Soane Museum. 1614-1616). INIGO JONES Long study in Italy.


the Barber Surgeons' Hall (1636-1637) and Ashburnham House. a pupil of Inigo Jones. is severe and imposing by reason of its simplicity and good proportions. executed by the master mason Nicholas Stone. one of which was to be circular. Raynham Hall. each 30 feet high. The greater part of the building was to have been of three stories. 252). and Lincoln's Inn Chapel (1617-1623). . 238 A) Wilton House. are examples of his town buildings. S. SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723) was a scholar and a mathematician. proportion. 131 H. was an important part of his education. London (A. Kent (No. Beds (1616-1621). 252 E) was arranged round courtyards. j). the river facade of which was executed by John Webb. and constituted a great . was to be 75 feet high. Norfolk Stoke Park. the Embankment Gardens. Paul. Hall. as curtain wings to the main blocks. and in design like the Banqueting House (No. 1619-1621). Berks (1650). 252). being Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College and at the University of Oxford. Westminster (1640). divided into two stories. Whitehall (A. Houses in Lincoln's Inn Fields and Great Queen's Street (1620). on the Louvre were then in progress. are examples of his country houses. Houghton (1630) . Coleshill. Greenwich (1639) (No. Covent Garden (A. 252 c). his early mathematical training fitting him for the constructive skill shown in his later works. elegance. 1626) (No. 569 Banqueting House.D. 1631-1638). In this design.D. a part only of a Royal Palace. . and purity of detail.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. with a total height to the top of the parapet of 100 feet. The plan (No. As an architect. . York Water Gate. Wren lacked the more thorough technical education of Inigo Jones. formed the river entrance The gateway is now in to Old York House. and the great court would have vied with that of the Louvre (page 503). The arcades and buildings around the market were also designed is The by Inigo Jones. The remainder. are more happily combined than in any other Renaissance scheme of the kind. and Chevening House. and was not always able to clothe his constructive forms in equally appropriate detail. since destroyed. Greenwich Hospital. which was one of the grandest architectural conceptions of the Renaissance (No. Wilts (additions) (1640-1648).D. but has been altered and rebuilt by subsequent architects. Northants (1630-1634) the King's (Queen's) House. but his study of French architecture at Paris and elsewhere in The works France. has the two lower stories The hospital was included under one huge Corinthian order. afterwards added to by Sir Christopher Wren (page 576).

TIMBER flWMIIG MI Vim EIGHT 1/IM HKHTOF SUPPORTING BtE - FOR (foils ^---9 y. '. effl 5fflLE FOR && IO. t ESTIMATED IV. 100 fr 253- . ..00 .ENGLISH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES.Q 50 . goo .

000 square feet. often gave a semi-French turn to his designs. as S. but Wren. however. as at Hampton Court." and indicating a careful study in the proportion of part to part. arranged somewhat similarly to Ely Cathedral. north and south transepts. being mixed "with brains. : but the influence of the with a projecting western vestibule clergy. 253 B) are ornamented with pilasters of the Corinthian order. to their dignity . who desired a long nave and choir suitable for ritualistic purposes. Paul. supporting an entablature and attic. and Cologne Cathedral. but he was employed in a large number of churches. in which he was obliged to study economy. Rome. were executed in Portland stone. was in plan a Greek cross (No. The wall surfaces have recently been decorated with glass mosaic. which has given the color it was originally intended . abandoned for pecuniary and other reasons. as executed. Paul and the City churches. which is pure Italian. Paul's Cathedra]. whom the French followed. Paris. and other buildings. consists of a great central space at the crossing. as compared with Vignola. Palladio continued to be the inspirer of English work. school in 571 of art. as Opie said. The internal piers (No. 86 feet high. The dome. finally caused the selection of the mediaeval type of plan. consequence. It is struction. a breadth including aisles of 100 feet. 213). 253 B. under Sir William Richmond. Marlborough House. which are not visible from the exterior. The first design. of which there is a fine model in the northern triforium of the Cathedral. above which are formed the flat saucer-like domes. and having east and west a nave and choir in three bays with aisles. after which he devised a grand plan for the reconstruction. This. however. crowned by a dome. London (1675-1710). Dome of the Invalides. more especially in the decorative detail. which ranks amongst the finest Renaissance Cathedrals in Europe. to have. indicate. and an area of 60. as may be seen on comparing his work with that of Inigo Jones. which by its good weathering properties adds and importance while in domestic work. all his designs. who never visited Italy. is of triple concarried on eight piers (cf. and elsewhere. and a projecting The building has an western vestibule with lateral chapels. Peter. internal length of 460 feet. Light is admitted by means of windows in the clerestory. which was. he used with stone dressings. Many of his designs. Wren's work shows more French influence than that of Inigo Jones. Many of these. and. An illustration showing its comparative size and disposition with S. 253). much thought. as shown in No. is given (No. including S. red brick His principal Ecclesiastical works were as follows S.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. was Wren's masterpiece. . the Pantheon. His great opportunity was the destruction of London by the Great Fire in 1666.


1 8 inches thick. with cave and crevice seam'd. Architects. The western front.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. covered with lead. which is crowned with lantern and cross. The exterior is exceedingly effective. Paris. which receive the thrust of the nave vault. S. and is 109 feet at the base of the drum. and is made to group well with the central dome. and thus giving an appearance of strength and Behind the solidity which is lacking in the Pantheon. that well I trow. and approached by a broad flight is flanked by two finely proportioned towers. known as the Gallery. and the intermediate conical dome also of brickwork 18 inches thick. The facades have two orders totalling 108 feet in height. Master Mason. supports the stone lantern. In lurid dimness nearer streets are seen. The dome externally is probably the finest example in Europe." Time Building. The eagle's haunt. Eight openings are formed in the summit for the admission of light to the inner domes. Twenty. Stretched wide on either hand. Did not its form man's artful structure show. S. Paul. One. which latter has The outer dome is formed of timber a height of 365 feet. and rests on the intermediate dome (No. 'Tis then St. having every fourth intercolumniation filled in solid. It might some lofty Alpine peak be deem'd. 573 Paris. Bishops. being formed of three-quarter radiating buttress walls. Paul on a foggy day : Rear'd in the sky. Paul." rises an attic above supporting the dome. the lower Corinthian and the upper Composite. columns attached to effective. Rome. having between them the double storied portico of coupled columns supporting a pediment in which there is a fine representation of the conversion of S. Six. the projecting masses of masonry at the meeting of nave and the support of the dome from the transepts expressing The colonnade to the drum is particularly ground upwards. of steps. and to act as a counterweight to the flying buttresses concealed behind it. 253 B). So far from earth removed. Like shoreward billows of a troubled sea Arrested in their rage. 215 feet high. page 500). One. The inner dome of brickwork. a rugged screen. 35 years. " Stone balustrade. One. but as the aisles are only one story high. London. Peter. diminishing to 102 feet at the top. . The poetess Joanna Baillie has well described the majestic appearance of S. the upper story on the flanks is a screen wall introduced to give dignity. 100 years. ball and cross. The lower parts in swathing mists conceal'd " The higher through some half-spent shower reveal'd. has its summit 281 feet high. 180 feet wide. Paul's arrests the wandering eye .



Wren was also responsible for the erection of some fiftythree City churches in the Renaissance style between 1670-1711. Among : Bow S. 257). 255 A. Walbrook (1672-1679) (No. in which a square tower supports a pyramidal spire in receding stages clothed with classical details. Mary.576 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. is considered more important than the "long-drawn aisle" space for processional purposes. and is deservedly famous for the excellent effect produced by small means within a limited area. carrying cross vaulting and a S. These are models of simplicity and restraint. B) of which Wren may be called the inventor. Michael. Aldermary . the sixteen columns. and The Inner Court. characteristic of mediaeval churches. . (1711). central cupola. the latter resting on eight of the columns. combined in Chelsea Hospital. has original and ingenious planning. James. inclosed in a rectangle. Piccadilly (No. Cambridge (1679) the Library of Queen's College. The Monument. D. and general in which a central preaching suitability for Protestant worship. Paul's Cathedral. . Church. Clement Danes (1684) and S. Dunstan in the East (1698) S. Fleet Street (1680) (Nos. at Winchester (1684). in the splendid acoustic of the hall. 255 c. 257). Cambridge one of his earliest works. (1721). is the most successful of a type of Renaissance steeple (No. Winchester . Trinity College. the Library of Trinity College. Oxford and the School Room (1682) . S. Cheapside (1680). Oxford (1664). a fault which was avoided in Bow Church by the use of inverted consoles. the more important of these are the following Stephen. S. S. Martin. Oxford (1665). are examples of his Gothic treatment of Pembroke College Chapel. Ludgate. has a steeple simpler in design. properties is an evidence of his scientific skill in the constructive carpentry of the roof. are work. The Western Towers of Westminster Abbey S. : (1663-1664) was The Secular works of Wren were numerous The Sheldonjan Theatre. Cornhill spires. is another example generally considered less successful because of the telescopic effect of similar stories. 256). Bride. other examples of his collegiate from the stately. and are notable for skilful planning on awkward and confined sites. but exceedingly picturesque in the group that it forms in conjunction with Wren's masterpiece. the Two Blocks of Greenwich Hospital furthest river. a group at once picturesque and the Royal Palace. London Bridge (1671). are successful though plain examples of his galleried interiors. S. the Fountain Court and Garden Facade of Hampton Court Palace (1690).


as in the principal simpler style to which to Fleet Street. (1683). to which importance. Castle Howard (No. (1714-27). were placed in a central block. Greenwich (No. and Kedlestone (No. the house was usually roughly divided into three. London (1670). c). Maryborough House. E.. 131 H. of a smaller type of monumental Herts. j).COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. are a few examples which show Kensington number of different classes of buildings upon which for suitability to the several purposes its the large he was engaged. as at the King's (Queen's) House. as at Holkham Hall (No. Comprises the reigns of Anne (1702-14). Blackheath.F) superseding the Jacobean plans. COMPARATIVE (see page 585). and reception-rooms. the first floor being the principal one. everything was sacrificed. George III. as at Greenwich. and during the eighteenth century. George George II. THE "QUEEN ANNE. 131 K). the centre third being occupied by the hall. and the Banqueting Palace Gardens. London (1674-1684) with wooden doorways. 2. Hall (Orangery) in Pall Mall (1709)." "GEORGIAN. B. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.. Morden College. two stories in height. entrance gateway Temple Bar. In the square type the centre was frequently occupied by the top-lit saloon. 258 A. or an oblong. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 588). is a pleasing example work. In the oblong type. (1760-1820). facades and interesting The Temple." OR EIGHTEENTH CENTURY STYLE. 4. storerooms and cellars. 258 D. and their which they were designed. 238 A). In the latter part of the seventeenth. 258 C. the plan of the smaller type of house was usually a square. In the larger type of house. reached by an external flight of steps as at Rainham in Norfolk. 5. On either side symmetrical detached wings were added. The basement in both types contained the kitchen. I. saloon and staircases. both already mentioned (page 569)." "PEDIMENT AND PORTICO. saloon. i. as at Chevening (No. and this led to the internal staircase being reduced in The hall. either and square or oblong on plan (No. is plain brickwork an example of his character is given. F). INFLUENCES (see page 545). removed to Iheobalds Park. the ground floor was frequently treated as a basement. (1727-60). or connecting H -shaped E .


Load some vain church with old theatric state. And of one beauty many blunders make . 258 c). most of the less important houses for the middle class people being erected in the useful and modest Queen Anne and Georgian type of square house. a point remarked upon by Pope The was influenced by a passion : "'tis very fine.. often treated Northants (No. but not a dwelling. that at this time there grew up a national style. of the designs of " Antiquities of Rome. of this period and as they were contemporaries. 131 K). Herts. rules. Latham Hall. and many other examples. buildings once were things of use. 258 F)." r ? Or the remark of Lord Chesterfield to General Wade may be quoted. my your just. or where d'ye dine I find by all you have been telling That tis a house. design of the buildings. not excepting the domestic class. Turu arcs of triumph to a garden gate ****** . not profuse. land with imitating fools Who random drawings from your sheets shall take. The publication. as at Stoke portions of quadrant form. are thus referred to by Palladio. practising at the same time. which almost entirely put aside as unworthy of consideration the comfort and convenience of the people who had to occupy them. The fact must not be overlooked. Blenheim. and Holkham (No.580 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . Chatsworth. The Jacobean gallery survived in a modified form." really did happen. for symmetry and grandeur. corridor planning did much for convenience and comfort in domestic architecture. by Pope in one of his epistles to the Earl of Burlington. Oxfordshire (No. 1310). Derbyshire (No. Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door. Park. Moreover. 258). Fill half the glorious. and the fast developing trade of the joiner admitted of the elaboration of internal fittings. Yorkshire (No. 238 F). that the latter had better take a lodging opposite his Palladian mansion (by Lord Burlington). and well There were many style of architecture. Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar. And pompous shall. But where d'ye sleep. and Kedlestone. Castle Howard. their names and principal This passage suggests what characterizes the famous architects works are given. as at Castle Howard (No. however. your noble ." Inigo Jones. as colonnades. if he liked nothing but the front. "You show Yet us. Moor Park. Lancashire. viz. by the Earl of Burlington. and of the drawings of the in the early part of the century. Rome was lord.

being a great development in planning. PrinciS. He published a book of his own designs. Gloucestershire. Rococo style. George Dance. EXAMPLES. erected S. erected the Horse Guards.D. and the Senate House. Gloucestershire King's (A. Mary Woolnoth . His better known son was the designer of Newgate. Cambridge. the Danes Church Hospital all cliffe Library. and the commencement of the Palladian type of house." which contains plans and elevations of all the country houses of any importance erected best His during the century. Houghton. and Seaton Delaval. Martin in pal works were : the Fields . 131 K). Blooms. 1714) (No. in it is and which a striving after symmetry and monumental grandeur. SpitalHe also all in London. fields assisted Sir John Vanbrugh at and Blenheim. City architect of London. and works at Hampton Court. Principal works: George. 1713). Derbyshire (A. 258). In the plan of Blenheim there is an extensive use of corridors as communicating passages. London. and Holkham Hall. was often his badly designed. known works were the front and gateway of old Burlington House (1717). S. notable for skilful grouping the . Castle Howard His works were much influenced both by Wren and Vanbrugh.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 1695-1753).D. 1734) was the the compiler of the ' k Vitruvius Britannicus. 1766). John. William Talman (d. senior (d. in the somewhat heavy style of his master. Philip. He Isaac erected Chesterfield House. 1763) was a pupil of Wren and followed him in his practice. ham House. tion in collabora- with the Earl of Burlington. (1666- Nicholas Hawksmoor S. S. England. Colin Campbell (d. Dover Street. notably clerk of the works at Kensington Palace and Greenwich Hospital.D. Norfolk (1723). in which the above works. . Anne. Oxford. Chatsworth. are other works." Sir Robert Taylor (1714-1788). with others. 1681). may be found. and S. as with other of Wren's pupils. and Wanstead. . Yorkshire (A. and was the author of Complete Body of Architecture. 1714) (the Mary-le-Strand tower is an oblong on plan). James Gibbs (1683-1754). Westminster. 1743) was a He pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh. Blenheim Palace Principal works: (No. Hawksmoor held several Government appointments. Northumberland. The Earl of Burlington (A. Kent (1684-1748). May"A fair. 3. Birmingham. and other He Villa at designed the Palladian Chiswick an English . S. but and ideas of some originality grandeur were too often marred by eccentricities of treatment. Horse Guards Parade Devonshire House. Dyn. the most important mansion of the period erected in bury . an amateur architect Ware (d. erected the Mansion House. is both picturesque and S.D. Weston. S. Piccadilly. He was the architect of the Pelican Fire Office. Castle Howard. is an example of a ponderous character. London. Treasury Buildings. and Ely House.D. (A. and a step towards the privacy which is now insisted upon. the most appropriate of and patron of Kent artists. . Essex (1720). Norfolk (No. Thomas Archer (d. 1715). Lombard Street . 238 F). 1768). Sir John Vanbrugh (1666-1726). stately. at the expense of usefulness. led to the debasement of architecture. George in the East Limehouse Christ Church. in architectural detail. Clement and Bartholomew's in London the Radsteeple.

The Pantheon (1772) in Oxford Street. and the College and Register Office. a pupil of George Dance. downe . school. His best known work is Prior Park. Kenwood House. and there is a consequent taint of eccentricity. Wiltshire and Fonthill Abbey (1795-1822). He undertook the restoration of many of the cathedrals and important churches in England and Wales. near designs . He travelled largely in The brothers Adam were the authors of a marked style of interior decoration that is known Furniture and by their name. and simple in its parts. Hampstead . 1764). 258) LansStratford Place. Buckingham Sion House. stone Hall.1813) studied Rome. Other designs are two sides of Fitzroy Square the Adelphi Terrace (named after the the screen in front four brothers) . which is grand. 259). . decoration were treated together with the design of the rooms themselves with refined and elegant details. Adams' chimneypieces are specially characteristic. The Brothers Adam." in the year 1760. and the vestibule to . Whitehall ( 1 760) . . His early designs are Palladian. it fails in the quality of apparent suitability of purpose. Robert John also of S. England. . the Corinthian order of the Temple at Tivoli being closely followed. London. wrote the Decorative Part of Civil the He carried on the Architecture. in . Luke's Hospital. Kent Castle Coote. Caen Wood. runs through t\vo rustication is A single order stories. commenced in 1776 (No. a book which influenced architectural design. . . and lately demo- Vicenza (page 488).D.D. creating a lished the taste for Roman magnificence. Greek revival 261. prison lished in translation of the Villa Capra." traditions of the Anglo-Palladian objecting strongly to the then commencing. near London (A. (1728-1792) published "Diocletian's Palace at Spalato. pub" Illustrations of Baalbec and Palmyra" in 1750. . and White's works in London Club. private houses in London. The character of his work in general is correct and refined. x and the East. London (1765) Stowe House. Hampstead and many (A. 1735-1743). first Treasurer of the Royal " Treatise on Academy.582 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Comparing this design with Newgate. Kedle. junior. 17611762). on the site now occupied 'by Waterloo Place (the Corinthian columns being employed at the National Brooks's Gallery) Club. The proportions he adopted for the Classic orders are given in Nos. Sir William Chambers (17261796). which is a charming and refined piece of work. and largely employed. His Europe great work is Somerset House. Whitehall. but he was unable to clothe them with suitable details. studied in Italy (1788). Derbyshire (No. but lacking somewhat and strength. Dover House. Chambers. . of the Admiralty. are Lee Priory. 262. ^00^(1704-1754) of Bath. Esher Carlton House. London House. but the small knowledge of the true spirit of Gothic archi- and constitutes his masterpiece. Sir John Soane (1750-1837). and his later ones are thoss of an original mind. Adam conjunction with Dawkins.D. James Wyalt( 1748. in originality Holland Henry (1740-1806) erected Claremont House. a erected House and the Law Courts at Dublin. and various other works in that city. (1742-1823). Bath (A. Edinburgh. occupied many This important building years of his life. The Dulwich picture gallery is by . Ireland Bowden Park. He was appointed architect to the Bank of fames Gandon pupil of Sir the Custom W. dignified.

o Q sS" en u~> CS .


elliptical-shaped c. contains interest- ing drawings and models. COMPARATIVE. These are marked by regularity and symmetry. 261). and suites of such saloons are arranged in various combinations. or by a mean approach from a side door through the basement. ANGLO-CLASSIC. ingenious domical. the varied shapes of the rooms. and blank walls. " No roof but a D." 585 Museum. tecture then existing is responsible for his inability to effect these with success. being introduced. are not uncommon. balustrades or attics conceal the small . 238 F. ANNE AND GEORGIAN STYLES. Roofs. his private house. pilasters. 258). These are usually thick. Staircases receive much attention. but infrequency of openings was compensated for by large and unobstructed window areas (No. Plans. 131 G. Brick was used most commonly for walling. in Sir John Soane's Lincoln's Inn Fields. formerly him. 258 c). Corridors gradually supersede the hall and en suite or thoroughfare systems of planning (Nos. tively developed. Windows were reduced in number as much as possible. 260 B). c. Gate piers are frequently in excellent Vertical grouping of windows was effecproportion (No. occupy the ground floor. QUEEN A. H. circular. 252 E and 258 c. basement. 4. or window dressings of the composition (No. arcades. Stone was used as an ashlar facing and for dressings. spherical one being sufficiently . " dignified for this style. 260 A. as in houses in Hanover Square. Pugin has starred him with " the affix the destroyer. but in later work it was usually stuccoed. or kitchen offices. 261 c). 260 G). j. Pediments are the only form of gable. Openings. E) the maximum scale was a question of material and expense. F). to mask undesirable necessities. on plan. and the large compositions of windows to more than one room or story were not affected by party-wall or floor divisions. Walls. affected the planning of many country houses (No. and often for the facing. and the minimum condition of having to pass through them (No. K. Chimneys are often concealed. and the best rooms are reached by a great external staircase and portico (No. often cubical in proportion. 258 D). sometimes of a Porticos. Unbroken surfaces contrasted with the porticos. or other top lights. and apartments. doorways (No. sometimes showing signs of being dictated by a preconceived The Italian use of a piano nobile above a storage elevation. and special Venetian Character (No. and elsewhere. Excessive cellarage. as in the houses of the Brothers Adam in Fitzroy Square. and filled in solid between B.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Octagonal. 258). were regulated by the proportions of the Classic orders. and are used with and without balustrades. are usual (No.


^JL SS3 ^t "te> *r"" is fcU m ^j> ^ w || .

. were most often of two or more stories in Columns. and J. and French work of the style of Louis XIV. 262). tombs H. admitted of much elaboration and refinement in such features as the main external cornices and doorways. was modelled in stucco with great skill and effect.). being applied in every material with small modification (Nos.) duced from the above. 255). who took various Renaissance architects as his guide. Single order porticos of large scale were not size of stone obtainable. while the Brothers Adam and others imported Italian workmen. 260 and chimney-pieces (No. Mouldings. 260). but sometimes fresco decorations were employed. 260 tablets (No. covered with lead. in function. The standard mouldings of the Classic orders F.588 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " Works in Architecture. who carried the art to a high pitch of technical excellence. and his successors was also followed. 262).). 5. Pilasters. but on possible owing to the small the introduction of stucco and iron these could be erected. 1901. 258 A and 259). and skilful outlines (No. Domes. material smallness of scale was rendered possible. became the stock-in-trade of every workman. REFERENCE BOOKS. Decorative Work of. cupolas. on Greek examples. Adam (R. or both. Decoration. K) are among the most pleasing decorative features in the style. (SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.) Adam (R. (No. 260. 260 D). those on a large scale being lead covered. or in the later period. founded on Roman. and turrets were well designed. and J. The orders were executed with facility in wood or plaster. Chambers (Nos. amount of low-pitched roof covering the building (No. artists such as Verrio and Sir James Thornhill being engaged. 258). Columns. were employed in interiors with considerable effect. Whitewash was usual. and design is thus often found of equal standard in very varied The large employment of wood. and small buildings resembling Roman Temples (No. In the smaller works. orders were used wherever funds permitted (No. while small examples were sometimes entirely of wood. 260). 261 E)were most effectively grouped in parks and gardens. in which classes of building. Wall (No. 261." 3 vols." (A selection of plates reproFolio. rival mediaeval spires in fanciful E. steeples of the period. tiled roofs having a wooden eaves cornice. The G. were often effectively used. The splendid in stone and wood. folio. The canons of proportion first laid down by Vitruvius (page 167) were still further insisted on by Sir W. 1773-1822. however. Ornament j). . LATER ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. often purely decorative height (Nos.

" 5 vols. the reigns of George IV. in 8vo. . Woolfe. " Vitruvius Britannicus. Birch (G. Inwood's " Erechtheion .). " Some Architectural Works Triggs (H.. shut out new ideas in art. 1715-1771. " " Robert Adam's " Spalato (A. jun. isolation from the Continent." (Also abridged edition." 1902. of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Houses.)." Stratton (A.). Wren (C.. Inigo) and H." Devereux." " Wingfield (L. H." 2 vols. T. (Contains much interesting information concerning the life and work of Sir Christopher. 1835." Works of Sir Christopher Wren Churches of London and Westminster.)." Folio. Inigo)." / . Great Britain. 1728.)." Simon Dale. and the introduction of eclecticism as a governing idea in architectural design.) the Parochial Clayton (J.). INFLUENCES (see page 545). Formal Gardens in England and Scotland. " Parenfalia. 1848-1849 u Gibbs (J. The notes on this period are merely -given as explanatory of the general course of architecture at this time." Folio. Macartney. William IV. Book of Architecture..)." 2 vols. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Wren. On the one hand. 1764). and Gandon. 2 vols. M.).). and S." of Sir Christopher (A. 1756.-" Esmond. 589 Belcher (J. " Later Renaissance Architecture in England.). Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture 1883." 1897. The beginning of the century saw Palladianism on the decline. " of Inigo Jones. 1762).). " Papworth (W." 1881. 1900. Virginians. 1767-1783." Folio. Triggs (H. 2.). folio. and Victoria (part of) (1837-51). Work. and Influence Wren." Folio. 1757. 1897-1901. 1901.).. Scott (Sir W. Folio. Swan Folio. Thackeray (W." " The Thackeray (W. Comprises (1830-37). " Inigo Jones's Designs. Designs in Architecture.)." ." Lytton (Lord)." Woodstock. . "A 1896. Folio.D.). folio." By W. 8vo.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. etc. (1820-30)..D. 8vo. " Paine (T. M. Kent. folio.) 1750. "The 1897. " London Churches of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Complete Body of Architecture." I T > Historical Novels." Folio. and on the other hand. and Revett's "Antiquities of Athens" (A." Folio. due to the Stuart Napoleonic wars. " Ware (I. \ Hope (A. History of Renaissance Architecture in England. By Campbell." 2 vols. E. Life. THE EARLY VICTORIAN STYLE (THE AGE OF REVIVALS). i. . folio. Plans. Blomfield (R. " Towers and Steeples designed by Sir Christopher Taylor (A. Tanner..). Lady Grizel.) and M.


by James Wyatt. (A.. side by side. for the first time.D. 1776-1832) in the West. William Wilkins (1778-1839) University College. already referred to (page 582). with colonnades have moved) All Souls. and the works of other writers. introduced the age of stucco Haymarket Theatre. and Fonthill Abbey (a monastic building with (A. as at Belvoir Castle. 1769). John Shaw Dunstan . Somewhat later. the galleried church of the period being clothed with details. the influence of literature helped to produce what is known as the " Gothic Revival. f Pancras (1819). of the Regency. which is known as the Revival. a Pseudo-Gothic Abbey. ditions) George's Hospital. internally of the traditional architecture. Cambs. 1831). H. by Blore Quadrant (the since been re. Museum at York DownThe College. Cotman and the elder Pugin. Langham Place. and Grange House. 3.D. " Churches Paley. which now. Fleet Street : ing London. by Horace Walpole. and the laying out of Regent's Park in palatial blocks of synimetricai architecture.. Buckingham : Palace. an early attempt at revived Gothic. caused an increasing interest to be taken in Gothic This interest was further aided by the erection of Architecture. . Examples in the Classic ture. are placed THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. 1831-1832). and externally battlemented and turreted 1840) : in imitation of the Edwardian castles. the writings of Coney. Brandon's of the Middle Ages. run concurrently. the writings of Professor Cockerell and the publications of the Society of Dilettanti (A. a fine treatment of a town church.D. since altered Regent . reproducing purest Church of S. Hants (1820). Britton's Architectural " " Cathedral Anti(1807-1826). Cambs. Wild. Sir Jeffrey Wyatville (1766transformed Windsor Castle in 1826. 1819). an attempt to copy absolutely the of Greek detail. Chelsea (1820). caused an increased interest in Classic architecture and the erection of buildings modern internal arrangements).D. London the National Gallery (fettered with conS. King's College. Luke. S. (A. Street. . Savage: S. Nash (1752-1835). : William Wilkins : New Court." Rickman's " Attempt to Discriminate the Gothic Styles" (A. This started a fashion for castellated mansions. EXAMPLES.In wood(-i j^\-\^>^}\ New r THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. the Antiquities of Great Britain quities of Great Britain" (1814-1835)." and other works. Trinity College.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. . directly from old cathedrals and copied churches." a movement much strengthened by the importation of the Elgin marbles in 1801-1803. Athens. Strawberry Hill (1760-1770). 59! " Greek copied from Greek originals. and Gothic schools of architec- Note. and the New Buildings. since spoilt by erection of adjacent buildings." Battey Langley's "Gothic Architecture Improved.D. W. in many respects the Erechtheion. Cambs.

Weiby Northmore Augustus Pugin (1812-1852). a pupil of Sir John Soane. the fashion of useless porticos. and United Service Club. Rome. Cambs. Brisand Liverpool and Hantol. Pall Mall. and brought in the " astylar " treatment of design. a new era in the Gothic revival began. " depamphlet contrasting the " architecture of the day graded " with what he called the Chris- THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. and was followed by the Reform Club. at the meridian of his power when he died at the age of forty." He erected the Taylor and Ranthe Sun dolph Institute. : Prof. (17881863). In Bridgewater House. Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867). shows the influence of the Pandolfini Palace. commenced 1840 (No. The a pupil of Sir John Soane British Museum (1823-1847) (in which remark the application of the useless but grandeur-giving to buildings) public porticos General Post Office King's Col: . Elmes (1815-1847) George's Hall. and richness of character pervade the whole design. Externally a : church building was awakened. fittings. metal work. Oxford Fire Office. Threadneedle Street. besides convents. He abandoned Greece. : . C. and. 1855. is the most perfect design of the Classic School. . THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. London (1831). lege. Sir IV. simplicity of idea. Ramsgate. only the few the colonnade and portico design is handled with great effect. . and Italy. AugusHe worked tine's. acquired an extraordinary knowledge of the He published a rousing style. erected Fitzwilltam Museum. Pugin erected more than sixty-five churches in the United Kingdom. monasteries. R. London (recently altered) Banks of England at Manchester. and many in colonies. vault was executed in hollow tiles by Sir Robert Rawlinson. travelled much in Greece and Italy. mansions and schools. 263). Pall Mall. Derby. 1833 Houses of Parliament. Southwark. On the death of Elmes. The Travellers' Club. In the Gothic revival Pugin sought to restore the fervour of faith and the self-denying spirit which were the real foundations of the artistic greatness and moral grandeur of the Middle Ages. Florence. Cockerell com- The pleted the decoration of the interior. Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860) travelled extensively in Egypt. A new spirit of Decimus Burton (1800-1881) Screen at Hyde Park Corner in 1824 Athenaeum Club. Liverpool. the main hall recalling the Roman Thermae (page 144). S. from beingemployed upon his father's books of mediaeval architecture. (lately demolished). Basevi (1795-1845). can typical examples be mentioned Roman Catholic churches at Nottingham. by the earnest study of old work. . in which symmetry of the leading lines on plan. Regent Street (1825) . a design inspired by the Farnese Palace. R.A. TV/* (1798-1873) Royal Exchange. George's Cathedral. over Chapel. which is Classic in inspiration. and ornamental work generally of following : . Amongst the numerous works which he erected. London. under Sir Charles Barry on the stained glass.592 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and elsewhere S. Cockerell. won in competition. H. Prof. Pall Mall. and S. Pall Mall. and published "The Greek Temples of yEgina and Bassae. . and carried out with scrupulous adherence to the spirit and detail of the Perpendicular clothing. George tian " style. Sir Charles Barry : Birmingham Grammar School. period. Gothic "in the . the Houses of Parliament. L.. and made a vast number of designs in collaboration with or as assistant He had not yet arrived to others.

A. the Trentham Hall (where landscape gardening of the Italian School is admirably carried out).ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Whewell." by Ruskin. in 1851. Cockerell and Prof. third of the series (1849). design of this great building was It was the climax of the slight. Donaldson were writing on the Classic side. western wing (A. THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. The immediate effect of the evidently felt. L. helped on the Gothic movement. greater richness is sought is after. and the works of Beresford-Hope. The end of the period of Sir Charles Barry marks the close of the Geological Museum. the intention being to combine picturesqueness with symmetrical stateliness. discarded porticos as unnecessary. while Prof. Petit.D. 1857). architecture by the architectural courts and models of buildings The publiin the various styles aroused an interest in the subject. and in marked contrast to the previous buildings of the Revival. The restoration of a large number of cathedrals and churches. THE LATE VICTORIAN STYLE. influenced by Barry. Record Office. the Gothicists was now paramount. Prof. is a still more ornate example of the Renaissance. and Cliefden. J. and detail is refined. Shrublands. Service Commission. and the erection of many new churches. and formed a starting The popularization of point for the arts of the Victorian age. had powerfully aided F. Piccadilly (after courtyard of the Doge's Palace. Pugin. such as metal work. glass painting. Hall at work. and followed on Renaissance rather than Classic lines : one was engaged in imitating. under Sir Charles Barry. The Great Exhibition of 1851 caused the raising into prominence of the minor arts. the Civil The influence of Classic Revival. at the time of its completion. mosaics. the attention of all was riveted on the earlier phases of mediaeval architecture which every- Sir James Pennethorne (1801assistant to Nash. Q . and sculptured works. Fetter Lane. Venice). directed the execution of the fittings. and others. which in the end has done so much to raise the arts and crafts to a higher state of perfection. Comprises the latter part of the reign of Victoria (1851-1901). in 1860. The foundation of the South Kensington (now Victoria and Albert) Museum carried further the influence of the 1851 Exhibition. and 1871). Parker. the influence of the Gothic revival is 593 THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. Sharpe. Highclere. Orders were sparingly used. decoration. Rev. agreeing with the style of the building. and by the atelier which was there maintained for some years. Burlington Gardens Somerset House. cation of "The Seven Lamps of Architecture" and "The Stones of Venice. first idea of the movement that of carrying on the Tudor style so that. by its illustration of ancient decorative art. Brandon. Willis. Other important works in the country are : Town less strong. and the final touch to this influence was given by the 1851 Exhibition. . and the His Italian feeling final Halifax.

. London. . Room. while churches and kindred buildings continued to be erected in a developed style of Gothic architecture. Nelson : Junior United Service Club. Street (1824-1881) : S. Mary Abbott. compromise between modern French and the traditional Italian After this crisis a new movement. P. and Webb influenced the design of smaller buildings in suburbs and country. : M. London the Speech . Strand The Art Union . Brandon Catholic : and . for domestic buildings. James's Hall. Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877) The Foreign Office. to erect the Home and Foreign Offices (1860-1870) in the Classic. church 5 at Halifax (1855) church at Hamburg S. . Cockerell: Gilbert Scott (-1810-1877): Camber well Church S. A*. George. Benjamin Ferrey S. all of which show the increasing desire for and S. Victoria Embankment. London. Oxford . He endeavoured to introduce the Early French Renaissance. study of color. many and other new churches. F. Edinburgh . restorations. Charing Cross Station. S. Piccadilly). B2itlerfield : vvich (the Burlington House Courtyard and facade to College . All Sydney Smirke : The story added to Burlington House . E. Nesfield. which for . Westminster. in Northumberland Avenue. Pancras Station buildings in Broad Sanctuary. .594 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Keble Saints. Westminster . Harrow School. and it is in fact but a poor ideas of the Renaissance. The work of Shaw. CLASSIC SCHOOL. a : modern version of Venetian Gothic. dral. . G. Provincial Banks in London and the provinces. and elsewhere. Venice. Doncaster (1853) S. or as it was called. E. Stephen. Mary. after a Roman Renaissance palace. Sir Digby Wyatt (1820-1877) Courtyard to India Office. restored Cardiff Castle. London Alban. Owen Jones : Westminster. London house in Cadogan Square the Convent. houses. as in the Temple Chambers. S. The Free: masons' Tavern. . the Gothic revival. has unique decorative work inside by Alfred Stevens. acquiesced in by Sir Gilbert Scott. and Philip Webb. W. S. Banks and Barry : Dul: Kensington the Albert Memorial S. . Sir Memorial. John Gibson National James the Less. : Cathedral (1870) . Oxford . Garden Theatre Building. 1861. and Margaret Street. ledge. Burges (1828-1881) Cork . in which the Classic orders embracing two stories are the Society for freely introduced the Promotion of Christian Know: . Paddington . William College. and built his own house in Melbury Road. Stoke Newington the Martyrs' . the modern style. Mark. or Free Classic. the Law Courts. . GOTHIC SCHOOL. Lewis Vulliamy : Dorchester House. due to Norman Shaw. The design thus dictated to Scott was not likely to be a masterpiece. East Grinstead house and church at Holmwood. . Pall Mall. then arose in favour of the Queen Anne style. Mary's Cathe- Haley Hill. it was attempted to extend to buildings every purpose until the movement met with a severe check in the decision. . Barry (1831-1 880) Covent . Holborn. after the library of S. Messrs. Nesfield. British Mu- seum reading-room Carlton Club. Mary Magdalene.

Grassland: Holloway College. (6) S. Kensington. Currey pital. S. and the Albert Hall. Redhill . and Northampton Town Hall. R. London Leamington. 1879 . E. Town A. The Smith - London. W. CLASSIC SCHOOL." Hampshire . and H. Todmorden Apostolic Church. Kenoffices at Lincoln's Inn sington . G. Bristol Assize Courts. hall. L.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Bessborough Gardens (1850). Fields. Godwin Market and Guildhall School Capt. S. James. (4) Brompton. Lord Carlisle's house. Hall and Assize Courts Natural History Museum. Fowke and Assistants: The Science College. : S. Augustine. of Glasgow. London Thames Nesfield: Lodges at Kew Regent's Park. buildings. since altered . Kensington. Pall Mall houses at Queen's Gate. churches (1) : Embankment. Whitehall. . John. Kensington. E. Kenchurches at Southwark and Norwich the Greek Church. Congleton Waterhouse : Manchester . Cheshire City Guilds of London Institute. 595 London. directly the out- Burns: Buccleuch House. come Alexander Thomson. 1859.) G oldie . Astor Estate Offices. : Hall. His eight London W. White- (8) Maida Hill. Davis and Emmanuel : City of London Schools. as country " Wispers ". Cambridge. Learning Brothers: Birmingham. (The Italian style a condition of the competition. of Ruskin's teaching. South . London house near . (3) S. Lowther Lodge. and houses at Bedford Alliance AssurPark. . additions . Deane and Woodward: The Oxford Museum. : S. Admiralty (The result Buildings. and many houses. Place. H. Agnes.) S. Town bord). Q Q 2 . Vauxhall. west front and dome added later. since altered. Norman Shaw : New Zealand Chambers. Chiswick Parish Church (additions) S. John. Whichcord: S. Young: Glasgow Municipal Buildings. (7) Catholic Apostolic Church. Kilburn. Thames Embankment. Scott nington . (5) S. Egham (after Chateau de ChamStephen's Club National Safe Deposit.Whitehall. to . Lower Kennington Lane. The student confined to London may obtain an idea of the early French Renaissance style by an inspection ot this building. London. Pearson. Leadenhall Street. Hall. Alban. : Sir Horace Jones of Music. and many others round London. manner. Gribble: The Oratory at (2) Holy Trinity. James Brooks: Churches in Holland Road. G. London houses. Upper Norwood. S. . Town field GOTHIC SCHOOL. Anne. Peter. Hoiborn Eaton Hall. in the Palladian Gosford Park. . War Office. London. . W. of an open competition which practically sounded the death knell of Gothic architecture for public R. S. Moscow Road. Red Lion Square. Gordon Square. Michael. 1879 Prudential Assurance Offices. Philip IVebb: "Clouds. West Croydon. John. Thomas's Hos- Bodley and Garner : School Board Offices. . Gospel Oak. J. Chiswick ance Office. Mark. : Spanish S.A. known as "Greek Thomson": several buildings at Glasgow with a peculiar severe treatment of modern Greek which had much influence. South Kensington. Pembroke College.: Truro Cathedral.

Trinity Church. the Wren style Salisbury. Electra House. premises. Castle Allerton. and elsewhere. Hospital. Sir Aston Webb and Ingress Bell: Birmingham Assize Courts. Palcy and Austin : and shire. E. Staffordshire . Oxford . Cambridge Indian Institute and Mansfield College. Robson and ] son : Sir Arthur Blomfield: S. Knights/. Colleges. Work . . . (also see . additions to Elizabethan. Hammersmith . version of the Wren style) . . Bride's Vicarage. Bournedomestic work Offices. Sussex. Victoria. London. E. W." and Bryhouses near Salisbury anston. CLASSIC SCHOOL GOTHIC SCHOOL. London. Art Gallery and Pump Room Government : . : . raising of the arts and . mouth. Life tecture). S. for London School typical Board London red brick stocks. Finsbury. G. L. Folkestone." Harrow Mission at Hampstead . Manchester. . Leeds. Bentley New Cathedral. . London (a monumental example of street archi. . . Children's adjacent . IV. M. Mary. R. John. page 56). Telegraph Offices. Colcutt : imperial Institute . Peter. Soho Square. Florence: Hotel Woolland's bridge. Piccadilly. Holborn Viaduct Hotel and Station. Street Office. Chelsea Town J. Wormwood Scrubs Scotland Yard (Anglo-Classic). R. Robson: Institute of Water Colors. 5 Newnham Basil Champneys : Girton and . H. Sedding(\*3j-\%<)2) Holy : : London. the People's Palace. Palace City Bank. Westminster. London Christ's Hospital. London Rylands Library. Moorgate Street. London. Westminster All Saints. T. Belcher: Institute of Chartered Accountants Colchester Town Hall Eastern Co. in Chester and elsewhere. dressings and yellow E. Mary. Old Bailey. Bodley and Garner Hoar Cross. Thomas's Seminary. . Hammer. and Clement. Works Hill. . Jackson: Work at Oxford the Examination Schools and . London Lloyd's Registry Office. Sussex. in " " " Craigside. New Church.596 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . Brentford S. Moorgate French Church. Insurance Buildings.. Moorgate St. the New Gallery. . John. Town proper importance the Church of the Clerkenwell (a new Holy Redeemer. Thames Embankment the Church House. Luke's Holy Rood. marks the Mountford: . ' . London houses at Streatham Common Buchan at . Portsea. crafts into their Hall Battersea Town Hall Battersea Polytechnic Liverpool Technical Schools and Art Galleries Central Criminal Court. and many others. . Brighton " Greek Architecture. T. D. Horsham. Clap- E. /. Stevenstyle in S. other churches in Stock port Lanca- Theatre. . Westminster the Church of the S. S. Edis : Constitutional. Watford Church. W ." Dawpool. colleges in revived Ernest George and Peto (Influence of Flemish Renaissance) : ber Church ney Wick. Douglas and Fordham Churches and domestic half-timber work. W. and several large houses. Collingham Gardens and Cadogan Square. S. S. London. John F. and many other churches Sion College. smith . Wilson. Junior Constitutional. Finsbury Circus. Brydon Hall and Bath Polytechnic Municipal Buildings. and Badminton Clubs. . and in conjuncT tion with H. Ernest Newton Houses at : . Chiddingstone Causeway S. Church at Clumchurches at Hack: . Sir Aston Webb: Metropolitan . . Ealing. Sheffield . Chelsea (1890). and others. J. R. ham.

of architecture in the great self-governing Zealand and Canada. Melbourne and a large number of banks. manner in architecture is being slowly which may. H. Haslemere. Stafford . Crewe Town Exeter. and buildings The development New have been and are erected both in the Classic. Fellowes Churches elsewhere. Wokingham and else- Victoria Naval College. Sir Aston Webb: Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington) 5Q7 GOTHIC SCHOOL. but the building was not proceeded with further than the foundation. such as Australia. where. Dartmouth Memorial Processional Avenue. and Gothic for ecclesiastical buildings. Montreal. large extent followed the lead of the mother country. Canterbury. Prynne: Dulwich and During the last fifty years the pages of the professional journals have contained most of the noteworthy buildings erected. resist all revivals and fashions. Richards: Cardiff Town Hall and Law Courts. has to a colonies. and the The Parliament House at Ottawa are outstanding examples. In the "Gothic" school. style. Among those in the "Classic" school are the MacGill University. Some of the larger works are of importance and are an evidence of the political growth of those colonies in which they are situate. As in England. Buildings Buildings . Liverpool. city halls. Carce : Churches at . W. and the outward symbol of the twentieth century. Fordington. Bristol and Stewart and Lanchester. for they seem to show that a style or out. and become the free expression of our own civilization. London. Henley Hall. and it is a source of much pleasure and instruction to go through these records of the developments which have taken place. the old buildings being still in use. a homely type of design resembling our own Georgian style being employed for smaller domestic works of the countryhouse type. G. Municipal Town Hall . H. Melbourne Cathedral. D. Parliament House at Sydney was intended to be rebuilt in this . . CLASSIC SCHOOL. Hare: Oxford Municipal . and law courts. at Staines. T. Leonard Stokes : Churches and schools at Folkestone. worked British Colonial Architecture. and the Parliament House. and elsewhere Episcopal Palaces.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. it is hoped. Classic is principally though not wholly reserved for secular buildings. insurance offices. Gothic and Renaissance styles. . and elsewhere.

Cambridge It has elongated (1757). Christ Church. is interesting than a cursory glance. untrammelled with precedent and lacking the conditions obtaining but room is not available for more in Europe. many of the best examples of country houses were erected. The Spanish rule in Florida and California is responsible for . the homes of the tobacco planters. New York (1767). as at Brandon. Paul. And creaking and uneven floors. The early buildings were mainly churches or "meeting houses. shuttered sash windows. THE study of the progress of architecture in a . Michael Charlestown (1752) (the probable architect being Gibbs. In the "New England" States wood was the material principally employed." . the " hipped roof and the dentil cornice of the Queen Anne period the internal fittings resembling those of Adam and Sheraton. In Virginia. Philadelphia (1729-1735)." LONGFELLOW. " at erected after the manner of Sir Christopher Wren. the designer of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford). new country. and Maryland. With weather stains upon the wall And stairways. S.ARCHITECTURE " IN THE UNITED STATES. Craigie House. During the eighteenth century (1725-1775) buildings were erected which have been termed "colonial" in style. Now somewhat fallen to decay. When men lived in a grander way. and tiled and tall. worn and crazy doors'. the Old State House and the Town Hall at Newport are other well-known buildings. Shirley. corresponding " " to what is understood in England as Queen Anne or Georgian ' ' ' ' (page 578). Philadelphia (1727-1735). is typical of the symmetrical buildings. A With ampler hospitality . and largely affected the detail. Independence Hall. Ionic half-columns to its fa9ade. kind of old Hobgoblin Hall. were among the early churches. And chimneys huge. Built in the old Colonial clay. S. at Boston (17 47).

churches and to the IN THE UNITED STATES. Louis (1904) have aided in enlarging the national ideas. M. Hunt has been specially employed in the erection of large town and country houses. by Walters. H. Chicago (1893) an d S. Boston (1877). the United States Mint. by Jefferson. Trinity Church. and many charming small libraries round Boston. recently enlarged and restored. but produced similar results. The Customs House at New York. both by Renwick Trinity Church. by R. Recent Architecture. . . Richardson. Upjohn (1873-1878) the Museum at Boston (1876-1880) the Academy of Fine Arts. Hunt (1827-1895) also helped the movement. begun in 1871. Upjohn the State Capitol at Hartford. "among which may be mentioned. and the additions to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Gothic Revival was confined principally to churches (1840-1876). and the Capitol at Albany. .ARCHITECTURE many forts. owing to the erection of new State capitals. Philadelphia (1876) Memorial Hall. Patrick's Cathedral. Virginia University (1817). Pittsburgh County Buildings. by Bullfinch. while such exhibitions as that at Philadelphia (1876). Harvard College (1870-1877). and the Massachusetts State House at Boston (1795). Philadelphia. a country chateau in North Houses at Newport. worked in the non-academic French Romanesque manner. by R. Grace Church (1845) and S. Boston Custom House. work at Harvard University. and R. both^in very different ways. Two architects. the Treasury at Washington. and the devastating conflagrations of Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872) all helped to create greater interest in architecture. the Town Hall. The Classic Revival (1812-1870) of Europe reached the States somewhat late. " Biltmore Carolina many city buildings. recently destroyed by and rebuilt in a similar manner by McKim. by Thornton. which bear resemblance Spanish Renaissance buildings. . Philadelphia. fire. M. New York. Between the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the war of 1812. including the Lennox Library. New York (1839-1846). although a pupil of the Ecole des BeauxArts. The industrial activity which followed the civil war (1861-1865). are examples of this revival. several State capitols. R. and greatly influenced his contemporaries and successors. Among the buildings were the Wings and Dome of the Capitol at Washington (1858-1873). . Albany City Hall. a more monumental type was evolved. H. New York (1871-1877). the . 599 mission houses. which became the model for many public buildings. Richardson (1826-1886). Hallet and Latrobe. M. Mead and White. Among the buildings of importance a few only can be mentioned. The original Capitol at Washington (1793-1830). New York (begun in 1858). are his well-known examples.


a modern Renaissance design by McKim. which has had a good deal of influence in the designing of recent library buildings. 6oi The abnormal progress of American industries during the last 25 years. It is to be hoped that the imitative element will not cause these great Classic designs to be reproduced elsewhere for town halls. The designs of the various buildings for the Chicago Exposition (1893) differed largely from expectation. The houses of small type have been very successfully treated. the general use of lifts and fireproof construction and the cost of land has caused the erection of many important town buildings of great height. Providence. Burnham and Root. Among the most important are the Garrick (Schiller) Theatre. York Chicago Public New . . 264)." and an exposition of architecture on the wilds of the western prairie turned out to be a collection of well-studied Parisian designs. . The Monadnock Building and the Masonic Temple at Chicago. supporting masonry brick or terra-cotta inclosing walls. New York . . Riverside Drive. by Petz. sitting-hall. Rutan. being main features. In some the walls have been constructed of a framework of steel. by Carrere and Hastings. a most successful and chaste design as applied to a high building. and the enormous buildings of the leading newspapers. insurance offices and trusts are notable. The plan of these houses often shows great originality. but are not necessarily ugly in design. Domestic Architecture. by Cope and Stewardson Libraries at Washthe Ponce de Leon ington and Atlantic City. Columbia University at New York. Such buildings are essentially modern in character. and the Boston Public Library. John the Divine. President Grant's Tomb. Chicago (No. being in a country which is the centre of the lumber market but " extremes meet. which is in reality a tower. will value the lessons they teach without copying their exact . by Shepley. by Carrere and Hastings McKim. roofs. . The Ames Building and Tremont Temple in Boston. Many looked for some new development in either iron or terra-cotta. already advancing so rapidly along certain new lines of departure. museums and other buildings. by Messrs. in the Spanish Renaissance style.ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. by Ross and Ackermann Hotel at Florida. Mead and White University of Pennsylvania. by Messrs. and Coolidge Congressional Library at Washington. or perhaps wood alone. Smithmeyer and Green New York Public the State House. the staircase. piazza. and a picturesque grouping of steep Among later buildings of note are 5. but that American architects . Adler and Sullivan. at Philadelphia (various buildings). by Library. . . Madison Square Theatre in Neiv York. Mead and White. wood being largely employed in the country districts. The same architects have erected very scholarly and refined buildings at the Library.

not for the forms with which they abound. it is certain if American Architecture . as has been done in certain cases. much in the same way that the literature of the past is studied in order to acquire a good literary style. but for the principles which they inculcate. constituting a retrogressive movement. express themselves in the language of their own times. and showing a sad want of the appreciation of the true value of art. as much as possible. if not there will be another great American Classic revival French type which will go far beyond any craze such as has occurred in England and do a great deal to retard the true progress of the of art in America. No advance can be made by the copying of ancient buildings. needs. In conclusion. The great historic styles must of course be well studied.602 forms . and aspirations of the life and character of the age in which he lives. that there is a great future for only the architects will. If architecture is thus studied a good result will be assured. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the architect will produce works reflecting the hopes.

and need not interrupt the story of the evolution of European Historical Architecture dealt with in Part I.. as its connection with European architecture is not generally considered important. THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. however. although it certainly influenced it to some extent. Chinese and Japanese and Central American are those which developed mainly on their own account and exercised little direct influence on other styles. which would probably be the case if they were placed in their chronological order. not only by his own patient researches. The study of Indian and indeed of all Eastern art enlarges the view. but by utilizing the vast amount of material brought to light by General Cunningham and a score of others. Fergusson's investigations on the subject. He was the first to piece together the story of Indian and Eastern architecture. THE non-historical styles Indian. who had been working mainly in connection with government departments. Mr. The position which they should occupy in a History of Architecture is. but it is thought that by keeping them quite separate from the historical styles. Mention should be made of the late Mr. They can thus be studied independently.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. since it presents many novel forms to which one is . a matter of doubt. PART II. and is the one which has been followed. Fergusson's chronology is founded on his own labours and such investigations. Saracenic architecture is also placed in Part II.. it will make for greater clearness to the student. GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

a question of taste and education as to whether this impression is really due to this unusual character. casts of details. these non-historical styles can scarcely be so interesting as those which have progressed on the solution of constructive problems. which possesses a most valuable collection of portions of original buildings. resolutely met and overcome. beautiful to those who were engaged on it and to whom it was meant to appeal. The student should visit the Indian Museum at South Kensington. . often strike one as ugly or bizarre. as was the case in Europe from the Classic period to that of the Renaissance. or whether such forms would not be considered beautiful if sanctioned by custom. decorative schemes seemed to have It is certain that in outweighed any such problems. From an architect's point of view. no other style was such patient care and labour bestowed on the minutest detail. In India and the East. monuments and houses. however. character. " " Use is second and Indian architecture was no doubt nature. and which. doubtless because of their unusual It is. and models of temples. 265.604 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. unaccustomed.

were important as affording employment to thousands of deficient in . viz. Delhi (the " Rome of India "). By forming trade routes or cheap highways they assisted in the formation of great cities.INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. and were utilized for rafting down timber used for building from the immense forests. and Jumna. i. For she was prophesying of her glory And in her wide imagination stood Palm-shaded temples and high rival fanes By Oxus or on Ganges' sacred isles. India a three-cornered country occupies times greater than Great Britain. The Ganges-Jumna Valley contains some of the principal cities of architectural importance. and Assyria. the Indus Valley and the Gulf of Cambay. The coasts. boatmen. as London is of England.West by the Suleiman mountains. INFLUENCES. Krishna. Persia. covers nearly 50 square miles. that from the Lower Ganges. may have helped to keep the people aloof from extraneous influences but by her position she was destined to receive the human overflow from the ancient breeding grounds of Central Asia. the Hindu Koosh. The proximity of the Greek Bactrian Kingdom in the north-west had considerable classical influence on the architecture. Delhi is therefore the centre of India." KEATS. More thought than woe was in her dusky face. The rock-cut temples on the Western Ghats are attributed by some to the influence of Egypt. as they contain capitals and columns of similar design. Ganges. Indus. It was the capital of the Mogul Emperors (page 671). Geographical fifteen an area good harbours. Its architectural importance was probably gained through being at the junction of four historic roads. the remaining portion is bounded by the sea. primarily of the : . a collection of ruins of different cities. as the Nerbudda. The rivers. and on the East by the heights of Southern Assam. Bounded on the North by the Himalayas on the North. : i.

the rock-cut " Chaityas" of the Buddhists were rendered possible by the geological formation. The genera) use of the great fan or punkah in the hot season A . flat terraced roofs. Thus. and the Nardada. used for coolness. Two principal seasons. into the face of which the temples were cut. brick was used to some extent. Climate. uniform in texture and of considerable thickness. Terracotta seems to have been employed in early times. " Histoire de 1' ArchiThe map 265) taken from Choisy's Gandhara On (No. the climate being tropical. and in the Himalayas. rendered easy by the pressing of plastic clay into moulds. In West India. country generally abound in excellent building stone. iii. wooden origin is traceable to nearly all the Buddhist architectural forms. The centre of the Peninsula and the hill ii. wet and dry. the east coast the country. being comparatively open. India lies mostly within the tropics. clothing and building material to the native) grow mostly on the lowlands of the coast. but the alluvial soil of this district does not afford good material for brick-making. as in Egypt (page 29). On the west coast. times. a narrow strip of lowland only intervening between the Ghats and the seaboard caused the inhabitants to remain to this day aloof from civilizing movements. predominate." were hewn out of the Indian amygdaloidal trap formations of these districts. exercise. the sandstone of the Godavari. and the granite of Southern India. rising from the ground as perpendicular cliffs. Teak is the principal wood of the country. Assyria and Persia. Other woods are ebony. a nodular form of impure lime found in most river valleys. which had considerable influence on Indian architecture from the earliest Mention should be made of the pink marble of Rajputana. and from shells plentifully found in the marshes. and may have influenced later work in producing the exuberance of ornament. At Mahavellipore and Ellora. the Dravidian monolithic rockcut free-standing temples. and thence over Northern India generally. and the bamboo of the jungle. with which the principal buildings at Delhi and Agra were constructed. Geological. the ancient dynasties of Southern India fixed their capitals there.606 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. known as " Raths. Palms (which afford food. tecture. being composed of horizontal strata of trap formation. At Hullabid." indicates t