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CM NANG H TR K THUT FTTH MC LC

Phn I.........................................................................................................................................3 CC THIT B CN THIT KHI LP T NG TRUYN FTTH.........................3 1- Hiu bit v mng trc truyn dn quang.........................................................................3 1.1 Mng truy nhp quang ch ng (AON Active Optical Network).........................3 1.2 Mng truy nhp quang th ng (PON Passive Optical Network).........................5 2- Cc thit b khch hng cn thit khi lp t ng FTTH...............................................5 2.1 Card giao tip mng (NIC - Network Interface Card)................................................5 2.2 Cp mng......................................................................................................................7 ...........................................................................................................................................10 2.3 B chuyn i quang in: .....................................................................................11 2.4 Router..........................................................................................................................14 2.5 Switch/Hub..................................................................................................................17 2.6 Thit b kt cui mng quang khch hng (Optical CPE)..........................................18 Phn II......................................................................................................................................20 CC THAO TC C BN LP T CU HNH NG FTTH......................20 1- Lp t ng FTTH theo m hnh dng my tnh lm Router gateway.........................20 1.1 Chun b thit b: ........................................................................................................21 1.2 Thao tc lp t:..........................................................................................................21 1.3 Ci t.........................................................................................................................22 2- Lp t ng FTTH theo m hnh s dng Broadband Router/Wireless Router..........29 1.1 Chun b thit b: ........................................................................................................29 1.2 Thao tc lp t:..........................................................................................................29 1.3 Ci t.........................................................................................................................30 3 Lp t FTTH theo m hnh s dng Optical CPE:.......................................................32

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH 1.1 Chun b thit b: ........................................................................................................32 1.2 Thao tc lp t:..........................................................................................................32 1.3 Ci t:........................................................................................................................32 Phn III....................................................................................................................................34 PHN TCH X L CC LI C BN TRN NG TRUYN FTTH................34 1- Phn tch s c ng truyn FTTH theo m hnh truyn dn.......................................34 1.1 Cc s c pha nh cung cp dch v (ISP):...............................................................34 1.2 Cc s c pha khch hng :........................................................................................34 1.3 Cc s c truyn dn:..................................................................................................35 2 - Phn tch s c FTTH theo tnh cht s c, quy trnh x l:...........................................35 3 - Lu x l cc s c FTTH.........................................................................................36 X l cc s c mt kt ni mng.....................................................................................36 4 - Hi p, phn hi thc mc ca khch hng...............................................................38 Cu hi 1:..........................................................................................................................38 Cu hi 2...........................................................................................................................38 Cu hi 3 ..........................................................................................................................40 Cu hi 4...........................................................................................................................40 Cu hi 5..........................................................................................................................41 Cu hi 6..........................................................................................................................41 Cu hi 7...........................................................................................................................42

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Phn I CC THIT B CN THIT KHI LP T NG TRUYN FTTH


1- Hiu bit v mng trc truyn dn quang
FTTx l mt thut ng chung m t bt k mt kin trc mng bng thng rng no m s dng cp quang thay th mt phn hay tt c mch vng truyn dn bng cp ng thng thng t trm vin thng cui ti khch hng. FTTx bao gm cc nhm nh: (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB, FTTO, FTTH ...), FTTN (Fiber To The Node): Cp quang ti trm vin thng, im kt ni. FTTC (Fiber To The Cabinet/Curb): Cp quang ti t cp gn khu dn c. FTTB (Fiber To The Building): Cp quang ti tn ta cao c, chng c
FTTO (Fiber To The Office): Cp quang ti vn phng

FTTH (Fiber To The Home): Cp quang ti tn nh thu bao trin khai c cc dch v FTTx ngi ta cn xy dng mng trc truyn dn c bng thng ln, kh nng chuyn mch nhanh, kt ni gia cc im mng (node) bng cc tuyn cp quang v c gi tng qut l mng phn phi quang (ODN Optical Distribution Network). Ngy nay ODN c phn thnh hai h thng ring bit, l mng quang ch ng AON (Active Optical Network) v mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network). 1.1 Mng truy nhp quang ch ng (AON Active Optical Network).

INTERNET

BRAS

PE Router

MAN-E Core ring PE-AGG Router MAN-E Access 1 ring MAN-E Access 2 ring

PE-AGG Router

UPE-AGG Router

L2 Switch (SFP interface)

DSLAM

Hnh 1.

M hnh mng MAN - E 3

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

AON (Active Optical Network) l kiu kin trc mng truyn dn quang m ti cc im mng (node) c cha cc thit b cn s dng ngun in nh Switch, MUX (Multiplexer). Tn hiu khi i qua cc node c bin i t quang in v ngc li, ri mi chuyn tip i. Vic chuyn i ny lm nh hng ti tc truyn d liu. Tuy nhin nh b nh m (cache) ca cc thit b chuyn mch m qu trnh chuyn mch ca d liu c hn ch bt xung t. Vic xy dng AON da trn cc chun cng ngh ethernet c gi l mng Metro ethernet network (MEN), hay cn gi l MAN-E (Metropolitan Access Network Ethernet) hay E-MAN. Cu trc MAN E gm cc switch c kt ni vi nhau theo m hnh phn lp: Lp trc chnh lp tp hp lp truy nhp.
Lp trc chnh (Core layer) gm nhng thit b chuyn mch rt thng minh

c kh nng x l nhanh nhy mt s lng ln cc gi tin. Thng thng cc thit b c s dng lp ny c: Switch layer 3 Cisco 7609, ME 6524
Lp tp hp (Aggregation layer) l lp trung gian, c th cung cp cc kt ni

trc tip hoc tp hp lu lng t lp truy nhp v chuyn tip ln lp trc chnh.
Lp truy nhp (Access layer) l lp cung cp cc kt ni trc tip n khch

hng. Tp hp lu lng t cc thit b ca khch hng chuyn ti ln mng trc. Thit b thng bao gm cc Switch layer 2, c cc giao din in fast ethernet, giga ethernet nh switch ME 3400 hoc cc khe gn cc module SFP nh switch cisco 4924
Switch Cisco 7600

Switch Cisco 4924

Switch ME 3400

Hnh 2.

Mt s switch c s dng trong mng Metronet

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

1.2 Mng truy nhp quang th ng (PON Passive Optical Network).


ONU

DATA

Splitter

VOICE

IPTV

OLT

Splitter

ONT

Hnh 3.

M hnh mng PON

PON (Passive Optical Network) l mng truyn dn quang th ng, trong mng ny vic truyn dn tn hiu t tng i n thit b ca khch hng c s dng mt s thit b c kh nng chia tch, chuyn tip tn hiu quang th ng, hot ng ca chng khng cn n ngun in. Cc thit b trong PON bao gm:
Cc thit b ch ng c s dng ngun in nh Thit b kt cui ng

quang OLT (Optical Line Terminal), Thit b kt cui mng quang ONT (Optical Network Terminal) hoc n v kt cui mng quang ONU (Optical Network Unit).
Ngoi ra cn c cc thit b th ng nh: B chia cng sut quang

Optical Splitter, Cp quang, Kt ni giao din quang (End to End connector).

2- Cc thit b khch hng cn thit khi lp t ng FTTH


2.1 Card giao tip mng (NIC - Network Interface Card) Card giao tip mng l thit b kt ni gia my tnh v cp mng, c cu to l bn mch cung cp kh nng truyn thng cho my tnh. Card mng c th c tch hp ngay trn bn mch ch (main board) gi l card on board hay cc card m rng c gn trn cc khe m rng ca my tnh theo cc chun ISA, PCI hay USP Phn giao tip vi cp mng thng theo cc chun nh: AUI, BNC, UTP

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 4.

Cc loi card mng

Cc chc nng chnh ca card mng l: Chun b d liu a ln mng: Trc khi a ln mng, d liu phi c chuyn t dng byte, bit sang tn hiu in c th truyn trn cp.
Gi d liu n my tnh khc.

Kim sot lung d liu gia my tnh v h thng cp. Vi trng hp mng wifi th ngi ta s dng card mng khng dy. V cu to th giao tip vi my tnh ca card mng khng dy cng ging nh card mng c dy, giao tip vi mi trng mng ca card mng khng dy s dng ng ten thu sng.

Hnh 5.

Card mng khng dy

Ngy nay cng vi s pht trin ca cc mng li chuyn ti d liu bng tn hiu quang th cc card mng c cng quang cng bt u xut hin.

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 6.

NIC card mng cng quang, khe m rng PCI

2.2 Cp mng Cp mng l phng tin truyn dn trung gian gia cc cc thit b mng. Ty thuc vo cu to, cht liu v tnh nng chuyn ti loi tn hiu m cp mng nh hng nhiu hay t ti qu trnh truyn tin. Cp mng c cc loi: Cp xon i, cp ng trc, cp quang 2.2.1 Cp Xon Si Cp xon i gm nhiu cp dy ng xon li vi nhau nhm chng pht x nhiu in t. Hin nay c hai loi cp xon i l cp c bc kim loi ( STP - Shield Twisted Pair) v cp khng bc kim loi (UTP -Unshield Twisted Pair).
Cp xon i STP: Gm nhiu cp xon c ph bn ngoi mt lp v lm

bng dy ng bn. Lp v ny c tc dng chng nhiu in t EMI t ngoi v chng pht x nhiu bn trong. Lp v bc chng nhiu ny c ni t thot nhiu. Do t b tc ng bi nhiu in nn c tc truyn qua khong cch xa cao hn cp xon i trn. Tc l thuyt 500Mbps, thc t khong 155Mbps. Khong cch truyn ti a l 100m, tc gim dn khi cp cng di, thng l di 100m.
Cp xon i UTP: Gm nhiu cp xon nh cp STP nhng khng c lp v

ng chng nhiu. Do gi thnh r nn UTP l loi cp mng cc b c u chung nht. UTP c chia thnh 5 loi:
+

Loi 1: truyn m thanh, tc <4Mbps Loi 2: cp ny gm 4 dy xon i, tc 4Mbps Loi 3: truyn d liu, tc ng truyn ln ti 16 Mb/s. N l chun hu ht dng cho mng in thoi hin nay

+ +

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

+
+ +

Loi 4: truyn d liu, 4 cp xon i, thch hp cho ng truyn 20 Mb/s Loi 5: truyn d liu, 4 cp xon i, tc 100Mbps, khong cch truyn ti a l 100m. Loi 6: truyn d liu ln n 300 Mb/s

Cp UTP-CAT5 kt ni vi cc thit b khc thng qua mt u ni RJ45. c 2 chun 10/100 BaseT 568A v 10/100 BaseT 568A gn si cp vo u ni. Th t sp xp si cp UTP-CAT5 (t tri phi) TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Chun 10/100 base T 568A Trng xanh lc Xanh lc Trng dam cam Xanh dng Trng xanh dng Dam cam Trng nu Nu

Chun 10/100 base T 568B Trng da cam Da cam Trng xanh lc // // Xanh lc // //

Cp thng : l cp m 2 u c kt ni cng chun A hoc cng chun B. Cp thng dng kt ni cc thit b khc loi nh Hub/Switch PC

Hnh 7.

Cp thng

Cp cho: l cp m mt u c kt ni bng chun A, mt u c kt ni bng chun B. Cp cho c dng kt ni cc thit b cng loi nh Hub/Switch Hub/Switch, PC- PC.

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 8.

Cp cho

2.2.2 Cp quang: Cp quang l loi cp c dng truyn dn tn hiu nh sng. Cu trc c bn ca cp quang bao gm lp li , lp phn x, lp v bo v. Lp li thng c lm bng thy tinh hoc nha plastic c kh nng truyn dn tt tn hiu nh sng. Bn ngoi lp li l lp phn x, m bo nh sng khng tht thot ra ngoi lp li khin gim cng sut hay suy hao tn hiu. Ngoi cng l cc lp gia cng, lp v bo v cho ton b si cp. Bng thng v tc ca d liu truyn trn cp quang ln ti hng chc Gbps.

Hnh 9.

Cp quang

Cp quang thng thng c loi singel mode v multi mode. Mode c hiu l ng i ca tia sng trong li si quang.

Cp singel mode (SM) c ng knh lp li khong 10m, s dng ngun pht laser, nh sng i xuyn sut dc trc nn c tc ln, t b suy hao, khong cch truyn xa. SM thng s dng bc sng 1310nm v 1550nm. Trn thc t si Singel mode thng c phn lm 3 loi:
+ Si n mode chun (SSM - Standard single-mode). SSM c tn sc 0 ti

bc sng 1310nm, nhng li c suy hao cao ti bc sng 1550nm


+ Si n mode tn sc dch chuyn (DSSM - Dispersion shifted single-mode).

DSSM c tn sc gn nh bng khng ti bc sng 1550nm nhng tn sc tng ng k ti bc sng 1300nm.


+ Si n mode tn sc phng (DFSM - Dispersion flattened single-mode).

DFSM c suy hao thp ti c hai bc sng 1300nm v 1550nm, tn sc 0

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

ti bc sng 1550nm nhng gi thnh t v lp ghp kh khn hn SSM nn hin SSM vn c s dng ph bin.

Hnh 10.

Cp Singel mode

Cp multi mode (MM) thng c ng knh li khong 50m hoc 62,5m , s dng ngun LED hoc laser, s dng cc bc sng 850nm hoc 1300nm . Khong cch v tc truyn dn nh hn so vi SM. MM c hai kiu truyn: chit xut bc (Step index) v chit xut lin tc (Graded index).
o Cc tia sng kiu Step index truyn theo nhiu hng khc nhau v vy

c mc suy hao cao v tc kh chm. Step index t ph bin, thng dng cho cp quang POF. o Cc tia sng kiu Graded index truyn dn theo ng cong v hi t ti mt im. Do Graded index t suy hao v c tc truyn dn cao hn Step index. Graded index c s dng kh ph bin.

Hnh 11.

Cp Multi mode

Dy nhy quang(path cord): Ngi ta thng gn cc on cp quang chiu di 2m, 3m, 5m15m, 20mvi mt u ni (connector) to thnh mt on cp dng kt ni gia thit b quang hc ny ti thit b quang hc khc, cc on ny gi l dy nhy quang.

Hnh 12.

Cp nhy quang (path cord)

10

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 13.

Cc loi giao din u ni (Connector)

2.3 B chuyn i quang in: 2.3.1 Gii thiu: B chuyn i quang in l thit b c tnh nng chuyn tn hiu in sang tn hiu nh sng v ngc li. C rt nhiu cc loi b chuyn i quang in thng th n gn vi cc chun in m n chuyn i sang, v d nh: Ethernet, Composite Video, E1, chun ni tip (RS232, RS485, IEA 422), SDI video, SD video, HD video, VGA video, DVI video, FXS, FXO, V35, V11, Mono Audio, Audio... Ethernet Media Converter l thit b chuyn i tn hiu in cc chun ethernet 10/100/1000 Base-TX sang tn hiu quang 100/1000 Base-FX v ngc li. Media converter cho php m rng khong cch ca mng 10/100Base-TX nh vo kh nng truyn rt xa ca cp si quang. Ethernet Media converter (gi tt Media converter) c loi truyn nhn trn mt i cp, khi mt si dy s gn mt u vo cng truyn trn converter ny, u cn li gn vo cng nhn trn converter kia.

11

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Tx Rx

Tx Rx

Media converter 1

Media converter 2

Hnh 14.

Truyn dn bng Fast/Giga Ethernet Media converter s dng mt i cp quang

Ngoi ra Media converter cng c loi ch truyn nhn hai hng ng thi trn mt si quang. Khi ngi ta s dng mt cp converter c th pht bc sng ny v nhn bc sng kia (VD: mt converter dng bc sng 1310nm truyn v nhn bc sng 1550nm, converter kia th ngc li). Cp converter c gi l WDM Media converter.
1310nm 1550nm 1550nm 1310nm

WDM Media converter 1

WDM Media converter 2

Hnh 15.

Truyn dn bng WDM media converter s dng mt si cp quang

Hnh 16. Tn hiu n hin th:

Converter AMP Tyco Electronic

n led 100: Ch th cp mng chun 100Mbps n PWR: LK/ACT: FDX/COL: Ch th ngun cp Ch th kt ni (link) v hot ng (action) Ch th kt ni quang

12

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Cp quang c hai loi Single mode v Multi mode, Media Converter cng tng t c hai dng tng ng dng cho hai loi ny. Ty theo yu cu thc t m ng dng loi converter no cng nh cp quang no cho ph hp. Converter v cp quang Multi mode c u im l bng thng ln nhng khong cch truyn ngn. Converter v cp quang Singel mode c khong cch truyn ln hn Multi mode. B chuyn i quang in c 2 thng s rt quan trng l cng sut pht v nhy, nu trong phm vi ngn m bn s dng Single mode th cng sut pht vt vng nhy dn ti tn hiu khng nhn c v ngc li i vi khi s dng Multi mode. Hin nay, Ethernet media converter, c 2 loi chnh sau y:

Industrial Ethernet Media Converter - B chuyn i Ethernet/quang cng nghip: cc thng hiu tiu biu cho loi ny l: Hirschmann - c, Moxa i Loan, RuggedCom - Canada, Sixnetio - M, Advantech - i Loan, Korenix - i Loan, Westernmo - Anh. Commercial Ethernet Medai Converter - B chuyn i Ethernet/quang ng dng thng mi: Cc thng hiu tiu biu cho ng dng ny l: HNT - Vit nam, IMC - M, D-LINK, TP-LINK, AMP, MICRONET, NETLINK, 3ONEDATA...

Chn loi no y trong cc ng dng trn? y khng phi l cu tr li d, tr li chng ta xut pht t ng dng v nhu cu ca bn:

ng dng cho media converter bn yu cu l g? Bn c th u t bao nhiu? Mi trng t b chuyn i? Mc tin cy bn cn b chuyn i quang in?

2.3.2 Cc c tnh c bn ca Converter quang in Tng thch hon ton vi chun 10Base-T, 100Base-T v 100Base-FX.
Ph hp vi c truyn dn quang single mode v multi mode.

S dng b ni SC, ST hoc MT-RJ cho 100Base-FX.


H tr full-duplex v half-duplex.

H tr hiu chnh auto-polarity trn port RJ-45. S dng n LED ch th gim st v theo di. Cho php t ng hc ti 1000 a ch MAC. H tr back-pressure v flow control. H tr Link loss forwarding cho cc tn hiu truyn li.
13

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH Kt ni cp quang ln ti 2 km (multi mode) hoc 30 km (single mode). Cng

ngh WDM ch s dng duy nht cp single mode. 2.3.3 Module SFP SFP - Small Form-Factor Pluggable, l mt thit b c thit k gn vo cc bn mch ca cc thit b mng nh Switch, Router, media converterc giao din ngoi kt ni vi cp quang, nn bn thn SFP cng c chc nng chuyn i quang - in.

Hnh 17.

Module SFP

2.4 Router 2.4.1 Khi nim v Router Router l thit b hot ng trn tng 3 ca m hnh OSI (Open System Interconnection ), c tc dng kt ni cc mng logic vi nhau, kim sot v lc cc gi tin nn hn ch c lu lng trn cc mng logic. Router dng bng nh tuyn (Routing table) lu tr thng tin v mng s dng trong trng hp tm ng i ti u cho cc gi tin. Bng nh tuyn cha cc thng tin v ng i, thng tin v c lng thi gian, khong cch Bng ny c th cu hnh tnh hay t ng. Mt trong nhng quy tc trong mng TCP/IP l cc my tnh u c th giao tip c vi Router. u im ca Router: V mt vt l, Router c th kt ni vi cc loi mng khc li vi nhau, t nhng Ethernet cc b tc cao cho n ng dy in thoi ng di c tc chm. Nhc im ca Router: Router chm hn Bridge v chng i hi nhiu tnh ton hn tm ra cch dn ng cho cc gi tin, c bit khi cc mng kt ni vi nhau khng cng tc . Mt mng hot ng nhanh c th pht cc gi tin nhanh hn nhiu so vi mt mng chm v c th gy ra s nghn mng. Do , Router c th yu cu my tnh gi cc gi tin n chm hn. Mt vn khc l cc Router c c im chuyn bit theo giao thc - tc l, cch mt my tnh kt ni mng giao tip vi mt Router IP th s khc bit vi cch n giao tip vi mt Router Novell hay DECnet. Hin nay vn ny c gii quyt bi mt mng bit ng dn ca mi

14

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

loi mng c bit n. Tt c cc Router thng mi u c th x l nhiu loi giao thc, thng vi chi ph ph thm cho mi giao thc 2.4.2 Mt s loi Router Hin nay c rt nhiu loi Router ang thnh hnh trn th trng, ty theo nhu cu thc t cng nh mc ch s dng trong cc cng vic khc nhau m Router c tch hp thm cc chc nng khc nhau. Chng ta ta khng th xc nh Router nu ch da trn hnh dng, kch thc hay cc giao tip mng ca n, bi yu t xc nh Router chnh l tnh nng nh tuyn, hay ni cch khc: ci g nh tuyn c gi tin ci l Router. trng hp n gin nht trong cc m hnh mng. Khi hai my tnh kt ni vi nhau v da vo tnh nng ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) th my tnh no c dng chia s kt ni ra internet, my tnh s ng vai tr Router.
Gateway Router
UTP CAT5

INTERNET

PC2

PC1 OS: Windows 2 NIC card Setup : ICS

Hnh 18.

Router n gin ch l mt my tnh

Vi cc trng hp c th khc, khi ta s dng cc cng ngh khc nhau truyn ti d liu hay kt ni vt li khc nhau th ta c cc loi Router khc nhau nh: ADSL Router, Wireless Router, Broadband internet Router hoc cc Router c tnh nng cao cp khc. Vi vai tr l ngi s dng, chng ta cn phi hiu bit v ng dng ng cc loi Router ny.

Hnh 19.

Router ADSL Zoom X5

ADSL Router: thng c tch hp trong modem ADSL nn i khi hai khi nim ADSL modem hay ADSL Router khng c phn bit r rng, giao din vt l c cng RJ11 kt ni vi cp in thoi, cc RJ45 hoc
15

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

USB kt ni vi my tnh c nhn. Giao din cu hnh thng dng l giao din web, trong c cc thng s: connection type :PPPoE/PPPoA; Encapsulation: LLC; Virtual Circuit: VPI/VCI, Authenticate: Username/password (xem hnh trn)
Cng ngun Cng WAN

Cc cng LAN

ADSL modem

My tnh

Hnh 20.

Wireless Router

Wireless Router: l Router c tch hp thm tnh nng pht sng wifi, tuy nhin cn phn bit vi AP(Access Point), AP khng c tnh nng nh tuyn nn khng c IP ring, n ch chuyn tip (relay) IP t Router m n kt ni vo v bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu sng cp cho cc thit b nhn sng wifi khc. Wireless Router c tnh nng DHCP server, nh tuyn (routing). Giao din cu hnh thng thng cng l giao din web c cc la chn : Static IP, Dynamic IP, PPPoE/PPPoA. V giao din vt l th AP l cc cng LAN ngang hng, Wireless Router c cng LAN cho cc my trong mng v kt ni ra ngoi qua cng WAN. (xem hnh trn)

Hnh 21.

Broadband Router

Broadband internet Router (BB Router) l cc Router c tnh nng ging Wireless Router, ngoi tr tnh nng pht sng wifi. Cc BB Router cao cp nh Router cisco 1841, cisco 2801, cisco 2600. l nhng thit b thng minh, c kh nng x l linh hot hot ng nh tuyn v c nhiu chc nng cao cp khc phc v hot ng ca mng my tnh: DHCP, NAT, firewall, . Cu trc vt l ca cc loi Router ny cng rt phc tp, n c
16

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

th c coi nh mt siu my tnh. Gi thnh thit b t , vic thit lp cu hnh i hi ngi s dng phi c trnh k thut mng cao. Tuy nhin b li kh nng hot ng n nh, linh hot, bo mt tt, d dng nng cp phn cng hay thay i cu hnh ph hp vi cc mc ch s dng khc nhau hoc tch hp dch v gi tr gia tng mi l iu khin cc Router loi ny l la chn khng th thay th cho cc khch hng c h thng mng ring ln, kt ni internet bng thng rng, tc cao. (Xem hnh di)

Hnh 22.

Router Cisco 1841

2.5 Switch/Hub. 2.5.1 Hub

Hnh 23.

Mt thit b Hub

Hub c coi l mt Repeater c nhiu cng. Mt Hub c t 4 n 24 cng v c th cn nhiu hn. Trong phn ln cc trng hp, Hub c s dng trong cc mng 10BASE-T hay 100BASE-T. Khi cu hnh mng l hnh sao (Star topology), Hub ng vai tr l trung tm ca mng. Vi mt Hub, khi thng tin vo t mt cng th s c a n tt c cc cng cn li.

17

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hub c 2 loi l Active Hub v Smart Hub. Active Hub l loi Hub c dng ph bin, cn c cp ngun khi hot ng, c s dng khuch i tn hiu n v cho tn hiu ra nhng cng cn li, m bo mc tn hiu cn thit. Smart Hub (Intelligent Hub) c chc nng tng t nh Active Hub, nhng c tch hp thm chip c kh nng t ng d li - rt hu ch trong trng hp d tm v pht hin li trong mng. 3.2 Switch

Hnh 24.

Mt thit b Switch

Switch i khi c m t nh l mt Bridge c nhiu cng. Trong khi mt Bridge ch c 2 cng lin kt c 2 segment mng vi nhau, th Switch li c kh nng kt ni c nhiu segment li vi nhau tu thuc vo s cng (port) trn Switch. Cng ging nh Bridge, Switch cng "hc" thng tin ca mng thng qua cc gi tin (packet) m n nhn c t cc my trong mng. Switch s dng cc thng tin ny xy dng ln bng Switch, bng ny cung cp thng tin gip cc gi thng tin n ng a ch. Ngy nay, trong cc giao tip d liu, Switch thng c 2 chc nng chnh l chuyn cc khung d liu t ngun n ch, v xy dng cc bng Switch. Switch hot ng tc cao hn nhiu so vi Repeater v c th cung cp nhiu chc nng hn nh kh nng to mng LAN o (VLAN). 2.6 Thit b kt cui mng quang khch hng (Optical CPE) Thit b kt cui mng truy nhp quang pha khch hng l mt thit b c tch hp y tnh nng ethernet media converter, Router, switch, IP telephone trn . V giao din vt l, Optical CPE bao gm giao din quang kt ni trc tip vi mng truy nhp quang. C th l 2 cng, mt truyn - mt nhn, hoc ch vi mt cng quang dng WDM. Pha giao din kt ni n khch hng gm cc cng RJ45 kt ni mng Switch, PC, hoc STB (Set Top Box), cc cng phone kt ni IP phone nn ng thi n h tr trin khai c 3 dch v: HSI, IPTV, VoIP hay cn gi l triple play.

18

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 25.

Optical CPE

V giao din cu hnh, c loi giao in cu hnh trn web, c loi giao din cu hnh dng lnh (Command line), nhng tu chung n c y tnh nng ca mt Router, hoc mt switch c th phn chia VLAN theo port.

19

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Phn II CC THAO TC C BN LP T CU HNH NG FTTH

Lu chung:

Bt u
Chun b thit b, reset cu hnh Kt ni vt l cc thit b vi nhau Cu hnh TCP/IP trn my tnh Thit lp cc thng s cu hnh Lu/ghi li cc thng s cu hnh Kim tra qu trnh kt ni

Kt thc

Hnh 26.

Lu ci t cu hnh thit b

1- Lp t ng FTTH theo m hnh dng my tnh lm Router gateway


My tnh Router gateway ci t windows XP. My tnh Router gateway ci t windows server 2003.

20

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

INTERNET

BRAS

Router PE

Computer 2 NIC card Windows xp Laptop

Electric port Module SFP


MANE- RING CORE

Computer 2 NIC card Windows server

Converter Switch/Hub Converter


MANE-RING ACCESS MANE-RING ACCESS

Converter

Laptop

Switch/Hub

Core Switch Access Switch PHA KHCH HNG MNG TRUYN DN VIN THNG TNH PHA KHCH HNG

Hnh 27.

M hnh FTTH tng qut ly my tnh lm Router gateway

1.1 Chun b thit b:

Cu hnh my tnh ngh:


+ My tnh phi ci c windows xp hoc windows server

+ CPU pentium 4 tr ln, RAM 1Gbps tr ln.


+ Gn 2 card mng fast ethernet.

Media fast ethernet converter. Switch/Hub ODF, Path cord, cp UTP-CAT5 Cc my tnh khc. Kim tra tn hiu n trn converter v cc biu tng kt ni LAN trn my tnh. 1.2 Thao tc lp t: Thng thng tuyn quang t ISP cung cp s c hn gn trn mt ODF t ti khch hng. Ta dng dy nhy quang n ni t ODF sang converter.
Trn my tnh Router gateway, ta dng cp mng UTP-CAT5 thng ni t

card mng 1 n converter, v dng cp cho ni t card mng 2 ti my PC khc. Nu kt ni qua mt Switch/Hub th dng cp thng.
21

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Cp cho

Cp thng

Dy nhy quang

ISP PC - Router PC Client Converter ODF

Hnh 28.

M hnh ly my tnh lm Router gateway

1.3 Ci t 1.3.1 Khi kt ni bng 2 IP public * My ci t windows XP, s dng tnh nng ICS- Internet Connecttion Sharing V d: ISP cung cp cc thng s cho mt ng truyn cho khch hng nh di y. Thng s IP Subnetmask Defaul gateway

Pha ISP 113.160.162.1 255.255.255.0

Pha khch hng 113.160.162.15 255.255.255.0 113.160.162.1

Trn my tnh khch hng : Vo Start/ run/ Nhp ncpa.cpl/ OK Mc Network Connections hin ra. Sau chn card mng ang ni vi ISP, click phi chut, chn properties.

Hnh 29.

Mc Network connection

Hp thoi Local Area Connection Properties m ra/ Trong th General chn TCP/IP, nhp vo nt properties, ri nhp cc thng s nh bng trn.

22

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 30.

Nhp a ch IP card mng 1 my tnh Router

Tip theo sang th Advanced, trong mc Internet connection sharing Bn tch vo mc Allow other network uers to connect throught this computers internet connection

Hnh 31.

Chc nng Internet Connection Sharing

23

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Ti card mng th 2, Ta t a ch IP private (ch : khng cn t IP default gateway)

Hnh 32.

Nhp IP cho card mng th 2 my tnh Router

Trn my tnh client. Ta t IP private cng gii vi IP trn card mng th 2 ca my tnh Router. C defaul gateway l IP ca card mng th 2 my tnh Router.

Hnh 33.

Nhp IP cho my tnh khch

Dng lnh ping kim tra kt ni.


+ Ping n IP DNS ca ISP, v d: ping 203.162.0.181. Nu nhn c

thng tin dng Reply from 203.162.0.181: bytes=32 time 1ms TTL=128 th c ngha l kt ni thnh cng
+ Nu phn hi khc nh:

Reply from 192.168.1.1 destination net unreachable, Reply from 192.168.1.1 destination host unreachable, Request time out Reply from expire in transit u c ngha kt ni b li u , Bn cn kim tra li cu hnh hoc kt ni vt l t thit b khch hng ti ISP.

24

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 34.

Lnh ping

* My ci t windows server 2003, s dng chc nng RRAS Vi my tnh ci windows server 2003. vic thit lp a ch IP trn cc card mng cng ging nh windows XP. Tuy nhin ta khng dng ICS chia s kt ni mng v nh tuyn m s dng chc nng RRAS - Routing and Remote Access.

Cu hnh RRAS: Vo Start/Setting/ Control Panel/ Administrative Too/ Routing and Remote Access. Trong hp thoi Routing and Remote Access, Ta click chut phi vo tn server, chn Configure and enable routing and remote access.

Hnh 35.

Bt u cu hnh Routing and remote access

25

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Tip theo hp thoi Setup Wirazd hin ra, Ta chn Next Hp thoi tip theo chn NAT (Network Address translation ) Next.

Hnh 36.

La chn chc nng NAT

Tip tc chn card mng ang ni vi ISP v Next, ri Finish kt thc qu trnh ci t.

Hnh 37.

La chn card mng 1

1.3.2 Trng hp s dng xc thc bng username/ password. Trong trng hp ny ISP s cp cho bn mt ti khon gm username v password. Bn vo mc Network Connection, chn mc Create a new connection

Hnh 38.

Bt u to mt kt ni 26

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hp thoi Setup wirazd m ra, Bn Next,

Hnh 39.

La chn mc connect to the internet

Connect to the internet

Hnh 40.

La chn mc Setup.manually

Setup my connection manually

27

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 41.

La chn mc Connect usingpassword

Connect using a broadband connection that require a username and password

Hnh 42.

Nhp username/password

Nhp tn bt k Nhp username v password Finish.

28

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

2- Lp t ng FTTH theo m hnh s dng Broadband Router/Wireless Router


INTERNET

BRAS
Broadband router hoc Wireless router, giao din cu hnh web

Router PE
Router, giao din cu hnh command line

Electric port
STB Laptop

IPTV

Module SFP

MANE- RING CORE

Converter Switch/Hub Converter


MANE-RING ACCESS MANE-RING ACCESS

Converter

Laptop

Switch/Hub

Core Switch Access Switch PHA KHCH HNG MNG TRUYN DN VIN THNG TNH PHA KHCH HNG

Hnh 43.

M hnh FTTH tng qut s dng BB Router

1.1 Chun b thit b:


Broadband internet Router/ Wireless Router.

Media fast ethernet converter. Switch/Hub ODF, Path cord, cp UTP-CAT5 Cc my tnh. 1.2 Thao tc lp t: Thng thng tuyn quang t ISP cung cp s c hn gn trn mt ODF t ti khch hng. Ta dng dy nhy quang n ni t ODF sang converter.

Dng cp UTP-CAT5 thng ni t cng WAN trn BB Router ti Converter Dng cp UTP-CAT5 thng ni t cng LAN trn BB Router ti PC/Switch
Cp UTP -CAT 5 thng Dy nhy quang ISP Switch / Hub PC Client BB router Converter ODF

29

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH Hnh 44. M hnh u ni FTTH s dng BB Router

Kim tra tn hiu n trn converter v trn cc Router, switch/hub, my tnh.

1.3 Ci t 1.3.1 BB Router giao din web:


Reset BB Router Vo start / run/ nhp cmd/ nhp lnh ipconfig_/all/ kim tra IP default gateway (chnh l a ch IP ca Router c DHCP).

Hnh 45.

Lnh ipconfig

M trnh duyt web, nhp IP default gateway vo thanh a ch nhp username/ password truy nhp web Router.

Hnh 46.

ng nhp web Router 30

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Chn mc Setup/ Configuration/ WAN: + Chn Static IP nu kt ni theo cch dng IP public. Bn nhp vo a ch IP do ISP cung cp

Hnh 47.

Cu hnh Router kiu static ip

+ Chn PPPoE nu kt ni dng username/password xc thc. Bn nhp vo username/password do ISP cung cp.

Hnh 48.

Cu hnh Router kiu PPPoE

Dng lnh ping kim tra.

31

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

3 Lp t FTTH theo m hnh s dng Optical CPE:


INTERNET

BRAS

Router PE

electric port
IPTV STB

Module SFP

MANE- RING CORE

VoIP

Switch/Hub

Optical CPE

MANE-RING ACCESS

MANE-RING ACCESS

Converter

Optical CPE

Switch/Hub

Core Switch Access Switch PHA KHCH HNG MNG TRUYN DN VIN THNG TNH PHA KHCH HNG

Hnh 49.

M hnh FTTH tng qut s dng optical CPE

1.1 Chun b thit b:

Optical CPE : HTSV P5S1

Switch/Hub ODF, Path cord, cp UTP-CAT5 Cc my tnh. 1.2 Thao tc lp t: Dng dy nhy quang kt ni t ODF sang Optical CPE dng cp UTP-CAT5 kt ni t optical CPE ti Switch/Hub, PC.
Cp UTP-CAT5 thng Dy nhy quang

ISP Switch/ Hub PC Client Optical CPE ODF

Hnh 50.

M hnh u ni FTTH s dng optical CPE

1.3 Ci t:

Reset optical CPE


32

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Vo start / run/ nhp cmd/ nhp lnh ipconfig_/all/ kim tra IP default gateway (chnh l a ch IP ca Router c DHCP). M trnh duyt web, nhp IP default gateway vo thanh a ch nhp username/ password truy nhp web Router. + Chn Static IP nu kt ni theo cch dng IP public. Bn nhp vo a ch IP do ISP cung cp

Chn mc Setup/ Configuration/ WAN:

Hnh 51.

Cu hnh optical CPE kiu static ip

+ Chn PPPoE nu kt ni dng username/password xc thc. Bn nhp vo username/password do ISP cung cp.

Hnh 52.

Cu hnh optical CPE kiu PPPoE

33

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Phn III PHN TCH X L CC LI C BN TRN NG TRUYN FTTH


1- Phn tch s c ng truyn FTTH theo m hnh truyn dn
PHA KHCH HNG PHA NH CUNG CP DCH V

AP Metro switch Switch /Hub Router Converter Converter Metro Switch BRAS

Internet

Hnh 53.

Phn on truyn dn FTTH

1.1 Cc s c pha nh cung cp dch v (ISP): y thng l cc s c nghim trng, nh hng n mt s lng khch hng trong mt phm v a l nht nh. Vic xc nh v x l s c nhiu khi mt rt nhiu thi gian v phi do nhng v cc k s chuyn gia tin hc gii, c kinh nghim mi thc hin c. C th lit k mt s s c nh sau:

Li cu hnh, treo cng, treo thit b Router, Switch, Metro Switch, OLT, BRAS S c ngun in, t cp ng trc trong nc hoc quc t. Li h thng my ch cung cp dch v v qun l mng li. Li ci t sai cc thng s VLAN, thng tin khc trn VISA Virus xm nhp h thng Li vt l, u ni sai, hng cc thit b: my tnh (NIC card), Hub/Switch, Router/Access Point, Converter, cp mng..., ngun in cung cp cho h thng thit b truy nhp FTTH khng t tiu chun cho php.

1.2 Cc s c pha khch hng :

34

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Ci t, cu hnh sai cc thit b nh Router/ Access Point, Hub/Switch, h iu hnh my tnh, trnh duyt web (proxy, cache/cookies...), cu hnh email, spam email .....Li driver, firmware

Li ci t IP, default gateway, virus, firewall, ci t cc phn mm ngn chn truy nhp, my tnh chy nhiu ng dng mt lc.... 1.3 Cc s c truyn dn:
t cp quang t trm vin thng n nh khch hng Khong cch ko cp gia ISP v khch hng xa hn gii hn cho php dn n

suy hao tn hiu... Cht lng cp quang khng tt do c nhiu mi hn, khong cch cp qu xa, c nhiu ch b gp...
u ni ti cc ODF, connector, NAP, khng tt

2 - Phn tch s c FTTH theo tnh cht s c, quy trnh x l:

Hnh 54.

Tip nhn phn tch s c

35

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

3 - Lu x l cc s c FTTH
X l cc s c mt kt ni mng

Hnh 55.

S phn tch s c mt kt ni internet

Hnh 56.

S phn tch s c mt kt ni vt l

36

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 57.

S phn tch mt kt ni do cu hnh ci t

Hnh 58.

S phn tch s c ng truyn chm

37

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Hnh 59.

S phn tch s c ng truyn chp chn

4 - Hi p, phn hi thc mc ca khch hng.


Cu hi 1: Ti ng k dng triple play vi internet dng phng thc tr cc ph theo lu lng, ti sao khi ti gi in thoi cng b tnh cc internet? Tr li: Triple play: l vic ng dng tch hp 3 loi dch v truyn thng trn cng mt ng truyn vt l, truyn ti d liu, thoi, truyn hnh trn nn tng IP nh : Internet, VoIP, IPTV
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) l cng ngh truyn tn hiu thoi qua qua

giao thc TCP/IP. m thanh c m ha v truyn ti di dng cc gi d liu IP trn h tng LAN, WAN, internet.
Do vy khi lng VOIP ra/vo trn h thng s c tnh cc nh bt k cc

gi d liu no khc trn internet. Cu hi 2 Ti ng k dng dch v MegaVNN(FiberVNN) dng phng thc tr cc ph theo lu lng. Khi ti tt my tnh hoc ch bt my tnh nhng khng vo mng, kim tra thy lu lng gi/nhn tng cao, cui thng b tnh cc rt nhiu? Vy Anh/Ch hy gii thch nguyn nhn no dn n hin tng trn? Liu c phi do h thng ca nh cung cp dch v tnh cc sai, hoc c tnh y lu lng tng cao thu li hay khng? Tr li:

Tnh cht cng ngh khi mt ng truyn ADSL/FTTH s dng phng thc xc thc username/password th cn to mt lin kt PPPoE t Router khch hng ti h thng my ch ca ISP. Lin kt ny cn c duy tr lin tc nhm thc hin vic

38

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

xc thc cp quyn truy nhp cho Router KH nn c mt lu lng truyn qua li trn ng truyn. Tuy nhin lu lng ny trn thc t l khng ng k. Khi KH ch ng gi/nhn bt k mt thng tin no trn internet di dng cc gi IP khi i qua h thng tnh cc ca nh cung cp dch v u c tnh ton lu lng v tnh cc. Khi s dng Modem wireless hoc Access Point khng bo mt hoc b nh cp password, dn n c s truy nhp tri php. C nhiu my tnh trong mng LAN cng truy nhp internet, hoc nhiu ngi s dng mt my nn khng kim sot c vic truy nhp. ng cp b cu trm, ng thi b l username/password. Khi download tng t bin l do: + H iu hnh hoc mt s phn mm ci t trn my tnh ch auto update, auto repair. + Hu ht cc website c ch auto refresh theo nh k nn khi m cc trang web xem xong khng tt ngay, lu lng vn tng.
o Khi my tnh/Router b tn cng t bn ngoi (VD: tn cng

+ + +

t chi dch v DDoS). o Khi lu lng upload tng t bin: o Do nhim su my tnh (worm): vic pht tn lin tc, t ng ca chng khin lu lng tng vt. o Khi my tnh b nhim bin th backdoor v b chim quyn iu khin, chng nhn lnh iu khin t server v thc hin tn cng mng (DDoS) t chnh my tnh b , khin bng thng tng + My tnh b nhim trojan, spyware, m c vo my tnh v cc chng trnh nh skype, yahoo, MSN,t ng nh cp d liu gi ra ngoi Gii php: Qun l hiu qu vic s dng my tnh c nhn, kim sot c vic truy nhp internet. Tt cc ch auto update/ auto repair cc phn mm ci trn my.
t mt khu truy nhp, kt ni modem/Router/AP an ton v nn

thng xuyn thay i. t bit vi modem wireless v AP. Thay i password ca account m nh ISP cp cho bn.
39

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH S dng cc phn mm o bng thng kim sot c lu lng s dng:

DU Meter, VietBandwidth, MyConnection PC. Ci t cc phn mm v thc hin dit virus thng xuyn.
Tt hn modem/Router khi khng c nhu cu s dng

Ngoi ra bn c th lin h vi b phn h tr k thut ca ISP c hng dn o kim hoc kim tra log xc nh nguyn nhn v cch x l trit .

Cu hi 3 Ti dng internet ca VNPT, khi t TCP/IP ng hoc gn tnh DNS ca VNPT nh 203.162.0.11/ 203.162.0.181 th khng vo c website xxx, nhng khi t Open DNS hoc google DNS th truy nhp c bnh thng? Xin gii thch gim ti! Tr li: Do yu cu ca bn an ninh khi mt s website trn mng internet cha ni dung khng lnh mnh (khiu dm, bo lc, ) hoc ni dung th nghch chng i ng, nh nc cn ngn chn. ISP s dng phng php flood IP, gi mo IP ca website trong cc bn ghi hots ca DNS server. Nn khi KH s dng DNS ca ISP th vic truy nhp lun hng n mt IP khng c thc khin vic kt ni khng thnh cng.

Cu hi 4 Khi ti truy nhp vo mt s website Trung Quc t mng ca VNPT th khng thnh cng, trong khi trn ng truyn FPT th bnh thng. Ti t tm hiu th c bit khi t IP 121.12.x.y vo mc proxy server ca trnh duyt th cng truy nhp vo website bnh thng. Ti khng r nguyn nhn ti sao, ngh Anh/ch hy gii thch gim? Tr li: Mt s website trn internet thc hin vic ngn chn truy nhp t mt ISP khc hoc mt di IP no . Mt s website s dng ng internet kt ni n l ng truyn internet ni b ca mt vng lnh th, quc gia (VD: internet NIX ca VNPT). Do chnh ISP chn kt ni n website lp 3 OSI

40

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

Cu hi 5 Lm th no ti bit c tc thc ca ng truyn? Tr li: Tc ng truyn l i lng bin thin, c o bng s lng thng tin c truyn ti trn mt n v thi gian. n v tnh: bps, Kbps, Mbps, KBps, MBps Chng ta c th o trc tip bng cch download t mt file bt k t trn mng, cc trnh duyt web u hin th tc thc ti thi im . Nu o tc trong nc, bn vo website 203.162.0.201 c server t ti VDC Nu o tc quc t, bn vo mt s website uy tn c server t ngoi lnh th VN nh :speedtest.net , .. kim tra. Dng cc phn mm h tr kim tra tc

Cu hi 6 Cookies l g? C nh hng g ti hot ng ng nhp web trn my tnh nh th no?

Tr li:

Cookies l l nhng phn d liu nh c cu trc c chia s gia website v browser ca ngi dng. cookies c lu tr di nhng file d liu nh dng text (size di 4k). Chng c cc site to ra lu tr/truy tm/nhn bit cc thng tin v ngi dng gh thm site v nhng vng m h i qua trong site.
41

Cm nang H tr K thut FTTH

u im ca cookie l sau khi bn ng nhp vo mt h thng no , ln sau bn s khng phi ng nhp li na, nu nh bn cho php website s dng cookie lu tr cc thng tin ny. Ngoi ra, mt s trang web cho php a bn n ngay trang m bn ang truy nhp d dang t ln trc nh c cc thng tin trong cookie trong my ca bn. Nh vy, cookie gip bn c th truy xut nhanh hn, tin dng hn, ng theo cc s thch c nhn hn. Nhc im ca cookie l d b li dng. Ngi khc s dng my ca bn hon ton c th ng nhp h thng nh vai tr ca bn. Cha k, cc virt hoc cc chng trnh ly trm thng tin s da vo cookie kim sot xem bn tng i u, lm g v c nhng thng tin g...

Cu hi 7 Internet browser cache l g? C nh hng g ti hot ng ng nhp web trn my tnh nh th no? Tr li: Thng tin t Internet v ti my tnh s c lu tr ti mt vng trong cng my tnh ca bn, sau mi hin th ra mn hnh. Vng lu tr ny gi l vng nh m thng tin trn Internet (Internet Cache). Do vy, nu tng m mt trang web no ra ri th khi bn quay li website th cc thng tin s c ti ngay t vng nh m ny v ch cp nht nhng phn thay i. u im ca vng nh m l tc truy xut rt nhanh (nu bn tng vo mt trang, nht l trang c nhiu nh v sau ny c nhu cu truy xut li) do khng phi ti ton b thng tin t Internet. Vng nh m cn gip bn c th xem li cc thng tin m bn tng truy xut nh kt hp vi cc chc nng history (lch s) v work offline (lm vic khng trc tuyn) s ni phn sau. Nhc im ca vng nh m l i khi khin ngi dng phi xem cc thng tin c nu khng cc thng s ngy thng. trnh iu ny, bn cn thnh thong s dng chc nng lm ti (refresh, s ni phn sau) c th lun lun ly c nhng thng tin mi nht t pha my ch.
Ngoi ra, vng nh m cng l ni tr chn ca virt khi bt u ly lan vo

my tnh ca bn thng qua con ng Internet. Nh vy, bn cn ch v qun l vng nh m tht tt.

42