Volume IV

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Our Sincer e t hanks t o t he f ollowing f or t heir invaluable cont r ibut ions t o
t his ebook :
For host ing Sr i VishNu Sahasr a Naamam ebooks
Oppiliappan KOil Sr i Var adAchAr i SaThakOpan
Chief Edit or , Sundar asimham & AhObilavalli eBooks Ser ies
Pr oviding t he sour ce f or compiling t he document :
Mandayam Sr i K. Kr ishnaswamy
(ht t p:/ / kir t imukha.com/ chinnamma/ sahasr a/ )
Pr oviding t he Sanskr it t ext s:
Mannar gudi Sr i.Sr inivasan Nar ayanan
Cover I mage
Smt . Somalat ha of Somalat ha & Associat es, Bangalor e
(ht t p:/ / www.cksoma.in)
Sr i. V. Gangadhar (Raj u) - Ar t ist
Sr i. B. Sr inivas f or pr oviding t he cover image
f or use in t his e-book
Pr oviding t he images
 Sr i. B. Sent hil (www.t hir uvaikunt avinnagar am.blogspot .com)
 Sr i Mur ali Bhat t ar (www.sr ir angapankaj am.com)
 Nedunt her u Sr i Mukund Sr inivasan
Exclusive Ar t wor k
Sow R. Chit r alekha of sundar asimham-ahobilavalli t eam
E-book assembly:
 Smt . J ayashr ee Mur alidhar an
 Sr i. Mur alidhar an Desikachar i


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CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
SlOkam 83 3
SlOkam 84 33
SlOkam 85 48
SlOkam 86 67
SlOkam 87 82
SlOkam 88 105
SlOkam 89 127
SlOkam 90 150
SlOkam 91 171
SlOkam 92 198
SlOkam 93 225
SlOkam 94 245
SlOkam 95 266









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1

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+ ~l-+ + ~l-+ + ~l-+
+ ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+
+ ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+
~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P-
SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam
(Volume I V) (Volume I V) (Volume I V)

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2
























3

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Slokam 83 Slokam 83 Slokam 83
BPl46l |+4 ¬ltPl T= 4l T¹|64P-· BPl46l |+4 ¬ltPl T= 4l T¹|64P-· BPl46l |+4 ¬ltPl T= 4l T¹|64P-·
T¬ ¬l T¬ Pl T¬l T¹l4lBl T¹l|¹rl+ <°+ T¬ ¬l T¬ Pl T¬l T¹l4lBl T¹l|¹rl+ <°+ T¬ ¬l T¬ Pl T¬l T¹l4lBl T¹l|¹rl+ <°+
samAvar t O nivr ut t At mA dur j ayO dur at ikr amah |
dur labhO dur gamO dur gO dur AvAsO dur Ar ihA | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 779. nAma 779. nAma 779. BPl46 - BPl46 - BPl46 - samAvar t ah samAvar t ah samAvar t ah
a) He Who t akes incar nat ions again and again f or t he benef it of His devot ees.
b) He Who per f or ms His f unct ion of cr eat ion again and again in cycles.
c) He Whose t r ue t hought s ar e always r evolving ar ound what He can do t o help
His devot ees.
samAvartAya namah.
sam is an upasar ga her e, and can mean “well”, “f r om all sides”, et c. The t er m
Avar t a means “t ur ning ar ound, r evolving”. The r oot f r om which t he wor d
Avar t a is der ived is vRt – var t ane – t o exist , t o happen, t o live on, t o occupy
et c. The amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam is: Avar t at e car kr avad bhr Amyat i it i
Avar t ah – That which r ot at es ar ound like a wheel.
a) Sr I bhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma because He
t akes incar nat ions again and again r epeat edly as needed, f or t he benef it of His
devot ees, even t hough He is bir t hless. nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o Him as piRappu
ilpal piRavi per umAn in t ir uvAimozhi 2.9.5 (Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an).
b) Sr I Sa’nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has t he nAma
samAvar t ah because He skillf ully t ur ns t he wheel of wor ldly lif e –
samsAr acakr asya samyag-Avar t aka it i samAvar t ah.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he same int er pr et at ion - samyag
Avar t ayat i samsAr a cakr am it i samAvar t ah.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN expr esses t he same idea – because bhagavAn

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r epeat edly cont inues His cr eat ion in cycles, He is called samAvar t ah – samyak
t AnAvar t ayat i punah punah sRj at i it i samAvar t ah.
c) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj is t hat
bhagavAn is called samAvar t ah because His t r ue t hought s ar e const ant ly
r evolving ar ound what He can do t o pr ot ect His devot ees – samI cI nah
Avar t anaS-cint anamsvaj ana avanamayam yasya it i samAvar t ah.
nAma 780. nAma 780. nAma 780. |+4 ¬ltPl |+4 ¬ltPl |+4 ¬ltPl nivRt t At mA nivRt t At mA nivRt t At mA
a) He whose Nat ur e is dif f er ent f r om, and super ior t o, ever yt hing else
(Tr anscendent al For m).
b) He whose mind is t ur ned away f r om wor ldly at t achment s. (nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion)
c) He who is t he At mA of t hose who pr act ice t he nivRt t i dhar ma (Best ower of
benef it s accor ding t o kar ma).
d) He whose nat ur e is t hat He is f r ee f r om t he bonds of samsAr a, even when
He t akes His incar nat ion amongst us (kRshNa incar nat ion).
e) He who does not t ur n away f r om anyt hing or anywher e because He is
Omnipr esent . (a-nivRt t At mA - Sa’nkar a)
f ) He Who wit hdr aws t he j I va-s int o Him dur ing pr alaya
g) He Who has per meat ed ever yt hing complet ely.
h) He Who is Himself un-impact ed or wit hdr awn wit h r espect t o t he ef f ect s of
pr alaya of sRshTi.
i) He whose mind t ur ns away f r om any f eeling of self -glor y over His kI r t i or
f ame.
nivRttAtmane namah.
The nAma nivRt t At mA occur s 4 t imes in Sr I BhaTTar ’s syst em of
int er pr et at ion. This is one of only t wo nAma-s t hat occur t his many number of
t imes (t he ot her nAma is pr ANa-dah). The inst ances of t he nAma nivRt t At mA
in Sr I BhaTTar ’s scheme of int er pr et at ion ar e: nAma 231 (Slokam 25), nAma
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453 (Slokam 48), nAma 604 (Slokam 64), nAma 780 (Slokam 83)
Sr I Sa’nkar a has given t he nAma-s as nivRt t At mA in Sloka-s 25 and 64, as
vimukt AmA in Slokam 48, and as a-nivRt t At mA in Slokam 83, wit h nivRt t At mA
being his alt er nat e ver sion in Slokam 83.
What f ollows is a consolidat ion of t he pr evious wr it e-ups f or t his nAma. The
nAma has been explained in det ail in t he pr evious t hr ee inst ances, using t he
appr oach t hat I have t aken f or all ot her nAma-s, namely, giving t he dif f er ent
anubhavam-s of t he dif f er ent vyAkhyAna kar t A-s f or t he nAma in one place.
We will t ake a look at t he vyAkhyAna f or t his nAma f r om a dif f er ent
per spect ive in t he cur r ent wr it e-up.
Ther e ar e t wo unique cont r ibut ions t hat Sr I BhaTTar has made in his
vyAkhyAnam f or Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAmam. These ar e:
1. He has appr oached t he elucidat ion f or all t he nAma-s wit h t he emphasis
on bhagavAn’s guNa-s of saulabhyam and sauSI lyam t owar ds His
devot ees as t he pr imar y guNa-s of bhagavAn t hat ar e of int er est f r om
t he devot ees’ per spect ive. Sr I Sa’nakr a gener ally gives his
int er pr et at ions wit h emphasis on t he par at t vam or Supr emacy of
vishNu in his int er pr et at ions. This point has been br ought out in det ail
in my wr it e-up compar ing t he t wo vyAkhyAna-s, and has been ment ioned
as a r eminder under dif f er ent nAma-s.
2. Sr I BhaTTar is unique in viewing t he 1000 nAma-s as a collect ion of 44
discr et e gr oups, each gr oup consist ing of a ser ies of nAma-s descr ibing
a specif ic incar nat ion or manif est at ion of bhagavAn. This aspect has
also been ment ioned of f and on dur i ng t he discussion of t he nAma-s.
Because of t he gener al appr oach I have t aken t hr oughout , of summar izing t he
dif f er ent anubhavam-s of sever al int er pr et er s under each nAma, I have
inevit ably lost t he st r ess on t he second aspect of Sr I BhaTTar ’s cont r ibut ion
in my wr it e-ups, even t hough I t r y t o ment ion t his aspect of f and on. I n t he
cur r ent view of t he nAma nivRt t At mA, we will emphasize t his second aspect of
Sr i BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam f or t he f our inst ances of t his nAma.

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Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma-s in t he f ollowing cont ext s:
nAma 231 – as par t of t he gr oup of nAmas f r om 226 t o 247, r eminiscent of t he
pur usha sUkt a-upanishad pr at ipAdit a vir AT svar Upam. nAma 453 – as par t of
t he gr oup of nAma-s f r om 451 t o 463, descr ibing t he nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion, as t he nivRt t i dhar ma pr avar t aka. nAma 604 – as par t of t he gr oup
of nAma-s f r om 590 t o 606, descr ibing His guNa as a conf er r er of benef it s t o
j iva-s based on t heir kar ma. nAma 780 – as par t of t he nAmas f r om 697 t o
786, descr ibing His kRshNa incar nat ion.
The meaning f or t he wor d nivRt t a is t o t ur n away, t o abst ain f r om, t o be above
wor ldly act s, et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion f or nAma 231 (in t he gr oup of nAma-s
descr ibing t he Tr anscendent al Per son descr ibed in pur usha sUkat am et c.,), is
t hat bhagavAn’s svabhAva (Nat ur e) is past t he pr AkRt a svabhAva (t he
or dinar y nat ur e of mor t als), and t he meaning given is t hat His Nat ur e as t he
Supr eme pur usha is super ior t o anyt hing else, and st ands above all ot her
t hings. He is t he Mast er of t he Tr anscendent al Glor y t hat is t hr ice t he glor y
of t he mat er ial wor ld. He is t he svAmI or Lor d of all t hat is t his Univer se, and
all t hat is beyond t his Univer se. Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences:
t r ipAdUr dhvaudait -pur ushah - The Pur usha st ands eminent in t he par ama-pada
which has t hr ice t he glor y of t he mat er ial wor ld" - pur usha sUkt a 4. par At -
par am yan-mahat omahAnt am - He is gr eat er t han t he gr eat est , mor e exalt ed
t han t he most exalt ed.- t ait t i. nAr AyanI ya 1.5.
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives r ef er ence t o t he muNDakopanishad passage,
of t wo bir ds sit t ing in t he same t r ee, one r epr esent ing t he j I va and t he ot her
t he Supr eme Soul. His int er pr et at ion is: ni is an upasar ga; t he r oot involved is
vRt – var t ane – t o exist , t o happen, t o live on, t o occupy; or vRt – var aNe– t o
choose, t o divide. The wor d nivRt t a means One Whose Nat ur e is dif f er ent –
svar Upa par yAyah (Sr I vAsishTha).
dvA supar NA sayuj A sakhAyA samAnam vRksham par ishasvaj At e |
t ayor anyahpippalam svAdvat -anaSnan-anyo abhicAkaSI t i | | (muNDa. 2.1.)
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The above sloka t alks of t wo bir ds, one r epr esent ing t he par amAt mA and t he
ot her t he j I vAt mA, one wat ching and shining br illiant ly, while t he ot her enj oys
t he f r uit s of t he kar ma. I t t hus illust r at es t he dif f er ent nat ur e of t he
super ior Soul, who t ur ns away f r om t he enj oyment t hat t he j I va goes af t er
(nivRt t a -anaSnan). Sr I vAsishTha capt ur es t he spir it of t he nAma t hr ough
t he Sloka he has composed f or descr ibing t he meaning of t his nAma, j ust as he
has composed his own Sloka as his int er pr et at ion f or each of t he 1000 nAma-s:
j a~j ne sa viSvam sa bibhar t i viSvam sakhA sa j I vasya samAna Sakhah |
nASnanj agaj -j At a r asAn aseshAn nivRt t a mAt r o’Snut a eva sar vam | |
“BhagavAn cr eat es t he univer se and pr ot ect s ever yt hing, and is a Fr iend of t he
j I va-s and t r eat s ever yt hing in His cr eat ion equally. He does not consume any
of t he f r uit s of t his wor ld, but wit hdr aws ever yt hing int o Him at t he t ime of
pr alaya”.
b) I n Sr I BhaTTar ’ int er pr et at ion f or nAma 453 in Slokam 48 (in t he gr oup
dealing wit h t he nar a-nAr AyaNa incar nat ion), t he anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn
has His mind t ur ned away f r om wor ldly desir es. Since t he nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion deals wit h t he lif e of aust er it y t hat He adopt ed, and He t aught t he
nivRt t i dhar ma t o nar a, t his is an appr opr iat e int er pr et at ion in t his cont ext .
BhagavAn appear ed as nar a and nAr AyaNa t o t each t he nivRt t i dhar ma t o t he
wor ld and t o pr act ice it wit h ext r eme det achment (BhagavAn’s f or m was
nAr AyaNa in t he r ole of t he t eacher , and nar a in t he r ole of t he st udent ). To
indicat e His pr of ound det achment (par ama vair Agya) t o mat er ial obj ect s of
pleasur e, He had His mind wit hdr awn f r om t hem. The nar a-nAr AyaNa avat Ar a
as well as t he nivRt t i dhar ma ar e embedded in t his nAma. The avat Aar a
emphasized nivRt t i-dhar ma and pr opagat ed t he sacr ed asht Akshar a. The
essence of nivRt t i dhar ma is t he r ealizat ion t hat not hing is done f or our
benef it or by us, and ever yt hing is f or t he benef it of nAr AyaNa and happens
because of Him. We ar e not f or us or f or someone else, but only f or
nAr AyaNa.
Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam her e is: par ama vair Agya khyApanaAya

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vishayebhyahpr at yAhRt a-manAh nivRt t At mA - To indicat e His pr of ound non-
at t achment t o mat er ial obj ect s, He has His mind wit hdr awn f r om t hem. About
His medit at ion it is said - ant ar nivishTa bhAvam ca - He who has His t hought s
concent r at ed on Himself . Also, At ma-dhyAna par AyaNAya - To Him who has
His t hought s concent r at ed wit hin Himself "; "hRd - admAr pit a mAnasam" - "Him
wit h His mind f ixed on t he lot us-hear t ", et c.
c) For nAma 604, which is in t he gr oup of nAma-s dealing wit h His r elat ion wit h
t he j I va-s in giving t hem t he r esult s of t heir kar ma-s, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He has t his nAma because He is t he At mA of t hose who
pr act ice t he nivRt t i dhar ma, or t he lif e of r enunciat ion.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an elabor at es on how bhagavAn is t he At mA of t hose who
pr act ice t he nivRt t i dhar ma. These ar e t he j I va-s who do not have any int er est
in pr avRt t i dhar ma, and live t heir lives wit h t he soul obj ect ive of doing
kaimkar yam t o Him. They ar e not int er est ed in any f r uit out of t heir act ion
except t he bhAgyam of doing kaimkar yam t o Him. BhagavAn gives t hem exact ly
t hat , namely He gives t hem His lokam f r om wher e t her e is no r et ur n t o
samsAr a - viNNulagam t ar uvAnAi var iaginr An (t ivuvAimozhi 10.6.3). I n f act ,
even t hough bhagavAn is At mA of t hese nivRt t i dhar ma pr act it ioner s j ust as
He is t he At mA of all ot her cr eat ions, yet He consider s t hat t hese nivRt t i
dhar ma f ollower s as His soul t hat suppor t s Him. Anot her name f or t hese
pr act it ioner s of nivRt t i dhar mA is j ~nAnI , whom bhagavAn consider s as His
own soul.
Of t he t wo kinds of dhar ma - t he pr avRt t i dhar ma and t he nivRt t i dhar ma,
pr avRt i dhar ma t akes us t o t he wor ld of t he pit R-s wher e we enj oy t he f r uit s
of our kar ma, and come back t o t his wor ld wit h t he balance of kar ma-s t o our
cr edit ; nivRt t i dhar ma is t hat which leads one t o moksha.
d) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t his nAma in t he cont ext of t he kRshNa
incar nat ion, Sr I BhaTTar ’s anubhavam is t hat even t hough He t ook t he
incar nat ion among us f or our benef it , and even t hough we ar e deeply immer sed
in pr avRt t i dhar ma, He keeps Himself in t he nivRt t i dhar ma, and is not in any
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way af f ect ed by wor ldly t hings, and so He cont inues t o be a nivRt t At mA.
Thus, even t hough t he nAma is t he same, t he anubhavam is r elat ed t o t he
cont ext of t he par t icular aspect of bhagavAn t hat is emphasized in t hat
cont ext . This vision of Sr I BhaTTar in r ecognizing t he connect ivit y bet ween
t he dif f er ent nAma-s in sequence has also nat ur ally t aken car e of t he issue of
avoiding punar -ukt i.
Par t -2
(The f ollowing list has been r evised, and is slight ly dif f er ent f r om t he on e
post ed yest er day. So it is included her e).
nAma 780. nAma 780. nAma 780. |+4 ¬ltPl |+4 ¬ltPl |+4 ¬ltPl nivRt t At mA nivRt t At mA nivRt t At mA
a) He whose Nat ur e is dif f er ent f r om, and super ior t o, ever yt hing else
(Tr anscendent al For m).
b) He whose mind is t ur ned away f r om wor ldly at t achment s. (nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion)
c) He who is t he At mA of t hose who pr act ice t he nivRt t i dhar ma (Best ower of
benef it s accor ding t o kar ma).
d) He whose nat ur e is t hat He is f r ee f r om t he bonds of samsAr a, even when
He t akes His incar nat ion amongst us (kRshNa incar nat ion).
e) He who does not t ur n away f r om anyt hing or anywher e because of He is
Omnipr esent . (a-nivRt t At mA - Sa’nkar a)
f ) He Who wit hdr aws t he j I va-s int o Him dur ing pr alaya
g) He Who has per meat ed ever yt hing complet ely.
h) He Whose Mind t ur ns away f r om sacr if ices t hat ar e per f or med by t hose
who ar e not qualif ied.
i) He Who is Himself un-impact ed or wit hdr awn wit h r espect t o t he ef f ect s of
pr alaya of sRshTi.
j ) He whose mind t ur ns away f r om any f eeling of self -glor y over His kI r t i or

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f ame.
nivRttAtmane namah.
(I nt er pr et at ions (a) t o (d) wer e post ed yest er day. This is t he cont inuat ion).
For t he r est of t he wr it e-up, new inf or mat ion t hat was not included in t he
pr evious wr it e-ups is included below.
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ion in Slokam 25 is t hat bhagavAn is called
nivRt t At mA because He is f r ee f r om t he bonds of wor ldly lif e – The unbound
Self – samasAr a-bandhAn nivRt t a At mA savr Upam asya it i nivRt t At mA.
Sr I BhaTTar ’sint er pr et at ion a) above is along t he same as lines as t his. For t he
incidence of t he nAma in Slokam 48, Sr I Samkar a vyAkhyAnam is – svabhAvat o
vishayebhyonivRt t a At mA manah asya it i nivRt t At mA – He t ur ns away f r om
mat er ial pleasur es nat ur ally. Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion b) is along t he same
lines, event hough Sr I BhaTTar links t he guNa t o His nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion specif ically.
e) For t he cur r ent inst ance, Sr I Sa’nkar a uses t he pATham a-nivRt t At mA, and
t hen gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat because He is pr esent ever ywher e, t her e is
no t ur ning away f r om anyt hing f or Him, and so He is a-nivRt t At mA.
New int er pr et at ions (f , g, and h - below) t hat have not been pr esent ed ear lier
ar e f r om sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a:
f ) nivRt t AAt mAno yena pr alaya it i – He is nivRt t At mA because He wit hdr aws
t he At mA-s (j I va-s) int o Him dur ing pr alaya.
g) ni – nit ar Am – wholly, complet ely; vRt t ah – sakala vishayeshupr avRt t ah –
exist s in ever yt hing; One Who exist s in ever yt hing, On Who has per meat ed
ever yt hing complet ely.
h) ayogya-kRt a ya~j nAdibhyo nivRt t o vA At mA mano yasya sa nivRt t At mA – He
Whose mind t ur ns away f r om t he sacr if ices t hat ar e made by t hose who ar e
not aut hor ized or not qualif ied t o per f or m t hese sacr if ices.
i) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 64, Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning
“asa’nga - unassociat ed wit h” f or t he wor d nivRt t a, and gives t he int er pr et at ion
11

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t hat bhagavAn is called nivRt t At mA because at t he t ime of pr alaya He is not
impact ed by t he ef f ect of pr alaya (i.e., He does snot cease t o exist ), and at
t he t ime of cr eat ion He is not impact ed by t he ef f ect of cr eat ion (t hat is, He
is not cr eat ed). So He is unassociat ed wit h t he ef f ect s of t he pr alaya, sRshTi,
et c. –
bhagavAn vishNuh sRshTi kAle pr alaya kAle ca sRshTim pr alayauyat hA-kr amam
vidadhadapi,
sva-svar Upavat o nivRt t At mA bhavat i asa’ngah,
pr alayakAle vA sRshTer nivar t at a it i nivRt t At mA vishNur ukt o bhavat i.
j ) Sr I r AmAnuj an also gives his anubhavam of bhagavAn' s det achment f r om
any f eeling of self -glor y over His gr eat ness. Her e He is, cr eat ing t his gr eat
wonder wit h all it s innumer able cr eat ur es and all t he planet s and t he dif f er ent
wor lds. He is t he svAmi of all t hese wor lds - vI RRir undu Ezhulagum t anik kOl
Sella;var ambilAda mAyai mAya!. var ambilAda kI r t iyAi! (t ir uccanda vir ut t am
96). Wit h all t his gr eat ness, one would expect t hat He should have some
at t achment of owner ship t o His wonder f ul cr eat ion, and pr ide of t his gr eat
cr eat ion of His. Yet , He does not have any of t his sense of pr ide, and is only
int er est ed in our welf ar e inst ead, in what ever He does. Such is His gr eat ness.
I n t his sense also, bhagavAn is nivRt t At mA.
Sr I cinmayAnanda obser ves t hat t he signif icance of t he nAma lies in indicat ing
t o us t hat we have t o det ach our mind f r om sense indulgences in or der t o
r ealize Him.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat bhagavAn is t he only one who can
r et r ieve t hose who ar e at t ached t o all kinds of mat er ial and sense obj ect s,
because He is t he only one who is not at t ached t o anyt hing. Only t he one who is
not st uck in t he mud can r et r ieve one who is st uck in it .
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he signif icance of t his nAma is
t o r ealize t hat we should live a lif e wit h det achment f r om mat er ial obj ect s in
or der t o r ealize t he Tr ut h, and medit at ing on t his nAma of mahA vishNu will
help us live t hat kind of lif e. Medit at ing on t he Lor d who has no at t achment s

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will lead us t o live a lif e wit hout at t achment . He gives t he lif e of Lor d Rama as
an example of t he lif e of nivRt t At mA.
Sr I Sa’nkar a pATham: As indicat ed ear lier , f or t he f our inst ances of
nivRt t At mA in Sr I BhaTTar ’s scheme of int er pr et at ion, t he cor r esponding
t r eat ment by Sr I Sa’nkar a is t he use of t he nAma nivRt t At mA in Sloka-s 25
and 64, vimukt At mA in Slokam 48, and a-nivRt t At mAin Slokam 83. The
adopt ion of a specif ic pATham by a given vyAkhyAna kar t A can be f or one of
t he f ollowing r easons:
1. I t may be a r esult of t he specif ic anubhavam t hat t hese gr eat devot ees
of nAr AyaNa have, and t he way t hey f eel t he enj oyment of t he nAma.
2. I n addit ion t o t he above, t he specif ic pATham may give a benef icial
edge in pr oviding an int er pr et at ion t hat suppor t s t he specif ic
philosophy t hat t he par t icular vyAkhyAna kar t A pr opounds or f ollows.
3. Adopt ing dif f er ent pAThams may be a way of avoiding t he issue of
punar -ukt i (r epet it ion or r edundancy).
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ions f or t he above nAma-s in Sloka-s25, 48, 63 and
83 r espect ively, do not seem t o suggest t hat he has adopt ed t he pATham t hat
he has chosen, f or illust r at ion of any specif ic advait a philosophy r elat ed issues.
So it can be assumed t hat his choice is mor e a r ef lect ion of 1and/ or 3 above.
vimukt At mA:
a) He Who is a nat ur ally f r ee Soul, since He is never bor n, not t ouches by
ef f ect s of kar ma, et c.
b) He Who liber at es t he souls or j I va-s.
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s alt er nat e pATham in Sloka-s 48 is vimukt At mA. We did not
cover t his as par t of Slokam 48, and so we will cover t his her e. The r oot
involved is muc – mokshaNe – t o set f r ee, t o leave, t o abandon. Vi is an
uapasar ga.
a) The int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa’nkar a is: svabhAvena vimukt aAt mA yasya
it i vimukt At mA – One Who is nat ur ally f r ee.
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Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma st ands f or
One Who has at t ained “viSeshamukt i”, or liber at ion in a unique or special way.
BhagavAn is nat ur ally f r ee in a unique way since He does not have bir t h and it s
associat ed avidyA, desir e, et c., like ever y one else does. He is not af f ect ed by
kar ma, t he t hr ee guNa-s, et c.
Sr I cinmayAnanda t r anslat es t he nAma as “The ever -liber at ed Self ”.
b) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a, a f ollower of t he dvait a t r adit ion, also uses t he
pATham as vimukt At mA her e, and gives an int er pr et at ion dif f er ent f r om Sr I
Sa’nkar a– vimukt A At mAno j I vA yena it i vimukt At mA – He by Whom t he j I va-s
ar e liber at ed or r eleased is vimukt At mA.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha obser ves t hat t her e is essent ially no dif f er ence in
t he meaning of t he wor ds vimukt At mA and nivRt t At mA.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er descr ibes t he f our kinds of kar ma – nit ya,
naimit t ika, kAmya, and nishiddha. nit ya kar ma-s ar e (such as
t r ikAlasandhyAvandanam) t hose which ar e t o be done necessar ily; doing t hem
does not accumulat e puNya, but not doing t hem accumulat es papa. Per f or mance
of naimit t ikakar ma-s (such as obser vance of ekAdaSi) will lead t o specif ic
benef it s. Act s t hat ar e done wit h specif ic desir e f or benef it s (such as special
sacr if icial r it es under t aken wit h specif ic benef it s in mind) ar e called kAmya
kar ma-s. The nishiddha kar ma-s ar e t he ones t hat ar e f or bidden. BhagavAn is
not subj ect t o t he ef f ect s of any t ype of kar ma, because He does not
under t ake any kar ma f or His benef it ; what ever He does is f or t he benef it of
t he j I va-s.
a-nivRt t At mA:
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ion f or t his ver sion is t hat bhagavAn is a-
nivRt t At mA, One Who never t ur ns away f r om anyt hing, because He is in
ever yt hing and ever ywher e – sar vat r a var t amAnat vAt s-nivRt t ah kut o’pi a-
nivRt t At mA. Not t oo many ot her int er pr et er s have used t his ver sion.


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nAma 781. nAma 781. nAma 781. T= 4- T= 4- T= 4- dur dur dur -- -j ayah j ayah j ayah
a) He Who cannot be under cont r ol except by devot ion.
b) He Who is I nvincible.
c) He Who makes it possible f or us t o conquer duhkham.
d) He Who can be won over by dif f icult pr act ices such as samAdhi et c.
dur-jayAya namah.
dus is an upasar ga. j i – j aye – t o conquer , is t he r oot involved.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam is t hat it is impossible t o br ing Him under
cont r ol by t he or dinar y power of human or divine beings. The only t hing by
which He can be conquer ed is t hr ough t ot al sur r ender (Sar aNAgat i) or t hr ough
t ot al devot ion (bhakt i), of which Sar aNAgat i is an a’nga.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha obser ves t hat anyone who f ollows t he SAst r ic r ules,
and who per f or ms act ions consist ent wit h His dict at es, will always be
successf ul. This is because bhagavAn r esides in t hese people in His f or m as
dur -j ayah.
This nAma is essent ially same as t he nAma a-par Aj it ah (nAma 721, Slokam
76,and nAma 866 in Slokam 92), and aj it ah (nAma 553 in Slokam 59). I n Sr I
BhaTTar ’s scheme of or ganizat ion of t he nAma-s int o gr oups, nAma 553 is
int er pr et ed in t he gr oup of names t hat descr ibe Him as Suddha-sat t va-
svar UpI , nAma 721 is par t of t he same gr oup t hat t he cur r ent nAma belongs
t o, in t hat t hey bot h ar e par t of t he descr ipt ion in t er ms of t he kRshNa
incar nat ion. nAma 866 is par t of nAma-s t hat st r ess His guNa as a dushTa-
nigr ahan – One Who punishes t he dushTa-s. So it is int er est ing t o see how Sr I
BhaTTar achieves dif f er ent iat ion in t he int er pr et at ion of t hese t hr ee similar
nAma-s in t heir f our inst ances.
For nAma 553, wher e Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion is in t er ms of bhagavAn
being of Suddha-sat t va svar Upam, his anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn has t his
nAma because He is t he Owner of par ama padam, whose ot her names ar e aj it A,
apar Aj it A, ayodhyA, et c. Ever yt hing her e is composed of Suddha-sat t va
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mat er ial, and bir t h and deat h ar e unknown because not hing is composed of
per ishable mat er ial. See Slokam 59 f or det ails on t his nAma.
For nAma 721, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of Lor d kRshNa’s
r ole in t he mahAbhAr at r a war (see t he det ailed wr it e-up f or nAma 721 in
Slokam76).
For t he cur r ent nAma, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He cannot
be br ought under cont r ol or won over , except when He wishes t o r eveal
Himself – yan-na dar Sit avAn esha kas-t ad-anveshTum ar hat i – “I f He does not
show Himself , Who can succeed in seeking and f inding Him?”
For nAma 866, in t he guNAnubhavam of His dushTa nigr ahat vam, t he
int er pr et at ion given is t hat it is impossible f or anyone t o obst r uct Him, at
anyt ime, t hr ough any means, in His f unct ion as t he Ruler over ever yone and
ever yt hing. I n f act , all t hat is r equir ed t o ensur e invincibilit y f or anyone is His
blessing:
yasya mant r I ca gopt A ca suhRc-caiva j anAr danah |
haih t r ai-lokya-nAt hah sankim nu t asya na nir j it am | |
(mahA bhAr at a udyoga.)
“What is t her e in t his wor ld t hat cannot be conquer ed by t hat per son
who has bhagavAn Har i as his ment or , pr ot ect or , and f r iend?”
Thus, all f our int er pr et at ions descr ibe His invincibilit y, but in each inst ance a
dif f er ent aspect of His invincibilit y is st r essed.
b) The cor r esponding vyAkhyAna-s of Sr I Sa’nkar a ar e:
1. For nAma aj it ah in Slokam 59, “He Who has never been conquer ed in
any of His I ncar nat ions” – kenApyavat Ar eshu na j it ah it i aj it ah.
2. f or apar aj it ah in Slokam 76, “He Who has conquer ed desir es and t he
r est int er nally, and t he demons and ot her s ext er nally”.
3. For dur -j ayah in t he cur r ent Slokam, “He Who is I nvincible” – j et um na
Sakyat a it i dur -j ayah. - For t he inst ance apar Aj it ah in Slokam 92,

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“Unconquer ed by gods and men” – Sat r ubhih napar Aj it a it i apar Aj it ah.
c) Coming back t o t he int er pr et at ions f or t he specif ic nAma dur -j ayah, in
addit ion t o t he int er pr et at ion ‘j et um na Sakyah dur -j ayah’, Sr I sat ya
sandhayat ir Aj a gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat He has t he nAma dur -
j ayah because He makes it possible f or us t o conquer duhkha – duhkhasya j ayo
yasmAt it i dur -j ayah.
d) Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives yet anot her diver sit y t o t he anubhavam:
duh-sAdhena samAdhinA j I yat e hRdi vaSI kr iyat e it i dur -j ayah – He Who is
won over by t he dif f icult pr act ices such as samAdhi et c.
nAma 782. nAma 782. nAma 782. T¹|64P- T¹|64P- T¹|64P- dur dur dur -- -at ikr amah at ikr amah at ikr amah
a) He Who cannot be by passed by t hose who seek r elief f r om samsAr a.
b) He Who cannot be t r ansgr essed because of f ear of t he consequences of
disobeying Him.
c) He f or whom all sor r ow is bypassed.
d) He by t r ansgr essing whose or der s, sor r ow is t he r esult .
dur-atikramAya namah.
The r oot involved in t he nAma is kr amu – pAda vikshepe - t o walk, t o st ep.
at ikr ama means over st epping, going beyond, br eaching.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat it is impossible t o have any
r ecour se except Him if we wish t o cr oss t he ocean of sor r ow. He gives sever al
suppor t ing r ef er ences:
yadA car mavad-AkASam veshTayishyant i mAnavAh |
t adA devam avij ~nAya duhkhasyAnt am nigacchat i | |
(Svet A. 6.20)
“The success wit h which one can r each t he end of sor r ow wit hout r esor t ing t o
God, is t he same as t he success one would have in r olling t he whole f ir mament
and put t ing it int o a small leat her bag”
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vAsudevam anAr Adhya ko moksham samavApnuyAt
“Who can at t ain salvat ion wit hout wor shipping vAsudeva?”
na hi vishNumRt e kAcit gat ir anyA vidhI yat e |
it yevam sat at am vedA gAyant e nAt r a samSayah | |
(lai’nga pur ANam 24.43)
“All t he veda-s ar e always singing in chor us t hat t her e is no ot her means of
r edempt ion except t he wor ship of vishNu. Ther e is no doubt about t his”.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o t he kAkAsur a episode in suppor t . He went r ound
all t hr ee wor lds f or someone t o pr ot ect Him f r om t he ast r a of Lor d r Ama, and
ult imat ely had t o come back t o His f eet f or r escue. I n Sr I mad r AmAyaNam,
hanuman declar es t hat if r Ama decides t hat someone should be killed, t hen no
one in all t he t hr ee wor lds, including indr a, br ahma, r udr a, or any ot her devat A
can pr ot ect t hat per son. nammAzhvAr r eveals t he same t r ut h in his
t ir uvAimozhipASur am 10.1.1 (kALamEgat t ai anRi maRRu ilam gat iyE), and 10.1.6
(t ir umOgUr At t an – Apt an t Amar ai aDi inRi maRRu ilam ar aNE) – Ther e is no
r ecour se f or us except His Feet .
b) Sr I Sa’nkar a vyAkhyAnam is also t hat He cannot be t r ansgr essed. This is
because He is t he sour ce of f ear f or t hose who t r ansgr ess His or der s, and
none will dar e t o disobey t hem. He gives kaThopanishad insuppor t :
bhayAt asya agnis-t apat i bhayAt t apat I sUr yah |
bhayAindr Svca vAyuSca mRt yur -dhAvat i pa’ncamah | |
(kaTho. 6.3)
“Thr ough f ear of Him bur ns t he f ir e, t hr ough f ear of Him shines t he sun,
t hr ough f ear of Him f unct ions indr a, t he wind, and Deat h as t he f if t h”.
We have a similar passage in t he t ait t ir I ya upanishad:
bhI shAsmAt vAt ah pavat e, bhI sdhodeyt i sUr yah, bhI shAsmAd
agniScendr aSca, mRt yur -dhAvat i pa’ncama it i | (t ait t i. 2.8.1)
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“Out of His f ear t he wind blows; Out of f ear t he Sun r ises;
Out of His f ear r uns Fir e, as also I ndr a and Deat h, t he f if t h”.
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he explanat ion – duhkhasya at ikr amo yasya
sa dur -at ikr amah – He f or whom all sor r ow is bypassed.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha explains t he nAma as meaning t hat He by
t r ansgr essing whose or der , sor r ow is t he r esult – yo bhAgavat am niyamam
ulla’ngat esa SaSavat dukkhameva Apnot i it i dur -at ikr amah.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives a similar int er pr et at ion – duhkhadah
at ikr amah Sasana ulla’nghanam asya it idur -at ikr amh – Bypassing His or der will
lead t o sor r ow.
dur -labhah, dur -gamah. dur -gah, dur -AvAsah
NOTE: The next f our nAma-s: dur -labhah, dur -gamah, dur -gah, dur -AvAsah
have similar meanings. I n f act , t he one-line t r anslat ion in English given by Sr I
Sr inivasa Raghavan is almost ident ical f or t he f ir st t hr ee of t hese:
1. dur -labhah – He Who is dif f icult t o be at t ained. -
2. dur -gamah – He Whom it is impossible t o at t ain. -
3. dur -gah – He Who cannot be ent er ed int o. -
4. dur -AvAsah – He Whose place of r esidence is not easy t o at t ain.
At f ir st look, t he above meanings seem ver y similar . So her e we have anot her
oppor t unit y t o enj oy how Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I Sa’nkar a deal wit h t he
int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s such t hat t her e is no r edundancy.
Fir st , let us look at Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam.
The gener al idea t hat is being descr ibed is t hat He is dif f icult t o at t ain. This
may be because of :
a) Def iciencies in t he appr oach of t he seeker ;
b) At t r ibut es t hat per t ain t o t he Sought , t hat make it dif f icult t o access Him;
c) Bar r ier s bet ween t he seeker and t he sought ;
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d) The limit at ions imposed by t he place wher e t he per son t hat is sought is
locat ed.
These ar e pr ecisely t he f our aspect s t hat Sr I BhaTTar addr esses, and assigns
one of t hese f or each nAma, each of which cont r ibut es t o t he dif f icult y in His
unat t ainabilit y. Thus once again he has nicely handled t he issue of avoiding
punar -ukt i in t he int er pr et at ion.
nAma 783 nAma 783 nAma 783 T¬ ¬- T¬ ¬- T¬ ¬- dur dur dur -- -labhah labhah labhah
(a) He Who is dif f icult t o at t ain f or t hose who ar e not single-minded in t heir
devot ion t o Him.
dur-labhAya namah
The r oot involved is labh – pr Apt au – t o get . Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is dif f icult t o at t ain f or t hose who ar e not
single-minded in t heir devot ion t o Him - aj it endr iya dushpr Apo dur -labhah sa
cakat hyat e – He is not easy t o access t o t hose who have not cont r olled t heir
indr iya-s. Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om vishNu dhar ma and f r om
mahAbhAr at a:
t asyApyanya manaskasya sulabho na j anAr danah”
(vishNu dhar ma 73.6)
"j anAr dana is not wit hin easy r each of t hose who have t heir minds af t er t hings
ot her t han Him."
apr Apyah keSavo r Aj an! I ndr iyaih aj it aih nRNAm
(mahAbhA.udyoga. 78.21)
"O King! KeSava cannot be at t ained by men if t heir senses ar e not conquer ed
by t hem."
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr pASur am – t ir uvAimozhi 1.3.1:
pat t uDai aDiyavar kku eLiyavan, piRar gaLukku ar iya vit t agan – “He is easy t o
access t o t he devot ees who wor ship Him as t heir Lor d, but f or ot her s, He is
not easily accessible”.

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Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN r ef er s us t o t he f ollowing, which indicat es how
dif f icult it is f or one t o get t o f ollow t he pat h of bhakt i:
j anmAnt ar a sahsr eshu t apo dAna samAdhibhih |
nar ANAm kshI Na pApAnAm kRshNebhakt ih pr aj Ayat e | |
I t t akes count less bir t hs of aust er it ies and ot her good deeds bef or e a human
being is r id of sins and develops devot ion t o kRshNa.
nAma 784 nAma 784 nAma 784 T¬ P- T¬ P- T¬ P- dur dur dur -- -gamah gamah gamah
(a) He Who is dif f icult t o at t ain because of His Ef f ulgence.
dur-gamAya namah
The r oot involved in t his nAma is gam –gat au – t o go. The meaning given by Sr I
BhaTTar is “He t o whose near ness One cannot go”. Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam
her e is:
dur -gamah – net r a dur balAnAm iva madhyAhna bhAskar ahapr adhRshya t ej Ah
daNDA pUpikayA dur -gamah – J ust as t he mid-day sun cannot be seen by men
wit h weak eyes, so also bhagavAn who is endowed wit h t he br illiance and
splendor of a t housand suns, cannot be accessed by weak-minded people.
(Sr I BhaTTar invokes t he “daNDa pUpikA” nyAayam her e, t o r einf or ce his
point : I f a cake wit h some st icks embedded in t he cake is lef t in a r oom, and if
someone declar es t hat st icks have been eat en away by r at s, t hen it goes
wit hout saying t hat t he cake has been eat en by t he r at s t oo. So also, if a
t r ivial sun cannot be seen by our eyes, need we say anyt hing about our seeing
bhagavAn wit h t he r adiance of a t housand such suns)?
nAma 785 nAma 785 nAma 785 T¬ - T¬ - T¬ - dur dur dur -- -gah gah gah
He Who is separ at ed f r om us by our avidyA which act s like af or t r ess bet ween
Him and us.
dur-gAya namah
The r oot is t he same as f or t he above nAma: gam – gat au – t o go. Her e Sr I
BhaTTar ascr ibes His inaccessibilit y because of cur t ains or pr ot ect ions t hat
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ar e t oo dif f icult f or us t o go t hr ough, in t he f or m of our a-vidyA or Nescience:
avidyA Avar aNaih dush-pr aveSaSca dur -gah. The t er m dur -gah usually r ef er s
t o a f or t if icat ion f or a f or t r ess, such as a moat . Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives t he
der ivat ion – duhkenApi gant um aSakyah – One Who cannot be r eached even
wit h dif f icult y.
Sr I cinmayAnanda t r anslat es t he nAma as “Not easy t o st or m int o” (since one
meaning f or t he wor d dur -gah is f or t ). He obser ves t hat t he essence of
nAr AyaNa is f or t r essed ar ound by t he mat t er vest ur es and t heir obj ect s of
f ascinat ion. At t r act ed by t hem, our at t ent ion is always dist r act ed t owar ds t he
j oy cont ent s in t hem. This seducing power of t he mat t er vest ur es is it self t he
might y mAyA, which is cr ossed over only by ver y r ar e, cour ageous, and blessed
ones”. He gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A:
daivI hyeshA guNamayI mama mAyA dur at yayA |
mAmeva ye pr apadyant e mAyAm et Amt ar ant i t e | |
(gI t A 7.14)
“This divine mAyA of Mine consist ing of t he t hr ee guNa-s is har d t o over come;
but t hose who t ake r ef uge in Me alone shall pass beyond t his mAyA”.
The upanishads say t hat t he Tr ut h cannot be per ceived by t he senses,
imagined by t he mind, or t hought of by t he int ellect . These being t he only
sour ce of our knowing, it seems almost impossible t o r ealize t he Tr ut h – yat o
vAconivar t ant e…(t ait . upa. 2.9.1).
Sr I cinmayAnanda r eminds us t hat “He is in our hear t , but even t hen He is not
easily r ealized”.
nAma 786 nAma 786 nAma 786 T¹l4lB- T¹l4lB- T¹l4lB- dur dur dur -- -AvAsah AvAsah AvAsah
a) He Whose place of r esidence is not easy t o at t ain.
dur-AvAsAya namah.
Her e Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o t he sheer inaccessibilit y of par ama padam f or us,
and t hus t he impossibilit y of accessing Him in t his bir t h t o per f or m
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kaimkar yam t o Him in par ama padam – evam ca dUr e dushkar ah t at -pada AvAsa
it i dur -AvAsah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i indicat es t hat t her e is a ver sion “dUr -AvAsah” also
in use, and t hen it means: “One Who is f ar , f ar , away, and t hus is not easily
accessible”.
Now let us see how Sr I Sa’nkar a dist inguishes bet ween t he f our nAma-s so
t hat t her e is no r edundancy in int er pr et at ion.
dur -labhah – dur -labhayA bhakt yA labhyat a it i dur -labhah
He Who is not easily at t ained except t hr ough int ense devot ion
dur -gamah – duhkhena gamyat ej ~nAyat a it i dur -gamah
One Who is known only wit h dif f icult y
dur -gah – ant ar Ayapr at ihat aih duhkhAt avApayat a it i dur -gah.
He Who can be at t ained only by over coming sever al unant icipat ed obst acles in
our at t empt s t o r ealize Him
dur -AvAsah – duhkhena avAsyat e cit e yogibhih samAdhAvit i dur -AvAsah.
He Who is not easily r et ained f or pr olonged per iods even by yogin-s dur ing
deep medit at ion
The dist inct ion made in t he f ir st t wo nAma-s is “labhayat a” vs. “j ~nAyat a”.
Lit er ally, t he f ir st r ef er s t o “get t ing Him”, and t he second r ef er s t o “knowing
Him”. The f ir st can r ef er t o t hose who can at t ain Him t hr ough pur e devot ion,
wit hout necessar ily having t he deep det ailed knowledge of SAst r a-s et c., and
t he second can r ef er t o t he mast er y over t he act ual SAst r ic knowledge. The
pat h of bhakt i is t edious, and so is t he acquisit ion of knowledge about Him.
I n Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr eat at ion, dur -gah r ef er s t o t he mult it ude of
unant icipat ed obst acles in at t aining Him, in addit ion t o t he known and inher ent
obst acles involved in t he pat h of bhakt i; and dur -AVAsah r ef er s t o t he
dif f icult y in medit at ing on Him f or pr olonged per iod of t ime, even f or t he best
of yogin-s.
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Addit ional det ails on t he int er pr et at ion of t he f our nAma-s f or Sr I Sa’nkar a’s
int er pr et at ion ar e given below:
dur dur dur -- -labhah labhah labhah -- - He Who can be at t ained only t hr ough ext r eme He Who can be at t ained only t hr ough ext r eme He Who can be at t ained only t hr ough ext r eme
devot ion. devot ion. devot ion.
Sr I Sa’nkar a quot es vyAsa:
j anmAnt ar a sahasr eshu t apo j !nana samAdhibhih |
nar ANAm kshI Na pApAnAm kRshNebhakt ih pr aj Ayat e | |
“Devot ion t owar ds kRshNa comes t o t hose men whose sins ar e bur nt up
byaust er it ies, wisdom and medit at ion, pr act iced in t housands of lives”.
He also gives suppor t f r om t he gI t A (8.22):
pur ushah sa par ah pAr t ha bhakt yAlabhayas-t ad-ananyayA |
The Supr eme Per son can be at t ained only by undivided devot ion, and by no
ot her means.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o t he kaThopanishad passage 1.2.7:
Sr avaNAyApi bahubhir -yo na labhyah Sr Nvant opi bahavo yam na vidyah |
AScar yovakt A kuSalo’sya labhdhA Ascar yo j ~nAt A kuSalA’nuSishTah | |
“Even t o hear of I t is not available t o many;
many, even having hear d of I t , cannot compr ehend.
I t is r ar e t o f ind a good t eacher f or I t ,
and equally r ar e t o f ind a good st udent .
Wonder f ul indeed is he who compr ehends I t
when t aught by an able pr ecept or .”
784b. dur 784b. dur 784b. dur -- -gamah gamah gamah –– – He Who is known only wit h dif f icult y. He Who is known only wit h dif f icult y. He Who is known only wit h dif f icult y.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is gam – gat au – t o go;
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duhkhenagamyat e = j ~nAyat e, j ~nApyat e vA dur -gamah.
The dist inct ion bet ween dur -labhah and dur -gamah based on t he wor ds
“labhyat a” vs. “j ~nAyat a” in Sr I Sa’nkar abhAshyam has alr eady been point ed
out ear lier .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he dif f icult y
t hat people have in developing t he desir e f or Him f or a st ar t , wit h means such
as Sr avaNam (t he knowledge impar t ed by a gur u about t he SAst r a-s et c.),
mananam (individual enquir y based on t he above knowledge), or nididhyAsanam
(int ense medit at ion). He gives r ef er ence t o t he kaThopanishad passage (1.2.23)
–nAyamAt mA pr avacanena lbhyo na medhayA nabahudhnA Sr ut ena.
Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s dur -gamah as r ef er r ing t o t he dif f icult y in
t r eading t he pat h of devot ion t hat was r ef er r ed t o in t he pr evious nAma (dur -
labhah). He gives t he suppor t f r om kaThopanishad: He f or Whose at t ainment
one has t o t r ead a pat h t hat is like walking on a r azor ’s edge –
kshur asya dhAr A niSit Adur at yayA
dur gam pat has-t at kavayo vadant i
kaTho. 1.3.14.
dur dur dur -- -gah gah gah –– – Not easily r ealized due t o obst acles and dif f icult ies. Not easily r ealized due t o obst acles and dif f icult ies. Not easily r ealized due t o obst acles and dif f icult ies.
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ion is: ant ar Ayapr at ihat aih duhkhAt avApayat ait i
dur -gah - Even f or t hose who at t empt t he dif f icult means t owar ds bhakt i yoga,
t her e will be many unexpect ed obst acles t hat will keep cr opping up. I t is
pr obably t hese dif f icult ies t hat ar e being r ef er r ed t o her e.
786b. dur 786b. dur 786b. dur -- -AvAsah AvAsah AvAsah –– – Not easily r et ained in t heir mind by even yogins Not easily r et ained in t heir mind by even yogins Not easily r et ained in t heir mind by even yogins
dur ing deep medit at ion. dur ing deep medit at ion. dur ing deep medit at ion.
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s wor ds ar e: duhkhena AvAsyat e cit t e yogibhih samAdahu it idur -
AvAsah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives a similar int er pr et at ion – “Not easy t o lodge” wit hin
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t he hear t st eadily f or even t he gr eat seeker s who ar e diligent in t heir
consist ent pur suit . Ar j una declar es t his condit ion exper ienced by t he likes of
him in t he gI t A:
yo’yam yogast vayA pr okt ah sAmyena madhusUdana |
et asyAham na paSyAmi ca’ncalat vAt st hit i st hir Am | |
(gI t A 6.33)
“This yoga of equalit y, which has been declar ed by You, O kRshNa,
I do not see t hat it can be st eady because of t he f ickleness of t he mind”.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er epr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he
dif f icult y of r et aining Him in our hear t s – duh-sAdhayA pr apat t yA vAsyat e
hRdiit i dur -AvAsah – He Who will be r et ained in our hear t s const ant ly only
t hr ough t he dif f icult pat h of pr apat t i. (Accor ding t o t he r AmAnuj a
sampr adAyam, pr apat t i is t he easiest way t o at t ain Him, as long as one can
qualif y wit h t he f ive a’nga-s of pr apat t i. One of t hese is mahA viSvAsam, or
t he unshakable f ait h t hat He will def init ely pr ot ect us once we sur r ender t o
Him. Per haps, t his is one of t he most dif f icult ment al st at es t o acquir e, and so
one can consider t hat pr apat t i is dif f icult in t his sense.)
Ot her anubhavam-s:
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives int er pr et at ions t hat suggest t hat all t hese
st at ement s about bhagavAn being dif f icult t o at t ain, dif f icult t o know,
dif f icult t o access, dif f icult t o r et ain, et c., all apply t o only t hose t hat do not
st r ive wit h sincer it y. His int er pr et at ions clear ly br ing out t his point :
duhkhena labhyo mRduvega Ar Adhakaih it i dur -labhah
He is dif f icult t o at t ain f or t hose who seek Him only wit h mild ef f or t
duhkhena AyAsena gamyat ej ~nAyayat e mant a-mat imadbhih it i dur -gamah
He is dif f icult t o know f or t hosewho ar e not smar t enough t o seek Him
duhkhena gamyat e pr Apayat e a-t I vr asamvegaih it i dur -gah
He is not accessible and impenet r able like one in a f or t r ess f or t hose who ar e

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not excit ed enough about at t aining Him
duhkhenaAvAsyat e hRdaye a-samAhit aih it i dur -AvAsah
He is dif f icult t o r et ain in hear t f or t hose who ar e not collect ed and calm
enough in t heir medit at ion
Thus, Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj ’s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is a sulabhan,
or easy of access, f or a t r ue devot ee. He is easy t o at t ain, easy t o r et ain, easy
t o access, et c., as f ar as a sincer e devot ee is concer ned.
dur dur dur -- -labhah: labhah: labhah:
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he anubhavam t hat even t hough bhagavAn is
pr esent in ever yt hing and ever ywher e, and in all of us, and is t he f or ce behind
our ever y act ion, st ill it is so dif f icult f or us t o appr eciat e t his and even
accept t his. Given t his st at e of af f air s, t o know His svar Upam is next t o
impossible f or most of us. Hence He is called dur -labhah. Sr I vAsishTha point s
out t hat t his j I va does not have t he abilit y t o know when lif e will leave t his
body, and when t he j I va will t ake t he next Sar I r a, or anyt hing else. He
r het or ically asks t he quest ion of how much mor e dif f icult it will be t o know His
t r ue nat ur e in f ull, and t o at t ain Him. He obser ves t hat even t he likes of sage
Mar kaNDeya wit h his long lif e did not succeed in under st anding Him f ully. So
Sr I vAsishTha’s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is called dur -labhah because
He is dif f icult t o at t ain even f or t he best of t he sages.
dur dur dur -- -gamah: gamah: gamah:
For t he nAma dur -gamah, Sr I vAsishTha gives t he anubhavam t hat t he nAma
r ef er s t o bhagavAn’s Et er nal Pr inciple t hat He r ef lect s ever ywher e in His
cr eat ion – namely, t hat even t hough He is inside all of us and t hus ver y near t o
us, st ill He is ver y f ar f or most of us, and so inaccessible. I t is t he r ef lect ion
of t his Et er nal Pr inciple of dur -gamat vam t hat we cannot accompany t he j I va
wit h our body when it depar t s t he body af t er our deat h, no one knows exact ly
what anot her per son’s t hought s ar e, et c.
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784c. dur 784c. dur 784c. dur -- -gamah : gamah : gamah :
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er pr et s t he nAma dur -gamah as f ollows: duh
sAdhena upanishad vicAr eNa gamyat e budhyat e it i dur -gamah – He Who is
known t hr ough t he t edious and dif f icult pr ocess of inquir ing int o t he
upanishads.
785c. dur 785c. dur 785c. dur -- -gah: gah: gah:
Sr I vAsishTha point s out t hat bhagavAn is anant a or I nf init e, and t he success
in r ealizing Him is r elat ed t o t he ef f or t t hat is put in, but is never complet e.
This is t he sense of t he nAma dur -gah - He Who is dif f icult t o be accessed in
His t ot alit y. For humans who ar e const r ained by t he limit at ions of t heir ant ah-
kar aNa-s (t he seat of t hought and f eeling, t he mind, t he t hinking f acult y, t he
hear t , t he conscience, t he soul), He is dur -gah.
785d. dur 785d. dur 785d. dur -- -gah gah gah
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he int er pr et at ion – dur go duhkhamgamayat i
dait yAn pr at i it i dur -gah – He Who causes pain and suf f er ing t o t he evil-
minded r Akshasa-s. The r oot used her e is gam – gat au – t o go.
785e. dur 785e. dur 785e. dur -- -gah gah gah
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er pet s t he nAma dur -gah using t he r oot gai –
Sabde – t o sing, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma r ef er s t o His
being sung t hr ough sAma gAnam which is dif f icult t o lear n, pr act ice and
mast er .
786c. dur 786c. dur 786c. dur -- -AvAsah AvAsah AvAsah
AvAsah r ef er s t o t he place or locat ion of a per son. Sr I vAsishTha obser ves
t hat because He is ever ywher e and in ever yt hing, it is impossible t o pr ecisely
say wher e He is, and so He is called dur -AvAsah – One Whose place or locat ion
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is impossible t o pinpoint pr ecisely. He quot es t he at har va vedic passage:
ant ar iksham ut odar am divam yaScakr e mUr dhAnam t asmai j yeshThAya
br ahmaNenamah |
(at har va. 10.7.32)
“Rever ence t o t he Supr eme Br ahman, whose base is ear t h, whose st omach is
air , and whose head is t he sky”.
786d. dur 786d. dur 786d. dur -- -AvAsah AvAsah AvAsah
Sr I vAsishTha gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion also – Because bhagavAn
sust ains t he lives of even t he cr eat ur es t hat do not have access t o common
needs of lif e such as air , wat er , et c., He is called dur -AvAsah – dur gat amapi
pr ANivar gam yat hAvyavast ham duhkham anubhavant am AvAsyat i it dur -
AvAsah.
To r ecapit ulat e, t he dif f er ent anubhavam-s f or t he f our nAma-s above ar e:
783. dur 783. dur 783. dur -- -labhah: labhah: labhah:
a) He Who can be at t ained only by single-minded devot ion
784. dur 784. dur 784. dur -- -gamah: gamah: gamah:
a) He Who is unappr oachable in t he cont ext of His Ef f ulgence.
b) He Whose Tr ue Nat ur e can be known only wit h dif f icult y
c) He Who can be known only by t he dif f icult pr ocess of enquir y int o t he
upanishads et c.
785. dur 785. dur 785. dur -- -gah: gah: gah:
a) He Who is shielded f r om us like One in a f or t r ess by our avidyA
b) Nor easily r ealized because of unant icipat ed obst acles dur ing our ef f or t s t o
seek Him
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c) He Whose r ealizat ion is const r ained by our own limit at ions.
d) He Who causes pain and suf f er ing t o t he evil-minded r Akshasa-s.
e) He Who is pr aised by t he sAma gAnam which is dif f icult t o mast er .
786. dur 786. dur 786. dur -- -AvAsah: . AvAsah: . AvAsah: .
a) He Whose place (Sr I vaikunTham) is inaccessible t o us.
b) Not easily r et ained in t heir mind f or pr olonged int er vals even by yogin-s
dur ing medit at ion
c) He Whose pr ecise locat ion can never be specif ied because He is ever ywher e
and in ever yt hing.
d) He Who suppor t s t he lives of even t hose cr eat ur es which do not have
access t o t he essent ials of lif e as we know t hem.
I t is impor t ant t o keep in mind t he point br ought out by Sr I kRshNa dat t a
bhAr advaj in t he cont ext of t hese f our nAma-s, namely, t hat in t he case of
t hose who long f or Him, He r emoves t he obst acles, and makes sur e t hat He is
easily accessible. He uses diver se means t o get r id of t he enemies or mislead
t hem et c. We will see t his aspect in t he next ser ies of nAma-s, 787 t o 810 in
Sr I BhaTTar ’s scheme of int er pr et at ion.
nAma 787. nAma 787. nAma 787. T¹l|¹rl T¹l|¹rl T¹l|¹rl dur Ar i dur Ar i dur Ar i-- -hA hA hA
a) The Dispeller of t he evil-minded enemies.
b) The Dispeller of evil t hought s f r om t he minds of t he devot ees.
durArighne namah.
This is t he f ir st of t he ser ies of nAma-s t hat ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar
in t he cont ext of bhagavAn’s Buddha incar nat ion.
The wor d is made up of dur + A + ar i + hA. dur and A ar e upasar ga-s. dur her e
means bad. A st ands f or samant a – complet e, ent ir e (A samant At – Sr I
vAsishTha); ar i r ef er s t o f oe, and hA st ands f or dest r oying or killing, der ived
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f r om t he r oot han – t o kill, t o dest r oy. Sr I vAsishTha explains t he t er m
dur Ar ih as meaning “one who causes pain and miser y f r om all sides” – duhkham
samant At ar payat i pr Apayat i it i dur Ar ih. The nAma dur Ar i-hA st ands f or “He
Who dest r oys t he dur Ar i-s” – dur Ar ih t An hant i it i dur Ar i-hA.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ’s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn uses dif f er ent means t o get r id
of t he evil-minded asur a-s. One of t hem is t o make t hem weak by t ur ning t hem
away f r om t he veda-s. He gives a quot e f r om vishNu pur ANam:
mAyA mohena t e dait yAh pr akAr aih bahubhih sadA |
vyut t hApit A yat hA naishAmt r ayI m kaScit ar ocayat | |
hat ASca t e’sur A devaih san-mAr ga par ipant hinah | |
(vishNupur A. 3.18.34)
“By His power f ul skill, He conf ounded in sever al ways t heir minds, and led t hem
ast r ay, as a r esult of which t her e was no one amongst t hem who had a liking
f or t he veda-s. They became aver se t o going in t he r ight pat h, and t hey wer e
easily disposed of by t he gods”.
To under st and t he signif icance of t he above, it should be kept in mind t hat
even t he dait ya-s or asur as will have t he good ef f ect s of pr act icing t he veda-s,
and t heir power will cor r espondingly incr ease. And t he asur a-s use t his power
t o cause miser y t o His devot ees. This is illust r at ed by t he might of r AvaNa,
who has accumulat ed enor mous power s by t he pr act ice of aust er it ies, and t hen
used it t o cr eat e t er r or among t he deva-s. When t he asur a-s use t hese
acquir ed power s t o per pet r at e evil f ur t her , in t he int er est s of pr ot ect ion of
t he wor ld, bhagavAn t hinks of ways t o diminish t his power of t he asur a-s. I t is
in t his cont ext t hat He decides t o t ake some deceit f ul incar nat ions so as t o
mislead t he evil-doer s, and st eer t hem away f r om t he pr act ice of t he veda-s
et c., so t hat t hey do not keep incr easing t heir power s. This is descr ibed in Sr I
vishNu pur ANam 3.17, wher e t he deva-s who have been def eat ed by t he asur a-
s come and seek t he help of bhagavAn, and af t er list ening t o t hem, bhagavAn
shows t hem a decept ive f or m, and r esponds t o t hem as f ollows:
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mAyA mohao’yam akhilAn dait yAnst An mohayishyat i |
t at o vadhyA bhavishyant iveda mAr ha bahishkRt Ah | |
(VP 3.17.42)
st hit ou st hit asya me vadhyA yAvant ah par ipant hinah |
br ahmaNo ye’dhikAr asyadevadait yAdikAh sur Ah | |
(VP 3.17.43)
“This decept ive f or m of Mine shall wholly beguile t he dait ya-s, so t hat , being
led ast r ay f r om t he pat h of t he veda-s, t hey may be put t o deat h, f or be t hey
gods, demons, or ot her s, t hose who ar e opposed t o t he aut hor it y of t he veda-s,
shall per ish by My might , which is exer cised f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he wor ld”.
Sr I BhaTTar explicit ly r ef er s t o t he Buddha incar nat ion in t he above cont ext
in his int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s 787 t o 810 – idam daur lat hyam
apr apipsupApavishaye pr ayacchan budddhAvat Ar am niyacchat i – dur Ar i-hA.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi 5.10.4: .
kaLLa vEDat t aik koNDupOyp pur ampukkavARum,
kalandu aSur ar ai uLLam pEdam SeidiTTi uyir uNDa uPAya’ngaLum….
“Your spr eading ant i-vedic r eligions, say, as Buddha, your cont r iving t o seduce
asur a-s at t he t ime of dist r ibut ion of nect ar as Mohini, …These melt my hear t .
Why do you do all t his, My Lor d?”.
This concept of bhagavAn cr eat ing mAyA Sast r a and ot her ways t o mislead t he
asur a-s is also ment ioned in svAmi deSikan’s dayA Sat akam 47:
“mAyASast r ANyapi damayit um t vat -pr apanna-pr at I pAn” – t o cont r ol t he
enemies of Your devot ees, You cr eat e t he mAyA SAst r a-s also.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o t he kaushI t akI upanishad, which
also r eveals t his same t r ut h: “eshau evainam asAdhu kar ma kAr ayat i t am
yamadho ninI shat e” (3.9) - He makes t hem deviat e f r om t he good and pr oper
kar ma-s, and makes t hem per ish in t he pr ocess.
b) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives a dif f er ent anubhavam. He t akes t he t er m
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dur Ar i t o r ef er t o t he bad aspect s of our int ellect , and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma means “One Who dest r oys t he negat ive aspect s
in our mind when we r esor t t o Him” – dur -mat ih t Am hanit it i dur Ar i-hA. He
indicat es t hat t his is t he wor ship we do t hr ough t he mant r a “t at savit ur
var eNyam bhar go devasya dhI mahi dhiyo yo nah pr acodayAt ”.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives a similar explanat ion – bhagavAn is called dur Ar i-hA
because, out of His compassion, He dest r oys t he Asur ic t endencies in us and
r edeems us f r om it s sad consequences, when we invoke Him.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives a dif f er ent der ivat ion f or t he nAma,
event hough t he meaning is t he same – He Who dest r oys t he enemies who make
a mocker y of t he dhar ma mAr ga. He uses t he r oot dula – ut kshepe – t o shake
t o and f r o, and gives t he der ivat ion –
dolyat e ut kshipyat e dhar ma mAr go yaih t edulAh; delA eva dur Ah;
t e ca ar ayah it i dur Ar ayah; t An hant i it i dur Ar i-hA
He dest r oys t hose who f lout t he dhar ma mAr ga and who ar e His enemies.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn
being t he One Who dest r oys t he likes of kAma et c. t hat r epr esent t he gr eat
t he enemies in our desir e t o r each Him –
dushTAr im pr at igacchant i it i dur Ar iNah kAmAdayah,
t An hat avAn it i t at r a sAhAyyakAr it vAt na at ikashTam it i ar t ha
Wit h His help, it is not at all dif f icult t o over come t he enemies such as kAma,
in our pat h t o Him.






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Slokam 84 Slokam 84 Slokam 84
H ¬lñl ¬l TBl¹ñ- B 6-6 F6-6 4¤ +-· H ¬lñl ¬l TBl¹ñ- B 6-6 F6-6 4¤ +-· H ¬lñl ¬l TBl¹ñ- B 6-6 F6-6 4¤ +-·
²-ãTPl PrlTPl T 6TPl T 6l¬P-+ <v+ ²-ãTPl PrlTPl T 6TPl T 6l¬P-+ <v+ ²-ãTPl PrlTPl T 6TPl T 6l¬P-+ <v+
subhAngO lOkasAr angah sut ant ust ant uvar dhanah |
indr akar mA mahAkar mA kr ut akar mA kr ut Agamah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 788. nAma 788. nAma 788. H ¬lñ- H ¬lñ- H ¬lñ- SubhA’ngah SubhA’ngah SubhA’ngah
a) He wit h a bewit ching f or m t hat mesmer izes t he asur a-s and misleads t hem.
b) He wit h an auspicious f or m t hat is medit at ed upon by His t r ue devot ees.
c) He Who makes t he ashTA’nga yoga successf ul f or t hose who f ollow t his pat h
wit h devot ion
d) He Who has beaut if ul gait s
e) He Who per vades ever ywher e at all t imes wit h His auspicious f or m
f ) He Who makes t hings f unct ional in t his Univer sal in a beaut if ul way.
g) He Who br ings t he auspicious aspect s such as t r ust in SAst r a-s, gur u’s
wor ds ,et c., t o His devot ees.
SubhA’ngAya namh.
We st udied t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 63 (nAma 593). The det ails cover ed
her e ar e supplement al t o t he inf or mat ion pr esent ed f or nAma 593.
The wor d a’nga r ef er s t o a limb or par t of t he body, a const it uent par t or an
essent ial component , a par t of a division or par t of anyt hing, et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar has int er pr et ed nAma 593 as par t of t he descr ipt ion of t he
auspicious qualit ies of bhagavAn in best owing benef it s t o His devot ees
accor ding t o t heir ef f or t s. I n t hat cont ext , he uses t he meaning “a const it uent
par t or an essent ial component ” as t he meaning f or t he wor d a’nga. His
anubhavam t her e was t hat bhagaVan is called SubhA’ngah because He makes
His devot ees succeed in t he eight a’nga-s of bhakt i yoga, f or t hose who
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under t ake t his pat h wit h f ait h in Him (For det ails, please see under Slokam63).
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma SubhA’ngah, Sr I BhaTTar cont inues
his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of bhagavAn’s Buddha incar nat ion. He gives t he
meaning “He Who had limbs t hat wer e bewit ching”, or “He Who had a
bewit ching f or m”, in r ef er ence t o t he Buddha incar nat ion – a f or m t hat could
easily convince t he asur a-s t hat His wor ds of deceit wer e t r ust wor t hy, even
t hough He t ook t his f or m only t o succeed in misleading t hem by diver t ing t hem
f r om t he vedic obser vances. Sr I BhaTTar ’s wor ds ar e: “kat ham
t Ananupr avishTah? SubhA’ngah” – How did He ent er in t heir f old? By t aking a
bewit ching f or m t hat made t hem f eel comf or t able wit h Him and believe t hat
He is t r ust wor t hy. This deceit f ul f or m t hat He t ook was also one of per f ect ion
– in deceit (vast r eNa, vapushA, vAcA – by His dr ess, His appear ance, His
wor ds, et c., t o use v.v. r AmAnuj an’s quot e).
Thus, f or t he t wo inst ances of t he nAma SubhA’ngah, Sr I BhaTTar
dif f er ent iat es t he int er pr et at ions by using t wo dif f er ent meanings f or t he
wor d a’nga.
c) Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ions ar e:
1. sundar I m t anum dhAr ayan SubhA’ngah (Slokam 63) – One Who has a
handsome f or m
2. Sobhanaih a’ngaih dhyeyat vAt SubhA’ngah (cur r ent inst ance) – One
Who is t o be medit at ed upon wit h a f or m of auspicious limbs.
Thus, while Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma SubhA’ngah in it s cur r ent
inst ance as His kapaTa vesham or deceit f ul f or m t o f ool t he ausr a-s, Sr I
Sa’nkar a int er pr et s t he auspicious f or m t hat is wor shipped by His t r ue
devot ees. Not e t hat bot h ar e f or ms t aken f or t he benef it of His devot ees -
f or t he dest r uct ion of His devot ees’ enemies in t he f or mer case, and f or t he
benef it of medit at ion of His t r ue devot ees in t he lat er case.
Sr I cinmayAnanda t r anslat es t he nAma SubhA’ngah as “One wit h enchant ing
limbs of per f ect beaut y”.
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Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o t he anubhavam of His bewit ching f or m
by sage nAr ada and by hanuman, as r evealed t o us by vAlmI ki in r AmAyaNa.
Sr I mad r AmAyaNam begins wit h vAlmI ki’s quest ion t o nAr ada: “Who is t he
best guNavAn, vI r yavAn, dhar maj ~nah, kRt aj ~nah, sat ya-vAkyah, and dRDha-
vr at ah in t hs wor ld?”. nAr ada r esponds t o vAlmI ki and t ells him t hat t her e is
no one ot her t han r Ama, bor n t o daSar at ha, who qualif ies f or all t hese in one
Per son. I n t hr ee Sloka-s (bAlakANDam1.9-11), nAr ada descr ibes t he beaut y of
r Ama’s f or m:
vipulAmso mahA-bAhuh kambugr I vomahA-hanuh |
mahor asko maheshvAso gUDha-Sat r uh ar indamah |
Aj AnubAhuhsu-Sir Ah su-lalATah su-vikr amah | |
samah sama-vibhakt A’ngah snigdha-var Nah pr at ApavAn |
pI na-vakshAviSAlAksho lakshmI vAn Subha-lakshaNah | |
“r Ama is One wit h br oad shoulder s, long ar ms, beaut if ul neck, gr eat f acial
f eat ur es, br oad chest , gr eat at wielding weapons, a muscular body, one who
subdues His enemies easily, long hands t hat r each up t o His knees, beaut if ul
head and f or ehead, beaut if ul gait , …”.
I n sundar a kANDam, sit A pir ATTi asks hanuman t o descr ibe r Ama and
lakshmaNa t o her , par t ly because she want s t o make sur e t hat hanuman has
been genuinely sent by r Ama, and par t ly because she want s t o enj oy t he
anubhavam of His beaut y being descr ibed t o her . I n Sloka-s 9-22 of t he 35t h
sar gam in sundar a kANDam, hanuman descr ibes t he beaut if ul appear ance of
Lor d r Ama. t o sI t A – Lor d r Ama Who is SubhA’ngah.
A similar anubhavam of His beaut if ul f or m is by Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN,
who gives t he int er pr et at ion:SubhAni dar SakAnAm ma’ngalot pAdakAnia’ngAni
car aNa-vadana nayanAdI ni yasya it i SubhA’ngah – He Who has a f or m t hat
best ows auspiciousness t o t hose who medit at e on Him - His Lot us Feet , His
lot us eyes, His beaut if ul f or m et c.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t akes a dif f er ent r oot t o t he int er pr et at ion. He
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int er pr et s t he par t a’nga based on t he r oot agi –gat au - t o go, and gives sever al
alt er nat e int er pr et at ions (d, e, f ).
d) SobhamAno a’ngat i – gacchat iyah sa SubhA’ngah – He Who has a beaut if ul
gait . (Recall t he simha gat i, gaj agat i, et c. t hat per uMALhas in Sr I r a’ngam
dur ing ut sava-s).
e) a’nganam – sAr va-kAlikamsAr va-deSikam ca vyApanam; Subham a’nganam
yasya sa SubhA’ngah – He Who per vades ever ywher e at all t imes wit h His
auspicious f or m Univer sal in a beaut if ul way.
g) Using t he same appr oach f or t he wor d a’nga, Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN
int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn makes accessible t o t he
devot ees t he auspicious t hings such as t he t r ust in Sast r a-s, t he t r ust in t he
wor ds of t he AcAr ya-s, et c. – SubhAni gur u Sast r okt i viSvAsa svapna
AsvAsanalakshaNAni a’ngyat i ut palambhayat i it i SubhA’ngah.
nAma 789. nAma 789. nAma 789. ¬l TBl¹ñ- ¬l TBl¹ñ- ¬l TBl¹ñ- loka loka loka-- -sAr a' ngah sAr a' ngah sAr a' ngah
a) He Who pr eached t he super f icially accept able goals in t he wor ld.
b) He Who gr asps t he essence of t he wor ld like a sAr a' nga or honey-bee.
c) He Who is r eachable t hr ough t he essence (sAr a) of t he veda-s, namely
pr aNava.
d) He Who is t he obj ect of devot ion (loka-sAr a)
e) He Who is at t r act ed by bhakt i
f ) He Who best ows moksham, and He t o whom t he j ~nAni-s ar e at t r act ed.
g) He Who has devot ees singing His auspicious qualit ies.
loka-sAra'ngAya namah.
a)Sr I BhaTTar gives t he vyAkhyAnam - "loke yat sAr am t at gacchat i it iloka-
Sar a' ngah" – He Who pr eached what was mor e immediat ely appealing out war dly
f r om t he veda-s. Sr I BhaTTar cont inues t hat in His deceit f ul r ole, He t aught
t hem t hat t her e ar e only t wo t hings t o wor r y about : 1. How t o enj oy while we
live, and 2. How t o get moksham at t he end.
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He t old t hem "kur ushvam mama vAkyAni yadi mukt imabhI t shTat ha" (VP 3.18.5)
– "I f you want salvat ion, f ollow my wor ds". One should go t hr ough t he ent ir e
chapt er of Sr I vishNu pur ANam 3.17 and 3.18 t o have a f ull under st anding of
t he Buddha incar nat ion.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives suppor t f r om nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvir ut t am 96:
vaNa' ngumt uRaigaL pala pala Akki madi vikaRpAl
piNa' ngumSamaya' ngaL pala pala Akki, avai avai t ORu
aNan' ngumpala pala Akki nin mUr t i par appi vait t Ai
iNa' nguninnOr ai illAi….
"You cr eat ed sever al ways t o wor ship You, including t hose t hat conf lict wit h,
and cont r adict each ot her ; You cr eat ed sever al gods, but t her e is not hing t hat
can equal You".
Sr I K.Ve' nkaTasAmi r eDDiyAr has wr it t en a uRai f or t his pASur am, in which
he explains t hat t he r ef er ence her e is t o t he dif f er ent pat hs t hat He has
cr eat ed f or wor ship f or t he r Aj asic and t Amasic people, including t he gods and
pr ocesses of wor ship associat ed wit h t hem.
Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he same meanings as above f or t he t hr ee par t s of t he
nAma –loka, sAr a, and a' nga, and gives t wo int er pr et at ions:
b) lokAnAm sAr am sAr a' ngavat bhR' ngavat gRhNAt i it i loka-sAr a' ngah – He
Who gr asps t he essence of t he wor ld like a sAr a' nga or honey-bee.
c) He Who is r eachable t hr ough t he sAr a or essence of t he veda-s, namely t he
pr aNava. loka-sAr ah – pr aNavah, t ena pr at ipat t avya it i loka-sAr a' ngah.
d) e) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha der ives t he nAma st ar t ing f r om t he r oot s lok –
dar Sane – t o see, t o per ceive; sR – gat au – t o go; and a' ng– t o go. His
appr oach is: loka – He who is in t he pur view of vision is lokah, or He who shines
wit h dif f er ent aspect s; sR – gat au– t o go. By use of pANini sut r a 3.3.17, (sR
st hir e) t he wor d sAr ah r ef er s t o somet hing t hat moves while r emaining
f ixed; f or inst ance, candana sAr ah – t he essence of sandal. st hir o bhavat i it i
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sAr ah– One who moves while r emaining f ixed t hr oughout t ime is sAr ah.
Choosing t he second of t he t wo meanings given f or loka, loka- sAr a is
int er pr et ed by Sr I vAsishTha as r ef er r ing t o bhakt i t owar ds bhagavAn (loke
sAr o bhagavt i pr ema). He Who is t he r ecipient or obj ect of t his bhakt i, or He
Who is at t r act ed by bhakt i, is loka- sAr a' ngah– loka sAr ah t ad gacchat i =
pr Apnot i, t at pr at i AkRshTo bhavat iit i loka-sAr a' ngo vishNuh.
So t he t wo int er pr et at ions t hat Sr I vAsishTha gives f or t he nAma ar e:
1. He Who is t he obj ect of devot ion (loka-sAr a), or
2. He Who is at t r act ed by bhakt i
f ) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he int er pr et at ion by viewing t he nAmaas
loka-sAh + r a' ngah. He uses t he r oot s san – dAne – t o give, and r a' nj – r Age –
t o be devot ed t o, in his int er pr et at ion. His vyAkhyAnam is: lokam vaikunThAdi
lokam sanot i dadAt i it i loka-sAh; r aj yant ej ~nAninah at r a it i r a' ngah; loka-sAh
asau r a' ngaSca it i lokasA-r a' ngah– He Who best ows Sr I vaikunTham, and He
t o Whom t he j ~nAni-s ar e devot ed, is lokasA-r a' ngah.
g)The wor d sAr a' nga also r ef er s t o a conch shell or a kind of musical
inst r ument . Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN t akes t he wor d lokA t o r ef er t o
bhakt a j anAh – t he devot ees, and sAr a' nga as a r ef er ence t o a conch shell or a
kind of musical inst r ument , and gives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma as: "He
Who has devot ees singing His auspicious qualit ies" – lokA har i-bhakt a-j anAh
Sar a' ngA monodvat ad guNagAyakA yasya sa loka-sAr a' ngah.
nAma 790. nAma 790. nAma 790. B 6-6 - B 6-6 - B 6-6 - su su su-- -t ant uh t ant uh t ant uh
a) He who has a power f ul net of t hr eads t o capt ur e t he asur a-s and r et ain
t hem f r om escaping.
b) He Who has expanded t his Univer se st ar t ing f r om Himself .
c) He Who has pr ogeny such as br ahmA.
d) He Who expanded t he yAdava r ace in auspicious way by being bor n as t he
son of vasudeva.
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39

su-tantave namah.
su is an upasar ga. t ant u is der ived f r om t he r oot t anu – vist Ar e– t o spr ead, t o
go. Among t he meanings f or t he t er m t ant u ar e t hr ead, cor d, wir e, st r ing,et c.
a)Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning "a net of t hr eads" f or t he t er m "t ant u", and
gives t he meaning "One Who has such a net t o capt ur e t he evil-minded f olks",
f or t he t er m t ant uh. BhagavAn put s in an appear ance of t r anquilit y and
medit at ion in t his deceit f ul r ole, and t he asur a-s ar e caught up in t his net , and
could never get out of it . This int er pr et at ion is a cont inuat ion of Sr I
BhaTTar ' s elucidat ion of t he nAma-s 787 – 810 in t er ms of t he Buddha
incar nat ion.
Sr I SAst r i explains t hat t he net is beaut if ul and at t r act s t he asur a-s, and at
t he same t ime is ver y st r ong, and so t hey can' t out once get caught in t his net .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion – Sobhanah t ant uh vist I r Nah
pr apa' nco' syait i su-t ant uh. One t r anslat or gives t he meaning as "He Who is
beaut if ully expanded, like t he univer se", and anot her gives t he meaning "He,
t hr ough whom t his univer se is beaut if ully and auspiciously expanded as a
t hr ead".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t hat since bhagavAn cr eat ed ever yt hing
st ar t ed f r om Him, like a long piece of t hr ead f r om a small ball of cot t on, He is
called su- t ant uh.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha develops his int er pr et at ion based on t he meaning "t o
expand" f or t he r oot t anu – vist Ar e, consist ent wit h t he second t r anslat ion
above –
t anyat a it i t ant uh Sobhanah t ant uh yasya sasu-t ant ut h vishNuh;
Sobhanam t anyat e viSvam yena sa su-t ant uh it i ar t hah.
Consist ent wit h t his act of t he beaut if ul expansion t hat He does, we see t hat
r ight f r om t he st ar t of cr eat ion, and up t o t he t ime of pr alaya, t he dif f er ent
species r emain t he same and keep expanding at t he same t ime. They have
expanded bef or e, t hey ar e expanding now, and t hey will cont inue t o expand in
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t he f ut ur e (expansion her e is t o be under st ood in t er ms of new member s of
each species being cr eat ed, while old member s die).
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he sense of visTar a or expansion f or t he
t er m t ant u, and int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn has t he nAma
su-t ant uh because He has t he likes of br ahma as His son – Sobhanas-
t ant uhcat ur -mukhAdi sant Ano yasya sa sau-t ant uh.
d) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y uses a similar appr oach, but gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat because bhagavAn expanded t he r ace of yAdava-s in an
auspicious way being t he pr ogeny of vasudeva, He is called su- t ant uh.
nAma 791. nAma 791. nAma 791. 6-6 4¤ +- 6-6 4¤ +- 6-6 4¤ +- t ant u t ant u t ant u-- -var dhanah var dhanah var dhanah
a) He Who incr eases t he meshes.
b) He Who augment s t he expansion of Himself int o t his wor ld, by pr ot ect ing it .
c) He Who wit hdr aws t his wor ld int o Himself af t er cr eat ing it .
d) He Who expanded t he vasudva f amily t hr ough pr adyumna and ot her s.
tantu-vardhanaya namah
The wor d var dhanah is der ived f r om t he r oot vRdh – vRddhau – t o gr ow. So
t his nAma can be viewed as an ext ension of t he pr evious nAma– One who
incr eases t he meshes in t he net , or One Who cont inues t o maint ain or sust ain
t he gr owt h or vist Ar a of t his univer se.
a)Sr I BhaTTar gives t he vyAkhyAnam – evam papa r Ucibhih amsubhir iva
samsAr a-t ant um sant anot i it it ant u-var dhanah – "Thus, by aggr avat ing t he
t ast e f or sin in t hese people (who deser ve t o be punished), He st r engt hens t he
snar e of samsAr a as if by st r ong f iber s." Sr I BhaTTar quot es f r om t he
f ollowing sour ces in suppor t :
t Anaham dvishat ah kr Ur An samsAr eshu nar AdhamAn |
kshipAmyaj ast r amaSubhAn Asur I shveva yonishu | |
(gI t A 16.19)
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"Those hat er s, cr uel, t he vilest and t he most inauspicious of mankind, I hur l
f or ever int o t he cycles of bir t hs and deat hs, int o t he wombs of demons".
t r ayI -mAr gasamut sar gam mAyAmohena t e' sur Ah |
kAr it As-t anmayAhyAsan t at hA' nye t at -pr acodit Ah | |
t air apyanye' par et aiSca t air apyanye par e ca t e |
(VP 3.18.32)
"The f oes of God being t hus induced t o apost at ize f r om t he r eligion of t he
veda-s by t he enchant ing power of vishNu, became in t heir t ur n t eacher s of
t he same her esies, and per ver t ed ot her s; and t hese, again, communicat ing
t heir pr inciples t o ot her s, by whom t hey wer e st ill f ur t her disseminat ed, t he
veda-s wer e in a shor t t ime deser t ed by t he dait ya r ace".
This is how bhagavAn "incr eased t he meshes" – t ant u-var dhanah.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He augment s
t he web of t his wor ld, by pr ot ect ing t he wor ld t hat Heexpanded f r om Himself
- t ameva t ant um var dhayat i it i.
c) Alt er nat ively,Sr I Sa' nkar a gives anot her int er pr et at ion – He Who
wit hdr aws t he wor ld (at t he t ime of pr alaya) – var dhayat i – chedayat i – cut s
down. Sr I Sa' nkar avyAkhyAnam is chedayat i it i vA t ant u-var dhanah.
d) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y cont inues on his idea d) in t he pr evious nAma,
and int er pr et s t he nAma t ant u-var dhanah as r ef er r ing t o His ext ending t he
pr ogeny of t he vasudeva f amily t hr ough pr adyumna and ot her s.
nAma 792. nAma 792. nAma 792. ²-ãTPl ²-ãTPl ²-ãTPl indr a indr a indr a-- -kar mA kar mA kar mA
a) He Who did all t his f or t he sake of indr a.
b) He Who is r esponsible f or t he power s of indr a.
c) He Who per f or ms act s t hat r ef lect His Supr eme Lor dship.
indra-karmaNe namah.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d indr a is cover ed is ind – par amaiSvar ye– t o have
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gr eat power , and t he addit ion of t he af f ix r an per uNAdi sut r a2.28; t he
r esult ing wor d indr a means "f or emost ". The wor d also r ef er s t o t he god indr a.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion using t he r ef er ence t o t he god indr a,
and ot her s use t he gener ic meaning of t he wor d indr a – f or emost .
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat bhagavAn t ook t his Buddha incar nat ion
in or der t o assist indr a and ot her gods in r esponse t o t heir r equest f or help.
He gives suppor t f r om Sr I vishNu pur ANam:
t amUcuh sakalA devAh pr aNipAt a pur assar am |
pr asI danAt ha! dait yebhayah t r Ahi it i Sar aNAr t hinah | |
(VP 3.17.36)
"All t he gods pr ost r at ed bef or e Him and said: O Lor d! Be mer cif ul t owar ds us.
Please save us f r om t he asur a-s. We seek r ef uge in Thee". This is par t of t he
descr ipt ion in Sr I vishNu pur ANam, leading t o t he Buddha incar nat ion.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has t his nAma because His
act ions ar e gr eat and glor ious, like t hose of indr a – indr asyakar meva kar mA
asya it i indr a-kar mA – aiSvar ya kar met yar t hah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has t he nAma because He has t he act ions of
indr a as His own; in ot her wor ds, He is t he ant ar yAmi of indr a, and is t hus t he
cause behind indr a' s power .
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he gener ic meaning ind – par amaiSvar ye, and
gives t he int er pr et at ion – indr ANi kar mANi yasya – pr amaiSvr yaSalI ni
kar mANi yasya sa indr a-kar mA – He Whose act ions r ef lect His Supr eme
Lor dship, is indr a-kar mA. Sr I vAsishTha gives examples of His indr a-kar mA-s
– t he suppor t of t he all t he wor lds, ensur ing t hat t he planet s f unct ion in t heir
cor r ect pat hs wit h t heir cor r ect per iods, best owing t he sun wit h it s power ,
et c.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives a similar int er pr et at ion - "One Who always per f or ms
glor iously auspicious act ions".

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nAma 793. nAma 793. nAma 793. PrlTPl PrlTPl PrlTPl mahA mahA mahA-- -kar mA kar mA kar mA
He of magnanimous act ions.
mahA-karmaNe namah.
mahAnt i kar mANi yasya sa mahA-kar mA – He Whose act ions ar e gr eat and
magnanimous. The dif f er ence in t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions r elat es t he
specif ic anubhavam of t he vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s on His mahA kar ma-s.
a) Sr I BhaTTar cont inues t he t hr ead f r om t he ear lier nAma-s. "Even t hough
bhagavAn is of a mer cif ul nat ur e, deceit f ul act s wer e per pet r at ed by Him f or
t he sake of t he pr ot ect ion of t he pr apanna-s - t hose who had t aken r ef uge in
Him, and f or t he dest r uct ion of t hose who wer e wedded t o unholy pr act ices.
Since all His act s wer e t hus j ust if iable, He is mahA-kar mA"– evam pr apanna
par ipAlanAr t hat vAt dur AcAr a-daNDanAr t hat vAccapar ama - kAr uNikasyaiva
vipr alambha sambhavah | evam nyAya vRt t at vAt mahA-kar mA. One is r eminded
of t he well-known Slokam
"par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm, vinASAya ca dush-kRt Am,
dhar masamst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge"
(gI t A 4.8).
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives examples of a dif f er ent kind f or t he gr eat deeds r ef er r ed
t o in t his nAma – such as t he cr eat ion of et her , ear t h, wat er , air , and f ir e –
mahAnt i viyat AdI ni bhUt Ani kar mANi kAr yANi asyait i mahA-kar mA.
Sr I cinamyAnanda elabor at es on t his – "To cr eat e a cosmos so scient if ically
pr ecise and per f ect out of t he f ive gr eat element s, and t o sust ain t hem all
wit h an ir on hand of ef f iciency, all t he t ime const ant ly pr esiding over t he act s
of dest r uct ion wit hout which t he wor ld of change cannot be maint ained, is in
it self , a colossal achievement of Absolut e I nt elligence".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advaj gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has t his nAma
because He per f or ms divine act ions – mahat mahanI yam divyam kar mayasya it i
mahA-kar mA. He gives t he suppor t f r om gI t A 4.9 – j anmakar ma ca me divyam
– "My bir t h and My act ions ar e of a divine nat ur e".
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Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s anubhavam of t he mahA kar mA' s is t he
incident involving Lor d kRshNa r est or ing indr a' s r oyal umbr ella and adiTi' s
ear r ings and giving t hem back t o t heir owner s – mahAnt i bhaumavadha maNi
par va chat r a adit i kuNDala AnayanAni kar mANi yasya samahA kar mA. The
r ef er ence t o t hese incident s is f ound in Sr I mad bhAgavat amin skanda 10,
adhyAya 59, Sloka 2:
indr eNahRt ac-chat r eNa hRt a-kuNDala-bandhunA |
hRt aamar a adr i st hAnena indr eNa j ~nApit o bhauma ceshTit am |
sa-bhAr yogar uDAr UDhah pr Ag-j yot isha pur am yayau | |
(bhAga. 10.59.2)
"Having been r equest ed by indr a f or His help in r ecover ing his r oyal umbr ella,
his mot her ' s ear -r ings, and his seat called maNi par vat am in sumer u hill, t hat
has been f or cibly t aken away by nar akAsur a, Lor d kRshNa went t o t he cit y of
nar akAsur a wit h sat yabhAmA, r iding on His gar uDavAhanam". The chapt er in
Sr I mad bhAgavat am t hen ext ensively descr ibes kRshNa-s f ight wit h
nar akAsur an, and t he slaying of nar akAsur a in t he end. Then in Slokam 43,
Lor d kRshNa is r ef er r ed t o as a-t ar kya-kRt – He Who per f or ms act s t hat ar e
unar guably gr eat . The use of t he wor d at ar kya-kRt ah her e is t he same as t he
sense conveyed by t he cur r ent nAma – mahA-kar mA.
nAma 794. nAma 794. nAma 794. T 6TPl T 6TPl T 6TPl kRt a kRt a kRt a-- -kar mA kar mA kar mA
a) He Who pr act iced t he act s He pr eached t o t he asur a-s, in or der t o convince
t hem.
b) One Who has achieved all t her e is t o achieve.
c) One Who keeps r epeat ing t he pr ocesses of cr eat ion et c., wit h per f ect ion
d) One Who has per f or med act s t hat no one else can ever per f or m.
kRta-karmaNe namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat bhagavAn played His r ole of decept ion
by f ollowing t he pr act ices t hat He pr eached t o t he asur a-s, t o ensur e t hat
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t hey believed in Him complet ely – svayam anushThit a t ad-AcAr ah.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an comment s t hat bhagavAn st r essed t he mot t o "ahimsA
par amo dhar mah" t o t he exclusion of ever y ot her code, and made sur e t hat t he
asur a-s r ej ect ed vedic sacr if ices and such ot her act s.
b)Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has t he nAma because "He is
One of f ulf illed act ivit ies", t hat is, He has not hing mor e t o achieve – na
kar t avyam ki' ncidapi kar ma asya vidyat a it i kRt a- kar mA.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj r ef er s us t o gI t A 3.22:
name pAr t ha ast i kar t avyam t r ishu lokeshu ki' ncana |
naanavApt am avApt avyam var t a eva ca kar maNi | |
(gI t A 3.22)
"For Me, ar j una, t her e is not hing in all t he t hr ee wor lds t hat is lef t yet t o be
done, nor is t her e anyt hing unacquir ed t hat ought t o be st ill acquir ed. Yet I go
on wor king."
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies
t hat bhagavAn is "One Who keeps r epeat ing t he pr ocess of cr eat ion,
pr ot ect ion, and dest r uct ion in cycles – One Who keeps doing t hese act ions
again and again" – kRt ameva j al-lakshaNam kar ma punah punahkar ot i. He gives
t he Rg vedic mant r a "yat hA pUr vam akalpayat " (Rg.10.190.3) – "He cr eat ed
ever yt hing as bef or e", in suppor t .
d) Sr I vAsishTha gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion as well – He Who per f or ms
t he wor k t hat no one else can do" – anyaih kar t um anar ham bahubhir apiyat
kar ma, t at kar ot i it i kRt a-kar mA. He gives t he example of t he f unct ion of t he
sun appear ing and set t ing unendingly ever yday f r om t he beginning of t he wor ld,
and cont inuing t ill t he end of t he wor ld. This pr ocess of cr eat ion is somet hing
t hat no one else do, wit h per f ect ion, over and over again.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN, a f ollower of t he cait anya t r adit ion, has t he
anubhavam of t he nAma in t er ms of t he many act s of kRshNa t hat ar e in t he
cat egor y of "No one else can do" – t he slaying of nar akAsur a,t he liber at ion of
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t he 16000 r Aj a kumAr i-s who had been impr isoned by him, t he f et ching of
pAr ij At a t r ee f or sat yabhAmA, t he vict or y over r udr a in t he bat t le wit h
bANAsur a, t he f r eeing of anir uddha and usha, et c.
nAma 795. nAma 795. nAma 795. T 6l¬P- T 6l¬P- T 6l¬P- kRt Agamah kRt Agamah kRt Agamah
a) The Pr opounder of Agama-s (Spir it ual t ext s) including t hose dealing wit h
Buddhism, J ainism, et c..
b) He Who pr opounded t he Vedas – Rg, sAma, et c.
c) He Who is t he Or iginat or of t he pA' ncar At r a Agama.
d) He Who made His appear ance at dvAr akA af t er per f or ming His sever al
leelA-s.
e) He Who makes His appear ance r epeat edly t hr ough dif f er ent incar nat ions.
kRtAgamAya namah.
The t er m Agama is der ived f r om t he r oot gam – gat au – t o go. Sr I vAsishTha
gives t he der ivat ion – Agamyat e anena it i Agamo vedah – That t hr ough which
knowledge is obt ained is Agama, namely, t he veda- s. He Who cr eat ed t he
veda-s is kRt a-Agamah– kRt a Agamo yena sa kRt Agamah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as a cont inuat ion of His act s of deceiving
t he evil people. To make t hem believe Him in t hese act s, He f ur t her
pr opounded spir it ual t ext s pr opounding t he f ait hs of Buddhism, J ainism, et c. –
Buddha ar hat a sAmayika Agamah kRt Agamah.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an descr ibes t hese Agama-s as at t r act ive t o t he out war d
mind, ver y appealing, and somet hing t hat can easily dist r act and deceive one
int ellect ually.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn being t he
Or igin of t he veda-s – kRt o vedAt maka Agamo yena it i kRt Agamah. He quot es
t he bRhadAr aNya upanishad:
"asya mahat o bhUt asya niSvasit am et at Rg vedo yaj ur -vedah sAma
vedoat har vA' ngir asa
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it ihAsahpur ANam vidyA vidyA upanishadah SlokAh sUt r ANyanuvyAkhyAnAni
vyAkhyAnAni…."
"The Rg veda, yaj ur veda,sAma veda, at har va veda, ar e t he br eat h of t his
Supr eme Being". The t er m Agama r ef er s t o scr ipt ur es.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o His being
t he Or iginat or of t he pA' ncar At r a Agama – "pA' ncar At r asya kRt snasyakar t A
nAr AyaNah svayam" – The whole of pA' ncar At r a was or iginat ed by nAr AyaNa
Himself .
d) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er pr et s t he wor d Agama as "ar r ival", and
gives t he meaning f or t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he ar r ival of Lor d kRshNa in
dvAr akA af t er per f or ming sever al of His leelA-s - kRt as-t at -t at car it Ani
pr akASya dvAr akAyAm Agamo yena sa kRt Agamah.
e) The t er m Agama also means "appear ance". Sr I vAsishTha gives an
int er pr et at ion using t he meaning "Avar t a" – r evolut ion or r epeat ed
appear ance. He gives t he example of t he sun appear ing r epeat edly, as
avibhUt i of bhagavAn. BhagavAn Himself appear s in His incar nat ions
r epeat edly, and in t his sense also He is "Agamah" – He Who appear s
r epeat edly.











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Slokam 85 Slokam 85 Slokam 85
7T4- B -7¹- B -7l ¹¬+l¬- B ¬l ¬+-· 7T4- B -7¹- B -7l ¹¬+l¬- B ¬l ¬+-· 7T4- B -7¹- B -7l ¹¬+l¬- B ¬l ¬+-·
HTl 4l=B|+- ~ ñl =4-6- B4 |4=4l+ <-+ HTl 4l=B|+- ~ ñl =4-6- B4 |4=4l+ <-+ HTl 4l=B|+- ~ ñl =4-6- B4 |4=4l+ <-+
udbhavah sundar ah sundO r at nanAbhah sulOcanah |
ar kO vAj asanih sr ungI j ayant ah sar vavij j ayI | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 796. nAma 796. nAma 796. 7T4- 7T4- 7T4- udbhavah udbhavah udbhavah
a) He Who r ose above samsAr a.
b) He Who is of a super ior bir t h, t aking bir t h as He likes, wher e He likes, when
He likes.
c) He f r om Whom ever yt hing or iginat ed.
d) He Who r esides in an exalt ed place ( Sr I vaikunTham).
e) He Who cr eat ed t he exalt ed gods and goddesses.
f ) He Who is bor n again and again f or t he pr ot ect ion of dhar ma.
udbhavAya namah
We had t he anubhavam of t his nAma in Slokam 41 (nAma 375). Sr I BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion of nAma 375 was in t he cont ext of bhagavAn as par a vAsudeva,
lakshmI -pat i.
ud is an upsar ga; t he r oot f or bhava is bhU – sat t AyAm – t o be, t o live, t o be
bor n. The t er m udbhava r ef er s t o or igin, sour ce, cr eat ion et c. The dif f er ence
in t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions most ly ar ises f r om t he dif f er ent ways in
which t he vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s int er pr et t he upasar ga "ut " (e.g., udgat a – r ising
above, ut kRshTa - excellent , ut t ama – best or super ior , uccaih – high, et c.).
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s bot h t he inst ances of t he nAma as "udgat ah bhavAt
it i udgat ah" – "He Who pulls us out of t he cycle of samasAr a". He dist inguishes
bet ween t he t wo inst ances of t he nAma as f ollows: I n Slokam 41, he int er pr et s
t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s act of r eleasing His t r ue devot ees f r om
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samsAr a. I n t he cur r ent inst ance, his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he Buddha
incar nat ion is t hat He misled t he asur a-s on t he pat h of r elease f r om samsAr a.
I n t he cont ext of Slokam 41, Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat by medit at ing on
His being r eleased f r om t he bondage t o which He subj ect ed Himself when
yaSoDA t ied Him t o t he mor t ar , we will be r eleased f r om our bondage of
samsAr a – "dAmodar am bandha har am".
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance is "mukt yupadeSa
nATit akena bhavAt udgat a it i udbhavah" – He was pr eaching t he wr ong way t o
at t ain salvat ion, and t hen pr et ended t hat He has indeed achieved t he obj ect ive
of r ising above samsAr a t hr ough t hese wr ong means.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – "ut kRshTam bhavam j anma svecchayA
bhaj at i it udbhavah" – He Who is of super ior bir t h, being bor n of His f r ee will,
wher ever He likes.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma in Slokam 41 was:
1. bhagavAn is called udbhavah because He is t he Or igin of t he Univer se,
being it s mat er ial cause – pr apa' nca ut pat t i upAdAna kAr aNat vAt
udbhavah; Or ,
2. udgat o bhavAt it i udbhavah – He Who is f r ee f r om bir t h or wor ldly
exist ence is udbhavah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he int er pr et at ion – "ut t amo bhavo yasya sa
ud-bhavah" – He Whose bir t h is super ior , which is similar t o t he above. He
gives t he suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am 10.3, which descr ibes child
kRshNa' s bir t h t o devaki in t he pr ison. His bir t h is super ior because it is unlike
any ot her bir t h t hat is known, and is accompanied by wonder f ul and uncommon
event s. Unlike ot her childr en who ar e bor n, His eyes wer e not closed at bir t h,
but He appear ed wit h beaut if ul lot us eyes open; He was not connect ed t o His
mot her t hr ough t he umbilical cor d at bir t h; He was not cover ed wit h t he signs
of being inside a mot her ' s womb, but appear ed wit h a clean and beaut if ul body,
bear ing t he conch, t he cakr a et c.; t he waves dashing against t he shor e sounded
like t he beaut if ul beat of t he dr um as an auspicious sound at t he t ime of His
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50
bir t h; and all kinds of ot her unusual and auspicious t hings t hat happened when
t his One Who has no bir t h, "was bor n" t o devaki.
c) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I Sa' nkar a is – udgat am apagat am j anmA
asya, sar va kAr aNat vAt – He Who has no bir t h or or igin, since ever yt hing
or iginat ed f r om Him.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a conveys a similar idea. His int er pr et at ion is:
"bhavAt samsAr At ut pat t er vA udgat a it i ud-bhavah – He Who is beyond
samsAr a, bir t h et c., is udbhavah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he meaning "sour ce or or igin" f or t he wor d udbhava,
and gives his int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma as "The ult imat e sour ce" – He f r om
Whom ever yt hing or iginat ed – t he ver y spr ing of Cr eat ion. He gives t he gI t A
Slokam 14.4 in suppor t :
sar va yonishu kaunt eya mUr t ayah sambhavant i yAh |
t AsAm br ahma mahad-yonih aham bI j a-pr adah pit A | |
(gI t A 14.4)
"What ever f or ms ar e pr oduced in any womb, O ar j una, t he pr akRt i is t heir
gr eat womb, and I am t he sowing f at her ". The meaning is t hat bhagavAn is t he
One who decides t he bir t h of each individual accor ding t o each one' s kar ma –
He decides whet her one is bor n a deva, a gandhar va, an animal, et c., accor ding
t o t heir kar mA.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he meaning uccaih f or t he upasar aga ut – ud
upasar ga uccaih ar t he. Using t he r oot bhU – sat t AyAm, he gives t he
int er pr et at ion – uccaih bhavanam yasya sa udbhavah – He Whose place of
exist ence is at a high level. Sr I vAsishTha gives t he example of sun moving
ar ound in a high posit ion as a manif est at ion of bhagavAn being in a high
posit ion. The meaning is mor e enj oyable if we t ake t he r ef er ence t o t he "high
place" as Sr I vaikunTham.
e) Among t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ions t hat ar e given by Sr I sat ya sandha
yat ir Aj a is one which descr ibes t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o His being t he
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Cr eat or of exalt ed beings such as pAr vat i – ut kRshTah pAr vat yAdibhyo bhavo
yena it i udbhavah.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives anot her int er pr et at ion – He has t his
nAma because He is bor n again and again t o pr ot ect dhar ma – dhar ma
samst hAnapAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge (gI t A 4.8).
nAma 797. nAma 797. nAma 797. B -7¹- B -7¹- B -7¹- sundar ah sundar ah sundar ah
a) He Who is handsome.
b) He Who has t he beaut if ul conch – pA' ncaj anyam.
c) He Who killed sunda t hr ough upasunda (sunda-r ah)
d) He Who is exceedingly well r egar ded and wor shipped
e) He Who has separ at ed or divided t he dif f er ent cr eat ur es well in many ways.
sundarAya namah.
The wor d sundar a means "handsome". The wor d dar a by it self means "a conch
shell". Most int er pr et er s use t he f or mer meaning; Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a
uses t he second meaning and gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat He was handsome in t he eyes of t he asur a- s, and
so He is descr ibed as sundar ah in t he cont ext of t he Buddha incar nat ion – t ad-
dRshTi manohar ah sundar ah. Sr I V.N. veDant adeSikan gives t he explanat ion in
English as "He Who had a capt ivat ing f or m so as t o impr ess and at t r act a lar ge
f ollowing."
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is of a handsome f or m, as one
of His inher ent and nat ur al qualit ies – viSvAt iSayi saubhAgyaSalit vAt
sundar ah. t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr descr ibes t his beaut y of bhagavAn in per iya
t ir umozhi 9.2.4 "vambu avizhum t uzhAi mAlai t OL mEl;…..accO! or uvar
azhagiyavA!" _ "Oh! What a bewit ching beaut y He is! How can I descr ibe t his
beaut y!".
I n f act , in all t he t en pASur ams under per iya t ir umozhi 9.2, AzhvAr j ust keeps
wonder ing about t his indescr ibable beaut y of emper umAn.
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undar aya nama - azhagiyamanavalam sundar ar aj a per umal
(Pic Cour t esy: Sr i Mur ali BhaTTar - www. sr ir angapankaj am. com)

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t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr descr ibes His beaut y as "ar i po' ngik kATTum azhagu
(nAnmugan t ir u. 21) – The beaut y of nRsimha f or m looked like beaut y bubbling
and spilling over because it couldn' t be cont ained anywher e. t ir uppAN AzhvAr
is unable t o cont ain His exuber ance at t he beaut y of Lor d r a' nganAt ha, and in
t wo of t he t ot al of t en pASur am-s t hat ar e at t r ibut ed t o him, he exclaims at
His beaut y by cr ying out "aiyO!" – What a Beaut y! (Seyya vAi aiyO –
amalanAdipir An 7; nI la mEni aiyO – amalanAdi pir An 9).
Sr I cinmayAnanda r elat es t he t er m "beaut y" her e t o t he ment al peace t hat is
der ived f r om medit at ion and cont emplat ion on Sr I man nAr AyaNa. He obser ves
t hat when medit at ion leads t o t he j oy of ecst asy, t he mind f eels t he peace,
and it is at t hese moment s of supr eme inner sat isf act ion t hat t he f lashes of
beaut y-exper iences f lood t he bosom. This is not hing but t he manif est at ion of
Sr I man nAr aAyaNa, and t his is why He is r ef er r ed t o as "Peace -
Auspiciousness - Beaut y" – "SAnt am Sivam, sundar am" in t he upanishads.
b) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives his f ir st int er pr et at ion as "sundar ah
soundar vAn". Using t he meaning "a conch shell" f or t he wor d dar a, he gives t he
addit ional int er pr et at ion – Sobhanam dar ah Sa' kho yasya it i sun-dar ah – "He
Who has t he beaut if ul conch – pA' ncaj anyam".
c) Anot her int er pr et at ion by Sr I sant ya sandha yat ir Aj a is "sundam
upasundena r epayat i nASayat i it i sunda-r ah" – He Who killed sunda t hr ough
upasunda". The st or y r elat ed t o t his incident is given in Apt e' s dict ionar y
under t he meaning f or t he wor d “sundah". sunda and upasunda wer e sons of t he
demon nikumbha, and had managed t o get a boon f r om br ahmA t hat t hey would
be not be killed unless t hey dest r oyed each ot her . They became ver y
oppr essive, and ult imat ely indr a had t o send a nymph named t ilot t amA, and
while f ight ing f or her bet ween t hemselves, t hey killed each ot her . Since all
cr eat ion and dest r uct ion is because of bhagavAn, and since He made sur e t hat
sunda was dest r oyed t hr ough upasunda, He is called sunda-r ah – t he Dest r oyer
of sunda.
d) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives yet anot her anubhavam – sut ar Am
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dr iyat e pr aSasyat a it i sundar ah – He Who is exceedingly well r egar ded and
wor shipped (using t he meanings sut ar Am – exceedingly, dRyat e f r om t he r oot
dR – t o wor ship, t o r egar d). He gives t he suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
pr asAdAbhimukham SaSvat pr asanna vadanekshaNam |
su-nAsam su-bhr uvam cAr u-kapolam sur a-sundar am | |
(bhAga. 4.8.45)
"He Who is always int er est ed in best owing His blessings on His devot ees, He
wit h a happy count enance, beaut if ul eyes, nose, cheeks, He who is t he most
beaut if ul of all gods, …should be medit at ed upon wit h single-minded devot ion."
e) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha der ives t he meaning based on t he r oot dR –
vidAr aNe – t o t ear , t o divide. Using su an upasar ga meaning "well", he gives t he
meaning "He Who divides or separ at es well" f or t he nAma – su = sushTu
"nir dosham" vidAr aNam yah kur ut e sa su-dar ah sanneva var NAgamena sundr a
it yukt o bhavat i. His int er pr et at ion is in t er ms of all t he par t s of t he bodies of
t he dif f er ent cr eat ions being pr oper ly divided or separ at ed (such as t he t wo
wings of t he bir ds, t he br anches of t he t r ees, et c. Par t of t he Slokam t hat he
has composed t o explain t his nAma is – "sa sundar o vishNur -anant a r Upo yonI h
samagr am vividham dRNAt i" – vishNu who has many f or ms, has separ at ed or
divided t he dif f er ent cr eat ur es in dif f er ent ways.)
nAma 798. nAma 798. nAma 798. B -7- B -7- B -7- sundah sundah sundah
a) He Who pr esent s Himself as a ver y sof t per son t o t he asur a-s in or der t o
convince t hem t o f ollow His deceit f ul met hods.
b) He Who is sof t t o His devot ees.
c) He Who best ows j oy and happiness on His devot ees.
sundAya namah.
su is an upasar ga. The r oot involved in t he nAma is und – kledane – t o wet , t o
moist en. sushThu unat t i it i sundah – He Who sof t ens.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is called sundah because He
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melt ed t he hear t s of t he asur a-s by His f ascinat ing f or m, and dr ew t hem
t owar ds Him. This is t r ue of His mohini incar nat ion as well as His Buddha
incar nat ion.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is "He Who is of a melt ing nat ur e because of
His gr eat compassion". Sr I cinmayAnada' s wor ds descr ibing His Mer cy ar e:
"What ever be t he amount of vAsanA-s hoar ded in our per sonalit y, because of
our ego-cent r ic, ext r over t ed act ivit ies, once a devot ee t ur ns unt o Him in t ot al
sur r ender , all t he vAsanA-s ar e pur if ied, and t he devot ee moves mor e and
mor e t owar ds Him". I n His inf init e mer cy, bhagavAn f or gives all sins t hat a
per son might commit in his ignor ance.
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He has t his nAma
signif ying t hat He is t he Best ower of j oy and happiness t o His devot ees – sum
sukham dadAt i it i sum-dah on sundah.
d) Sr I sat ysdevo vAsishTha uses t he meaning und – kledane – t o wet , and
at t r ibut es t he nAma t o His pr oviding ever y living being wit h t he r equisit e
amount of wat er and ot her f luids, t he cr ops wit h t he r equisit e amount of r ain,
et c. – yo vRsha kar maNA samyag unat t i; loke' pi ca paSyAmah, manushyo j alena
kvacit bahu-kRt vah si' ncat i, kvacicca alpaSah; esha yo niyamo sa t asyaiva
vyApakasyavishNoh, et c.
nAma 799. nAma 799. nAma 799. ¹¬+l¬- ¹¬+l¬- ¹¬+l¬- r at na r at na r at na-- -nAbhah nAbhah nAbhah
a) He wit h a gem-like navel.
b) He Who has t he navel f r om which t he gem among men –br ahmA – or iginat ed.
c) He Who dest r oys t he asur a-s (ar at na-nAbhah).
d) He Who has r at na in His navel - in t he f or m of r at na-s in t he oceans.
ratna-nAbhAya namah.
r at na her e r epr esent s beaut y. The f ollowing der ivat ion is given by Sr I
vAsishTha: The wor d r at na is der ived f r om t he r oot r amu - kr I DAyAm - t o
play, t o r ej oice, and t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 3.14 - r amest a ca,
leading t o t he wor d r at nam which means gem. The wor d nAbhi is der ived f r om
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t he r oot nah - bandhane - t o t ie, t o bind, and t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi
sUt r a 4.126 - naho bhaSca, leading t o t he wor d nAbhI . The siddhAnt a kaumudI
gives t he meaning - "a khshat r iya" t o t he wor d in t he masculine gender , and t he
meaning "navel" in t he f eminine gender . The kaumudi also point s out t hat
somet imes t he meaning navel is given in t he masculine gender as well. The t er m
nAbhah means "one wit h t he nAbhi", and so t he meaning "navel" is t he one t hat
is r elevant her e, and t he one used by all t he vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s. He Who has a
beaut if ul navel is r at na- nAbhah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam is t hat He showed of f His beaut if ul navel as a
sign of His pANDit yam or lear ning, again t o convince t he asur a-s of His
t eachings in t he Buddha incar nat ion – pANDit ya viDambana mRshTodar a vyakt a
r amya nAbhI r at na-nAbhah. Fr om many t r anslat ions of t he above, it appear s
t hat one of t he ext er nal gest iculat ions of a lear ned per son is t o massage t he
belly (Sr I v.n.vedAnt a deSikan' s t r anslat ion in English, Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj nan' s
t r anslat ion in t amizh, et c.).
Sr I vedAnt a deSikan' s t r anslat ion is: "I n t he f or m of Buddha, t he impost ur e
like a gr eat scholar r equir ed cer t ain ext er nal gest iculat ions like massaging t he
belly, when His navel was displayed as a beaut if ul gem".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is also a r ef er ence t o t he beaut if ul navel of
bhagavAn – r at na Sabdena SobhA lakshyat e; r at navat sundar A nAbhih asya it i
r at na-nAbhah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda descr ibes t he signif icance of t he navel as t he or iginat ion
point of t he t hought pr ocess in t he devot ee who per f or ms medit at ion. He
descr ibes t he f indings of deep t hinker s about t he pr ocess of or iginat ion of
t hought . Accor ding t o t hem, all t hought s ar ise in t heir seed f or m f r om t he
I nf init e bef or e manif est at ion. Fr om t his womb (or iginat ion), t hey become
manif est , and t he individual becomes dimly awar e of t hought s in t heir embr yo
f or m – vague, incomplet e, and as yet not f ully f or med (paSyant ee). I n t he next
st age, t hey get t r anslat ed int o expr essions (madhyamA), and in t heir last and
f ull st age of manif est at ion, t hey expr ess t hemselves as act ions in t he out er
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wor ld (vaikhar ee). I n t his chain of pr ocesses on how t he t hought s become
manif est f or t he t hinker , t he seat of t he paSyant ee st age is said t o be navel
r egion (nAbhI ). When one consider s t he seat of or iginat ion of all t hought s of
all t hinker s, t his seat is t he r at na-nAbhI of bhagavAn, and hence He is called
r at na-nAbhah. Sr I cinmayAnanda suggest s t hat t his may be signif icance of
t he r epr esent at ion t hat t he Cr eat or , br ahmA, or iginat es f r om t he lot us f r om
t he navel of bhagavAn.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t wo explanat ions, bot h of which ar e dif f er ent
f r om t he above. These ar e based on his t aking t he nAma as r at na-nAbhah or
ar at na-nAbhah.
b) Taking t he nAma as r at na-nAbah, he gives t he int er pr et at ion - r at nam pum-
r at nam cat ur -mukho nAbahu yasya – He Who has t he navel f r om which t he gem
among men – br ahmA – or iginat ed.
c) Taking t he nAma as ar at na-nAbhah, his int er pr et at ion is: ar at nAn ar at -
dait yAn nabhat i it i a-r at na-nAbhah – He Who dest r oys t he asur a- s. He uses
t he r oot nabha – himsAyAm abhAvepi – t o kill, t o hur t , in t his int er pr et at ion.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion - r at nam nAbahu yasya it i
r at na-nAbhah - He Who has r at nam in His navel is r at na- nAbhah. He pr oceeds
t o int er peet t he nAma as indicat ing t hat He has endowed t he oceans wit h
r at nam, which is like r at nam in His navel - sa r at na-nAbho bhagavAn var eNyo
loke samudr e vidadhAt ir at nam.
nAma 800. nAma 800. nAma 800. B ¬l ¬+- B ¬l ¬+- B ¬l ¬+- su su su-- -locanah locanah locanah
a) One wit h bewit ching eyes.
b) He of super ior wisdom.
c) One Who has t he wisdom and t he vision of t he Self .
d) He Who gives ever yone else t he abilit y t o see.
su-locanAya namah.
su is an upasar ga. The r oot involved is loc – dar Sane – t o see.
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a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – t at hA hRdayAlu-cor a-locanah su- locanah –
He is called su-locanah because (in His Buddha incar nat ion) He had char ming
eyes which ent iced t he t ender -hear t ed. He gives suppor t f r om vishNu pur ANa
- punaSca r akt Ambar adhRk mAyA-mohah a-j it ekshaNah (VP 3.18.16) – He was
clad in cr imson r obes, and had eyes which wer e unconquer ed; and He deluded
t he minds of all by His mAyA.
As we all know, His beaut y is not somet hing t hat is used by Him only f or
deluding t he asur a-s, but also f or dr awing His devot ees closer t o Him. ANDAL
pr aises His beaut y in many places in her pASur am-s, and Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an
r ef er s us t o one of t hese inst ances, in nAcciyAr t ir umozhi 11.2 –
en ar a' ngat t u in-amudar kuzhal-azhagar vAi-azhaghar , kaN-azhagar ,
koppUzhil ezhu-kamalap pU-azhagar em-AnAr –
"My sweet nect ar who r esides in Sr I r a' ngam, t he One Who has beaut if ul hair ,
beaut if ul mout h, beaut if ul eyes, One f r om whose beaut if ul navel spr out s t he
beaut if ul lot us, t he One Who has subj ugat ed me as His own by His beaut y".
One almost senses t he exclamat ion "aiyo" of t ir uppANAzhvar her e.
The nAlAyir am is f ull of r ef er ences t o t he beaut y of His eyes and t he beaut y
of His t ir umEni (Sem t Amar iak kaNNan, pavala vAi, kamalac ce' nkaN,.. ..), and
t hey ar e t oo numer ous t o list .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has t he nAma because of His
beaut if ul eyes, and alt er nat ively, assigns t he meaning "j ~nAnam" t o t he wor d
locanam, and gives t he alt er nat e meaning – He of super ior wisdom – Sobhanam
locanam nayanam j ~nAnam vA asya it i su-locanah.
c) Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat in addit ion t o t he beaut y of His f or m t hat
is r ef lect ed and enhanced by His beaut i f ul eyes, t he signif icance of t he t er m
"beaut y" her e is t hat His eyes can see const ant ly t he inf init e pur pose and goal
of t he ent ir e cr eat ion. These eyes of His can simult aneously per ceive
ever yt hing t hat is happening in all t he t hr ee wor lds all t he t ime, not only t he
pr esent , but t he past and t he f ut ur e as well. Thus, he gives t he meaning "One
who has t he wisdom of t he Self ", t o t his nAma.
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d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he meaning t hat He has t his nAma because
of His beaut if ul eyes, and in addit ion, he gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion
t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat because of Him, t he r est of t he cr eat ion is able
t o see well, in His manif est at ion as t he sun – samyag locant e pr ANino yasmin
udit e sat i it i su-locanah sUr yah. The sun and t he moon ar e consider ed His t wo
eyes – candr a sUr yau ca net r e.
Thus ends t he comment ar y on t he Eight Hundr ed names of Lor d Sr I MahA
vishNu.
nAma 801 nAma 801 nAma 801. HT› - HT› - HT› - ar kah ar kah ar kah
a) He Who is pr aised.
b) He Who is in t he f or m of t he sun.
arkAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is ar ka – t apane st avane ca – t o heat ,
t o pr aise. ar cyat e – st Uyat a it i ar kah – He Who is pr aised is ar kah.
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha point s out t hat t he meaning can also be der ived
st ar t ing f r om t he r oot Rc – st ut au – t o pr aise, and f r om t he r oot ar c-pUj AyAm
– t o wor ship. Based on t he meaning ar ka – t apane – t o heat , ar kah also r ef er s
t o t he sun.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he meaning t hat He has an ador able f or m, and indicat es
t hat He was pr aised in His Buddha incar nat ion by His f ollower s as "aho!
mahAt ma! at i-dhAr mikah!" – "Oh! A gr eat soul and a highly vir t uous one!".
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is ador ed by even t he likes of
br ahmA – br ahmAdibhih pUj yat amair api ar canI yat vAt ar kah.
The same idea is given by Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj – ar kyat e st Uyat e
br ahmAdibhih it i ar kah. He gives t he suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am: yam
br ahmA var uNendr a mar ut ah st uvant i divyaih st avaih (bhA. 12.13.1) – He Who
is wor shipped t hr ough divine ador at ions by br ahmA, var uNa, indr a, vAyu,et c.
b) Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o His being in t he
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f or m of t he Sun, using t he meaning "sun" f or t he wor d "ar kah". The I nf init e
Consciouness, Sr I man nAr AyaNa, is t he one sour ce of light and ener gy
illumining and nour ishing ever yt hing. Once He leaves t he body of any cr eat ur e,
t he body cannot be maint ained.
nAma 802. nAma 802. nAma 802. 4l=B|+- 4l=B|+- 4l=B|+- vAj a vAj a vAj a-- -sanih sanih sanih
a) He Who advocat ed eat ing a lot (a Pr eacher of mundane pleasur es, like
eat ing).
b) He Who pr ovides f or t he nour ishment of all His cr eat ion.
vAja-sanaye namah.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he nAma as vAj a-sanih, and Sr I Sa' nkar a' s ver sion is
vAj a-sanah. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives bot h ver sions, and point s out t hat
"vAj a-sanih" is "vaidika pATham". This is pr obably based on t he f act t hat t his
nAma is r ef er r ed t o in t he veda-s as "vAj a-sanih"– f or example, (Rg. 9.110.11),
(Rg. 3.51.2), (Rg. 10.91.15)
The t er m vAj a r ef er s t o annam or f ood. The r oot f r om which sanah or sanih is
der ived is san – sambhakt au, dAne – t o divide, t o give.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – nAst ikya vAdena aihikam annAdikamevasam
bhaj at i it i vAj a-sanih – By His at heist ic t eachings He cr eat ed a t ast e in t hem
f or t he enj oyment of pleasur es in t his wor ld it self . Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat it
is t he vow of a buddhist monk t hat he should consume mout hf uls of cur d-r ice
ever y day ear ly in t he mor ning – kshapaNaka vr at am hI dam yat pr At ah pr At ah
dadhyodana kabalAn gRhNat e it i.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion – vAj am – annam ar t hinAm sanot i–
dadAt i it vAj a-sanah – He Who gives f ood t o t hose who pr ay f or it .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i adds t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He has made
pr ovision f or all living beings f or t heir f ood even bef or e t hey ar e bor n, such as
pr oviding f or t he milk f or t he child f r om t he mot her ' s br east even as t he child
is bor n. So He plans and pr ovisions f or sust enance of all cr eat ur es even bef or e
He cr eat es t he wor ld.
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Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies His being
t he sour ce or nur t ur er of t he ent ir e wor ld of "emot ions-f eelings-and-
t hought s" f or t he exper iences of t he body, mind and int ellect of all cr eat ur es.
For t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of His being t he pr ovided of f ood t o all beings,
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ences t o t he gI t A:
gAm-AviSya ca bhUt Ani dhAr ayAmyaham-oj asA |
pushNAmi caushadhI h sar vAh somo bhUt vA r asAt makah | |
(gI t A 15.13)
"And ent er ing t he ear t h I uphold all beings by My st r engt h. I nour ish all her bs,
becoming t he j uicy soma".
nAma 803. nAma 803. nAma 803. ~ ñl ~ ñl ~ ñl SR' ngI SR' ngI SR' ngI
a) He Who appear s like one having a hor n (wit h a bunch of peacock f eat her s in
his hand).
b) He Who had a hor n in His mat sya and var Aha incar nat ions.
c) He Wit h t he peak of govar dhana mount ain on His hand.
d) He Who has pr ovided ever y cr eat ur e wit h t he means t o expr ess it s SR' nga
or expr ession of power .
e) He Who dest r oys t he f ear of bir t h in His devot ees.
SR'ngiNe namah.
The wor d SR' ngam r ef er s t o a hor n. I t also r ef er s t o t he t op of a mount ain,
sover eignt y, et c. The r oot and t he dif f er ent meanings and int er pr et at ions f or
t he wor d SR' gan have been cover ed pr eviously in nAma 540, Slokam 57 -mahA-
SR' ngah; and nAma 869, Slokam 81 - naika-SR' ngah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as One who has a hor n, and associat es it
wit h His car r ying a bunch of peacock f eat her s in his hand in His incar nat ion t o
delude t he asur a-s, as a symbol of his doct r ine of ahimsA. He gives suppor t
f r om vishNu pur ANam:
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t at o digambar o muNDo bar hi-pat r a-dhar o dvij a |
mAyA moho' sur An SlakshNam idam vacanam abr avI t | |
(VP 18.2)
"Appr oaching t he dait ya-s engaged in ascet ic penances, He appr oached t hem in
t he semblance of a naked mendicant , wit h his head shaven, and car r ying abunch
of peacock' s f eat her s, and addr essed t hem in gent le accent s t hus". H.H.
Wilson adds a f oot not e in his t r anslat ion, t hat "a bunch of peacock f eat her s is
st ill an or dinar y accompaniment of a J ain mendicant . Accor ding t o t he Hindi
poem, t he pRt hu r Ai car it r a, it was bor ne by t he Buddhist amar a sinha".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of t he mat sya incar nat ion,
wher e bhagavAn had a hor n wit h which He guided t he boat wit h sat ya vr at a in
it – pr alaya ambhasi SR' ngavAn mat sya viSesha r Upah SR' ngI – He Who is
hor ned, dur ing pr alaya when He assumes t he f or m a special f ish.
Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y comment s t hat t he nAma can also be a r ef er ence
t o His var Aha incar nat ion, wher e He suppor t ed t he ear t h at t he t ip of His
hor n.(see nAma 542, Slokam 58 – mahA-var Ahah).
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he meaning "summit of a mount ain" f or t he
wor d SR' nga, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma is a r ef er ence t o His
car r ying t he govar dhana mount ain – SR' ngANi govar dhanaSR' gANi asya sant i
it i SR' ngI .
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha int er pr et s t he t er m SR' nga as meaning a r ay or
emanat ion, or any kind of ener gy, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma
signif ies t hat bhagavAn has enabled all beings wit h dif f er ent ways of giving
expr ession t o t heir ener gy, and so He is SR' ngI – t he f angs of a ser pent ar e
t he SR' nga-s of t he ser pent , and t he t ail of a scor pion is t he SR' nga of t he
scor pion, as examples.
e) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj int er pr et s SR' nga as "dest r oying", (The r oot
is SR – himsAyAm – t o hur t , t o kill), and gives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nama
as "He Who dest r oys t he f ear of r e-bir t h in His devot ees"– SRNAt i bhava-
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bhayam it i SR' ngam avicint ya- sAmar t hyam; t ad-asya ast i it iSR' ngI .
nAma 804. nAma 804. nAma 804. =4-6- =4-6- =4-6- j ayant ah j ayant ah j ayant ah
The Conquer er .
jayantAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is j I – j aye – t o conquer . j it avAn it i
j ayant ah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar cont inues wit h t he elucidat ion of t he point t hat j ust as t he
good t hings t hat exist in t his univer se ar e because of Him, t he negat ive t hings
t hat exist ar e also caused by Him, wit h a pur pose. Thus, t he cr eat ion of t he
mAyA SAst r a-s et c., ar e also par t of His leelA. His int er pr et at ion her e is t hat
t his nAma indicat es t hat He conquer ed t he advocat es of t heism among t he
asur a-s by means of His f alse doct r ines t hat t he wor ld is an illusion, and t hat
t he soul is not hing but knowledge – Ast ikya-vAdinah samvidAt mat va-
pr apa' ncamit hyAt va-mit hyA vAsaih j it avAn it i j ayant ah. The r eason f or His
doing t his should be clear ly under st ood t o be because t her e wer e, among t he
asur a-s some who believed in pr act icing t heism j ust t o get t he power s, which
t hey would t hen misuse f or causing har m t o His devot ees (t he case of
Sukr AcAr ya, t he gur u of t he asur a-s, and r AvaNa, who was a gr eat exper t in
t he veda-s, ar e examples.) The r ef er ence her e is not t o t he t heist s who
wor ship Him wit h t he desir e t o at t ain Him. I n t his lat t er case, bhagavAn only
helps t hem mor e t o at t ain Him t he mor e t hey wish it .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He is t he
Conquer er of enemies, or is t he cause of t he vict or y of t he deva-s over t he
asur a-s – ar I n at iSayena j ayat i, j aya-het ur -vA j ayant ah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s t o His help t o t he pANDava-s t o gain vict or y
over t he kaur ava-s.
Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat it is His j ayant ah guNa t hat helps us "t o
conquer our lower impulses, our endless desir es f or t he sensuous – and our
cr aving f or t he cr uel pleasur es of indulgence", because it is t he "gr ace of t he
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mind and int ellect , in at t unement wit h t he Self " t hat helps us achieve t his.
c) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s anubhavam is mor e along t he lines of t he
enj oyment of kRshNa as a yout h – He is j ayant ah because He always won in
hand combat as well as ver bal combat wit h His f r iends – j ayat i sakhAn bAhu-
yuddhevAg-yuddhe vA it i j ayant ah.
d) Sr I vAsishTha capt ur es t he spir it of t he nAma t hus – yo ho sar vadAj ayat i,
na kadAcit par Aj ayam labhat a it i j ayanat ah – He Who is always vict or ious, and
can never be def eat ed under any cir cumst ances by anyone at anyt ime, is
j ayant ah.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn being vict or ious over
all t he beings of t he Univer se, and keeping ever yt hing under His cont r ol.
Wher ever t her e is His blessing, t her e vict or y is guar ant eed ir r espect ive of
t he ot her condit ions t hat sur r ound t he sit uat ion. He summar izes his
int er pr et at ionin t he f ollowing wor ds:
evam hi yo vet t i j ayant amagRyam vishNum sa sar vam j ayat I t i bodhyam |
yasyAst i savye bhagavAn j ayant ah kim Sat r avas-t asya nar asya kur yuh | |
No amount of power f ul weapons or anyt hing else can pr event t he vict or y of one
who has His suppor t and blessings.
One is r eminded of t he wor ds of vedAnt a deSika in Sr I kAmAsikAshTakam
(6):
t vayi r akshat i r akshakaih kim ananyaih
t vayi cAr akshat i r akshakaih kim ananyaih |
"When you ar e t he Pr ot ect or , wher e is t he need f or ot her pr ot ect or s, and
when You have decided not t o pr ot ect , what is t he use of any ot her
"pr ot ect or "?"
Again in abhI t i st avam, svAmi deSikan point s out t hat f or His devot ee, t her e is
no f ear ever , f r om anywher e, under any cir cumst ance – kadAcana
kut aScanakvacana t asya na syAt bhayam (abhI t i. 5).
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Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences t o Sr ut i wher e t he
nAma j ayant ah occur s:
j ayant am t vam anumade soma
(Rg. 1.91.21)
devasenAnAm abhibha' nj at I nAm j ayant I nAm mar ut o yant vagr am |
(Rg. 10.103.8)
nAma 805. nAma 805. nAma 805. B4 |4=4l B4 |4=4l B4 |4=4l sar va sar va sar va-- -vij vij vij -- -j ayI j ayI j ayI
a) The Conquer or of t hose who had lear nt all t hings.
b) He Who is Omniscient and Vict or ious.
c) He Who had won over t he hear t s of t he all-knowing sages.
sarva-vij-jayine namah.
The nAma consist s of sar va + vid + j ayI . (sar va means "all" – sar at i it i sar vah;
vid – j ~nAne – t o know, or vid – vicAr aNe – t odiscuss; j i – j aye - t o conquer ).
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He won over t he lear ned people (among
t he asur a-s who wer e believer s in t he ef f icacy of f ollowing vedic pr ocedur es
et c. f or acquir ing special power s, which t hen wer e misused t o har m t he
f ollower s of dhar ma) by His sweet wor ds and convincing ar gument s.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a t r eat s t he nAma as "One Who is sar va-vit ", and "One Who is
"j ayI ". His explanat ion f or t he nAma is t hat bhagavAn is Omniscient (sar va-vit )
and Vict or ious (j ayI ) –
sar va-vishayam j ~nAnam asya it i sar va-vit ;
Abhyant ar An bAhyAn hir aNyAkshAdI nSca
dur -j ayAn j et um Seelam asya it i j ayI
(He Who is complet e in knowledge, and He Who over comes t he int er nal f oes
such as desir e, and also t he might y ext er nal f oes such as t he demon
hir aNyAksha).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o t he Sr ut i f or t he nAma sar va-vit :
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yah savar ~j nah, sar va-vit
(muNDa. 1.1.9, 2.2.7).
He also pr ovides t he link bet ween t he t wo par t of t he nAma – because He is
sar va-vit , He is able t o conquer t he inner enemies such as kAmaand kr odha.
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat it is by knowing t he inner secr et s of one' s
enemy t hat one can be assur ed of vict or y over t he enemy. Since bhagavAn is
t he Knower of ever yt hing – sar va-vid, He is t he Conquer or under all
cir cumst ances –j ayI .
A dif f er ent anubhavam is given by Sr I cinmayAnanda: Even t hose who boast of
t heir wisdom –" Pr at t ler s of wisdom, however eloquent in t heir discussions,
must become ut t er ly silent in t heir moment s of samAdhi, in t he pr esence of
t he Self , Sr I nAr AyaNa" – So He is sar va- vij -j ayI .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj int er pr et s t he t er m sar va-vit as a r ef er ence t o
t he all-knowing br ahmA and t he like, and since He is above t hem all because of
His Supr eme and per f ect knowledge, He is sar va-vi-j ayI –
sar vam vidant i it i sar va-vido br ahmAdayah;
t Anapi nir at iSaya sar va~j nat ayA j ayat i it i sar va-vij -j ayI .
c) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he same meaning f or t he t er m sar va-
vid– all-knowing, as t he ot her int er pr et er s have given, but int er pr et s t he wor d
j ayI not in t he sense of vict or y over an adver sar y, but as One Who is held in a
posit ion of r espect and est eem by ver y lear ned people – His int er pr et at ion is
t hat t he Lor d had a dist inct posit ion of eminence and glor y wit h t he all-lear ned
people such as vasishTha, vAmadeva, et c. – sar va-vit su vasishTha
vAmadevAdishu j ayo mahot kar sho' sya nit yam ast i it isar va-vij -j ayI .





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Slokam 86 Slokam 86 Slokam 86
B 4T |4-T¹¬l -4- B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹-· B 4T |4-T¹¬l -4- B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹-· B 4T |4-T¹¬l -4- B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹-·
Prl87l Prl¬6l Prl¬ 6l Prl|+|¤-+ <°+ Prl87l Prl¬6l Prl¬ 6l Prl|+|¤-+ <°+ Prl87l Prl¬6l Prl¬ 6l Prl|+|¤-+ <°+
suvar Nabindu r akshObhyah sar vavAgI svar esvar ah |
mahAhr adO mahAgar t O mahAbhUt O mahAnidhih | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 806. nAma 806. nAma 806. B 4T |4-T- B 4T |4-T- B 4T |4-T- suvar Na suvar Na suvar Na-- -binduh binduh binduh
a) He Who concealed t he t r ut h of t he vedic pat h f r om t he asur a-s wit h sweet
wor ds.
b) He Who has a beaut if ul f or m wit h golden-color ed beaut if ul limbs.
c) He Who is in t he f or m of t he auspicious pr aNava mant r a.
d) He Who has a beaut if ul f or m, and Who has beaut if ully divided t he
cr eat ur es of t he univer se int o t heir var ious par t s.
e) The Knower of t he veda-s consist ing of auspicious let t er s.
f ) He Who has t he beaut if ul golden-color ed sandal wood mar ks on His
f or ehead, cheeks, et c.
suvarNa-bindave namah.
su is an upasar ga; var Na is der ived f r om t he r oot vR – var aNe – t o choose;
var Na r ef er s t o color , let t er , et c. The wor d bindu is der ived f r om t he r oot
bind – avayave – t o split , t o divide, or vid – j ~nAne – t o know. Because of a
gener ally accept ed r ule of non- dist inct ion bet ween ba and va by gr ammar ians
(ba-va-yor -abhedena), vindu and bindu have t he same meaning. Sr I BhaTTar
uses t he r oot bidi – apalApe – t o conceal, in his int er pr et at ion. The wor d bindu
also r ef er s t o t he decor at ive mar k applied bet ween t he eyebr ows, t he
anusvAr a, t he mar ks on t he body of a deer , et c. The dif f er ent int er pr et at ions
below ar e a r esult of t hese var iat ions.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he r oot bidi – apalApe – t o conceal, and t he meaning
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"let t er s" t o t he wor d var Na, he cont inues his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of
bhagavAn' s Buddha incar nat ion, specif ically t aken t o deceive t he evil-minded
people and t her eby punish t hem f or t heir kar ma-s. Her e, t he int er pr et at ion is
t hat bhagavAn successf ully used "sweet " wor ds t o conceal t he t r ut h of t he
vedic pat h f r om t he asur a-s, and t o cr eat e a dist r ust in t he vedic pr act ices
among t hose asur a-s who believed in using vedic r it es in or der t o get
power s,and t hen using t hese power s t o har m t he deva-s. The cases of
Sukr AcAr ya, indr aj it , r AvaNa, et c., who got power s by per f or ming vedic r it es,
and t hen used t hose power s t o har m His devot ees, ar e examples.
b) Sr i Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning avayavah – limbs, f or t he wor d bindu, and
gives t he int er pr et at ion t o t he nAma as "One having limbs r adiant like gold" –
bindavah avayavAh su-var Na sadRSA asya it i su- var Na-binduh. We came
acr oss t he beaut y of His f or m and limbs in t he nAma-s suvar Na-var Nah,
hemA' ngah, var A' ngah, and candanA' ngadI (Slokam 79, nAma-s 743 – 746).
Please r ef er t o t hese wr it e-ups f or a det ailed account of His t ir umEni t o be
enj oyed f r om t he dif f er ent int er pr et er s' per spect ives.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he above as one of his t wo int er pr et at ions: su
=Sobhanam; var aNI yam = dRSyam r Upam yasya sa su-var Nah; su-var NA
bindavahavayavAh yasya sa su-var Na-binduh. One Who has a beaut if ul
complexion and beaut if ul limbs is su-var Na-binduh.
Sr I r AdhARshNa SAst r i adds anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of His
golden t ir umEni. He r ef er s t o bhagavAn r ising wit h a golden f or m f r om t he
agni-kuNDam in ya~j na-s per f or med by sever al devot ees. We know of kA' nci
pEr ar uLALan who t ook his ar cA mUr t i incar nat ion f r om t he agni kuNDam when
br ahmA per f or med his penance in t his kshet r am.
c) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I Sa' nkar a is based on t he meaning
"akshar am" f or "var Na", and "anusvAr a" f or "bindu", t hus giving t he meaning
"One Who in t he f or m of t he auspicious pr aNava" – Sobhano var Nah akshar am
binduSa yasmin mant r e t an-mant r At mA vA su- var Na-binduh.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i in suppor t : omit i
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br ahma (t ait t .1.81); t at -t e padam sa' ngr aheNa br avI myomit yet at (kaTha.
1.2.15).
d) Based on t he r oot bind – avayave – t o divide, t o split , and using t he uNAdi
sUt r a bindur -icchuh (uNAdi. 3.2.169), Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he wor d
binduh as r ef er r ing t o "one who divides" – bindat i – avayavAnkar ot i, or "one
who per f or ms t he kr iyA of avayava or division. I n t his int er pr et at ion, Sr I
vAsishTha gives t he meaning "One Who Himself is of beaut if ul f or m (su-
var Na), and Who has divided (binduh) t he cr eat ur es beaut if ully int o t heir
dif f er ent par t s, while oper at ing as t he Undivided One in all of t hem" – as in
t he case of a t r ee, int o it s br anches, leaves, et c.,or t he dif f er ent planet s of
t he solar syst em – yat hAyam sUr yast at hAyamsamast ah pr apa' ncah par aspar am
avayava- avayava vi bhAvam Apannah, pat r a- phal a- pushpa- SakhAdI ni
vRkshasyeva.
e) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he meaning "let t er " f or t he wor d bindu, and
int er pr et s t he t er m suvar Na as a r ef er ence t o t he veda-s. He uses t he r oot
vid – j ~nAne, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma
signif ying t hat He is t he "Knower of t he veda-s" – SobhanA var NAyasmin sa
su-var No vedah; t asya binduh – j ~nAt A su- var Na-binduh.
f ) Using t he meaning "a decor at ive mar k on t he f or ehead" f or bindu,Sr I bala
deva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion – su-var No lalATast hobinduh
asya it i – He Who has golden mar k of decor at ion on His f or ehead, or He Who a
decor at ive mar k on His golden f or ehead.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives a similar int er pr et at ion – suvar Namiva
pI t AbhA bindavah candana-bindavoyasya cibuka kapola mast ake sa su-var na
binduh – He Who has t he decor at ion wit h t he golden-color ed sandal wood on
His cheeks et c.
nAma 807 nAma 807 nAma 807 -- - H¬l -4- H¬l -4- H¬l -4- aa a-- -kshobhyah kshobhyah kshobhyah
a-kshobhyAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is kshub – sa' ncalane – t o dist ur b, t o
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be agit at ed.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is t hat when He pr esent ed His
ar gument s as Buddha t o t he asur a-s, no one could st and up against his
ar gument s, because he was possessed of impenet r able t hought s –
gambhI r ASayat vena a-vikAr yah.
b) Sr I San' kar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma indicat es t hat He is
unshaken by desir e, hat r ed, et c., by t he obj ect s of senses such as sound et c.,
and by t he ext er nal f oes such as t he enemies of t he deva- s, et c. –
r AgAdibhih,SabdAdi-vishayaiSca, t r i-daSa-ar ibhiSca, na kshobhyat a it i a-
kshobhyah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda' s t r anslat ion f or t he nAma is "One who is unr uf f led". He
explains t hat while or dinar ily an individual get s dist ur bed, subj ect ively, by t he
pr esence of desir es, anger , passions, et c., and obj ect ively an aver age man is
const ant ly st or med by t he enchant ing dance of beaut if ul sense-obj ect s all
ar ound him, t he Lor d is not subj ect ed t o any of t hese. He r ef er s us t o t he
descr ipt ion of a st hit apr a~j na in t he gI t A by Lor d kRshNa, in r esponse t o
ar j una' s quest ion in Slokam 2.54 (st hit a pr a~j nasya kA bhAsha…et c).
bhagavAn' s r esponse is cont ained in Sloka-s 2.55 t o 2.61, wher e He out lines
t he at t r ibut es of a st hit a-pr a~j na. Those ar e also t he char act er ist ics of an a-
kshobhyah.
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives an anubhavam not shar ed by t he ot her s. I n
addit ion t o t r eat ing t he nAma-s suvar Nabinduh and akshobhyah as t wo
separ at e nAma-s and giving int er pr et at ions f or t hese, he looks at t hese t wo
combined as one nAma also – su-var Na- bindu + r akshah + bhyah. His
int er pr et at ion is: suvar Na bindavo yasmin t at suvar na-bindu; suvar Na-binduvat
r akshaScasuvr Na-bindu- r aksho mAr I cah; t am bhyAsayat i bhI shayat i it i
suvar Na-bindu-r aksho-bhyah - The t er m suvar Na-bindu r akshah r ef er s t o t he
demon by name mAr I ca, since he had golden dot s (bindu-s) all over his body.
BhagavAn has t he nAma suvar Na-bindu-r aksho-bhyah since He caused f ear in
t he mind of t his r Akshasa, mAr I ca, wit h t he golden dot s all over his body. The
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r oot bhya – bhaya is used in t his int er pr et at ion.
nAma 808. nAma 808. nAma 808. B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹- B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹- B4 4l¬lH¹ H¹- sar va sar va sar va-- -vAg vAg vAg-- -I Svar a I Svar a I Svar a-- -I Svar ah I Svar ah I Svar ah
The Lor d of all who have a mast er y over all wor ds.
sarva-vAg-ISvara-IsvarAya namah.
He Who is t he Lor d of all who have mast er y over vAk or speech is sar va-vAg-
I Svar a-I Svar ah – The I Svar a of t hose who ar e "sar -vAg- I Svar a-s". The
dif f er ent int er pr et er s give dif f er ent anubhavam-s on who t hese "mast er s over
speech" ar e.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of bhagavAn' s Buddha
incar nat ion. He int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn was t he clear
winner over t he "lear ned mast er s" among t he r Akshasa-s in ar gument s and
disput at ions.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an comment s t hat vAcaspat i is known f or piling point s af t er
point s in suppor t of his posit ion in any ar gument . That skill of vAcaspat i is but
a t iny f r act ion of bhagavAn' s power . The point t o be kept in mind her e is t hat
in his Buddha incar nat ion, bhagavAn was advancing ar gument s t o pr omot e
nAst ikam among t he asur a-s, and so his ar gument s in t he cur r ent cont ext wer e
not consist ent wit h t he SAst r a-s.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s sar va-vAg-I Svar a as a r ef er ence t o br ahmA, and
since bhagavAn is t he Lor d of br ahmA, He has t he nAma saar va-vAg- I Svar a-
I Svar ah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat br ahmA wit h his f our f aces and f our
mout hs,gives t he veda-s t o t he r est of t he wor ld, and so he is sar va-
vAgI Svar an, and he got t his power f r om bhagavAn, t he sar va-vAg-I Svar a-
I Svar a.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a consider s t he r ef er ence of t he phr ase "sar va-vAg-
I Svar at o r udr a, and so descr ibes t he namA as indicat ing t hat He is t he Lor d of
r udr a: sar veshAm vAcah sar va-vAcah t AsAm I svar asya r udr asya ca
I Svar at vAt sar va-vAg-I Svar a-I Svar ah.
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Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN list s br ahma, r udr a, et c., as t hose lear ned in t he
SAst r a-s, and bhagavAn being t he Lor d of all of t hem, has t his nAma – sar vAh
Sr ut yAdilakshaNA vAco yat r a sa sar va-vAk; nikhilaSAst r a pr at ipAdya
it yar t hah; yat a I Svar a-I Svar a vidhi- r udr Adi niyAmakah.
Same idea is r ef lect ed in Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj ' s int er pr et at ion –
sar veshAmvAg-I Svar ANAm sur a-gur u- dr uhiNAdI nAm I Svar ah – Sast A it i
sar va-vAg-I Svar a-I Svar ah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda quot es t he kenopanishad passage wher e t he quest ion is f ir st
asked:
keneshit Am vAcam imam vadant i
At whose behest do people ut t er speech?,
and t he answer is given:
t adeva br ahmam t ad viddhi
I t is Br ahman f r om which all t hese ar ise.
Sr I cimnayAnanda explains t he nAma t hus: "I t is not t he inst r ument s of
act ions and per cept ions t hat act by t hemselves, as t hey ar e all made up of
iner t mat t er . The immediat e animat ion t o t he equipment is given by t he ' inner
inst r ument s' .
Ther ef or e, f or all t he sense-or gans, t he mind-int ellect -equipment is t heir
immediat e lor d. But t hese subt le inst r ument s t hemselves get t heir dynamism
t o act only in t he pr esence of Sr I nAr AyaNa".
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat t he gods or devat A-s f or speech and sound ar e
vAcaspat i, agni, vidyut , et c., and He is t he Lor d of all t hose gods who ar e t he
gods of vAk, and so He is called sar -vAg-I Svar a- I Svar ah – sar va
vAgI Svar ANAmapi I Svar ah.
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat even t hough t her e ar e a lar ge number of
species, each wit h it s own unique st r uct ur e of t he or gans t hat pr oduce sound
f r om t hem, all of t hese or iginat e f r om Him, and ult imat ely subside in Him.
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nAma 809. nAma 809. nAma 809. Prl87- Prl87- Prl87- mahA mahA mahA-- -hr adah hr adah hr adah
a) The Vast Lake in which t he sinner s dr own never t o r ise again, and t he
devot ees dip again and again t o get r elief .
b) He Who is associat ed wit h t he deep wat er s, as in kAlI ya mar danam, or in
His r eclining on t he Milk Ocean.
c) He Who has cr eat ed t he gr eat oceans so t hat t he ear t h does not become
complet ely dr y and per ish.
mahA-hradAya anamah.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d hr ada is der ived is hr Ada – avyakt e Sabde –t o
sound, t o r oar . That which makes indist inct , undef ined sounds is called hr adah.
That which is huge, and makes t his sound is mahA-hr adah. The t er m isused t o
r ef er t o a deep lake, an ocean et c. – hRadat e it i hr adah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s explanat ion f or t he nAma is t hat bhagavAn as Buddha was
like a deep lake in which t he evil-doer s sank, never t o r ise again – yat r apApa-
kar maNah a-punar -ut t hAnam nimaj j ant i. He r ef er s us t o Lor d kRshNa' s wor ds
in t he gI t A:
t An aham dvishat ah kr Ur An samsAr eshu nar AdhamAn |
kshipAmi aj ast r am aSubhAn Asur I shveva yonishu | |
(gI t A 16.19)
"Those hat er s, cr uel, t he vilest and t he most inauspicious of mankind, I hur l
f or ever int o t he cycles of bir t hs and deat hs, int o t he wombs of demons".
Sr I BhaTTar also point s out t hat while He is t he deep lake wher e t he sinner s
will dr own, He is also t he deep lake wher e t he devot ees will f ind t heir gr eat
comf or t , and will bat he again and again wit hout ever get t ing sat isf ied –
pApa-kar mANah apunar -ut t hAnam nimaj j ant i,
puNya- kRt o gAham gAham t Rpyant i, samahA-hr Adah.
One is r eminded of t he nRsimha incar nat ion, wher e bhagavAn was
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simult aneously a cause of t er r or f or hir aNyakaSipu, and wit h t hat same f or m,
He was t he cause of gr eat delight f or pr ahlAda.
Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an descr ibes t he t er m hr adah as eddy, t he deep dit ch t hat
somet imes lies in t he pat h of r unning wat er s. I f one get s caught in one of
t hese, it is well near impossible t o get out of it alive. BhagavAn is like one of
t hese f or t he asur a-s. nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn as:
"vallar akkar pukkazhunda t ayar adan peRRa mar akat a maNit t aDam"
t ir uvAimozhi 10.1.8
bhagavAn is descr ibed as t he lar ge cool t ank in which so many devot ees
immer se and benef it , and He is also t he lar ge t ank in which t he cr uel asusr a-s
f all and dr own, never t o r et ur n (val ar r akar pukku azhunda). The r ef er ence t o
bhagavAn as t he "cool r eser voir of wat er s" f or t he devot ees is common in
AzhvAr s' ar uLic-ceyal-s and ot her wor ks: t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr in
t ir unenDumt ANDakam (19) – poRRAmar aikkayam neer ADap ponAL, and t he
r ef er ence in Sr I madbhAgavat am – esha br ahma pr avishTosmi gr I shme
Sit amiva hr adam, ar e given as examples.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is like t he gr eat lake since t he yogi-s
r emain peacef ully in His bliss by plunging int o it – avagAhyat adAnandam
viSr amya sukham Ast eyogina it i mahA-hr adah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t he nAma in t amizh as "aNDa
muDiyAdaAzhnda nI r t t Ekkam pOnRu uLLa Anandak kaDal".- The not -so-easily
accessible deep r eser voir of wat er t hat is t he Bliss of Ocean per sonif ied.
b) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he explanat ion as ` One Who is associat ed
wit h t he deep wat er s in kALI ya mar dana, or as He r eclines in t he Milk Ocean" –
mahAn hr ado yasya kAlI ya mar dana kAle vA, samudr a Sayana kAle vAsa mahA-
hr adah.
c) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o His cr eat ing
t he gr eat oceans so t hat t he wor ld does not become complet ely dr y and per ish.
Her e is his vyAkyAnam in his t r adit ional Sloka f or m:
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mahA-hr ado vishNur -amogha kar mA
kar ot i viSvam bahu- sAdhanApt am |
mahA-hr adam sa kur ut e samudr am
Sushyen-na bhUh sUr ya- khar AmSupAt aih | |
nAma 810. nAma 810. nAma 810. Prl¬6 - Prl¬6 - Prl¬6 - mahA mahA mahA-- -gar t ah gar t ah gar t ah
a) He Who pushes t he gr eat sinner s int o t he gr eat pit of samsAr a.
b) The Gr eat Char iot eer of mahAbhAr at a f ame.
c) The One wit h t he Gr eat Char iot (wit h t he gar uDa in it s f lag).
d) He Who r esides in t he gr eat mount ains such as SeshAcala.
e) The Gr eat Pit in which ever yt hing in t his Univer se or iginat es, r esides, and
mer ges back.
mahA-gartAya namah.
The r oot f r om t he wor d gar t a is der ived is gRR – nigar aNe – t o swallow, t o
devour , t o emit .
The t er m is used t o r ef er t o a dit ch, and also t he seat of a war -char iot .
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning "pit " f or "gar t a", and equat es t he pit in t his
nAma t o t he nar aka loka-s such as t he r aur ava, int o which bhagavAn cast s away
t hose who have lost t heir souls by f ollowing t he pat h cont r ar y t o t he pat h of
dhar ma – evam bAhya-kudRshTi vinisvishTa nashTAt manAm r aur avAdi-gar t A
asmAt it imahA-gar t ah. He quot es t he gI t A Slokam 9.3 in suppor t :
aSr addadhAnAh pur ushA dhar masyAsya par ant apa |
apr Apya mAm nivar t ant e mRt yu samsAr a var t mani | |
(gI t A 9.3)
"Men devoid of f ait h in t his dhar ma, O scor cher of f oes,
ever r emain wit hout at t aining Me, in t he mor t al pat hway of samsAr a".
I n his vyAkhyAnam t o t his Slokam in gI t A, bhagavad r AmAnuj a indicat es t hat
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t he people r ef er r ed t o her e ar e t hose who have at t ained t he f it ness t o
pr act ice t he pr oper dhar ma of wor ship, but t hen deviat e f r om t he pat h
because of aSr addhA or lack of f ait h. He exclaims at t he end of his
vyAkhyAna f or t his Slokam in his gI t A bhAshyam – "aho! mahad idam
AScar yam!" – "O! How st r ange it is! (t hat people j ust ignor e t heir dhar ma and
f all int o t he pit ).
Sr I Sa' nkar a descr ibes Him as "The gr eat Chasm", because His mAyA is ver y
dif f icult t o cr oss. He gives t he gI t A Slokam 7.14 as suppor t :
daivI hyeshA guNa-mayI mama mAyA dur at yayA |
mAmeva ye pr apadyant e mAyAmet Am t ar ant i t e | |
(gI t A 7.14)
"For , t he divine mAyA of Mine consist ing of t he t hr ee guNa-s is har d t o
over come;
but t hose who t ake r ef uge in Me (pr apadyant e) alone shall pass beyond t he
mAyA".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion based on t he meaning "a
char iot " t o t he t er m gar t a. This meaning is given in t he nir ukat am 3.5:
r at ho' pi gar t a ucyat e | gRNAt eh st ut i-kar maNah |
st ut at amam yAnam | "A r ohat ho var uNa mit r a gar t am".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam f or t his nAma is: gar t a Sabdo r at ha par yAyo
nair ukt air - ukt ah, t asmAt mahA-r at hah – mahA-gar t ah.– The Gr eat Char iot eer .
His skill in t his ar ea is f amous in His r ole as t heChar iot eer of ar j una in mahA-
bhAr at a war .
c) Using t he same meaning as above f or gar t a, namely r at ha or char iot ,
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion: – mahAn gar t o gar uDa-
dvaj a r at ho yasya it i mahA-gar t ah – He Who t he Gr eat Char iot wit h t he
gar uDa dvaj am is mahA-hr adah.
d) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he meaning "mount ain" f or t he wor d aga,
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and looks at t he nAma as mahA + aga + a par t based on t he r oot R – gat au – t o
go (R – gat ua kar t ar i kt ah).
His vyAkhyAnam is: mahAnt Sca t e agASca SeshAcalAdayah t at r a Rcchat i it i
mahA-gar t ah – He Who goes t o (r esides) in t he High Mount ains such as
SeshAcala.
e) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN give anot her per spect ive on t he nAma – He is
"The Gr eat Pit " because ever yt hing t hat exist s is par t of Him, and can be
f ound in Him –
ihaikast ham j agat kRt snam paSyAdya sa-car Acar am |
mama dehe guDAkeSa yaScAnyat dr ashTum icchasi | |
(gI t A 11.7)
"Behold her e, O ar j una,
t he whole univer se wit h t he mobile and immobile t hings cent er ed in My body,
and what ever else you desir e t o see".
This is t he last of t he nAma-s t hat Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s in t er ms of t he
r ole of bhagavAn in misleading t he evil-minded people in his Buddha
incar nat ion. I t is mor e pleasant t o enj oy His guNa-s in His r ole of saulabhyam
and sauSI lyam t owar ds His devot ees, t han His r ole as One who punishes t hose
who violat e t he pat h of dhar ma. However , it is impor t ant t o r ealize t hat
what ever happens anywher e in any par t of t he Univer se at any t ime, ar e all His
act ions, and ar e car r ied out f or t he benef it of His cr eat ion. Thus, it is
necessar y t o r ealize t hat t he incar nat ions such as t he Buddha incar nat ion ar e
t aken by Him f or t he pur pose of doling out t he ef f ect s of t heir kar ma t o
t hose who f ollow t he pat h of adhar ma.
I n t he next f ew nAma-s, we will see how His guNa-s ar e displayed in His
SishTa-par ipAlanam r ole.
nAma 811. nAma 811. nAma 811. Prl¬ 6- Prl¬ 6- Prl¬ 6- mahA mahA mahA-- -bhUt ah bhUt ah bhUt ah
a) He Who consider s gr eat men as His own.
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b) He Who is a Gr eat Being.
c) He Who is t he Or igin of t he f ive element s.
mahA-bhUtAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma can be der ived is bhU – sat t AyAm – t o be, t o
live, t o be bor n.
The t er m bhUt a also is used t o r ef er t o t he pa' nca bhUt a-s – ear t h, wat er ,
f ir e, air , and AkASa (pr it hivI , ap, t ej as, vAyu, and AkASa).
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m mahA-bhUt a as r ef er r ing t o "gr eat
being", and gives t he meaning "One Who possesses mahA-bhUt a-s or gr eat
beings as His own" is called mahA-bhUt ah. The "gr eat beings" r ef er r ed t o her e
ar e t hose who ar e single-minded in t heir devot ion t o Him ar e gr eat beings.
Since bhagavAn consider s t hem as His own, He is t he "Owner of t he mahA-
bhUt a-s" – mahA-bhUt ah. nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o t his guNa of bhagavAn in his
t ir uvAimozhi pASur am2.3.6: t I r ndAr t am manat t up pir iyAdavar uyir ai Sor ndE
pOgal koDAc cuDar – He is like t he f lame t hat st ays in t he hear t s of His t r ue
devot ees, t o ensur e t hat t hey do not suf f er because of separ at ion f r om Him.
He will not like t o be separ at ed f r om t hose given t o devot ion t o Him. They t oo
cannot bear a separ at ion f r om Him.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn as "The Gr eat
Being", because He is unlimit ed by t he t hr ee dimensions of t ime – t he past , t he
pr esent , and t he f ut ur e – kAla-t r ayAnavacchinna svar Upat vAt mahA-bhUt ah.
The nAma gives anot her inst ance wher e we can see t he dif f er ence in appr oach
bet ween Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar .
Sr I Sa' nkar a st r esses t he Supr emacy aspect of bhagavAn, and Sr I BhaTTar
emphasizes t he saulabhyam and sauSI lyam aspect s. As has been point ed out
bef or e, bot h ar e valid aspect s of bhagavAn' s guNa-s, but His saulabhyam and
sauSI lyam ar e t he guNa-s t hat give hope t o most of us who commit enor mous
sins const ant ly knowingly and unknowingly, in t his bir t h as well as in t he
count less pr evious bir t hs.
c) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is mahA-
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bhUt ah because it is f r om Him t hat t he f ive gr eat element s – air , wat er , et c.,
or iginat ed. Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a also gives a similar explanat ion – mahAnt i
bhUt Ani AkASAdI ni yasmAt it i mahA- bhUt ah.
nAma 812. nAma 812. nAma 812. Prl|+|¤- Prl|+|¤- Prl|+|¤- mahA mahA mahA-- -nidhih nidhih nidhih
a) He Who has t he gr eat t r easur e in t he f or m of His devot ees.
b) He Who is a gr eat t r easur e f or His devot ees.
c) He Who is t he Abode of ever yt hing in t he Univer se.
d) He Who is like a t r easur e f r om which His devot ees can dr aw at will.
mahA-nidhaye namah.
a) ni is an upasar ga – pr ef ix.
The r oot on which t he nAma is based is dhA – dhAr ana poshaNayor dAne ca – t o
put , t o gr ant , t o pr oduce, t o bear ; nit ar Am dhI yat e pushyat a it i ; nidhI yat e
at r a it i nidhih; That in which t hings ar e st or ed is nidhi. Usually t he t er m is
used t o r ef er t o t r easur e. nit ar Am – wholly, ent ir ely, cont inuously, always. nidhi
– r eser voir , r ecept acle, abode
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning "t r easur e" f or t he t er m "nidhi", and gives
t he vyAkhyAnam t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma because He values t he devot ees
as His t r easur e – t hey ar e so dear t o Him: t e nidhivat at i-pr iyA asya it i mahA-
nidhih.
nammAzhvAr capt ur es t his aspect of bhagavAn in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am
10.7.8:
t r iup pAr kkaDalE en t alaiyE; t aN t ir u vE' nkaTamE enadu uDalE;
manamE vAkkE kar umamE or u mA noDiyum pir iyAn
"bhagavAn loves my head wit h t he same at t achment He has f or t ir up
par kkaDal; He loves my body wit h as much int ensit y as He likes t ir u vE' nkaTam;
He now appear s t o be a complet e dependent on my body f or His ver y
sust enance".
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Sr I v.n. vedAnt a deSikan' s int er pr et at ion f or t his pASur am, in par t , is: "The
Lor d best ows t he same at t achment on my body and limbs as He does on divya
deSa shr ines. He appear s t o love my head as much as He does t ir umAl
ir umSolai and t ir uvE' nkaTam".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAam is: sar va bhUt Ani asmin nidhI yant a it i nidhih –
He is called mahA-nidhih because He is t he gr eat Tr easur e House of all beings.
He pr ot ect s all beings inside Him like a t r easur e at t he t ime of pr alaya.
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma symbolizes
t hat He is t he abode of ever yt hing in t he Univer se, including such gr eat t hings
as t he sun – mahAnt ah sUr yAdayo' pi gr ahA yat r a pakshiNa iva nihit A it i
mahat Am nidhit vAt samahA-nidhih – all t he planet s r eside in Him like bir ds.
d) Sr I cinmayAnanda t r anslat es t he nAma as "The Gr eat Abode". He explains
t he nAma as: "The Et er nal Sour ce f r om which ever yt hing spr ings f or t h, and
t he I nf init e subst r at um upon which t he ent ir e play of t he f init e is held in
animat ed suspension". He also not es t he meaning "t r easur e" f or t he wor d nidhi,
and obser ves t hat Sr I nAr AyaNa is t he r ichest t r easur e of all f or His
devot ees – t o loot at will!".
The idea is t hat His devot ees will never be sat iat ed wit h His anubhavam, and
He is always t her e f or t hem t o et er nally enj oy.
AzhvAr s r ef er t o bhagavAn as t heir nidhi in t his sense of His being available
f or t heir enj oyment and suppor t always.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives sever al r ef er ences:
1. t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr in t ir uk kur um t ANDakam (1) – nidhiyinai,
pavaLat t UNai…- He is t he Tr easur e who comes f or t h wit hout f ail when
we ar e in need; He is like t he pillar t hat comes f or our suppor t like t he
pillar made of pavaLam.
2. t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr – per iya t ir umozhi 7.1.7: gat iyEl illai nin ar uLEl
enakku nidhiyE - I have no r ecour se t o any help except Your Mer cy; You
ar e t he t r easur e in r eser ve f or me when I am in need".
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3. nammAzhvAr , t ir uvAimozhi 6.7.11: vait t a mA nidhiyAm madusUdanaiyE
alaRRi…..-MadhusUdanan is like a gr eat t r easur e in r eser ve (vait t a mA-
nidhi), available in t ime of need in f ut ur e.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj int er pr et s t he nAma as a combinat ion of t wo
guNa-s- t hat He is gr eat and He is also held as a t r easur e by His devot ees -
Sr I bhagavAn hi bhakt aih pr at hamam pUj yat e t at aSca t asya manomayI
pr at imA hRdayenidhI yat e dhyAyat e ca.



















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Slokam 87 Slokam 87 Slokam 87
T… P 7- T… -7¹- T… -7- 9= -4- 9l4+l 5|+¬-· T… P 7- T… -7¹- T… -7- 9= -4- 9l4+l 5|+¬-· T… P 7- T… -7¹- T… -7- 9= -4- 9l4+l 5|+¬-·
HP 6lHl 5P 649 - B4 ¬- B4 6l P G-+<÷+ HP 6lHl 5P 649 - B4 ¬- B4 6l P G-+<÷+ HP 6lHl 5P 649 - B4 ¬- B4 6l P G-+<÷+
kumudah kundar ah kundah par j anyah pAvanO=nilah |
amr ut AsO5mr ut avapuh sar vaj ~nah sar vat Omukhah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 813. nAma 813. nAma 813. T… P 7- T… P 7- T… P 7- kumudah kumudah kumudah
a) He Who is on t his ear t h wit h delight by enj oying t he associat ion wit h His
devot ees.
b) One Who gladdens t he ear t h by r idding it of t he evil-doer s.
c) One Who best ows t he auspicious wor ld of par ama padam.
d) One Who delight s in t he sky, in t he f or m of t he sun.
e) He Who wear s a gar land made of blue lilies.
kumudAya namah.
The nAma consist s of t wo or t hr ee par t s, depending on t he int er pr et at ion. One
way t o look at t he nAma is as ku + mudah. The f ir st par t is der ived f r om t he
r oot kai - Sabde - t o sound. kaut i dhvanat i it i kuh - t hat which is f ull of sound.
The amar a koSam gives t he meaning "wor ld" t o t he wor d kuh- kuh pRt hivI
pr t hvI . mudah is der ived f r om t he r oot muda - har she - t o r ej oice, t o be glad.
modat a it i mudah - One who r ej oices, or modayat iit i mudah - One Who makes
ot her s r ej oice. Anot her way t o look at t he nAma isku + mu + dah (see c below).
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of ku + mudah. His vyAkhyAnam
is kau - pr akRt i maNDale - (even) in t his wor ld of pr akRt i; mudah - (t aih saha)
modat e - (I n t he company of His devot ees) He r ej oices. So He is known as
kumudah.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an wonder s aloud how dif f icult it must be f or bhagavAn t o
have t o be par t of us j ust t o enj oy our company. By coming int o t his wor ld,
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Lor d r Ama had t o under go lot s of miser ies - "nATTil piRandu paDAdana paTTu"
is how He had t o live - such is lif e in t his wor ld, t hat it will make even t he
par ama pur ushaN under go enor mous suf f er ing and miser y. Lor d r Ama Himself
descr ibes His miser ies –
r Aj yAt bhr amSah vane vAsah sI t A nashTah hat o dvij ah
(Ar aNya kANDam 67.24)
"I was dr iven away f r om My kingdom, I have t o live in t he f or est , I have lost
sI t A, and now t his gr eat bir d (j at Ayu, t he eagle) has been slain".
And yet , He chooses t o live amongst us j ust f or t he company of , and
associat ion wit h, t he likes of bhar advAj a, at r i, agast ya, et c.
Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he nAma t hus: "One Who gladdens t he ear t h",
or "One Who is gladdened by t he ear t h". He explains t hat bhagavAn' s delight
is a sheer expr ession of His Omnipot ence - t he ver y f act t hat He has cr eat ed
t his dynamic, complex, cosmos t hat is so scient if ically pr ecise, is a mat t er of
delight , since it is t he f ulf illment of His Omnipot ence.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is - kum dhar aNim bhAr a avat ar aNam
kur vanmodayat i it i ku-mudah - He Who f r ees t he ear t h f r om it s bur dens and
gives j oy t o t he beings of t he ear t h.
Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y obser ves t hat t his light ening of t he bur den is
t hr ough t he eliminat ion of t he wicked people (dushTa nigr aham).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he example of His t aking many incar nat ions
f or t he same pur pose - t o dest r oy t he wicked people and pr ot ect His devot ees.
Her e is one mor e inst ance of seeing t he dif f er ence in t he appr oaches of
Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar in t heir gener al appr oach t o t heir
int er pr et at ions. Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as His giving j oy t o t he ear t h
by f r eeing it of it s bur dens, and Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as His
r ej oicing and der iving pleasur e by t he company of His devot ees. We should
keep in mind t hat bot h t he int er pr et at ions ar e valid anubhava-s of bhagavAn.
The dif f er ence in appr oach is t hat one emphasizes His Power , and t he ot her
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emphasizes His saulabhayam and sauSI lyam.
c) Sr I M. V. r AmAnuj AcAr ya gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion: He Who
best ows t he wor ld of mukt i, or par ama padam - ku = bhUmi, mu = mukt i; dah=
Giver or Best ower .
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he meaning "sky" t o "ku" (based on kai -
Sabde), and gives t he int er pr et at ion t o t he t er m "kumudah" as "One Who
delight s in t he sky, in t he f or m of t he sun" - Sabdavat AkASe modayat i it i
kumudah; SabdASr aye khe modat a it i kumudah sUr yah.
e) The wor d kumuda is also used t o r ef er t o t he blue lily or t o lot us. He Who
wear s a gar land made of t hese is kumudah - ut pala dhAr o kumudah (Sr I
baladeva vidyA bhUshaN).
nAma 814. nAma 814. nAma 814. T… -7¹- T… -7¹- T… -7¹- kundar ah kundar ah kundar ah
a) The Best ower of t he knowledge of t he Supr eme Realit y (kunda-r ah).
b) He Who dissolves or eliminat es t he sins accumulat ed over count less bir t hs
(kun-dar ah).
c) He Who best ows benef it s as agr eeable as t he kunda f lower (kunda-r ah).
d) He Who accept s of f er ing t hat ar e pur e like t he kunda f lower s (kunda-lah).
e) He Who pier ced t he ear t h in His var Aha incar nat ion in sear ch of
hir aNyAksha (kum-dar ah).
f ) One Who gives what is sought or what is desir ed.
g) He Who cr eat ed t he oceans by t ear ing apar t t he ear t h (kum-dar ah).
h) He Who is ver y pleased wit h t he of f er ings of t he kunda pushpa-s by His
devot ees (kunda-r ah).
kundarAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar uses t he wor d kundam as r ef er r ing t o "The knowledge of t he
Supr eme Realit y" or par a-t at t va j ~nAnam. This is based on his int er pr et ing t he
t er m ku as a r ef er ence t o "mukt i-bhUmi", r at her t han j ust as meaning "bhUmi".
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kundam is t hat which gives t he mukt i-bhUmi, namely t he knowledge of par a-
t at t va. Since He is t he Giver of t his knowledge, He is kunda-r ah (r At i = dadAt i
= gives).
Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 2.3.2,
wher e he addr esses bhagavAn as "aRiyAdana aRivit t a at t A!" – "You ar e t he
AcAr ya Who impar t ed t he t r ue knowledge t o me". We have also Lor d kRshNa' s
declar at ion in t he gI t A:
t eshAm sat at a-yukt AnAm bhaj at Am pr I t i-pUr vakam |
dadAmi buddhi-yogam t am yena mAm upayAnt i t e | |
(gI t A 10.10)
"To t hose who ar e ceaselessly unit ed wit h Me and who wor ship Me wit h
immense love,
I lovingly gr ant t hat ment al disposit ion (buddhi-yoga) by which t hey come t o
Me".
This is t he par a-t at t va-j ~nanam t hat Sr I BhaTTar is r ef er r ing t o.
b) The nir ukt i aut hor has added an int er pr et at ion t o t his nAma, t hat is
bor r owed f r om Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he next nAma, kundah.This
involves t he use of t he meaning "sin" f or t he wor d ku – kumavyayam pApa-vAci,
t asya dAr aNAt kun-dar ah – He Who dissolves or eliminat es t he sins
(accumulat ed over count less bir t hs).
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha also includes t his as one of his t hr ee int er pr et at ions
f or t he nAma (t he ot her t wo ar e cover ed below). The amar a koSavyAkhyAnam
gives t he f ollowing as an illust r at ion of t he use of t he wor d ku wit h t he
meaning "sinf ul" - t yaj et ku-j ana-sa' ngam - Leave t he associat ion wit h sinf ul
people. Sr I vAsishTha' s vyAkhyAnam is: kum = pApamdRNAt i sva-sevAnAm it i
kum-dar ah – He who t ear s apar t or r emoves t he sins of His devot ees. He
makes t hem see knowledge by r emoving t he sins f r om t heir mind– sa eva
buddhim j ar it ur -viSodhya su-medhasam t am kur ut e sa vishNuh | |
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He best ows
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f r uit s t hat ar e as pur e and agr eeable as t he kunda (j asmine) f lower s –
kundapushpa t ulyAni SuddhAni phalAni r At i dadAt i it i kunda- r ah.
d) Alt er nat ely, Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he explanat ion – He Who accept s of f er ings
t hat ar e pur e like t he kunda f lower - kunda pushpa t ulyAni SuddhAniphalAni
lAt i Adat t e it i kundar ah (based on t he r oot lA – AdAne dAne ca –t o t ake, t o
obt ain). Her e he uses t he r ule of mut ual int er change of r a and lain convent ional
usage – r a-la-yoh ekat ava smar aNAt .
e) A t hir d int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a is t hat He has t he nAma
r epr esent ing His act ion of t ear ing t he ear t h or pier cing t he ear t h (dar a – t o
t ear ) in sear ch of hir aNyAksha in His var Aha incar nat ion: kum – dhar Am
dAr ayAmAsa hir aNyAksha j ighAmsayA vAr Aham r Upam Ast hAya it vA kun-
dar ah.
f ) Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he wor d kunda as kamu – kAnt au– t o
desir e, and t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sut r a abdAdayaSca (uNAdi. 4.98),
leading t o t he wor d kundah. He gives t he int er pr et at ion kAmayat a it i
kundahkamanI yah – That which is desir ed or sought f or is kunda. Using t he
r oot r A – dAne – t o give, kundar ah means "One Who gives what is sought or
what is desir ed" – kamanI yam vA' ncit am dadAt i it i kunda-r ah.
g) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I vAsishTha is: kum –
pRt hivI dAr ayat i it i kun-dar ah - (based on t he r oot dRR – vidAr aNe – t o t ear ,
t o divide). He is r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn cr eat ing t he gr eat oceans by t ear ing
apar t t he bhUmi – sa kun-dar o nAma vidAr ya bhUmim sa At ma-Sakt yA kur ut e
samudr am |
h) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he int er pr et at ion – bahkt a-samar pit a
kunda pushpeNa r amat i it i kunda-r ah – He Who is ver y pleased wit h t he
of f er ings of t he kunda pushpa-s by His devot ees.
nAma 815. nAma 815. nAma 815. T… -7- T… -7- T… -7- kundah kundah kundah
a) He Who gr ant s t he successive st ages of higher knowledge.
b) He Who cleanses t he sins of His devot ees.
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c) He Who is pur e and beaut if ul like t he kunda (j asmine) f lower .
d) He Who best ows pur it y like t he kunda f lower t o His devot ees.
e) He Who has t he spear by name kunt a (kunt ah)
f ) One who is shar p like t he kunt a spear in r emoving t he sins of His devot ees
(kunt ah).
g) He Who gave an of f er ing of t he ear t h t o kaSyapa Rshi.
h) He Who eliminat ed t he bad kshat r iya kings f r om t he ear t h.
i) He Who cleanses t he ear t h t hr ough t he sun, r ain, et c.
kundAya namah.
As explained in t he pr evious nAma, t he wor d ku r ef er s t o bhUmi as well as sin;
t he wor d kunda it self r ef er s t o t he j asmine f lower . The pr evious nAma,
kundar ah, and t he cur r ent nAma, kundah, ar e somewhat similar . The par t - dah
is int er pr et ed as dadAt i - gives, dAyat i - cleanses, or dyat i - eliminat es, t hus
leading t o t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions.
a) We had seen t hat t he meaning "par a-t at t va-j ~nAnam" was given by Sr I
BhaTTar t o t he wor d kunda. kundah is One Who best ows t his knowledge.
kundar ah was also assigned t he same meaning ear lier . Sr I BhaTTar
dist inguishes t he cur r ent nAma f r om t he pr evious one by r ef er r ing in t he
cur r ent nAma, t o bhagavAn' s giving t he par a-t at t va knowledge t o t hose t hat
have st ar t ed climbing t he st eps of knowledge t hr ough self -cont r ol et c., in
st eps of par a-bhakt i,par a-j ~nAnam, and ult imat ely par ama-bhakt i.
b) Sr I BhaTTar also gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion. We saw in t he pr evious
nAma t he assignment of t he meaning "sin" t o t he wor d ku, and an
int er pr et at ion added by t he nir ukt i aut hor f or t he pr evious nAma based on
t his meaning f or t he wor d ku. While we saw t he int er pr et at ion "He Who
dest r oys t he sins" f or t he pr evious nAma, t he int er pr et at ion given f or t he
cur r ent nAma is "He Who cleanses t he sins", based on t he meaning ku = pApam,
and t he r oot daip = Sodhane - t o pur if y; pApam dAyat i Sodhayat i it i kundah.
He f ir st r emoves t he sins f r om His devot ee (kundar ah), and t hen cleanses t he
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sins so t hat t hey do not get back t o t he devot ee again (kundah) - pApam
dAr ayat i it ikundar ah, api ca vidAr it am pApam Sodhayat i it i kundah.
This is also one of t he int er pr et at ions given by Sr I vAsishTha - kum
it ipApAr t hakam avyayam, t ad khaNDayat i it i kundah; yad-vA kum = pApam
dAyat i +Sodhayat i it i kundah (do = avakhaNDane, daip = Sodhana).
c), d) nammAzhvAr uses t he nAma kunda in t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 2.6.1 - Sei
kundA var um t I maigaL un aDiyAr kkut t I r t t u aSur ar ukkut t I maigaL Sei kundA -
He r emoves t he sins of His devot ees, and gives t hem t o t he evil-doer s as t he
phalan f or t heir kar ma-s. Her e, t he meaning given by t he vyAkhyAna kar t A-s
f or t he wor d kunda is "One Who is pur e like t he kunda pushpam - t he pur e
whit e f r agr ant j asmine f lower ". I n t amizh, t he wor d kunda can also be
consider ed as st anding f or t he wor d kur undam f lower - a pur e whit e f lower
r epr esent ing pur it y. So t he nAma can be under st ood as "One Who is pur e like
t he kunda f lower ", or "One Who best ows pur it y like t hat of t he kunda f lower
t o His devot ees".
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives sever al int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma. The f ir st of t hese is:
"He Who is as pur e and beaut if ul as t he kundaf lower " - kundopama
sundar A' ngat vAt svacchat ayA sphaTika nir malah kundah.
e), f ) Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an comment s t hat t he t er m can also be t aken t o mean
"One who has t he spear called kunt a" - (nin kaiyil vEl pORRi - t ir uppAvai).
Sr I ut t amUr vI r ar hAvAcAr ya svAmi also r ef er s t o t his as one possible
int er pr et at ion f or t he occur r ence of t his wor d in nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am.
The nAma in t his case will be "kunt ah" inst ead of "kundah". The meaning t hen
could also be "One who is shar p like t he kunt a spear in r emoving t he sins of His
devot ees".
g) One of Sr i Sa' nkar a' s alt er nat e int er pr et at ions is: "One Who gave an
of f er ing of "ku" or ear t h t o kaSyapa Rshi" as indicat ed in t he f ollowing quot e
f r om har i vamSa:
sar va pApa viSuddhyar t ham vAj imedhena ceshTavAn |
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t asmin ya~j ne mahA dAne dakshiNAm bhRgu-nandanah | |
mAr I cAya dadau pr I t ah kaSyapAya vasundhar Am | |
(har i vamSam 31.106)
"The son of bhRgu, in or der t o pur ge all his sins, per f or med t he hor se
sacr if ice. I n t hat sacr if ice t hat r equir ed gr eat gif t s t o be given away, He, in
His incar nat ion as t he son of bhRgu, made a gif t of t he ear t h t o mAr I ca wit h
gr eat pleasur e".
h) The t hir d int er pr et at ion by Sr I Sa' nkar a is: "He Who got r id of t he
kshat r iya-s f r om t he ear t h" - kum pRt hvI m dyat i khaNDayat i vA kundah. He
gives t he suppor t f r om vishNu dhar ma f or t his int er pr et at ion:
nih-kshat r iyAm yaSca cakAr a medinI m anekaSo bAhuvanam t at hA' nchinat |
yah kAr t avI r yasya sa bhAr gavot t amo mamAst u mA' ngalya vivRddhaye har ih | |
(vishNudhar ma 43.37)
"Let Har i, t he best of t he bhRgu f amily, who made t he ear t h f r ee f r om wicked
kshat r iya-s many a t ime, and who cut of f t he t housand ar ms of kAr t avI r ya, be
wit h me f or t he incr ease of pr osper it y".
i) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion using
t hemeaning "ear t h" f or ku, and dAyat i = Sodhayat i f or dah. He who cleanses
t he ear t h of it s impur it ies t hr ough r ain et c. - pRt hivI m var shaNena Sodhayat i
it i kundah.
nAma 816. nAma 816. nAma 816. 9= -4- 9= -4- 9= -4- par j anyah par j anyah par j anyah
a) He Who best ows His blessings on t he devot ees like t he r ain-cloud.
b) He f r om whom a super ior bir t h is at t ained.
c) He Who pr ot ect s.
parjanyAya namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot aj a – ar dane - t o dispel. He
explains t he nAma in t er ms of His r emoving (dispelling), like a r ain-cloud, t he
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t hr ee kinds of t Apa-s – t he t Apa-t r aya-s – AdhyAt mika, t he Adhi-daivika, and
t he Adhi-bhaut ika t ypes. These t hr ee ar e: t he pain cause by one' s own mind
et c., t he pain caused by f at e or gods, and t he pain caused by animals, ot her
people, et c.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an adds t hat it is by best owing t he knowledge about Him t hat
He r elieves us f r om t he t Apa-t r aya-s. BhagavAn is f r equent ly r ef er r ed as t he
r ain-cloud by AzhvAr s f or shower ing His blessings on His devot ees:
1. t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr ' s t ir u neDum t ANDakam (30) – minnu mA mazhai
t avazhummega-vaNNA!;
2. t ir uma' ngai – per iya t ir umozhi 7.9.9: kar u mA mugil ur uvA!Kanal ur uvA!
Punal ur uvA!
You who ar e like t he r ain cloud f or some, like t he f ir e f or some, and like t he
comf or t ing wat er f or many!
SvAmi deSikan r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s guNa of r emoving t he t Apa-t r aya-s of
t he devot ees who ar e immer sed in devot ion t o Him in his Sar aNAgat i dI pikA:
t Apa-t r ayeNa vihat im na bhaj qant i sant ah
samsAr a ghar ma j anit enasamAdhimant ah | |
(Sar aNAgat i dI pikA 23)
"Those j ~nAni-s who ar e immer sed in bhakt i yoga t owar ds You do not suf f er
f r om t he t Apa-t r aya-s t hat ar e caused by t he heat of samsAr a".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is also in t er ms of His r emoving t he t hr ee t ypes
of t Apa-s – par j anyavat AdhyAt mikAdi t Apa-t r ayam Samayat i it i – "He
ext inguishes t he t hr ee kinds of bur ning miser ies concer ning t he body and t he
r est , even as t he r ain-char ged cloud cools t he ear t h by it s downpour ".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is t hat t his nAma signif ies t hat He
shower s all desir ed obj ect s on His devot ees like r ain – sar vAn
kAmAnabhivar shat i it i par j anyah.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj looks at t he nAma as par i-j anyah, which is
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t r eat ed same as par j anyah by dr opping t he –i in par i. His int er pr et at ion is
"par it aAsI nA j anAh par ij anAh; t ebhyo hit a-t amah it i par i-j anyah; ikAr a-lope
par j anyah" – par i-j ana-s ar e t hose t hat ar e ar ound Him – t hose t hat wor ship
Him; He Who best ows welf ar e on t hem is par i-j anyah, which is same as
par j anyah in Sr I bhAr advAj ' s int er pr et at ion.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma st ar t ing f r om t he r oot pRsh – secane – t o
spr inkle, and t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sut r a "par j anyah" (3.103), wit h t he
meaning "cloud". That which wet s or dr enches is par j anya – par shat i – si' ncat i
it i par j anyah.
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN gives a similar int er pr et at ion: t asyAm cint a-
bhUmau var shat i nij a-r Upa amRt am it i par j anyah – He Who shower s His act ual
Self in t he t hought s of His devot ees is par j anyah.
b) Sr I sat yasandha yat ir Aj a gives t he int er pr et at ion – par am j anyam
yasmAt par j anyah – He f r om whom a super ior bir t h is at t ained.
c) Sr I vAsishTha gives at least six dif f er ent ways of der iving t he nAma,
st ar t ing f r om dif f er ent r oot s.
One of t hese is pR – pAlana pUr anayoh – t o pr ot ect , t o f ill, t o br ing out ; wit h
t he addit ion of t he anya pr at yaya, t his becomes par j anyah, which means "One
Who pr ot ect s".
nAma 817. nAma 817. nAma 817. 94+- 94+- 94+- pavanah pavanah pavanah
a) He Who is t he f or m of t he wind.
b) He Who moves t o His devot ees t o r emove t heir dist r ess.
c) He Who pur if ies in t he f or m of wind, agni, wat er , et c.
d) He Who pr ot ect s t he pr ot ect or s – t he kings (pA + avanah).
pavanAya namah.
We saw t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 32 (nAma 292). Sr I BhaTTar indicat es t he
r oot f or t he nAma as pavi – t o go. The amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam indicat es t he
der ivat ion f r om t he r oot pU' ng – pavane; pavat a it i pavanah; punI t e vA; The
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meanings ar e t hus: t hat which goes, t hat which blows, t hat which pur if ies, et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or nAma 292 was t hat He has t he nAma
signif ying t hat He moves about in t he f or m of t he wind, wit h j ust a f r act ion of
His power .
nammAzhvAr conveys t his in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 5.7.3 – kANginRa ik-
kARRellAm yAnE ennum….
The t en pASur ams in t ir uvAimozhi 5.7 sum up t he t r ut h t hat bhagavAn is
ever yt hing wit hout except ion.
Sr I cinmyAnanda conveys t he same t hought s in t he f ollowing wor ds:
"He Who manif est s as t he lif e-giving at mospher e ar ound t he wor ld and
sust ains t he exist ence ever ywher e".
I n Slokam 32, Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is t hat He is t he
Pur if ier in t he f or m of t he wind. He has given t he r ef er ence t o gI t A Slokam
10.31 as suppor t : pavanah pavat Am asmi r Amah Sast r a-bhRt Amyaham | "Of
moving t hings, I am t he wind. Of t hose who bear weapons, I am r Ama".
b) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t his nAma is t hat
bhagavAn goes Himself (pavi – t o go) t o His devot ees t o r emove t heir dist r ess-
pavat e it i pavanah.
This is expr essed by t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr in per iya t ir umozhi 1.10.9: vandAi; en
manam pugunDAi; manni ninRAi – You came of Your own f r ee will, ent er ed my
mind, and have decided t o st ay t her e.
nammAzhvAr conveys t he same t hought in his t ir uvAimozhi 5.7.7 – vandar uLi en
ne' nj iDamkoNDa vAnavar kozhundE! …aDiyEnai agaRRElE – Oh Lor d! You have
been kind enough t o come and t ake a place in my hear t . Only, now please do not
ever leave me.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma is t hat
He pur if ies anyone who mer ely r emember s Him – smRt i- mAt r eNa punAt i it i
pavanah.
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I n t he cont ext of bhagavAn being t he Gr eat Pur if ier , Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
Sast r i comment s in his vyAkhyAnam f or t he Slokam "pavit r ANAm pavit r am
yah..", t hat act s such as t aking a bat h in t he holy wat er s, visit ing divya
kshet r a-s, et c., ar e ways of our r idding our selves of sins, when we under t ake
t hese act s wit h t he f ait h and belief t hat bhagavAn is pr esent in t hese r iver s
and divyakshet r a-s. Thinking of Him, wor shipping His divya ma' ngaLa vigr aha-s,
singing His pr aise, per f or ming pUj a f or Him, medit at ing on Him, pr ost r at ing,
et c., ar e all ways t o r emove our sins t hr ough His pur if ying power .
Sr I cinmayAnanda uses t he ver sion "pAvanah" in Slokam 87, and gives t he
t r anslat ion f or t he nAma as "One Who ever pur if ies". He comment s t hat "The
impur it ies of a per sonalit y ar e gat her ed when t he mind and int ellect , in a
nat ur al impulse of animal volupt uousness, r ush t owar ds t he sense-obj ect s wit h
ego-cent r ic passion". The pur if icat ion by His power occur s when we peacef ully
let our minds set t le in cont emplat ion of t he divine nat ur e and et er nal glor y of
Sr I nAr AyaNa.
c) Sr I vAsishTha also uses t he ver sion "pAvanah", but indicat es t hat t he
int er pr et at ion is t he same whet her t he nAma is t aken as pavanah or pAvanah.
He gives t he meaning "He Who pur if ies", f or t he nAma. He point s out t hat
bhagavAn pur if ies in many ways: in t he f or m of t he wind by blowing, f ir e by
bur ning, wat er by washing, ear t h by consuming, et c. So His pur if ying power is
manif est all over . He gives t he r ef er ence t o Rg vedic hymn: punAt i dhI r o
bhuvanAni mAyayA – Rg. 1.160.3, and also t o nir ukt am 5.6: vAyuhpavit r am sa
mA punAt u agnih pavit r am sa mA punAt u. He also has summar ized his
vyAkhyAnam in t he f or m of t he f ollowing Sloka:
sa pAvano vishNur -amar t yakar mA punAt i viSvam vividha- pr abhedaih |
sa evasUr ya sa hi vAst i vAyau j ale st hale vA pavit A sa eva | |
d) I n one of his int er pr et at ions, Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he ver sion
"pAvanah", and looks at t he nAma as pA + avanah – He Who pr ot ect s t he
pr ot ect or s or kings. His vyAkhyAnam is: pAnt i it i pA r Aj Anah; t eshAm
avanamyasmAt it i pAvanah.
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nAma 818. nAma 818. nAma 818. H|+¬- H|+¬- H|+¬- anilah anilah anilah
a) He Who need not be goaded by anyone in His blessing t he devot ees (an-ilah).
b) He Who has no enf or cer above Him.
c) He Who is easily accessible t o His devot ees (a-nilah).
d) He Who is t he Giver of lif e-br eat h t o ever yt hing else.
e) He Who is ever awakened.
f ) One Who needs no suppor t
g) One Who does not have a f ixed r esidence, One Who is in t he f or m of t he
wind, et c.
h) He Who has no end.
i) One Who has no binding t o pApa, puNya, et c.
j ) He Who gave t he kingdom (t o ugr asena af t er killing kamsa).
k) He Who spent sleepless night s (planning how t o save r ukmiNi).
anilAya namah.
We looked int o t his nAma in Slokam 25 (nAma 236). The r oot wor d f r om which
t he nAma can be der ived is ila – pr er aNe – t o ur ge. Apt e' s dict ionar y also gives
t he meanings: t o sleep, t o go, t o move, t o t hr ow, et c., f or t he wor d ila (ila –
svapna kshpaNayoh – t o sleep, t o t hr ow). Sr I BhaTTar also der ives t he nAma
f r om t he r oot ana – pr ANane - t o live, t o br eat he. ilA also means t he
ear t h.These dif f er ent meaning and combinat ions ar e used in ar r iving at t he
dif f er ent anubhavam-s below.
a) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar der ives t he
int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot ila – pr er aNe – t o ur ge. ila r ef er s t o t hat
per son who ur ges anot her t o do an act . Since bhagavAn does not have t o be
ur ged by anyone t o bless t hose who wor ship Him, He is called a-nilah. His gives
t he f ollowing in suppor t : t adapyapr Ar t hit am dhyAt o dadAt i madhusUdanah -
When medit at ed upon, bhagavAn madhusudana best ows His blessings on His
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devot ee even when t he devot ee does not pr ay f or t hem - vishNu dhar ma 74.42.
b) One of Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ions is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma
because He has no enf or cer above Him: ilat i pr er aNam kar ot i it i ilah, t ad-
r ahit at vAt an-ilah.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a also gives anot her int er pr et at ion t hat is r elat ed t o
bhagavAn' s ease of appr oach t o His devot ees. This is based on t he r oot nil –
gahane – t o become t hick, deep, har d t o be under st ood. Using t he noun f or m
nilah meaning "dif f icult t o under st and", Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma a-
nilah as "One Who is not dif f icult t o under st and f or t he devot ee"- a-gahanah –
a-nilah - bhakt ebhyah sulabhah – Easily accessible t o bhakt a-s.
d) For t he inst ance of t his nAma in Slokam 25 (nAma 236), Sr i BhaTTar
der ives t he meaning based on t he r oot an – pr ANane - t o live, t o br eat he, and
t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 1.54 – sali-kal-ani-mahi-bhaDi-bhaNDi-
SaNDi-piNDi-t uNDi-kuki-bhUbhya-ilach – which st at es t hat t he af f ix ilach
comes af t er t he ver bs sal – t o go down (salilam – wat er ), kal– t o count (kalilam –
cover ed wit h, mixed), an – t o live (anilah –wind), et c. Thus, t he meaning given
f or nAma 236 was – ananAt – uj j I vanAt anilah – Because He sust ains t he lif e of
ever yt hing t hr ough lif e-br eat h, He is anilah.
nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 5.6.2 declar es: kANginRa ik-kARRellAm yAnE – all
t his air and wind ar ound us is but a t iny f r act ion of Me - The well-known wind is
but a t iny f r act ion of t his anila t hat is bhagavAn. He gives suppor t f r om t he
f ollowing: ko hyevAnyAt kah pr ANyAt - Whoever can br eat he and whoever can
live if t he AkASa (i.e., par amAt mA) wer e not t her e? - (t ait t ir I ya nAr AyaNa 7);
pr AnAt vAyur _aj Ayat a - The wind was bor n out of His br eat h (pur usha sUkt am
14). Not e t hat in t his int er pr et at ion, anilah is not equat ed wit h air or wind, but
as His br eat h – pr ANa, t hat suppor t s t he wind and all ot her lif e.
e) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives sever al alt er nat e int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma in
addit ion t o b) above. One of t hese is based on t he meaning "sleep" f or t he
wor d ila – ilat i svapit i it i a~j na ilah; t ad- vipar I t onit ya-pr abuddha-svar Upat vAt
it i vA anilah – ilat i means sleeps, t hat is, ignor ant ; a condit ion opposed t o
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ignor ance is t hat of ever wakef ul st at e; t her ef or e, One Who is ever awakened
is an - ilah.
f ) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 25, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i looks
at t he nAma as an + ilah, wher e ilA r ef er s t o bhUmi, used in t he sense of
suppor t her e – avidyamAnA ilA Asr ayat ayA an-ilah. Since He needs no suppor t
of t he ear t h, air , et c., He is anilah.
g) Or , one can use t he amar a koSa vyAklhyAnam – na vidyat e nilah
nilayamst hAnam yasya it i anilah – He Who does not have a f ixed place is anilah.
h) Anot her int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a is: anAdit vAt anilah – One
Who has no beginning or end;
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i' s int er pr et at ion is - nanilI yat e naSyat i it i anilah.
i) One mor e of Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ions is: anAdAnAt anilah – One Who
has no binding.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t his as na nilAt i Adat t e puNyampApam vA –
Neit her puNyam nor pApam st ick t o Him.
j ) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN seems t o use t he pATham nilah inst ead of
anilah in his int er pr et at ion – nit ar Am lAt i gRhNAt i aikAnt ino bhakt An it i –
Since He t ot ally at t r act s t he single-minded devot ees, He is ni-lah.
j ) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I vidyA bhUshaN is t hat He has t he nAma
signif ying t hat He gif t ed t he kingdom t o ugr asena af t er killing kamsa –
kamsavada nir j it AyA ilAyA bhUmeh ugr asenAya dAnAt .
k) Yet anot her anubhavam of Sr I vidyA bhUshAn is in t er ms of t he sleepless
night s t hat kRshNa spent planning on how t o r escue r ukmiNi. The t er m ilA is
used her e wit h t he meaning "sleep", and t he pATham used is anilah. r ukmiNi-
spRhayA nidr Apar it yAgAt anilah. He quot es Lor d kRshNa' s wor ds t o suppor t
t his int er pr et at ion: t at hAhamapi t ac-cit t o nidr Am ca na labhe niSI t i.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives t he meaning f or t his nAma t hat bhagavAn is in
t he f or m of air , and gives us a view of how impor t ant t he medit at ion on t his
guNa of bhagavAn is f or our lif e. Wit hout f ood we can go on f or many days;
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wit hout wat er we can sur vive f or a f ew days; but wit hout air , but a f ew
minut es. That is how impor t ant air is f or our living; and so also is t he
medit at ion on vishNu f or our spir it ual lif e. He quot es mahAt mA gAndhi in t his
cont ext - t hat he could sur vive wit hout f ood f or sever al days (and hasn' t he
pr oved it sever al t imes!), but he could not live wit hout pr ayer f or even a day.
The air is also spr ead ar ound ever ywher e, j ust as mahA vishNu is. Our mind
wander s ar ound ever ywher e, and occupies ever yt hing, j ust as air occupies all
available space. Man has lear ned t o cont r ol and cont ain air . So also, he can
lear n t o cont r ol his mind by const ant medit at ion on vishNu. This is anot her
lesson we can t ake f r om t his nAma.
nAma 819. nAma 819. nAma 819. HP 6lH- HP 6lH- HP 6lH- amRt ASah amRt ASah amRt ASah
a) He Who f eeds His devot ees wit h t he Nect ar - Himself .
b) He Who consumed t he nect ar af t er chur ning t he Milk Ocean.
c) One Who has an ever -living will t o give f r uit s.
d) One Whose wishes ar e f ailur e-pr oof .
e) OneWho is dear t o t he mukt a-s.
f ) One Who pr ovides unending means of sur vival f or His cr eat ion.
amRtASAya namah.
The nAma consist s of a + mRt a+ ASah. a-mRt a r ef er s t o undying or et er nal, or
t o nect ar . ASah is der ived f r om t he r oot aS – bhoj ane – t o eat . One Who
consumed amRt am, or One Who gives amRt am t o ot her s, is ASah - aSnAt i
ASayat i vAASah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is – t An sva-guNa amRt am ASayat i
it iamRt ASah – He Who f eeds His devot ees wit h t he Nect ar of His guNa-s.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o t ivr uvAimozhi 8.8.4, wher e nammAzhvAr conveys
t his: …. t Enum pAlum kannalum amudum Agit t it t it t u en UNil uyir il uNar vinil
ninRaonRai uNar ndEnE.
"I can f eel t hat He is in my body, f lesh and blood, lif e-br eat h and t he f acult y
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of t hinking. He is sweet like honey, milk, sugar , candy, and what not ".
nammAzhvAr also descr ibes t hat bhagavAn volunt ar ily ent er ed int o him and
gave him bliss as t he insat iable nect ar - Ar A amudamAi al AviyuL kalanda
kAr Ar kar u mugil pOl en ammAn akkaNNanukku (t ir uvAi. 2.5.5)
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives a similar int er pr et at ion – amRt am
ayAcit ammoksham ASayat i bhoj ayat i bhkat An it i amRt ASah – He Who f eeds –
best ows moksham t o His devot ees unasked, is amRt ASah.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives mult iple int er pr et at ions. The f ir st one is t hat bhagavAn
is called amRt ASah because He consumes amRt a or I mmor t al Bliss, which is
His Own nat ur e – sva-r Upa amRt am aSnAt i it i He also r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s
chur ning of t he Milk-Ocean and consuming t he amRt am f r om t his act ion in
addit ion t o giving it t o t he deva-s.
c) d) Sr i Sa' nkar a gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion using t he meaning "desir e
or will" f or t he wor d "ASA", and gives t he meaning t o t he nAma as "One Who
has an ever -living will t o give f r uit s" – One Who has amRt A ASA – amRt A
avinaSvar a phalat vAt ASA vA' ncA asya it iamRt ASah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t his as r ef er r ing t o "His desir es or wishes
being f ailur e-pr oof – amRt a".
e) One of Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a' s int er pr et at ions is based on t he meaning
"desir e or at t achment " f or t he wor d "ASA", and t he meaning "mukt a-s" f or t he
wor d "amRt a-s" – "One Who is ver y dear t o t he mukt a-s" – amRt AnAm
mukt AnAm ASA icchA yasmin vishaya it iamRt ASah.
f ) One of t he int er pr et at ions given by Sr I vAsishTha is t hat bhagavAn has t he
nAma indicat ing t hat He pr ovides f or t he unending supply of means of sur vival
f or all His cr eat ion - pr avAhat o nit ya-st hAyI dam cat ur -vidha bheda
vibhakt amyat hAt adar ha j I vana sAdhanAni ASayat i = bhoj ayat i it i amRt ASo
vishNuh.
nAma 820. nAma 820. nAma 820. HP 649 - HP 649 - HP 649 - amRt a amRt a amRt a-- -vapuh vapuh vapuh
a) He of a Nect ar -like body.
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b) He Who has an immor t al f or m.
c) He Who sows and cut s t he lives of t his Univer se cont inuously ir r espect ive of
t ime.
amRta-vapushe namah.
The t er m amRt a was explained f or t he pr evious nAma. The t er m amRt a means
"undying, non-decaying". I t is also used t o r ef er t o nect ar , or amRt am. vapuh is
der ived f r om vap – bI j asant Ane chedane ca – t o sow, t o scat t er , t oweave, t o
cut , t o shave. The t er m vapu is used t o r ef er t o t he body, appear ance, et c. I n
t heir int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma, Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning "Nect ar "
f or t he t er m amRt am, and Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning "undying".
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – bhagavAn has a body t hat is like Nect ar .
His devot ees medit at e on His divya ma' ngala vigr aham – His t ir umEni, and
never get sat iat ed. BhagavAn is called Ar Avamudan (of t ir ukkuDant ai f ame).
nammAzhvAr dedicat es t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 5.8.1 t o 5.8.11 t o sing t he pr aise
of Ar Avamudan– t he Nect ar t hat never gives f ulf illment of sat isf act ion, no
mat t er f or how long we st and in f r ont of Him and wor ship Him. He again calls
out t o His Ar AAmudam in pASur am-s in 2.5.4 (appozhudukku appozhudu en Ar A
amudamE), 2.5.5 (Ar AamudamAi al AviyuL kalanda), 10.10.5 (enakku Ar A Amudu
AnAyE) , 10.10.6 (enakkuAr A amudamAi), et c.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r emind us of emper umAnAr ' s Sr I vaikunTha gadyam,
wher e he descr ibes t he exper ience of bhagavAn in Sr I vaikunTham – amRt a
sAgar Ant ar -nimaghnah sar vAvayavah sukhamAsI t a.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – mRt am mar aNam t ad-r ahit am vapuh asya
it iamRt a-vapuh – He Who has an immor t al f or m is amRa-vapuh. I mmor t al means
"uncondit ioned by t ime". BhagavAn' s t ir umEni is not made of t he per ishable
mat er ial t hat our bodies ar e made of , but inst ead, it s const it uent is Suddha-
sat t va mat er ial, t hat is et er nal and non-decaying.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNaSAst r i' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn who t ook incar nat ions
as r Ama, kRshNa et c., is giving His dar Sanam t o us st ill in t hat f or m, even
af t er t he passage of t ime, wit h t hat same t ir umEni (t his is pr ecisely t he
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concept behind t he ar cA r Upam of per umAL in our t emples).
c) One of t he int er pr et at ions given by Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha ues t he
meaning "one who sows" f or vapuh – va – bI j asant Ane chedane ca – t o sow, t o
cut . His int er pr et at ion is bhagavAn pr avAhanit yam idam viSvam vapat isant anot i
t at hA sar vam ant akAle cchinat t i – bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He
is t he One Who sows t he seed of lif e cont inuously in t his Univer se, and when
t he t ime comes, He is t he One who cut s it also. He is t he One Who pr opagat es
t he vist Ar a dhar mA – of pr opagat ion of each species f r om ot her member s of
t he same species, wit h no violat ion of t his r ule anywher e.
nAma 821. nAma 821. nAma 821. B4 ¬- B4 ¬- B4 ¬- sar vaj ~nah sar vaj ~nah sar vaj ~nah
a) He Who knows all.
b) He Who knows all t he needs of all His devot ees.
sarvaj~nAya namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier in Slokam 48 - nAma 454.
a) I n Slokam 48, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is
sar vaj ~nah because He knows t hat He is t he ant ar yAmI in ever yt hing – t at hA
sar vAt manA At mAnam j AnAt i it i sar va~j nah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s
t o us bRhadAr aNya Upanishad, which conveys t his message: idam sar vam yad
ayam At mA (bRha.6.5.7). He knows t hat He is t he best means and t he best end
(best upAyam and best upeyam).
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 4.7.7, wher e
AzhvAr r ef er s t o emper umAn as "nir ainda j ~nAna mUr t i" – sar vaj ~nan.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i has given sever al addit ional r ef er ences t o t he
Sr ut iwher e Supr eme Br ahman is r ef er r ed t o as sar vaj ~nah:
- yah sar vaj ~nah sar vavit (muNDakopanishad 1.1.9);
- sa sar vaj ~nah sar vobhavat i (pr aSna 4.10);
- esha sar veSvar a esha sar vaj ~nah (mANDUkya 6);
- saviSvakRt siSvavid At mayonih j ~nah kAlakAlo guNI sar vavidyah (Svet ASva.
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2.6.2,16).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat as t he Maker of ever yt hing t hat
exist s (t he Cr eat or ), He knows t he in and out of ever yt hing t her e is t o know
about ever yt hing. He gives sever al Sr ut i r ef er ences, wher e He is r ef er r ed t o
as "One Who knows ever yt hing":
t vam indr a asi viSva-j it sar va-vit pur uhUt as-t vam=indr a |
(at har va.17.1.111)
sa no bandhur -j anit A sa vidhAt A dhAmAni veda bhuvanAni viSvA |
(yaj ur . 32.10)
yo nah pit A j anit A yo vidhAt A dhAmAni veda bhuvanAni viSva |
(Rg.10.82.3)
yas-t hishThat i car at i yaSca va' ncat i yo nilAyam car at i yah pr at a' nkam|
dvau sannishadya yan-mant r ayet e r aj a t ad veda var uNas-t Rt I yah | |
(at har va.4.26.2)
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj br ings out t he signif icance of t he "all-knowing"
aspect t hr ough t he f ollowing wor ds – Sr I bhagavAn hi sar vam sar vat r a sar vadA
sar vat hA ca j AnAt i – He knows ever yt hing, always, ever ywher e, t hr ough all
means. He is t he Only One Who knows t he past , pr esent and t he f ut ur e –
bhUt a-bhavad-bhavishyAdI nAm j ~nAnam. He is inside ever yone and
ever yt hing. All t he bodies and all t he souls ar e His body, and not hing is beyond
His r each. His sar va~j nat vam t hus cover s ever yt hing t hat is known, and
ever yt hing t her e is t o know.
b) While Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam f or t he pr evious inst ance of t his nAma (in
Slokam 48) was t hat He knows t hat He is t he ant ar yAmI in ever yt hing, his
vyAkyAnam f or t he cur r ent nAma is in t er ms of what is par t icular ly benef icial
f or t he devot ee - t hat He knows pr ecisely what is usef ul f or t he devot ee. His
vyAkhyAnam is t hat bhagavAn knows what is in t he power of His devot ees and
what is not in t heir power , what t hey can accomplish by t hemselves and what
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t hey cannot accomplish by t hemselves – t eshAm Sakya aSakya sAdhya
asAdhyAdika manusandat t e it i sar vaj ~nah. The benef it t o us f r om t his is t hat
He will help us achieve t hings t hat we cannot achieve by our selves, depending
on our wishes.
SvI v.v. r AmAnuj an r eminds us of t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr ' s pASur am of t his
qualit y of per umAl, wher e AzhvAr t akes issue wit h per umAL f or not r evealing
Himself t o AzhvAr r ight away, wit hout delay, even af t er knowing f ully well how
much AzhvAr is suf f er ing f r om t he separ at ion f r om Him:
nallAr aRivI r , t I yAr aRivI r ;
namakku iv-ulagat t il ellAm aRivI r ,
EdE ar iyI r indaLUr I r E !
(per iya t ir umozhi 4.9.6)
"You know who Your devot ees ar e t hat cannot bear separ at ion f r om You, and
who t hose people ar e t hat do not know t he value of t heir associat ion wit h You!
You know ever yt hing else in t his univer se t oo! But somehow You do not seem
know t he pur it y and simplicit y of t he int ense pain t hat I am under going r ight
now, because You ar e not giving Your dar Sanam t o me r ight away!"
Sr I Sa' nkar a bhAshyam f or t he inst ance of t his nAma in Slokam 48 is
"sar vaScaasau j ~naSca it i sar va~j nah" - He who is all and who knows all. For
t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, his int er pr et at ion is – sar vam j AnAt i
it isar va~j nah – He Who knows all. The dif f er ence is t hat in t he f ir st case he
t r eat s t he nAma as sar vah + j ~nah (sar vah as a noun or pr onoun), and in t he
second case as sar vam + j ~nah (as qualif ying j ~nah).
c) Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion as "One Who illumines all– "The
I lluminat or of all t hought s, all int ent ions, mot ives, emot ions,and all sense
per cept ions in an individual".
nAma 822. nAma 822. nAma 822. B4 6l P G- B4 6l P G- B4 6l P G- sar vat o sar vat o sar vat o-- -mukhah mukhah mukhah
a) He Who can be appr oached f r om many pat hs.
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b) He Who has f aces on all sides.
sarvato-mukhAya namah.
sar vat ah means "f r om all sides, in ever y dir ect ion, ever ywher e". mukham means
mout h, f ace, and in a gener ic sense, t o an opening.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat t her e
ar e many ways of accessing and at t aining Him. He has not laid down any r ule
t hat He can be at t ained only by a par t icular means and not by anot her . On t he
ot her hand, He can be easily at t ained by means t hat ar e somet imes
inexplicably simple – yena kenApi vyAj ena supr aveSat vAt sar vat o-mukhah.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o Sar aNAgat i gadyam 17, wher e emper umAn
t ells bhagavad r AmAnuj a: yena kenApi pr akAr eNa dvaya vakt A t vam kevalam
madI yayaivadayayA – As long as one sur r ender s wit h t he ut t er ance of t he
dvaya mant r a wit h or wit hout sincer it y, t he nat ur al Divine Gr ace of bhagavAn
will pr ot ect t his per son. Be it wit h sincer it y (sa-hRdaya), or wit h f eigned
sincer it y (a-hRdaya), one who needs immediat e help (Ar t a), or one who may
need suppor t somet ime in t he f ut ur e (dRpt a), one who is His f r iend or one who
is His swor n enemy (such as r AvaNa), as long one appr oaches Him in t he name
of Sar aNagat i, it is His vow t o pr ot ect t hat per son. Dur ing vibhI shaNa
sar aNAgat i, Lor d r Ama t ells sugr I va t hat He consider s it t he swor n dut y of a
dhar mishTan t o pr ot ect anyone who sur r ender st o him, even by giving up his
own lif e if needed –
Ar t o vA yadi vA dRpt ahpar eshAm Sar aNAgat ah |
ar ih pr ANAn par it yaj ya r akshit avyah kRt At manA | |
(yuddhakANDam 18.28).
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat t he name signif ies t hat bhagavAn has
f aces on all sides –
sar vat ah pANi-pAdam t at sar vat o' kshi Sir o mukham |
sar vat ah Sr ut iman lokesar vam AvRt ya t ishThat i | |
(gI t A 13.13)
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"Ever ywher e ar e I t s hands and f eet ; I t s eyes, heads and mout hs ar e
ever ywher e; I t s ear s ar e on all sides; and I t exist s encompassing all t hings".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i in suppor t :
viSvat aS-cakshur ut a viSvat o-mukhah
(t ai. Ar aN. 10.1)
pr at ya' ng-j anAs-t ishThat i sar vat o-mukhah
(Svet ASva. 2.16)
pr at ya' ng-mukhAs-t ishThat i viSvat o-mukhah
(t ait . Ar aN. 10.1)
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he analogy of t he sun whose light shines in all
dir ect ions, or t he light f r om a lamp t hat shines in all dir ect ions simult aneously.
Yet anot her anubhavam is given by Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj – Bhakt a-s
ar e singing His pr aise f r om all sides simult aneously, and He has f aces on all
sides t o list en t o all of t hem simult aneously - sar vAsu diSAsu
bhaj amAnaihbhakt air -hi Sr I mad bhagavat o mukham avalokyat e |
A similar int er pr et at ion isgiven by Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN – at ah
sar vat o-mukhahsar va-dig-deSa-var t ishu bhakt eshu mukham asya it i sar vat o-
mukhah.










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Slokam 88 Slokam 88 Slokam 88
B ¬¬- B ¤6- |B&- H× |=¬7× 6l9+-· B ¬¬- B ¤6- |B&- H× |=¬7× 6l9+-· B ¬¬- B ¤6- |B&- H× |=¬7× 6l9+-·
-4¤l ¤l T¹4¹l 5Ht¤¾lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+-+ <<+ -4¤l ¤l T¹4¹l 5Ht¤¾lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+-+ <<+ -4¤l ¤l T¹4¹l 5Ht¤¾lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+-+ <<+
sulabhah suvr at ah siddhah sat r uj icchat r ut Apanah |
nyagr OdhO dumbar Osvat t has cANoor Andhr a nishUdanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 823. nAma 823. nAma 823. B ¬¬- B ¬¬- B ¬¬- su su su-- -labhah labhah labhah
a) He Who can be easily at t ained.
b) He Who makes it possible t o at t ain sukham (sukham labhat a).
su-labhAya namah.
su is a pr ef ix (pr at yaya) meaning sukham or saukar yam her e. The r oot involved
in t he nAma is labh – pr Apt au – t o get . sukhena saukar yeNa vA labhyahsu-
labhah – He Who is at t ained easily.
I n Sr I viSishTAdvait a sampr adAyam, His soulbhayam is one of t he t wo most
impor t ant guNa-s t hat is enj oyed by t he devot ees ver y much (t he ot her being
His sauSI lyam).
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – anar gho' pi mUlya-bhAsena svI kar t um
Sakyah – su-labhah – Even t hough He is pr iceless, He can be easily at t ained as
if f or a small pr ice. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he example of a woman of mult i-
def aced body (kubj A) who of f er ed some sandal past e t o Lor d kRshNa and got
Him t o visit her house – She seized govinda by t he dr ess and said "Come t o my
house": vast r e pr agRhya govindam mama geham vr aj et i vai (vishNu pur ANam
5.20.11).
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives inst ances f r om AzhvAr ' s Sr I sUkt i-s:- pat t uDai
aDiyavar kku eLiyavan (t ir uvAi. 1.3.1) – He is ext r emely easy of access t o t hose
who appr oach Him wit h devot ion.
(Af t er descr ibing bhagavAn' s par at t vam in t he f ir st t wo t ir uvAimozhi- s of
t he f ir st pat t u (decad), nammAzhvAr st ar t s t o descr ibe His saulabhyam, and
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106
t his is t he f ir st pASur am of t he t hir d t ir uvAimozhi, wher e he st ar t s
descr ibing t he incident wher e He j ust let Himself be bound t o t he mor t ar j ust
t o please yaSOdA. Tr adit ion has it t hat nammAzhvAr was so moved by t his
soulabhyam of per umAL t hat He passed out at t his simple, unassuming, vir t ue
of emper umAn mingling wit h all, and was in t his st at e of lost consciousness f or
six mont hs bef or e r egaining consciousness. That is t he kind of anubhavam t hat
t he AzhvAr -s had of emper umAn. For t hose who have gone t hr ough ANDAL' s
nAcciyAr t ir umozhi, t o under st and ANDAL' s out bur st of emot ion, it is
impor t ant t o under st and t hat t his is t he level wher e she was in her anubhavam
of per umAL).
eNNilum var um en ini vENDuvam (t ir uvAi. 1.10.2) – if we count number s and
ut t er t he number 26, He t hinks we ar e r ef er r ing t o Him, and uses t his as an
excuse t o come t o us.
(Among t he t at t va-s, t he t went y-f if t h is t he soul (j I va), and t he 26t h is
par amAt mA. I f someone count s numer als j ust f or count ing pur poses, and
accident ally ut t er s t he number 26, He is willing t o assume t hat t his per son is
t hinking of Him as t he 26t h t at t vam, and is willing t o appear bef or e t his
per son t o bless him. Such is His willingness t o be easily accessible).
aNiyan Agum t ana-TAL aDaindAr gat kellAm (t ir uvAi. 9.10.8) - He is ver y near t o
t hose who sur r ender t hemselves t o Him.
Sr I v. n. vedAnt a deSikan comment s t hat when sugr I va sur r ender ed t o r Ama
f or help in get t ing his kingdom and his wif e, r Ama consider ed it His supr eme
r esponsibilit y t o pr ot ect sugr I va above any ot her r esponsibilit y of His,
including pr ot ect ing sI t A. Such is t he power of sur r ender t o Him. Lor d r Ama
t ells sugr I va:
t vayi ki' ncit samApanne kim kAr yam sI t ayA mama |
bhar at ena mahAbAholakshmaNena yavI yasA |
Sat r ughnena ca Sat r ughna sva-Sar I r eNa vA punah | |
(yuddha.41.5)
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107

"I f you meet wit h deat h (by My lack of pr ot ect ing you), I do not car e if any of
t he ot her s ar e lef t behind – such as sI t A, lakshmaNa, bhar at a,Sat r ughna, or
f or t hat mat t er , Myself ".
That is t he level of His ease of accessibilit y t hr ough t he simple act of
sur r ender . Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: pat r a-pushpAdibhih bhakt i-mAt r a-
samar pit aih sukhena labhyat a it i su-labhah – He Who is easily at t ainable even
by t he of f er of leaves, f lower s, f r uit s, et c., wit h f ull devot ion. The key wor ds
ar e "wit h devot ion". Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es f r om mahA-bhAr at a:
pat r eshu pushpeshu phaleshu t oyeshu akr I t a-labhyeshu sadiava sat su |
bhakt yeka-labhye pur ushe pur ANe mukt yai kat ham na kr iyat e pr ayat nah | |
"The Ancient Pur usha is easily at t ainable by devot ion alone, wit h t he of f er of
leaves, f lower s, f r uit s, and even wat er , which ar e always at t ainable wit hout
cost . When such is t he case, how is it t hat people do not even want t o t r y t o
wor k t owar ds emancipat ion?"
Sr I cinmayAnanda quot es t he gI t A Slokam wher e bhagavAn Himself declar es
t hat He is "sulabhah":
ananya-cet Ah sat at am yo mAm smar at i nit yaSah |
t asyAham su-labhah pAr t hanit ya-yukt asya yoginah | |
(gI t A 8.14)
"I am easy of access, O ar j una, t o t hat yogin who is ever int egr at ed wit h Me,
whose mind is not in anyt hing else but Me, and who ceaselessly r ecollect s Me at
all t imes".
b) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a givea a new anubhavam – sukham labhat a it i
sulabhah – He Who best ows happiness is su-labhah.
nAma 824. nAma 824. nAma 824. B ¤6- B ¤6- B ¤6- su su su-- -vr at ah vr at ah vr at ah
a) He Who has t aken a good, st r ong vow.
b) He Who accept s only t he pur e f ood t hat is of f er ed wit h sincer it y by His
self less devot ees.
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108
c) He Who cont r olled what He consumed appr opr iat ely in His nar a-nAr AyaNa
incar nat ion.
d) He Who cont r ols ever yt hing in t his univer se and keeps t hem in or der .
e) He Who obser ved all t he vr at a-s r igor ously in His kRshNa incar nat ion, even
t hough He was t he Supr eme Soul.
su-vratAya namah.
su is an upasar ga (pr ef ix). vr at a means "pr omise, vow".
a) Sr I BhaTTar point s t o His su-vr at am as "dRDha vr at am" – st r ong vow.
"yat hA kat ha' ncit pr avishThAnAm sar vat hA par ipAlana dRDha vr at ah su-
vr at ah"– He Who has t aken a st r ong vow t o pr ot ect t hose who come t o Him
t hr ough by one means or anot her , t hr ough what ever means it t akes, is su-
vr at ah. He quot es Lor d r Ama' s vr at am:
sakRdeva pr apannAya t ava asmi it i yAcat e |
a-bhayam sar va-bhUt ebhyo dadAmyet at vr at am mama | |
(r AmA. yuddha. 18.33)
"To him who has sought my pr ot ect ion only once, and begged of me saying "I
am Thine", t o him I give pr ot ect ion f r om all beings. This is my vow".
We also have His own assur ances t o bhagavad r AmAnuj a in Sar aNAgat i gadyam
about how ser ious He is in His vr at am:
anRt am nokt a pUr vam me na ca vakshye kadAcana
I have never ut t er ed a lie bef or e, nor will my wor ds ever be f alse.
sar va-dhar mAn par it yaj ya mAm ekam Sar aNam vr aj a |
aham t vA sar va pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi mA Sucah | |
(gI t A 18.66)
"Complet ely r elinquishing all dhar ma-s, seek Me alone f or r ef uge.
I will r elease you f r om all sins. Gr ieve not ".
r Amo dvir na abhibhAshat e
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109

"r Ama does not do double-t alking".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 9.10.5, which
r ef lect s t his su-vr at am of bhagavAn:
Sar aNam Agum t anaTAL aDaindAr gaTkellAm
mar aNam AnAl vaikunTham koDukkum pir An
(t ir uvAi. 9.10.5)
"The Lor d gr ant s Sr I vaikunTham t o whomsoever t hat has sur r ender ed at His
f eet . This He does at t he t ime of t heir deat h".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t he f ollowing in Sr I vacana bhUshaNam 381:
"en Ur aic connAi, en pEr aic connAi, en aDiyAr ai nOkkinAi,
avar gaL viDAiyait t I r t t Ai, avar gaLukku odu' nga nizhal koDut t Ai, …..
j anma par ampar aigaL t ORum, …. t AnE avaRRai onRu pat t Akki naDat t ik koNDu
pOr um"-
I f someone says t he name of a divya deSam wit hout evening t hinking about it
as a divya deSam, He is willing t o give cr edit t o t his per son f or having
ment ioned t he name of His divya deSam et c. And t hen, He keeps accumulat ing
t hese over sever al of our bir t hs, and t hen mult iplies t hem t en-f old, and t hen
consider s t hese as our good deeds, and pr ot ect s us.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a associat es t he t er m vr at am wit h consumpt ion of f ood. His
vyAkhyAnam is: Sobhanam vr at ayat i bhunkt e.
Dif f er ent t r anslat or s give dif f er ent meanings f or t his. Sr I anant a kRshNa
SAst r y gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He accept s only
t he pur e f ood t hat is of f er ed wit h sincer it y by His self less devot ees such as
Kucela.
c) The alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I Sa' nkar a is t hat He cont r olled what He
consumed appr opr iat ely – bhoj anAt nivar t ayat i it i su-vr at ah – such as in His
nar a-nAr AyaNa incar nat ion, and t his is symbolized by t his nAma.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha views t he t er m vr at am as signif ying cont r ol or
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110
r est r aint – niyamanam, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies
t hat He cont r ols t he wor ldver y ef f ect ively – suvr at at i niyamayat i it i su-vr at ah.
This is also ascr ibed t o f ear of Him even by t he likes of vAyu, agni., et c., on
t he consequences of t r ansgr essing His or der s – bhI shAsmAd-vAt ah pavat e
et c. He gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences t o t he inst ance of His f unct ion of vr at a
or niyamanam f r om t he Sr ut i:
yasya vr at e pr it hivI nannamI t i yasya vr at e Saphavaj - j ar bhur I t i |
yasya vr at e oshadhI r -viSva r UpAh sa nah par j anya mahi Sar ma yaccha | |
(Rg.5.83.5)
e) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he explanat ion t hat bhagavAn, in His
kRshNa incar nat ion, was obser ving all t he vr at a-s – r it uals et c.,met iculously,
and t his is what is conveyed by t his nAma – SobhanAni par amot sava r UpANi
j anmAshTamI -kAr t ika-niyamAdI ni vr at Ani yasya sasu-vr at ah.
nAma 825. nAma 825. nAma 825. |B&- |B&- |B&- siddhah siddhah siddhah
a) He Whose pr ot ect ion is ever available wit hout any special ef f or t on t he par t
of His devot ees.
b) He Who is t he siddhopAya – t he alr eady exist ing means - f or at t aining
moksham.
c) He Who is f ully accomplished, wit hout dependence on anyone or anyt hing
else.
d) He Who makes His devot ees accomplished – in t heir t apas and ot her ef f or t s
t o at t ain Him.
e) He Who gave us t he SAst r a-s, or He Who best ows auspiciousness on us
f ) The f inal conclusion – t he Ult imat e Tr ut h – t hr ough all means of pr oof
available t o us.
g) He Who accomplishes all His under t akings f lawlessly t o complet ion and
per f ect ion.
siddhAya namah.
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The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is sidh – samr Addhau – t o r each, t o
at t ain one' s end, t o succeed, t o accomplish. We came acr oss a ser ies of nAma-
s based on t his r oot in Slokam 27 – nAma-s 253 t o 256 - siddhAr t hah,siddha-
samkalpah, siddhi-dah, siddhi- sAdanah. I n t he cur r ent cont ext , t he nAma is
int er pr et ed as "One Who is alr eady mat er ialized as a Pr ot ect or of us, One
Who helps us mat er ialize our obj ect ives, One Who is per f ect , One Who makes
us per f ect ", et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat His pr ot ect ion is available t o His
devot ees wit hout any special ef f or t on t heir par t . The act of pr ot ect ing His
devot ees is nat ur al t o Him, is ever exist ent in Him, and is not condit ioned by
anyt hing –
asya gopt Rt vam aupAdhikam,
sadA svat a eva sar va-gopt Rt vAt ,
a-yat na sAdhyahsiddhah.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 5.7.10 in suppor t :
ARu enakku nin pAdamE Sar aN enRu ozhindAi - "My goal is Your Feet . The
means, or upAya, is also t o cling t o Your Feet ".
These Feet of emper umAn alr eady exist f or our clinging wit hout any ef f or t on
our par t , and so He is siddhah.
nammAzhvAr descr ibes t hat bhagavAn is alr eady mat er ialized f or our
pr ot ect ion (siddhah) since He r ushes t o us t o give us vaikunTham j ust f or our
chant ing His many nAma-s:
naNNinam nAr aAyaNanai nAma' ngaL pala Solli
maN ulagil vaLam mikka vATTARRAn vandu ninRu
viN ulagam t ar uvAnAi vir aiginRAn vidi vagaiyE
eNNinavARAgA ik-kar uma' ngaL en ne' nj E!
(t ir uvAi. 10.6.3)
"We appr oached nAr AyaNa by r ecit ing His names which ar e expr essions of His
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qualit ies. The Lor d comes and hast ens t o hand over Sr I vaikunTha lokam it self
t o us, t o enj oy at our will, whenever we wish it . He has come t he whole way
t hr ough, t aken r esidence near us in Tir uvaTTARu, and wait s, even t hough He is
in a gr eat hur r y t o t ake me. O my mind! You wer e ver y co-oper at ive; ot her wise,
t his could not have happened".
b) SvAmi deSikan explains t hat among t he upAya-s or means f or at t aining Him,
He is Himself t he alr eady exist ing siddha upAyam – siddhopAyast u
mukt aunir avadhika dayah Sr I -sakhah sar va-Sakt ih – Sr I man nAr AyaNa, wit h
inf init e mer cy and inf init e Sakt i, is t he siddha upAyam in t he mat t er of
best owing moksham (nyAsa vimSat i 17) – t he means t hat alr eady exist s wit hout
r equir ing any special ef f or t on our par t t o cr eat e t his upAya or means; all we
need t o is f ollow one of t he sAdhya upAya-s - eit her t he bhakt i or t he pr apat t i
mAr gam, and He is t he pr e-exist ing means (siddha upAya) t hat will gr ant t he
moksham.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat He is
per f ect – f ully accomplished, wit hout dependence on anyone else –
ananyAdhI na siddhit vAt siddhah.
d) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma can also
mean t hat He is One who makes ot her s per f ect t hr ough t heir devot ion t o Him
–The good ones at t ain per f ect ion or f ull f r uit ion in t apas, salvat ion, et c., by
ser ving Him.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i also gives a similar dual int er pr et at ion – He is
siddhah because He gives siddhi t o t he pr act it ioner s of t he vr at a- s et c., and
He is siddha because He has at t ained siddhi in all r espect s. He gives suppor t
f r om nRsimhot t ar a t ApanI 9.9 - sadevapur ast At siddham hi br ahma.
e) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives a new int er pr et at ion – sidham ma' ngalam
SAst r am vA dhat t a it i sid-dhah - He Who gave us t he SAst r a-s, or He Who
best ows auspiciousness on us.
He uses t he r oot shidhU – SAst r e mA' ngalye ca – "t o or dain, command,
inst r uct , t o t ur n out well or auspiciously", and t he r oot dhA – dhAr aNa
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poshNayoh dAne ca – "t o put , t o gr ant , t o pr oduce, t o bear " in t his
int er pr et at ion.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he explanat ion t hat t he nAma means
t hat bhagavAn is t he Ult imat e End or t he Final conclusion of all enquir ies –
siddhyat i sma siddhah – bhagavAn hi sakalaih pr amANaih siddhah;
t at r apr at yaksham pr amANam bhakt AnAm, anumAnam pr amANam
t Ar kikANAm, Sabda pr amANam caSr ut i-SAst r ANAm, evam pr amANa-
t r yamapi Sr i bhagavant am sAdhayat i – For t he devot ees, He is t he pr ayaksha
pr amANam, f or t he analyst s He is t he f inal r esult of t he analysis, and He is
t he Sabda pr amANam as declar ed loudly in t he Sr ut i-sand SAst r a-s. So He is
t he end r esult of all means of est ablishing t he Ult imat eTr ut h.
g) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha' s anubhavam is t hat t he nAma r ef er s t o "One Who
accomplishes ever yt hing t her e is t o accomplish, wit h no ef f or t " – Sr ama
klamt andr Abhih var j it o yat nApekshAsiddhiSca siddhah. Or , "He who
accomplishes ever yt hing t o complet ion and per f ect ion always" is siddhah –
sar vat o bhAvinI SAsvat I siddhih asya it i siddhah. He r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s
cr eat ion of t he univer se and it s f unct ioning f lawlessly, wit h t he r ight mix of
air , heat , wat er , dif f er ent species, et c., as He decides.
Sr I BhaTTar has int er pr et ed t he nAma-s in t er ms of bhagavAn' s dir ect
incar nat ions. The int er pr et at ion of t he next f ew nAma-s will be in t er ms of His
indir ect incar nat ions – t hat is, t hose in which He ent er s int o ot her s and act s.
nAma 826. nAma 826. nAma 826. H× |=¬7× 6l9+- H× |=¬7× 6l9+- H× |=¬7× 6l9+- Sat r u Sat r u Sat r u-- -j it j it j it -- -Sat r u Sat r u Sat r u-- -t Apanah t Apanah t Apanah
He Who occupies t he bodies of Sat r u- j it s t o t or ment His devot ees' enemies.
Satru-jit-Satru-tApanAya namah.
All int er pr et er s ot her t han Sr I BhaTTar and t hose who f ollow him, t r eat t his
as t wo nAma-s: Sat r u-j it and Sat r u-t Apanah. The essent ial meaning of t he t wo
int er pr et at ions is same – BhagavAn ensur es t hat t he enemies of t he gods ar e
punished and conquer ed; eit her He Himself does t his (Sr I Sa' nkar a' s
int er pr et at ion), as r Ama, kRshNa, et c. in t he case of r AvaNa, kamsa, et c., or
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He does it by ent er ing int o someone else wit h His Sakt i (sva-t ej asA
ApyAyit aih), and t hen accomplishes t he dest r uct ion of t he enemies of t he gods
(Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion).
Thus, Sr I BhaTTar t r eat s t he nAma as Sat r u-j it -Sat r u-t Apanah, and gives t he
explanat ion t hat (in addit ion t o using His power s dir ect ly in dest r oying t he
enemies of His devot ees), He also uses His power s by ent er ing int o ot her s wit h
His t ej as, and t hen def eat s t he enemies of His devot ees as well. Thus, his
int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma is t hat He is Sat r u-t Apanah (Tor t ur er of His
devot ees' enemies) by using Sat r u-j it s (t hose who conquer t heir enemies) as
His vehicle. Sr I BhaTTar gives examples f or t his int er pr et at ion f r om Sr I
vishNu pur ANam:
"par a' nj ayo hi nAma SaSAdasya ca r Aj ar shes-t anayah kshat r iya- var yah |
t ac-char I r e aham amSena svayameva avat I r ya t An aSeshAn asur An
nihanishyAmi"
(V.P. 4.2.8);
"Wit h a par t of Me, I will descend int o t he body of par a' nj aya and annihilat e
t he asur a-s Myself ".
"kakut st hah bhagavat ah car Acar agur oh acyut asya t ej asA ApyAyit o
devAsur a sa' ngr Ame samast Aneva asur An nij aghAna"
(V.P. 4.2.11).
"Then, kakut st ha (par a' nj aya), inf used wit h t he power of t he Et er nal Ruler of
all movable and immovable t hings, dest r oyed in t he bat t le all t he enemies of t he
gods ".
"…At ha bhagavAn Adi-pur ushah pur ushot t amo yauvanASvasya
mAndhAt uhpur ukut sa nAmA put r ast am aham anupr aviSya et An aSesha dushTa
gandhar vAn upaSamam nayishyAmi"
(V.P.4.3.7)
"The Adi-pur usha and pur ushot t ama r eplied: I will ent er int o t he per son of
pur ukut sa, t he son of mAndhAt r i and yuvanASva, and in him I will quiet t hese
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iniquit ous gandhar va-s.".
"r asat ala gat aSca asau bhagavat t ej asA ApyAyit a At ma-vI r yah
sakalagandhar vAn j aghAna"
(V.P. 4.3.9)
"Reaching t he r egions below t he ear t h, and being f illed wit h t he might of t he
Supr eme Deit y, he (pur ut kut sa) dest r oyed t he gandhar va-s".
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha also gives t his as his int er pr et at ion, t he idea of His
indir ect incar nat ions, f or t he nAma sat r u-t Apanah – sar va - suhRdah sAdhUn
dvishant i t a eva Sat r vah, t AnSca yah sva - par adat t a-Sakt ibhih mahA-
pur ushaiht Apayat i it i Sat r u-t Apanah – He gives His Sakt i t o t he mahA-
pur ushas, who int ur n go af t er t hose who har m His devot ees, and punish t hem.
He gives t he f ollowing suppor t f r om at har va veda, wher e t his guNa of
scor ching t he enemies is r ef er r ed t o:
dvishas-t Apayan hr adah Sat r UNAm t Apayan manah |
dur -hr Adah sar vAs-t vam dar bha dhar ma ivAbhI nt sam t Apayan | |
(at har va. 19.28.2)
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj t r eat s t he nAma as "Sat r u-j it -Sat r u- t Apanah",
but gives t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he t wo par t s: "He Who is Sat r u-j it
and also Sat r u-t Apanah" –
"Sat ayant i ut pI Dayant i dhAr mikAn it i Sat r avah;
t An j ayat i it i Sat r u-j it ;Sat r Un t Apayat i it i Sat r u-t Apanah;
Sat r u-j it ca asau Sat r u-t Apanan it i Sat r u-j it - Sat r u-t Apanah".
The int er pr et at ion f or Sat r u-j it and Sat r u-t Apanah as separ at e nAma-s by
Sr I Sa' nkar a and his f ollower s is given below:
Sat r u Sat r u Sat r u-- -j it : j it : j it :
a) He Who conquer s His enemies.
b) He Who helps us def eat our wor st enemy – t he ident it y of t he body wit h
t he soul.
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c) He Who gives His cr eat ion t he means t o def end t hemselves against t heir
enemies.
a) Sat r um j ayat i it i Sat r u-j it – He Who conquer s t he enemy is Sat r u- j it . Sr I
Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: sur a-Sat r ava eva asya Sat r avah, t An j ayat i
it iSat r u-j it – The enemies of t he gods ar e His enemies, and He is t he
Conquer or of t hose, and so He is Sat r u-j it .
b) Sr I cinmayAnanda sees in t his nAma t he message t hat bhagavAn is t he One
who can dr ive away t he wor st of all t he enemies, t hat in our mind: "I n t he
bosom of man, his enemies ar e none ot her t han consciousness of his body and
t he consequent passions of t he f lesh – bot h obj ect ive and subj ect ive. The
seeker f eels t hat t hese ur ges in him const it ut e a ver y power f ul t eam of
belliger ent f or ces, and against t heir concer t ed onslaught he f eels helpless".
But when an aler t seeker t ur ns t o nAr AyaNa who is in his own hear t , all
obst acles whit her away, and t hus He is t he "Supr eme Conquer or of all
enemies". I n ot her wor ds, it is t he ident if icat ion of t he body wit h t he soul t hat
is t he wor st of our enemies. Medit at ion on Him is t he only means t o conquer
t his enemy, and so He is called Sat r u-j it .
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat bhagavAn displays His guNa of
conquer ing t he enemy, by giving His cr eat ion dif f er ent means t o def end
t hemselves, such as t he hor ns f or t he hor ned species, t he nails f or t he lion
et c., and ot her means f or t he ot her species t o def end t hemselves.
Sat r u Sat r u Sat r u-- -t Apanah: t Apanah: t Apanah:
a) The Tor t ur er of t he f oes of His devot ees.
b) He Who dest r oys t he negat ive t endencies in t he devot ee' s hear t .
a) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he explanat ion – sur a-Sat r UNAm t ApanAt Sat r u-
t Apanah –
a) The Tor ment or of t he f oes of t he gods: Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
comment s t hat t his act of t or ment ing t he Sat r u-s is t o punish t he evil-doer s
even when t hey ar e alive, by met ing out sever e and unbear able punishment s t o
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t hem.
b) Sr I cinmayAnanda cont inues along t he lines of his int er pr et at ion f or t he
pr evious nAma, and comment s t hat bhagavAn' s nAma "Sat r u- t Apana" indicat es
t hat "When t he devot ee of f er s himself at t he alt ar of His Feet , He
(bhagavAn) bur ns down all t he negat ive t endencies pollut ing t his devot ee' s
hear t .
nAma 827. nAma 827. nAma 827. -4¤l ¤l T¹4¹- -4¤l ¤l T¹4¹- -4¤l ¤l T¹4¹- nyag nyag nyag-- -r odhodumbar ah r odhodumbar ah r odhodumbar ah
He Who has t he Supr eme Abode wit h Lakshmi and ever yt hing t hat is
magnif icent , but Who is at t he command of t he devot ees who appr oach Him
wit h f olded hands.
nyagrodhodumbarAya namah.
This is anot her nAma which is t r eat ed as t wo separ at e nAma-s by most
vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s except Sr I BhaTTar and his f ollower s. This nAma is an
out st anding example t hat illust r at es t he uniqueness of Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam. But f ir st , let us look at t he individual meanings of t he t wo par t s:
nyagr odhah nyagr odhah nyagr odhah
a) He Who is cont r olled by t hose who st and below, bowing t o Him wit h f olded
hands.
b) He who cont r ols t hose below Him.
c) He Who is Pr imor dial, and is above all.
d) He Who is f ir mly r oot ed, and ext ends in all dir ect ions in t he f or m of t he
univer se.
e) He t o Whom t hose below make a plea f or benef it s t hat t hey desir e.
f ) He Who subj ugat es t he enemies of His devot ees, and punishes t hem
g) He Who is desir ed in t heir hear t s by t hose who wor ship Him (r udh – kAme –
t o desir e).
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Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he der ivat ion of t he wor d nyak f r om t he r oot a' nc–
gat ipUj anayoh – t o go, t o wor ship. ni is an upasar ga or pr ef ix. nI caiha' ncat i it i
nyak – One who bows low; The wor d r odhah is der ived f r om t he r oot r udh,
which has a couple of dif f er ent meanings – r udh – kAme – t o obey; r udh –
Avar aNe – t o oppose. The t er m nyag-r odah is also used t o denot e t he vaTa
vRksham – t he banyan t r ee. Some vyAkhyAnakar t A-s look at t he nAma as nyag-
r ohah, using a gr ammar r ule t hat says t hat t he ` ha' can be r eplaced by ` gha' .
The dif f er ent int er pr et at ions ar e t he r esult s of t he above var iat ions.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is:
nyag-bhUt aih – adhah- kRt A' nj alibhih, r udhyat e – svapr asAdaun mukhyena
vyast hApyat e it i nyag- r odhah – He Who is cont r olled by t hose who st and
below, bowing t o Him wit h f olded hands. Sr I BhaTTar st r esses t he inf luence
of a' nj ali on bhagavAn – a' nj alih par amAmudr A kshipr am deva-pr asAdinI
(vishNu dhar mot t ar a 33.105) - The sight of t he a' nj ali (t he act of j oining
hands in supplicat ion), immediat ely pleases t he Lor d at once wit hout delay.
ALavandAr point s t o t his in st ot r a r at nam 28 (Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an):
t vad-anghr im uddiSya kadA' pi kenacit yat hA t at hA vA' pi sakRt kRt o' nj alih |
t adaiva mushNAt yaSubhAnyaSeshat ah SubhAni pushNAt i na j At u hI yat e | |
(st ot r a. r at na 28)
"I f anyone wor ships Your Feet wit h f olded hands even once at any t ime under
any pr et ence, at t hat ver y moment all t he sins of t his per son ar e dr iven away,
and inf init e auspices accumulat e f or t his per son".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o t he inst ance of His being t ied t o t he mor t ar by
yaSodA – "kaTTuNNap paNNiaya per u mAyan", as an example of t his Supr eme
Par amAt man being subser vient t o yaSodA' s af f ect ion.
b) I n one of his int er pr et at ions, Sr I vAsishTha uses t he same r oot s, and
comes up wit h t he int er pr et at ion t hat "He is One who cont r ols t hose below" –
nyag r uNaddhi it i nyag-r odhah.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a looks at t he nAma as nyag-r ohah f or t he pur poses of
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int er pr et at ion, and t hen invokes t he gr ammat ical r ule "pRshodar Adit vAt
hakAr asya dhakAr AdeSah" which allows f or t he r eplacement of ha wit h gha in
t he above, r esult ing in nyag-r odhah. His vyAkhyAnam is:
nyak ar vAk r ohat i sar veshAm upar i var t at a it i nyagr odhah - which is gener ally
t r anslat ed as "One Who is Pr imor dial, and is above all".
This meaning can be der ived by using t he r oot r uh – bI j a j anmani
pr Adur bhAveca – t o gr ow, t o incr ease, t o r ise, t o r each.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a also looks at t he nAma as nyag-r ohah (similar t o Sr I
Sa' nkar a above), but comes wit h a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion. He uses t he
meaning r uh – t o gr ow, and gives t he explanat ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat
"He makes all beings obey Him, and gr ows or develops all t he beings"– sar vANi
bhUt Ani nyakRt ya r ohat i var dhat a it i.
I n t he t amizh t r anslat ion f or Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam by Sr I kAmakoTi
kOSast hAnam in 1948, one of t he meanings given f or t he nAma is:
"ellAuyir gaLaiyum kI zhp paDut t it t an mAyaiyAl mUDik kaTTup paDut t ukiRAn"
– The nAma signif ies t hat He cont r ols all beings t hat ar e below Him, and
envelops t hem wit h His mAyA. This int er pr et at ion can be der ived by using t he
meaning "below" f or "nyak", and t he meaning "obey" f or t he wor d r odhah (r udh
kAme – t o obey).
d) The t er m nyagr odhah also r ef er s t o t he banyan t r ee, since t his t r ee gr ows
in t he downwar d dir ect ion as much as it gr ows in t he upwar d dir ect ion. (r uh –t o
gr ow) – nI cair -gat au par ohair -var dhat e; nyag r ohat i – gr ows downwar ds.
Because of t his, t his t r ee is ver y st r ongly r oot ed, and is ext r emely st able. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t his at t r ibut e
of bhagavAn, namely, t hat He is f ir mly r oot ed, and ext ends in all dir ect ions in
t he f or m of t he univer se.
e) Anot her int er pr et at ion of Sr I vAsishTha is – nyagbhih anur udhyat e =
pr Ar t hyat e I psit Apt aya it i nyag-r odhah – "He t o Whom t hose below make a
plea f or benef it s t hat t hey desir e".
f ) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat "He is One who
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subj ugat es t he enemies of His devot ees, and oppr esses or punishes t hem" –
nyak-kRt ya r uNaddhi nir aye nikshipat i sva-bhakt a- dr ohiNa it i nyag-r odhah.
(The r oot used is r udh – Avar aNe – t o oppose, t o oppr ess; nyak-kRt yua -
subj ugat ing).
g) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion: nyagbhih
pr aNat aihr udhyat e hRdaya-pr adeSe it i nyag-r odhah – He Who is desir ed in
t heir hear t s by t hose who wor ship Him (r udh – kAme – t o desir e).
udumbar ah: udumbar ah: udumbar ah:
a) He Who has t he most auspicious Sr I vaikuNTham as His own.
b) He Who is ' above t he sky' , i.e., super ior t o all.
c) He Who nour ishes t he wor ld in t he f or m of f ood et c.
d) One Who has t he best of sounds – t he veda-s, as His f or m.
e) He Who is pr aised by t he highest and best of sounds - bhaj ans, nAma-
sa' nkI r t ana-s et c.
f ) He Who has t he super ior pI t Ambar am as His gar ment (ud- ambar ah).
ut is an upasar ga (pr ef ix). ambar am r ef er s t o t he sky (der ived f r om am –gat i
Sabda sambhakt ishu – t o go, t o eat , t o sound). ut + ambar a = ud-ambar a, which
becomes ud-umbar a because of a gr ammat ical r ule - pRshodar Adi lakshaNam.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is: sar va-guNaih udgat am ambar am – par am
dhAmaasya it i ud-umbar ah – He Who has as t he Supr eme Abode, Sr I
vaikuNTham, is udumbar ah. This abode is Supr eme because it has Lakshmi, and
it r ises above all ot her t hings by it s magnif icent qualit ies (ut ).
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat "He is ` above t he sky' i..e., He is
super ior t o all – amabar At udgat ah ud-ambar ah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda adds t hat t he cause is subt ler t han t he ef f ect , and t hus,
t he essent ial pr inciple, nAr AyaNa, t r anscends even t he concept of space.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion using t he meaning "f ood" f or
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t he wor d "Ur k", and gives t he explanat ion f or t he nAma as "Ur k annam, t ad-
At manA viSvam poshayan udambar ah – He Who nour ishes t he wor ld in t he f or m
of f ood et c. He gives t he suppor t f r om Sr ut i – Ur gvA annAd yad udumbar am
(t ait . br Ah. 1.2.7, 1.3.8).
d) Sr I vAsishTha uses t he r oot am – Sabde – t o sound, and int er pr et s t he
nAma ud-umbar ah as "One Who has t he best of sounds – t he veda-s, as His
f or m" – uccaih sar vat a ut t amo veda-r Upah Sabdo yasya sa ud-
umbar ahsar veSvar o vishNuh.
e) Based on t he same r oot , Sr I vAsishTha gives anot her explanat ion – He Who
is pr aised by t he highest and best of sounds: bhaj ans, nAma- sa' nkI r t ana-s
et c.,– ut sar vat a ut kRshTat vena ambyat e = Sabdyat e = sa' nkI r t yat a it i ud-
umbar ah.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion: ut ut kRshTam
ambar ampI t Ambar am yasya sah udumbar ah - He Who has t he super ior
pI t Ambar am as His gar ment is ud-ambar ah. Her e, he uses t he wor d ambar am
wit h t he meaning "gar ment ".
nyag nyag nyag-- -r odha r odha r odha-- -udumbar ah: udumbar ah: udumbar ah:
Now t hat we have seen t he separ at e meanings of t he t wo nAma-s nyag- r odah
and udumbar ah, let us r evisit t he int er pr et at ion of Sr I BhaTTar f or t his as
one nAma. We not e t hat Sr I BhaTTar ' s explanat ion f or t he par t nyag-r odah
was t hat "bhagavAn is One who is subser vient t o t he devot ees who st and in
f r ont of Him wit h t heir f olded hands", and f or "udumbar ah", t he
int er pr et at ion was t hat "He is One Who has t he Supr eme Abode as His, wit h
Lakshmi and wit h all t hat is magnif icent ". The r easons f or combining t he t wo
int o one nAma now st ands out at us: "Even t hough bhagavAn is One Who is
endowed wit h ever yt hing t hat is Supr eme, He is j ust at t he command of His
devot ees when t hey st and in f r ont of Him wit h f olded hands". Sr I BhaTTar ' s
wor ds ar e: at yucchr it a-sevyo' piat yant a-nI cAnAmapi anuvar t ana- sAdhyah –
Though He is wor shipped by t he highest of t he gods, He is wit hin easy r each
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of t he lowliest of per sons (because it is possible t o please Him easily). No
language or wor ds can capt ur e t his saulabhyaam of emper umAn. This nAma in
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is per haps one of t he best examples of t he
uniqueness of his cont r ibut ion t hr ough his vyAkhyAnam, appr opr iat ely t it led as
"bhagavad guNa dar paNam", wher e he r epeat edly br ings out t he t wo supr eme
qualit ies of bhagavAn – His saulabhyam and His sauSeelyam.
nAma 828. nAma 828. nAma 828. HHt¤- HHt¤- HHt¤- aSvat t ah aSvat t ah aSvat t ah
a) He Who has est ablished t he imper manent gods f or per f or ming var ious
f unct ions.
b) He Who is descr ibed as t he r oot of an et er nal aSvat t ha t r ee of samsAr a
et c.
c) He Who et er nally r ules over t he univer se t hat is never t he same, and keeps
const ant ly changing.
d) He Who per vades t he ent ir e univer se in t he f or m of t he f ive gr eat
element s.
aSvattAya namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is based on looking at t he nAma as a + Sva +
st ha (Sr I aNNa' ngar AcAr ya). Svas means "t omor r ow" (Apt e' s dict ionar y). a-
Svah t hen means ' not t omor r ow' , namely ` t hat which is imper manent ' . Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t his as a r ef er ence t o t he imper manent posit ions of
br ahmA, indr a et c. The par t st hah r ef er s t o His being t he niyAmaka or
Cont r oller of t he wor lds t hr ough t hese gods whose posit ion is t r ansit or y – na
Svah – anit yam, indr Adit yAdi padam yeshAm, t eshu niyAmakat ayA t ishThat i
it ia-Svat -st hah or aSvat t hah using t he pRshodar Adi r ule, wher eby s is
r eplaced by t – or st ha by t t ha. Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om Sr I vishNu
pur ANam:
mUr t im r aj o-mayI m br AhmI m ASr it ya sRj at i pr aj Ah |
ASr it ya paur ushI m mUr t im sAt t vikI m yah sa pAlayan |
kAlAkhyAm t AmasI m mUr t im ASr it ya gr asat e j agat | |
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"Residing wit hin t he body of br ahmA, composed of r aj o guNa, bhagavAn
cr eat es t he wor ld. He t akes t he body of vishNu composed of sat t va, and
pr ot ect s t he wor ld. Assuming t he body of kAla (Siva) composed of t amo-guNa,
He swallows t he Univer se".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi, wher e AzhvAr
descr ibes t his aspect of bhagavAn:
iRukkum iRai iRut t u uNNa ev-vulagukkum t an mUr t i
niRut t inAn deiva' ngaLAga ad-deiva-nAyagan t AnE ….
(t ir uvAi. 5.2.8)
"The lower deit ies, whom you ar e wont t o wor ship f or many dif f er ent wor ldly
benef it s, ar e like t ax-collect or s. They have all been est ablished in t heir
posit ions by my Lor d who is daiva-nAyaka, t he Chief of all gods".
I n one of his int er pr et at ions, Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he concept of
t ime (Svas = t omor r ow), and gives t he int er pr et at ion: Svah = kAle, t ishThat i it i
Svat t hah, na Svat t hah a_Svat t hah, kAla bahir bhUt o bhagavAn vishNuh – He
Who is not const r ained by t ime. This is why He is called sanAt ana – Et er nal,
Per manent . He r ef er s t o t he kaThopanishad passage:
"Ur dhva mUlo' vAk Sakha esho' Svat t hah sanAt anah |
t adeva Sukr am t ad-br ahma t adevAmRt am ucyat e | "
(kaTho. 2.3.1)
"This et er nal pipal t r ee has it s r oot above and br anches downwar d.
That is ef f ulgent . That is Br ahman. That alone is said t o be immor t al".
b) One of Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ions is based on t he r ef er ence t o t he
aSvat t a t r ee – aSvat t ha iva t ishThat i it i aSvat t hah - t hat has r oot s hanging
f r om t he t r ee downwar ds, as well as r oot s like t r adit ional t r ees. Because of
t his, it is descr ibed in t he gI t A and in t he Upanishads as a t r ee t hat has it s
r oot s f r om above, and br anches below.
Ur dhva-mUlam adhah SAkham aSvat t ham pr Ahur -avyayam |
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chandAmsi yasya par NAni yas-t am veda sa veda-vit | |
(gI t A 15.1)
"They speak of an immut able aSvat t ha t r ee wit h it s r oot s above and it s
br anches below. I t s leaves ar e t he veda-s. He who knows it knows t he veda-s".
The r ef er ence t o t he et er nal aSvat t ha t r ee her e is a r ef er ence t o per manent
cycle of samsAr a, which is r oot ed in Br ahman, and which gr ows in a cont inuous
f low int o t he dif f er ent lif e f or ms which t hemselves per ish af t er some t ime,
but t he f low cont inues on. I t pr opagat es t hr ough t he knowledge in t he f or ms
of it s leaves. This knowledge (veda) consist s of bot h t he kAmya kar ma-s in t he
f or m of r eligious r it es and sacr if ices t hat pr omot e t he t r ee of samsAr a, as
well as t he knowledge t hat is needed t o f ell t his t r ee t hat gr ows by desir e et c.
The Sr ut i also gives t he descr ipt ion of samsAr a in t er ms of t he aSvat t ha
t r ee:- Ur dhva-mUlo' vAk Sakha esho' Svat t hah sanAt anah | (kaTho. 2.3.1) –
r ef er enced ear lier - Ur dhva-mUlmavAk Sakham vRksham yo veda sampr at i
(Ar aNya.1.11.5)
c) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses t he meaning "pr apa' ncam" or "t he
univer se" f or t he wor d aSvat t ha, based on t he nir ukt am –
Svast Ad- r UpeNa na st hAt et i aSvat t hah pr apa' ncah;
sa asya ast i nit yam niyamyat a it i ar t hah
He Who et er nally r ules over t he univer se t hat is never t he same, and keeps
const ant ly changing.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives a di f f er ent anubhavam. He der ives t he
meaning st ar t ing f r om t he r oot aS – vyApt au sa' nghAt e ca – t o per vade, t o
accumulat e. His int er pr et at ion is: aSnuvat e – vyApnuvant i viSvam it i aSvAni–
pa' nca mahA bhUt Ani, t eshu vyApakat vena st hit ah aSvat t hah – He Who
per vades t he ent ir e univer se in t he f or m of t he f ive gr eat element s.
nAma 829. nAma 829. nAma 829. ¬lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+- ¬lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+- ¬lT ¹l-¤|+9 7+- cANur Andhr a cANur Andhr a cANur Andhr a-- -nishUdanah nishUdanah nishUdanah
a) He Who slew t he wr est ler by name cANur a.
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b) He Who causes ut most miser y t o t hose who cause har dship t o t he good
people of sAt t vik disposit ion.
c) He Who slew cANur a, dur yodhana and t he like.
cANurAndhara-nishUdanAya namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t his nAma r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s
slaying of an asur a wr est ler by name cANUr a, belonging t o t he andhr a r ace, or
one who is f r om a low-cast e, and who was t he enemy of indr a and ot her gods –
t ad-vir odhinam cANUr a-nAmAnam asur Andhr a mallam nishUdit avAn it i
cANUr Andhr a-nishUdanah.
Sr I v. n. vedAnt a deSikan comment s t hat t his cANur a is dif f er ent f r om t he
one t hat kamsa had deput ed f or killing kRshNa (it so happenst hat t his lat er
was also a wr est ler ).
The t er m andhr a in t his nAma is t r anslat ed dif f er ent ly by t he dif f er ent
t r anslat ed – eit her t hat it r ef er s t o a r ace called andhr a, or a locat ion called
andhr a, or a low-cast e called andhr a. Some int er pr et er s of Sr I Sa' nkar a
vyAkhyAnam indicat e t hat t he cANur a t hat was sent by kamsa was f r om t he
kingdom of andhr a.
b) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives his int er pr et at ion st ar t ing f r om t he basic
r oot s f or t he component par t s of t he nAma.
caN – dAne gat au ca – t o give. caNant i = dadat i dAna-SilAsAt t vika-vRt t ayah
cANUr Ah – Those who ar e sAt t vik by nat ur e and who per f or m act s of giving t o
ot her s ar e called cANUr a-s. Or , cAi – pUj A niSAmanayoh – t o wor ship, t o
obser ve. cAyyant e = pUj yant e it i cANUr Ah, pr aSast a-hRdayAhsAdhavah –
Those noble people who ar e wor t hy of wor ship because of t heir noble hear t s
ar e called cANUr a- s. Thus, t he t er m cANUr a in Sr I vAsishTha' s
int er pr et at ion r ef er s t o good people. - andhr a – der ived f r om andha –
dRshTyupaghAt e dRshyupasamhAr e – t o be blind, t o close t heir eyes. and
hayat i it i andhr ah – Those who cheat or deceive ar e andhr a-s. So
cANUr Andhr a-s ar e t hose who cheat or deceive t he good people. - nishUdana
is der ived f r om t he r oot sUd – kshar aNe– t o dest r oy. nishUdana means "One
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who gives or causes ext r eme pain t hr ough mult iple ways" – sar va-pr akAr eNa
nit ar Am bhAdat e..
Thus, Sr I vAsishTha' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma cANUr Andhr a-
nishUdanah is:
"One Who causes ext r eme pain and miser y t o t hose who t r ouble t he good
andsAt t vik minded people".
c) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a uses t he pATham cANuRAndha nishUdanah, and
int er pr et s t he t er m andha t o r ef er t o dur yodhana and his associat es (andha
means blind; t he r ef er ence t o dur yodhana and his associat es as andhAh could
be because t hey wer e blind t o t r ut h and dhar ma; it could also be because
dur yodhana and hisbr ot her s wer e sons of dhRt ar AshTr a). So his
int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma means "He Who dest r oyed cANur a, and
dur yodhana and his br ot her s" – cANUr aSca andhASca dur yodhanAdayah, t An
nishUdayat i it i.















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Slokam 89 Slokam 89 Slokam 89
BrUl|¬ - B8|=ñ- B8 ¤l- B84lr+-· BrUl|¬ - B8|=ñ- B8 ¤l- B84lr+-· BrUl|¬ - B8|=ñ- B8 ¤l- B84lr+-·
HP |6 ¹+¤l 5|¬-t4l ¬4T T4+lH+-+ <°+ HP |6 ¹+¤l 5|¬-t4l ¬4T T4+lH+-+ <°+ HP |6 ¹+¤l 5|¬-t4l ¬4T T4+lH+-+ <°+
sahasr Ar cih sapt aj ihvah sapt aidhAh sapt avAhanah |
amUr t i r anaghO=cint yO bhayakr ut bhayanAsanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 830. nAma 830. nAma 830. BrUl|¬ - BrUl|¬ - BrUl|¬ - sahasr Ar cih sahasr Ar cih sahasr Ar cih
a) The Thousand-r ayed, Who illumines ever yt hing in t his Univer se.
b) He Whose t ir umEni r adiat es wit h kAnt i t hat r esembles inf init e number or
r ays emanat ing f r om Him.
sahasrArcishe namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He has count less r ays emanat ing f r om
Him, in t he f or m of t he sun, t he moon, et c. I t is because He has endowed t he
sun wit h count less r ays t hat t he sun is able t o per f or m t he f our f unct ions of :
1. pAcana (cooking and r ipening),
2. SoshaNa (dr ying),
3. pr at Apana (giving heat ), and
4. pr akASana (illuminat ing).
Sr I BhaTTar quot es f r om t he paushkar a samhit A and t he gI t A insuppor t :
agnI shomAt ma sam~j nasya devasya par amAt manah |
sUr yA-candr amasau viddhi sa AkAr au locaneSvar au | |
(Sr I paushkar a)
"Know t hat t he sun and t he moon ar e t he t wo eye-gods in an embodied f or m of
t he Supr eme Deit y Par amAt mA whose name is agnI shomAt man".
yad Adit ya-gat am t ej o j agat bhAsayat e' khilam |
yac-candr amasi yac-cAganau t ad-t ej o viddhi mAmakam | | (gI t A 15.12)
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"That light which is in t he sun and illuminat es t he ent ir e univer se, t hat in t he
moon and t hat in t he f ir e – under st and all t hat light is only Mine".
Sr I cinmayAnanda not es t hat it is not only t he sun and t he moon t hat get t heir
light f r om Him, but He is t he One who illumines all exper iences.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: sahsr ANi anant Ani ar cI shi yasya
sahsahasr Ar cih – He who r adiat es innumer able r ays is sahasr Ar cih. He quot es
sa' nj aya' s wor ds in t he gI t A in suppor t :
divi sUr ya sahasr asya bhaved yugapad-ut t hit A |
yadi bhAh sadRSI sA syAd bhAsas-t asya mahAt manah | |
(gI t A 11.12)
"I f a t housand suns wer e t o r ise at once in t he sky, t he r esult ing splendor may
be like t he splendor of t hat might y One".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi, wher e
AzhvAr r ef er s t o emper umAn as "oLi maNi vaNNan" – The One wit h t he
d az z l i ng r ad i anc e of a gem–sahasr A r c i h: " oLi maN i
vaNNanaiyE." (t ir uvAi.3.4.7).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion as "shasr ANi ar cI shi
Sr I vigr ahodgat a kAnt i-kir aNA yasya it i sahasr Ar cih" – He Whose divine
t ir umEni shines wit h count less r ays of r adiance.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t he similar nAma-s dI pt a-mUr t ih (Slokam 77,
nAma 724 ), and sahsr AmSuh (Slokam 51, nAma 484).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat t he signif icance of t he nAma lies in
point ing t o t he immeasur able glor y of bhagavAn – it is like count ing t he number
of gr ains of sand in a sea shor e. J ust as t he number of r ays of light emanat ing
f r om t he sun cannot be quant if ied, so also bhagavAn' s glor y cannot be
quant if ied. The only t hing we can do is t o r emember t hat t he j yot i of t he sun is
but a t iny f r act ion of His j yot i. Sr I vAsishTha has given innumer able
r ef er ences f r om t he Sr ut i t o t he descr ipt ion of bhagavAn' s guNa-s as
"sahasr a"– beyond quant if icat ion:
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sahasr a yAj asah, sahasr a par Nah, sahasr a pAt , sahasr a SI r shA,
sahasr Akshah,sahasr a posham, sahasr a poshiNam, sahasr a bAhvah, sahasr a
mRshTih, sahasr abhar ah, sahasr a yAmA, sahasr a vI r am, sahasr a SR' ngah,
sahasr a st hUNam, sahasr aket um, sahasr a cakshasam, et c.
nAma 831. nAma 831. nAma 831. B8|=ñ- B8|=ñ- B8|=ñ- sapt a sapt a sapt a-- -j ihvah j ihvah j ihvah
The seven-t ongued.
sapta-jihvAya namah.
sapt a r ef er s t o t he number seven. j ihvA means t ongue in gener al, also t o t he
"t ongue of f ir e". I t is in t his lat e sense t hat t he int er pr et er s have explained
t he nAma in gener al. agni or f ir e is consider ed t o have seven t ongues, and
bhagavAn in t he f or m of t he sacr if icial f ir e accept s t he sacr if icial of f er ings
and t akes it t o t he dif f er ent gods.
Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he paushkar a samhit A in suppor t :
t ad-vakt r a-devat AnAm ca hut a-bhuk par ameSvar ah |
mant r a-pUt am yad-AdAya hut am Aj ya pur as-sar am |
br ahmANDa bhuvanam sar vam sant ar payat i sar vadA | |
"The Supr eme Lor d in t he f or m of hut a-bhuk (f ir e) car r ies t o t he gods t he
of f er ings t hat ar e sanct if ied by t he mant r a-s and made in a sacr if ice along
wit h clar if ied but t er , and t her eby always pleases t he ent ir e Univer ses".
a) Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat f ir e is consider ed t o have seven t ongues named:
1. kAli,
2. kar Ali,
3. manoj avA,
4. sulohit A,
5. sudhUmr avar NA,
6. sphuli' ngini, and
7. viSvar uci,
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and t hey have been allot t ed t he dut ies of nour ishing t he gods, r eceiving t he
oblat ions, and car r ying t hem t o t he r espect ive gods.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he muNDakopanishad passage in suppor t :
kAlee kar Aleeca manoj avA ca sulohit A yA ca sudhUmr avar NA |
sphuli' nginee viSva-r ucee ca devI lelAyamAnA it i sapt a-j ihvAh | |
(muNDa. 1.2.4)
"kAli, kar Ali, manoj avA, sulohit A, sudhUmr avar NA, sphuli' ngini, and t he
br illiant viSva-r uci ar e t he seven f laming t ongues".
One t r anslat or t r anslat es t his as: "The seven quiver ing t ongues of f ir e ar e:
The black one, t he t er r if ic one, swif t as t he mind, t he ver y r ed one, of pur ple
color , emit t ing spar ks, and all-shaped goddess".
Ot her r ef er ences t o t he seven t ongues of agni f ound in t he Sr ut i ar e:
divas-cd-agne mahinA pRt hivyA vacyant Am t e vahanayah sapt a-j ihvAh |
(Rg. 3.6.2)
sapt a t e agne saamidhah sapt a-j ihvAh |
(t ait . sam. 1.5.3)
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t he t ongues of f ir e t hat accept t he
of f er ings ar e known dif f er ent ly depending on whet her t he kar ma is a sAt t vic,
r Aj asic, or t Amasic: The seven f lames ar e known as hir aNyA, kanaka, r akt A,
kRshNA, supr abhA, at ir kat A, and bahu-r UpA in a sAt t vic kar ma, padma-r AgA,
suvar NA, bhadr a-lohit A, Svet A, dhUminI , and kAlikA in a r Aj asic kar ma, and
kali,kar ali, et c., in a t Amasic kar ma. He also not es t hat t he devat A-s associat ed
wit h t he seven t ongues ar e t he deva-s, pit R-s, gandhar va-s, yaksha-s, nAga-s,
piSAca-s, and r Akshasa-s.
b) I n addit ion t o t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he seven t ongues of agni, Sr I
vAsishTha gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion, in which he t akes t he r ef er ence
t o "seven" as a r ef er ence t o "many" – sapt a it i anekaupalakshaNam aneka-
pr akAr a j ihvam vidhat t a it i. I n t his int er pr et at ion, his anubhavam is t hat j ust
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as He has sever al t ongues, He has also equipped His cr eat ion wit h sever al
t ypes of t ongues f or t he dif f er ent species. He obser ves t hat as t he of f er ings
in t he homa f eed t he agni wit h it s seven t ongues, t he f ood consumed by t he
dif f er ent species t hr ough t he t ongue, along wit h t he pr ANa vAyu, is
t r ansmit t ed t o f eed t he j AThar Agni; t hus, what t he veda t alks of (f eeding t he
f ir e t hr ough t he dif f er ent t ongues), is not hing dif f er ent f r om what happens in
r eal lif e, and so veda is not t alking anyt hing but r eal lif e happenings – bhavat i
lokena samo vedo vedena ca samo lokah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda suggest s t hat t he "seven t ongues of f lame" conveys t he
idea t hat t he Light of Consciousness in us beams out t hr ough seven point s in
t he f ace – t wo eyes, t wo ear s, t wo nost r ils, and t he mout h. As int elligent
beings, power s of per cept ion, met aphor ically, f lame out t hr ough each one of
t hem, illumining t he wor ld f or us. The one in our hear t , Sr I nAr AyaNa, Who
t ot ally manif est s as t he seven dist inct t ongues-of -f lame is classif ied her e in
t he language of lyr ics as sapt a-j ihvah.
nAma 832. nAma 832. nAma 832. B8 ¤l- B8 ¤l- B8 ¤l- sapt aidhAh sapt aidhAh sapt aidhAh
One Who is kindled in t he f or m of f ir e by t he seven kinds of of f er ings.
saptaidhase namah.
The pr evious nAma, sapt a-j ihvah, was int er pr et ed in t er ms of t he dif f er ent
t ypes of f lames, wit h t heir individual t r ait s such as dif f er ing color s and ot her
at t r ibut es, and also t he dif f er ent devat A- s t o whom t hey car r ied t he
of f er ings. The cur r ent nAma r ef er s t o t he dif f er ent t ypes of f uels t hat ar e
used t o r aise t hese f ir es, bot h in t he f or m of t he f uels t hemselves and in t he
f or m of t he dif f er ent t ypes of yAj ~na-s.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot f or t he cur r ent nAma as edh –vRddhau
– t o gr ow, t o pr osper . The t er m edhas is used t o r ef er t o f uel t hat kindles t he
f ir e. The nir ukt i aut hor gives t he descr ipt ion – sapt a edhAh yasya sant i sah
sapt aidAh. Apt e' s dict ionar y gives t he meaning "f uel" t o t he wor d edhas (he
gives a r ef er ence f r om t he gI t A insuppor t – yat haidhAmsi samiddhognir -
bhasmasAt kur ut e' r j una – Bg. 4.37). edhA also means ` pr osper it y, happiness' .
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a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion uses t he meaning "f uel" (based on t he
t r anslat ion of Sr I A. Sr inivsa Raghavan) f or t he wor d edhas, and his
vyAkhyAnam is "One Who shines like f ir e t hr ough t he seven kinds of f uels".
Sr I BhaTTar pr oceeds t o descr ibe t he kinds of ' f uels' t hat kindle t his ' Fir e' –
it is t he of f er ings of dif f er ent kinds in t he f or m of pAka-yaj ~na, havir -yaj ~na,
soma-samst ha, et c., each of which is of seven kinds. Sr I Sr inivasa Raghavan
descr ibes t hese f ur t her :
1. pAka-yaj ~na (based on cooked f ood): aupAsana, vaiSva-deva, st hAlI -
pAka, ashTakA Sr Addha, mont hly cer emonies, I SAna bali, and sar pa
bali.
2. havir -yaj ~na (oblat ions in f ir e): agni-hot r a, dar Sa-pUr Na-mAsa, piNDa-
pit R-yaj ~na, paSu-bandha, Agr AyaNa, cAt ur -mAsya, and saut r A-maNi.
3. soma-samst ha (yAga-s): agni-shToma, at yagni-shToma, ukt ya, shodaSa,
vAj apeya, at ir At r a, and apt or -yAma.
The st icks of seven f or est t r ees t hat bear f r uit appar ent ly wit hout any
blossoms and t hat ar e used in sacr if ices ar e:
1. t he palASa t r ee,
2. t he banyan t r ee,
3. t he f ig t r ee,
4. t he j ack t r ee,
5. t he SamI ,
6. aSani-hat a, and
7. pushkar a-par Na.
Thus, in Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion, t he nAma r ef er s t o "One Who is
kindled in t he f or m of f ir e by t he seven kinds of of f er ings".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is "sapt a edhAmsi dI pt ayo' sya it i sapt aidhAh–
agnih" - He t hat has seven f lames. He gives t he suppor t f r om t he Sr ut i– "sapt a
t e agne samidhah, sapt a j ivhAh" (t ait . sam. 1.5.3) – "O Fir e, you have seven
f lames, seven t ongues".
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Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he sapt a-Rshi-
s – t he seven st ar s of t he Ur sa Maj or const ellat ion (mar I ci, at r i, a' ngir as,
pulast ya, pulaha, kr at u, and vasishTha). His int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma
signif ies t hat bhagavAn is t he Suppor t er of t he seven Rshi-s in t he f or m of
t he st ar s – sapt a-RshI n edhayat i var dhayat i it i sapt aidhAh. Thus, t he t er m
edhas is her e used in t he sense of pr osper it y and happiness.
nAma 833. nAma 833. nAma 833. B84lr+- B84lr+- B84lr+- sapt a sapt a sapt a-- -vAhanah vAhanah vAhanah
a) He Who has seven vehicles in t he f or m of t he seven vedic mant r a-s
r epr esent ed by t he seven hor ses of t he Sun.
b) He Who suppor t s t he Univer se in t he f or m of t he seven Sun-s.
c) He Who suppor t s t he t hr ee wor lds t hr ough t he seven vAyu-maNDala-s or
r egions of air .
d) He Who has a vehicle wit h it s hor se named sapt a.
e) He Who pr ot ect s t he beings t hr ough f acilit ies t hat has pr ovided in unit s of
seven – seven t ypes of f luids in our syst em, seven holes in our f ace as sense
or gans, t he seven obj ect s of t hese sense-or gans, et c.
f ) He Who conduct s t he seven wor lds wit h pr osper it y.
sapta-vAhanAya namah.
The wor d vAhana is der ived f r om t he r oot vah – pr Apane – t o bear along, t o
car r y, t o f low. vAhanam also has a meaning "an animal used in r iding, such as a
hor se". He who pr opagat es or is car r ied along t hr ough t hings t hat ar e in unit s
of seven, or who is suppor t ed by t hings t hat ar e inunit s of seven, is sapt a-
vAhanah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who has as His vehicle t he sun
whose char iot has seven hor ses (of t he sun)". These ar e consider ed t he
pr esiding deit ies of t he seven veda mant r a-s in t he cont ext of t his nAma:
bhU,bhuvah, suvah, mahah, j anah, t apah, and sat yam. The chandas associat ed
wit h t hese mant r a-s ar e r espect ively: gAyat r I , ushnik, anushTup, bRhat I ,
pa' ngt i,t r ishTup, j agat i. The devat A-s associat ed wit h t hese mant r a-s ar e:
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agni, vAyu, ar ka(sun), vAgI Sa (bRhaspat i), vr uNa, indr a, viSvedeva. These
seven devat A-s lead t he sun in his cour se. Since BhagavAn suppor t s t he sun
t hr ough t hese seven devat A-s and t he seven mant r a-s associat ed wit h t hese
seven met er s, He is called sapt a-vAhanah. These seven mant r a-s ar e vehicles
t hat r eveal Him, and t hey ar e couched in t he seven met er s r ef er r ed t o above.
We wor ship Him who is in t he cent er of t he sUr ya maNDalam t hr ough t hese
veda mant r a-s.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj angives r ef er ence t o SiRiya t ir umaDal of t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr :
kAr Ar pur avi EzhpUNDa t ani Azhi t er Ar nir ai kadir On manDalat t An.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o Sr I vishNu pur ANam 2.8, wher e
t he sun and it s char act er ist ics ar e descr ibed. The r ef er ence t o t he seven
hor ses t hat suppor t t he sun is given in V.P. 2.8.5:
hayASca sapt ac-chandAmsi t eshAm nAnAni me Sr uNu |
gAyat r I sa bRhat -ushNig j agat I t r ishTubeva ca |
anushTup pa' nct ir -it yukt AS-chandAmsi har ayo r aveh | |
(VP 2.8.5)
"The seven hor ses of t he sun' s car ar e t he met er s of t he veda-s: gAyat r I ,
bRhat I , ushNig, j agat I , t r ishTubh, anushTubh, and pa' nkt i".
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a also r ef er s t o t he seven hor ses of t he sun,
andbhagavAn' s nAma of sapt a-vAhanah signif ying t hat He leads t he sun wit h
t he sevenhor ses – sapt a-vAhanah sapt a vAhA aSvA yasya sah sapt a-vAhah
sUr yas t am nayat i it i sapt a-vAhanah.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn in t he f or m of t he sun has
avAhana or vehicle wit h seven hor ses – sapt a AsvA vAhanAni asya it i sapt a-
vAhanah.
b) Sr I SAst r i also point s t o seven suns – Ar ogah, bhr Aj ah, paTar ah, pat a' ngah,
svar Nar ah, j yot ishI mAn, vibhAsah. see ar uNa pr aSnam 20
Ar ogobhr Aj ah paaTar ah pat a' ngah |
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svar nar o j yot ishI mAn vibhAsah |
Of t hese, Ar oga is t he sun t hat we see. We do not see t he ot her six suns,
since t hr ee of t hese sust ain t he lower par t of t he mer u mount ain, and t hr ee
shine on t he upper par t of t he mer u. BhagavAn is called sapt a-vAhanah, since
He suppor t s all par t s of t he Univer se t hr ough t hese seven vehicles or t he
seven suns.
c) Sr I BhaTTar gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion in t er ms of His pr ot ect ing
t he Univer se t hr ough seven r egions of pr ANA Sakt i – vit al air s – in t hef or ms
of seven vAyu maNDala-s or r egions of air .
Pr of . A. Sr inivasa Raghavan descr ibes t hese seven r egions of air in t he t hr ee
wor lds as Avaha, pr avaha, samvaha, udvaha, vivaha, par ivaha, and par Avaha.
Since vAyu or air get s it s st r engt h f r om t he lif e- br eat h of t he Lor d of t he
Wor ld, He is t he Suppor t er of all t he wor lds in t he f or m of t he seven
maNDala-s or r egions of air .
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a also gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion f or which he quot es
suppor t f r om t he Sr ut i – He Who has a vehicle called sapt a – eko' Svo
vahat isapt a-nAmA (t ait . Ar aN. 3.11.9; Rg. Sam. 1.164.2) – The hor se named
sapt a is car r ying Him.
e) Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t her e ar e sever al aspect s of our
body t hat ar e in unit s of seven. Ther e ar e seven dhAt u-s – essent ial
ingr edient s - associat ed wit h t he body – r asA sR' ng mAmsa medah ast i
maj j ASuklAni dhAt avah accor ding t o t he ancient medical science - Chyle,
blood, f lesh,f at , bone, mar r ow, semen. Since bhagavAn suppor t s t he body wit h
t hese seven essent ial ingr edient s, He has t he nAma sapt a-vAhanah.
Or , t her e ar e seven dvAr a-s (openings or holes) in our f ace – t he t wo eyes, t he
t wo nost r ils, t he t wo ear s, and t he mout h. The lif e ener gy is exchanged in our
body t hr ough t hese openings, and since He suppor t s t he lif e t hr ough t hese
seven vehicles, He is called sapt a- vAhanah.
Or , t hese seven openings ar e like t he seven t ongues t hr ough which our lif e is
sust ained, t hr ough t he senses of f eelings, sight , t ast e, smell, et c. These ar e
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t he sapt a-j ivhAh, sapt a, edhAh (f ir ewood), sapt a-vAhana, et c. Sr I SAst r i
gives t he muNDakopanishad passage in suppor t :
sapt a pr ANAh pr abhavant i t asmAt sapAr cishah
samidhah sapt a homAh (j ihvAh) |
sapt eme lokA yeshu car ant i pr ANA guhASayA nihit Ah sapt a sapt a | |
(muNDa. 2.1.8)
Slight ly dif f er ent t r anslat ions of t he above ar e given below, in t he int er est s
of addit ional clar it y.
"Fr om t he akshar a pur usha emer ge t he seven sense or gans, t he seven f ir es,
t he sacr if icial f uel, and t he seven f lames, and t he seven wor lds in which we
move t he sense or gans t hat ar e deposit ed by t he Cr eat or in gr oups of seven
and seven".
"Fr om Him emer ge t he seven sense-or gans, t he seven f lames, t he seven kinds
of f uel, t he seven oblat ions, and t hese seat s wher e move t he sense-or gans
t hat sleep in t he cavit y, having been deposit ed by God in gr oups of seven".
"Fr om Him, t oo, t he seven senses in t he head, t heir power s of cognit ion, t heir
obj ect s and t heir knowledge, as also t he seven seat s of sense t r aver sed by t he
lif e f or ces cent er ed in t he hear t s of all cr eat ur es. The seven seat s ar e t he
ner ve cent er s of t he inner pr inciples of t he senses, wit hout which t he ext er nal
senses cannot by t hemselves f unct ion.
The seven sense-or gans ar e t he ones locat ed in our head – t he t wo eyes, t he
t wo nost r ils, t he t wo ear s, and t he mout h; t he seven f lames – t he means of
illuminat ion of t he obj ect s of t hese sense- or gans; t he sapt a-samidah – t he
seven obj ect s of t hese sense-or gans, since t he sense-or gans ar e kindled by
t hese obj ect s.
f ) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshan gives his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of bhagavAn
conduct ing t he seven wor lds pr osper ously: sapt a-bhuvanAni vAhayat i
pr Apayat iabhyudayam it i sapt a-vAhanah.
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Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am giving
t he int er pr et at ion t hat Lor d kRshNa had as His vehicles t he f ollowing seven,
consist ing of f our hor ses, t he char iot it self , gar uDa, and A' nj aneya:
t at r a AsvAh Saibya sugr I va megha pushpa balAhakAh
(Sr I mad bhAgavat am 10.89.49)
syandanam pa' ncamam
t he char iot it self
chandomayena gar uDena samuhyamAnah cakr Ayudho' yagamadASu yat o
gaj endr ah|
(bhAga. 8.3.31)
bikshu r Upam par it yaj ya vAnar a r Upam Ast hit ah |
pRshThamAr opya t au vI r au j agAma kapiku' nj ar ah | |
(r AmAyaNam 4.4.34)
g) Sr I cinmayAnanda' s anubhavam is t hat t his nAma of bhagavAn signif ies t hat
t he sun is dr awn by t he seven hor ses, r epr esent ing t he seven days of t he week.
He has not given t he basis f or t his int er pr et at ion. The nAma has similar it ies t o
vAyu-vAhanah (nAma 333, 860 – Slokam 36, 90 ), which we will deal wit h in
Slokam 90.
nAma 834. nAma 834. nAma 834. HP |6 - HP |6 - HP |6 - aa a-- -mUr t ih mUr t ih mUr t ih
a) He Who does not have a body t hat is t he ef f ect of kar ma similar t o our s.
b) He Who is signif ied by t he let t er ' a' in pr aNavam.
a-mUrtaye namah
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he next f ew nAma-s as illust r at ing t hat bhagavAn is
ver y dif f er ent f r om t he j I va-s over whom He pr esides, in His Nat ur e. mUr t i
r ef er s t o f or m. a-mUr t i lit er ally means "One Who has no f or m".
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as meaning t hat He does not have a f or m
t hat is like any of our bodies, and it is quit e dif f er ent f r om t he gr oss bodies
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of our s t hat is composed of t he f ive element s - st hUla-bhaut ika
mUr t ivyAvRt t ah a-mUr t ih.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives suppor t f r om t he I SAvAsya Upanishad (8):
sa par yagAt Sukr am a-kAyam a-vr aNam…- The One wit h no body (caused by
kar ma)–a-kAyam.
Sr I Sa' nkar a def ines t he t er m ` mUr t i" as an obj ect , moving or unmoving, t hat
has weight and t angibilit y – mUr t ih ghana-r Upam dhAr aNa samar t hamcar Acar a
lakshaNam. Since He is not const r ained by any of t hese limit at ions, He is
amUr t ih – t ad-r ahit a it i a-mUr t ih. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i elabor at es on
t his, and not es t hat t he t er m ` ghana r Upam' her e r ef er s t o consumable f ood
which is of t wo kinds – t he moving kind, such as t he r at f or t he cat , and t he
non-moving kind such as t he r ice f or t he humans. The ` mUr t i" or f or m t hat is
r ef er r ed t o her e is t he f or m t hat r equir es sust enance in t he f or m of t he
ghana-r Upam t hat is of t he moving or t he non-moving kind. Since He is not
const r ained by such a f or m t hat needs t o be suppor t ed as not ed her e, He is
called a-mUr t ih.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r emar ks t hat mUr t i or f or m is t hat which is given t o
us f or t he enj oyment of t he benef it s of our kar ma. Since bhagavAn does not
have a f or m t hat is t he r esult of kar ma-s, He is a- mUr t ih.
Br ahman is like f ir e t hat has no f ixed shape or f or m. I t can gr ow as lar ge as it
chooses t o, and t ake what ever f or m I t want s. Sr I vAsishTha gives
t hef ollowing Rg vedic mant r a, which descr ibes agni as f or mless (amUr am =
amUr t am):
agnim hot Ar am pr avRNe miyedhe
gRt sam kavim viSam-idam amUr am |
(Rg. 3.19.1)
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma
signif ies t hat bhagavAn is r epr esent ed by t he let t er ' a' – akAr o mUr t ihyasya
it i a-mUr t ih. I n t his int er pr eat ion, a-mUr t ih is: "One Who has t he mUr t i of
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f or m r epr esent ed by t he let t er "a".
svAmi deSikan quot es f r om ashTaSlokI in his r ahasya t r aya sAr am:
akAr Ar t ho vishNuh j agad-udaya-r akshA-pr alaya-kRt |
"a-kAr am r ef er s t o Lor d vishNu, in His r ole as t he Cr eat or , Pr ot ect or , and
Dest r oyer of t he Univer se".
Sr I vAsishTha nicely br ings out t he point t hat bhagavAn is a-mUr t ih, by
point ing out t he r elat ion bet ween t he soul and t he body wit h which it is
associat ed. J ust as t he soul is f or mless, but suppor t s t he body t hat it is
associat ed wit h, bhagavAn is t he f or mless Supr eme Soul t hat suppor t s all t he
f or med ent it ies in t his Univer se. Her e is his composit ion expr essing t his
int er pr et at ion:
At mA hi amUr t ir -vahat e ca mUr t am gAt r am yat hA nAma t at hAbhupait i |
vishnUr -hi amUr t ih sakalam ca viSvam vahan t at hA nAmabhir - ucyat e sah | |
nAma 835. nAma 835. nAma 835. H+¤- H+¤- H+¤- an an an-- -aghah aghah aghah
a) The Sinless.
b) He Who is opposed t o sin.
c) He Who is of blemishless char act er .
d) He Who does not suf f er sor r ow.
anaghAya namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier as nAma 148, Slokam 16.
The r oot wor d involved in t he nAma is agh – pApa kar aNe –t o go wr ong, t o sin.
agho nAst i yasmin so' naghah – He Who does not have any sin is an-aghah. Or ,
na aghah – agha Sabda pApa vacanah, t ad-vir odhI ca anaghah – He Who is
opposed t o sin is an-aghah. agha also means duhkham or sor r ow – He Who does
not suf f er sor r ow is an-aghah.
a) BhagavAn t akes bir t h in t he midst of us, in t he midst of samsAr a. Even so,
He is sinless. This is t he aspect t hat Sr I BhaTTar st r esses in his
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int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma in Slokam 16 - samsAr a madhye j anit vA' pi an-
aghah.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an not es t hat even t hough Lor d r Ama had t o go t hr ough
enor mous har dships as par t of t his samsAr a – "nATTil piRandu paDAdana
paTTu", st ill He was complet ely sinless. His bir t h and His act ions ar e pur ely
because of His leelA. He is apahat apApmA – complet ely opposed t o f ault s of
any kind. He is "kuRaivu onRum illAda govindan" (ANDAL – t ir uppAvai). I n
addit ion t o Himself being sinless, He is t he One who r emoves t he sins of
ot her s.
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion deals
wit h t he r eason why He is sinless as not ed above – it is because He is not
subj ect t o kar ma, and so He is ent ir ely dif f er ent f r om t he j I va-s t hat ar e
under His cont r ol – akar ma vaSat vena t an- magna j I va vilakshaNah an-aghah.
Ther e ar e sever al ot her anubhava-s as t o why bhagavAn is an-aghah. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an not es t hat His body is made of Suddha sat t va mat er ial, which is
beyond t he pr ocesses of aging, decay, deat h, disease, et c. This is one r eason
why He is an-aghah f r om t he aspect of His body.
c) nammAz hvAr r ef er s t o emper umAn as " t I di l SI r
t ir uvE' nakaTat t An" (t ir uvAi. 3.3.5) - One wit h blemishless char act er . Her e,
His guNa of simplicit y in blessing His devot ees wit h t he ut most Mer cy,
ir r espect ive of t heir inf init e f ault s, is t he aspect t hat is enj oyed.
Sr I v. n. vedAnt a deSikan comment s t hat He is wit hout t I du–anaghan, because
He is st anding t her e in t ir uvE' nkaTam pat ient ly, wait ing f or pr ot ect ion-
seeker s, un-mindf ul of any demer it s of t hese per sons, not sat isf ied t ill t he
last one is r edeemed; t his simplicit y and magnanimous gr ace ar e His gr eat est
vir t ues t hat r eally mar k Him out .
Sr I Sa' nkar a dist inguishes bet ween t he t wo inst ances of t he nAma by using
t he t wo dif f er ent meanings f or t he wor ds agham – duhkham and pApam. This is
t he same appr oach t hat Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses as well. The
meaning "sor r ow" f or t he wor d "agham", in addit ion t o t he meaning "sin", is
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suppor t ed by t he amar a koSam – a' nagho duhkha vyasaneshvagham (3.3.27) –
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj .
Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma in Slokam 16 was: agham na
vidyat easya it i an-aghah, and he gives t he quot e f r om chAndogya Upanishad 8.1
in suppor t – apahat apApmA – He is f r ee f r om sin.
For t he nAma in Slokam 16, Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also uses t he
meaning "sin" – na agham yasmin it i an-agho nish-pApah.
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma is:
agham duhkham pApam ca dvayam asya na vidyat a it i an-aghah – One Who is
wit hout sin or sor r ow.
Sr I bhAr advAj ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma uses
t his meaning: na agham duhkham yasmin it i an-aghah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat bhagavAn is devoid of bad deeds,
t he sins t hat r esult f r om such deeds, and t he sor r ow t hat r esult f r om t hem. I t
is t he t hought of commit t ing sins t hat is t he st ar t of t he act of sinning. He is
devoid of such t hought t o st ar t wit h. So t her e is no evil deed. Since t her e is
no evil deed, t her e is no consequence of t he evil deed also – t he duhkham. He
gives sever al quot es f r om t he Sr ut i in suppor t :
Suddham apApa viddham
(I SAvAs. 8)
Ever pur e, unt ouched by puNya and pApa.
apahat apApma abhayam r Upam…. t ad-Apt a kAmam At ma kAmam akAmam
r Upam SokAnt ar am
(Br had. upa. 4.3.21)
At mA apahat apApamA vij ar aj
(chAndogya. 8.7.1)
That At mA which is sinless, ageless, ….
na j ar A na mRt yur na Soko n sukRt am na dushkRt am sar ve pApmAno' t o
nivar t ant e apahat apApmA (chAn. 8.4.1)
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Sr I cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ence t o a similar message in chAndogya
Upanishad 8.1.5:
esha At mA apahat apApmA vij ar o vimRt yur viSoko
vij ighat so' pipAsahsat yakAma sat ya sa' nkalpah ….
This is t he At mA t hat is opposed t o all t hat is def iling, f r ee f r om old age,
deat h, sor r ow, hunger , and t hir st , and has t r ue desir e and t r ue will. Sr I
cinmayAnanda comment s t hat t he peace of vir t ue or t he agit at ions of t he sin
in us cannot af f ect t he I lluminat or of all consciousness, and He is f r ee f r om
sin and uncont aminat ed (alipt ah).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN r ef er s us t o bhI shma' s wor ds –
"pavit r ANAmpavit r am yah" in t he int r oduct or y par t of Sr I vishNu sahasr a
nAmam – The Pur est of t he Pur e.
nAma 836. nAma 836. nAma 836. H|¬-t4- H|¬-t4- H|¬-t4- aa a-- -cint yah cint yah cint yah
a) He Who is incompar able t o anyt hing known.
b) He Whose power cannot be imagined.
c) He Who cannot be complet ely compr ehended in our minds.
a-cintyAya namah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot involved in t he nAma as cit –
samj ~nAne – t o not ice, t o under st and. He Who cannot be descr ibed as such
and such, is a-cint yah; Or , He Who cannot be compr ehended complet ely in our
mind is a-cint yah. cint ayit um – iyat t ayA par yavasit um Sakyah cint yah; na cit yah
a-cint yah;manaso' pi agocar ah.
Ther e ar e many ot her ways t o enj oy t his nAma – He Whose leelA-s ar e
incompr ehensible, He Whose power cannot be imagined, et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma indicat es t hat He is beyond
compar ison wit h anyone or anyt hing. vaLLuvar declar es t hat bhagavAn is
"t anakkuuvamai allAdAn". The Sr ut i at t empt s t o descr ibe Him - t he chAndogya
Upanishad declar es t hat bhagavAn is - "golden-color ed, wit h golden color ed
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moust ache, eyes r esembling t he j ust -blossomed lot us" -
ya eshont ar Adit ye hir aNmayah pur ushah dRSyat e,hir aNmayah smaSr uh,
hir aNya keSa apr aNakhAt sar va eva suvar Nah;
t asya yaht AkapyAsam puNDar I kamevam akshiNI –
He is in t he middle of t he sun, wit h golden hue, golden must ache, golden hair ,
eyes r esembling t he j ust -bloomed lot us, et c. But t he Sr ut i also declar es t hat
He is beyond wor ds and beyond mind – yat ovAco nivar t ant e, apr Apaya manasA
saha (t ait t . upa.).
nammAzhvAr conveys t he t wo ideas t oget her in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am
1.3.2: kaTTur aikkil t Amar ai nin kaN pAdam kai ovvASuTTur ait t a nan pon un
t ir umEni oLi ovvAduoTTur ait t u iv-ulagu unnaip pugazhvellAm per umpAlum
paTTur aiyAip puRkenRE kATTumAl par am j ot I ! (t ir uvAi. 1.3.2)
"O Supr eme Ef f ulgence! You ar e t o be mer ely enj oyed. Any at t empt at ver bal
descr ipt ion of You is f ut ile, especially if one compar es You wit h f amiliar
obj ect s t hat ar e not even r emot ely compar able t o You in any r espect . Wit h
beaut if ul eyes, f eet and ar ms, t o all of which lot us is but a poor simile, wit h a
dazzling st at ur e t o which pur e unalloyed gold is a poor compar ison, You ar e
of t en being pict ur ed by t he wor ld wit h wor ds t hat do You no j ust ice. Any
compar ison of You t o t he wor ldly t hings is j ust a f ailed at t empt t o descr ibe
You".
I t is like some commoner who has never seen a pr ecious st one, descr ibing t hat
pr ecious st one as "somet hing r esembling a pebble." nammAzhvAr pr oceeds in
t he ver y next pASur am t o declar e t hat even af t er descr ibing His gr eat ness by
t he wor ds "par am j yot i – The Supr eme Ef f ulgence", if one pr oceeds t o
descr ibe His auspicious qualit ies – His simplicit y, His sauSI lyam and His
saulabhyam, t her e is no wor d t hat we have t hat can descr ibe t hese aspect s
of bhagavAn. AzhvAr exclaims: "par am j yot i! govindA! PaNbu ur aikka
mATTEnE"– "I won' t even at t empt t o descr ibe Your auspicious qualit ies".
So,bhagavAn is a-cint yah in ever y sense of t he wor d., especially when it comes
t o His auspicious qualit ies. He is "govindA" – Who can mingle wit h even cows.
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nammAzhvAr lament s at t he unimaginable behavior of t his emper umAn who is
sar va lokeSvar an, who subj ect s Himself t o t he insult of being called t he
"but t er t hief " – ne' nj Al ninaippu ar idAl veNNey UN ennum Enac-collE
(t ir uvir ut t am 98).
Sr I r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o a t ir uvAimozhi pASur am by nammAzhvAr t hat nicely
explains t he nAma a-cint yah:
mAyan en ne' nj il uLLAn maRRum yavar kkum ahdEkAyamum Seevanum t AnE
kAlum er iyum avanESeyan aNiyan yavar kkum Sindaiyum gocar am allant Uyan
t uyakkan mayakkan ennudait t OL iNaiyAnE
(t ir uvAi. 1.9.6)
The f ollowing explanat ion of t he above pASur am is par t ly dr awn f r om Sr I mad
t ir ukkuDant hai ANDavan' s bhagavad vishaya sAr am, and is my poor at t empt at
capt ur ing my gr eat AcAr ya' s t hought s:
"He is our body, and He is also t he soul of our body; He is t he soul of t he
pa' nca mahA bhUt a-s (air , wat er , et c.)., He is aNiyan – ver y easily accessible t o
His devot ees; He is also SEyan – inaccessible t o t hose who do not sur r ender t o
Him; yAvar kkum Sindaikkum gocar an allan – a-cint yan – He is beyond t he r each
of t he ment al capabilit ies of even t he gr eat est of j ~nAni-s; t Uyan – Even so,
He decided t o bless me by r esiding in my hear t ; t Uyan - He Who consider ed
t hat being wit h me is t he only t hing t hat He longed f or in all His lif e; t uyakkan
– By r evealing His guNa-s, He dr aws us t owar ds Him; mayakkan – He dr aws us
t o Him t hr ough t he sheer j oy of t hinking about Him; ennuDait t OL iNaiyAn –
Such a Gr eat One has now decided t o t ake possession of me by sit t ing on my
shoulder s (t r eat ing me like gar uDa)". He is mAyan – Ascar ya bhUt an –
per sonif icat ion of wonder s".
Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam i s: pr amAt r Adi sAkshi t vena sar va
pr amANaagocar at vAt a-cint yah - The simplest way t o explain t his is t hat j ust
as t he eye cannot see t he eye it self since it is t he means of seeing all ot her
t hings except it self , so also bhagavAn is t he means of per ceiving ever yt hing
else, and so He cannot be per ceived by any means of per cept ion.
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Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion: ayam I dRSa it i viSvapr ap' nca
vilakshaNat vena cint ayit um aSakyat vAd-vA a-cint yah – He Who is dif f er ent
f r om t his expanded Univer se. All t hat is in t he domain of our per cept ion in t his
univer se is but a t iny f r act ion of His manif est at ion, and t he f ull ext ent of His
vibhUt i-s is beyond compr ehension. Lor d kRshNa declar es t his in t he gI t A:
nant o' st i mama divyAnAm vibUt inAm par ant apa |
esha t UddeSat ah pr okt o vibhUt er -vist ar o mayA | |
( gI t A 10 . 4 0 )
"Ther e is no limit t o My divine manif est at ions. Her e t he ext ent of such
manif est at ions has been explained in br ief by Me."
yad-yad-vibhUt imat -sat t vam Sr I mad-Ur j it ameva vA |
t at -t adevAvagaccha t vam mama t ej o' mSa sambhavam | |
(gI t A 10.41)
"What ever being is possessed of power , or of splendor , or of ener gy, know
t hat as coming f r om a f r agment of My power ".
b) I n his gI t A bhAshyam, f or t he next Slokam, bhagavad r AmAnuj a explains
t hat t his Univer se consist ing of sent ient and non-sent ient ent it ies, whet her in
ef f ect or causal condit ion, whet her gr oss or subt le, is suppor t ed by bhagavAn
wit h an inf init esimal f r act ion of His power , in such a manner t hat it does not
violat e His will in pr eser ving it s pr oper f or m, exist ence or var ious act ivit ies.
He quot es bhagavAn par ASar a f r om vishNu pur ANam: yasyAyut Ayut AmSAmSe
viSvaSakt ir -iyam st it hA (V.P. 1.9.53) - On an inf init esimal f r act ion of His
ener gy, t his univer se r est s. I n ot her wor ds, His f ull power is beyond our
compr ehension– He is acint yah.
c) Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he r ef er ence f r om t he gI t A, wher e bhagavAn is
descr ibed as a-cint ya-r Upan – sar vasya dhAt Ar am acint ya r Upam – gI t A 8.9 –
The Cr eat or of all, and One Who cannot be compr ehended ment ally.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN point s out t hat He is called acint yah because He
cannot be under st ood t hr ough t ar ka or discussion and analysis, but is r evealed
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only t hr ough t he Sr ut i vAkya-s – t ar ka agocar ah Sr ut yeka gamyah.
nAma 837. nAma 837. nAma 837. ¬4T6 ¬4T6 ¬4T6 bhya bhya bhya-- -kRt kRt kRt
He Who causes f ear .
nAma 838. nAma 838. nAma 838. ¬4+lH+- ¬4+lH+- ¬4+lH+- bhaya bhaya bhaya-- -nASanah nASanah nASanah
He Who dest r oys f ear .
bhaya-kRte namah.
bhaya-nASanAya namah.
The wor d bhaya is der ived f r om t he r oot bhI – bhaye – t o f ear , t o be anxious
about . The nAma bhaya-kRt can be viewed as "bhayam kar ot i it i bhaya-kRt ", or
"bhayam kRnt at i it i bhaya-kRt " – "One Who causes f ear ", or "One Who
r emoves f ear ".
Sr I BhaTTar gives his int er pr et at ion f or t hese t wo nAma-s t oget her . His
explanat ion is t hat bhagavAn cr eat es f ear in t hose who violat e His commands,
and dispels f ear in t hose who f ollow t hem.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives t he f ollowing suppor t s f or t he t wo int er pr et at ions:
bhaya abhayam kar ah kRshNah sar va-lokeSvar ah pr abhuh
(mahA bhAr at a)
Lor d kRshNa is One Who causes int ense f ear in t hose who violat e t he
commands of t he SAst r a-s, and r emoves f ear in t hose who obey t he SAst r ic
inj unct ions.
sakRdeva pr apannAya t avAsmI t i ca yAcat e |
abahayam sar va bhUt ebhyo dadAmyet ad vr at am mama | |
(r AmAyaNa, yuddha. 18.34)
declar ed by Lor d r Ama dur ing vibhI shaNa Sar aNAgat i on t he sea shor e -
"To him who even once bows t o Me saying t hat I am Thine,
I gr ant him shelt er and pr ot ect ion f r om all evils. This is My vow".
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van Sar aN sur ar kkAi, asur ar kku vem kURRamumAi t an Sar aN nizahR-kI zh
ulagamvait t um vaiyAdum
t en Sar aN t iSaikkut t ir u viN nagar SEr nda pir An en Sar aN en kaNNan
ennaiALuDaiyan en appanE
(t ir uvAi. 6.3.8)


bhaya- nASanAya namah.
(Cour t esy: ht t p: / / t hir uar angam. blogspot . com)

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The simult aneous r ole of bhayakRt and bhaya-nASanah is r ef lect ed bot h in t he
f ir st and second lines of t his pASur am: sur ar kku van Sar aNAi – For His
devot ees, including t he deva-s, He is t he sur est Pr ot ect ion; asur ar ukku
vemkURRamumAi – J ust as sur ely, f or t hose wit h a demonic disposit ion, He is
t he sur e Deat h; t an Sar aN nizaR-kI zh ulagam vait t um – Keeping t hose who
have sur r ender ed t o Him under His Feet f or pr ot ect ion; vaiyAdum – Those
t hat have not sur r ender ed t o Him ar e not allowed anywher e close t o His Feet .
Such is t he Nat ur e of our gr eat kaNNan in t ir u viN nagar – Oppiliappan koil.
His guNa as bhaya nASanah is r ef lect ed in nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi
pASur am3.10.8 also – ellai il mAyanai kaNNanait t AL paRRi yAn Or duhkam
ilanE – By sur r ender ing t ot his mAyak kaNNan' s divine f eet , I have no mor e
wor r y of any sor r ow.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he pr imar y int er pr et at ion f or "bhaya kRt " as One Who
causes f ear t o t hose who f ollow t he wr ong pat h – asan-mAr ga var t inAm
bhayamkar ot i it i bhaya-kRt (kR – kar aNe – t o do). He gives an alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion t hat br ings out His guNa of pr ot ect ing t he bhakt a-s –
bhakt AnAmbhayam kRt ant i vA bahaya-kRt – He Who dispels f ear f r om t he
minds of His devot ees (kRt – chedane – t o cut ).
Sr I vAsishTha also gives bot h t he int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma "bhaya-kRt ".
I n suppor t of t he f ir st int er pr et at ion, he gives t he suppor t f r om Rgveda:
dyAvA cidasmai pRt hivI namant e, sushmAcidasya par vat A bhayant e |
yah somapA nicit o vaj r a-bAhur -yo vaj r a-hast ah sa j anAsa indr ah | |
(Rg. 2.12.13)
"Even t he Heaven and Ear t h bow down bef or e Him, bef or e His ver y br eat h t he
mount ains t r emble. Known as t he soma dr inker , ar med wit h t hunder , who wields
t he bolt , he, o ye men, is indr a". We know t hat indr a t r embles bef or e
bhagavAn, and so bhagavAn is t he bhaya-kRt of t hem all, t o ensur e t hat all t he
gods f unct ion pr oper ly and per f or m t heir assigned dut ies. The
t ait t ir I yaUpanishad declar es:
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149

bhI shAsmAd vAt ah pavat e,
bhI shodet i sUr yah,
bhI shAsmAdagniScendr aSca,
mRt yur -dhAvat i pa' ncama it i |
"The wind blows out of f ear of Him; For f ear of Him does t he Sun r ise; For
f ear of Him do agni and indr a f unct ion. Out of f ear of Him, does Deat h, t he
f if t h one, r un".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma "bhaya nASanah" st r esses t he
impor t ance of f ollowing t he var NASr ama dhar ma-s: var Na ASr ama
AcAr avat Ambhayam nASayat i it i bhaya-nASanah. This can be under st ood in
dif f er ent ways:
1. as a r ef er ence t o var NASr ama dhar ma – t o t he pr act ices pr escr ibed
f or t he f our divisions or var Na-s - t he br AhamNa-s, kshat r iya-s,
vaiSya-s and Sudr a-s;
2. as a r ef er ence t o t he pr act ices pr escr ibed f or t he f our var Na- s as well
as f or t he f our ASr ama-s (br ahmacar ya, gAr hast hya, vAna pr ast ha, and
sanyAsa), or
3. as a r ef er ence t o t he var Na-s, ASr ama-s as well as t he AcAr a-s or t he
codes of conduct f or all t hese gr oups.
Sr I sa' nkar a gives suppor t f r om Sr I vishNu pur ANam of Par ASar a:
var Na ASr ama AcAr avat A pur hseNa par ah pumAn |
vishNur -Ar Adhyat e pant hA nAnyas-t at -t osha-kAr akah | |
(VP 3.8.9)
"The supr eme vishNu is pr opit iat ed by a man who obser ves t he inst it ut ions of
var Na, ASr ama, and t he AcAr a-s (pur if icat or y pr act ices). No ot her pat h is t he
way t o please Him".


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150
Slokam 90 Slokam 90 Slokam 90
HT 4 rtT H- F¤ ¬l ¬ T¬ |¬¬ Tl Prl+ · HT 4 rtT H- F¤ ¬l ¬ T¬ |¬¬ Tl Prl+ · HT 4 rtT H- F¤ ¬l ¬ T¬ |¬¬ Tl Prl+ ·
H¤ 6- F4¤ 6- F4lF4- 9l¹4 Hl 4 H4¤ +-+ °¤+ H¤ 6- F4¤ 6- F4lF4- 9l¹4 Hl 4 H4¤ +-+ °¤+ H¤ 6- F4¤ 6- F4lF4- 9l¹4 Hl 4 H4¤ +-+ °¤+
aNur br uhat kr usah st hUlO guNabhr unnir guNO mahAn |
adhr ut ah svadhr ut ah svAsyah pr AgvamsO vamsavar dhanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
The next f ew nAma-s ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar in t er ms of t he
gr andeur of bhagavAn, consist ing of His super human power s such as becoming
smaller t han an at om, et c.
Sr I aNNa' ngar AcAr ya not es t hat t he power s t hat ar e being descr ibed her e
ar e t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s (might or power ). The ashTa aiSvar ya-s ar e declar ed
by t he f ollowing:
1. aNimA,
2. mahimA,
3. laghimA,
4. gar imA,
5. pr Apat ih,
6. pr AkAmyam,
7. I Sit A,
8. vaSit vam,
cet iaiSvar yashTakam ucyat e |
nAma 839. nAma 839. nAma 839. HT - HT - HT - aNuh aNuh aNuh
a) He Who has t he power of being smaller t han anyt hing small t hat is known t o
us.
b) He Who is t he cause of t he sound t hat per meat es ever ywher e and is in
ever yt hing (aNa - Sabde).
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151

c) He Who is in t he f or m of t he veda-s, or He Who r eveals t he veda-s, t he
SAst r a-s et c. (aNa - Sabde).
aNave namah.
This is t he f ir st of t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s ment ioned above - aNimA. The wor d
aNuh is f or med f r om t he r oot aNa - t o sound, t hr ough t he applicat ion of t he
uNAdi sUt r a - aNaSca (1.8), which st at es t hat t he af f ix u comes af t er t he
r oot aNa. The t er m aNu r ef er s t o an at om, and her e it is used t o r ef er t o
bhagavAn' s power of becoming smaller t han t he smallest obj ect t hat is known.
a) Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat t he nAma signif ies His abilit y t o ent er int o t he
inf init esimally small void space known as dahar a AkASam in t he hear t s of
beings, int o pr akRt i, and also int o t he subt le j I va. aNu her e means t hat He is
ext r emely subt le. Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o t he t ait t ir I ya Upanishad - aNor -
aNI yAn - He is subt ler t han what ever we per ceive as subt le.
These aI Svar ya-s or power s ar e nat ur al t o Him. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an point s out
t hat some of t hese power s ar e also given t o t hose who have His anugr aham or
blessing. He gives t he example of hanuman, who had t he abilit y t o alt er nat e
bet ween a ver y lar ge f or m and a ver y small f or m at will in an inst ant , in dealing
wit h sur asA (sundar a kANDam).
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he suppor t f r om muNDAkopanishad - esha aNur _At mA
cet asAvedit avyah - This Self (par amAt man) is inscr ut able, and is t o be known
t hr ough t he mind.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t he abilit y of t he eye t o see somet hing is
limit ed by a lower limit and an upper limit wit h r espect t o size. BhagavAn is
out side of t his limit on eit her end (we will see t his in t he next nAma also). He
is beyond all t he sensor y per cept ions. Sr i SAst r i gives sever al r ef er ences t o
t he Sr ut i in suppor t :
aNor -aNI yAn
(kaTha. 2.20, t ait . Ar aN. 10.1)
na hi su-j ~neyam aNur -esha dhar mah (kaTha. 1.21)
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152
The t r ut h is ver y subt le and not easily compr ehensible.
yad-aNubhyo' Nu ca
(muNDa. 2.2.2)
That which is subt ler t han t he subt le.
aNI yAn hyat ar kayam anU par amANAt
(kaTha. 2.8)
I t is subt ler t han t he subt le and beyond r ealizat ion t hr ough r easoning alone.
esha sa At mA ant ar -hRdaye aNI yAn vr I her -vA yavAd-vA sar shapAd-vA
SyAmAkAd-vA SyAmAka-t aNDulAd-vA.
(chAndog. 3.14.3)
This par amAt man who is r esiding in my hear t is smaller t han a gr ain of r ice, a
bar ley cor n, a must ar d seed, t he gr ain a millet , et c.
Sa ya esho aNimA
(chAndog. 6.8.7)
This (sat ) is of t he nat ur e of being subt le.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he suppor t f r om t he gI t A - sar vasya cAham
hRdisannivishTah - "I am seat ed in t he hear t s of all".
b) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha not es t hat it is by His aNut vam t hat He is pr esent
ever ywher e, and per meat es ever yt hing, including t he subt le j I va. He also gives
an int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot aNa - Sabde - t o sound, and indicat es t hat
t he nAma suggest s t hat He is in t he f or m of t he sound t hat per vades t he
et her ever ywher e, and is also t he cause of t he sound t hat emanat es f r om t he
dif f er ent lif e-f or ms et c.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives his int er pr et at ion based on t he meaning
aNat i - Sabdayat i - makes known, r eveals - aNat i Sabdayat i vedAdi SAst r am
it iaNuh - He Who r eveals t he SAst r a-s such as t he veda-s et c. We will not e
t hat Sr I bhAr advAj does not f ollow t he appr oach of int er pr et ing t his nAma
and t he f ollowing ones in t er ms of t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s, but gives
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153

int er pr et at ions t hat ar e not linked t o each ot her .
nAma 840. nAma 840. nAma 840. 4 r6 4 r6 4 r6 bRhat bRhat bRhat
The Gr eat .
bRhate namah
This nAma descr ibes His aiSvar ya or power called mahimA - of becoming
gr eat er t han anyt hing t hat we know of as gr eat . The r ef er ence her e is t o His
power of vast ness, in cont r ast t o t he aNut va t hat we saw r ef er enced in t he
pr evious nAma. The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is bRh- vRddhau - t o
gr ow, t o incr ease. Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes His gr eat ness in t er ms of His
per vasion. Even t he vast Tr anscendent al Wor ld (par ama padam) can be
cont ained in a cor ner of His palm. Not e t hat par ama padam is t r ipAd-vibhUt i -
t hr ee t imes as lar ge as t he Univer se t hat we ar e awar e of . t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr
r ef er s t o bhagavAn as "aLat t aRku ar iyAy" (t ir umozhi 3.8.1) - He who cannot be
measur ed. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he pur usha sUkt a - sa bhUmim viSvat ovRt vA
at yat ishTat daSA' ngulam - He per vaded t he Ear t h in all it s ent ir et y and st ood
up beyond by daSa-a' ngula. daSa her e means endless, and a' ngula means
yoj anA. He gives ot her suppor t s f r om t he Sr ut i: - mahat o mahI yAn (t ait .
upa.6.10) - Gr eat er t han t he gr eat . - var shI yAnSca pRt hivyAh - He is gr eat er
t han t he Ear t h.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives addit ional Sr ut i r ef er ences:
abj A goj ARt aj A adr ij A Rt am bRhat
(kaTha. 2.2.2)
The wat er -bor n, t he ear t h-bor n, t he sacr if ice-bor n, t he mount ain-bor n, t he
Tr ut h, t he Gr eat ….
t at ah par am br ahmapar am bRhant am
(Svet ASva. 3.7)
Af t er t hus pr aying unt o Him and t hen knowing (t hr ough medit at ion) t he
inf init ely gr eat Supr eme Br ahman..
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154
Not e t hat t his aiSvar ya of mahimA is exact ly opposit e of t he aiSvar ya we
dealt wit h in t he pr evious nAma – aNimA. We will see a f ew mor e of t hese pair s
of ext r emes in t he next f ew nAma-s. I t is t o be under st ood t hat t her e is
not hing t hat is beyond His abilit y.
Sr I cinmayAnanda capt ur es t he idea as f ollows: “These t wo may seem
par adoxical, but t he appar ent cont r adict ion dissolves int o an illuminat ing
exper ience f or t he cont emplat ive mind”. I n f act , t he upanishad t alks of t hese
t wo qualit ies in t he same br eat h–
aNor -aNiyAn mahat o mahI yAn At mA’sya j ant or -nihit am guhAyAm
(kaTho. 2.20)
Subt ler t han t he subt le and gr eat t han t he gr eat …is lodged in t he cave of t he
hear t ….
Sr I Sa’nkar a vyAkhyAnam is – bRhat vAt bRmhaNant vAt ca bRahma bRhat –
Because of t he hugeness and because of t he abilit y t o expand at will
indef init ely, He is called bRhat .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj cont inues his int er pr et at ion out side of t he
cont ext of t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s: bar hat i var dhat e pr at ipadam SobhAyAm it i
bRhat – He Who enhances or incr eases t he beaut y of ever ywher e. What ever
beaut y exist s in anyt hing, is because of Him.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a int er pr et s t he nAma as: guNaih vRddha – He Who is
enhanced in His guNa-s. or auspicious qualit ies.
nAma 841. nAma 841. nAma 841. T H- T H- T H- kRSah kRSah kRSah
a) He Who is light er t han t he light .
b) He Who is t hinner t han anyt hing t hin.
c) He Who r educes or eliminat es t he dif f icult ies t o His devot ees.
d) He Who par es down t he f or m f or t he j I va-s t o make it possible f or t hem t o
live in comf or t .
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155

e) He Who makes ' light wor k' of t he asur a-s (i.e., He Who dest r oys t he asur a-
s).
kRSAya namah.
This nAma r epr esent s anot her of t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s, called laghimA, or t he
abilit y t o be light er t han anyt hing t hat we know is light . The r oot f r om which
t he nAma is der ived is kRS – t anUkar aNe – t o become lean or t hin. The nAma is
int er pr et ed as r ef er r ing t o t he abilit y t o be lean or t hin, or t o be light ,
depending on t he int er pr et er . Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of
His abilit y t o be light er t han anyt hing light , and Sr i Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he
nAma as One Who can be t hinner t han anyt hing t hin, t o t he point of not having
a f or m.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat He is light er t han cot t on, wind, et c., and so His
movement is unimpeded on all sides and in all r espect s – sar vat r a
avyAhat agat ih. He quot es f r om mahA bhAr at a in suppor t – yat r a-kAma-gat o
vaSI – He can go wher ever He chooses.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn is so t hin t hat He
can be even inside a r ock unobst r uct ed, because of His kRSat vam – leanness or
t hinness - SilAsvapi apr at ihat pr aveSat vAt kRSah.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a vyAkhyAnam is: ast hUlam it yAdinA dRSyat va pr at ishedhAt
kRSah – He Who can become so t hin t hat He is devoid of visibilit y. One
int er pr et er has t he given t he t ext is "dr avyat va pr at ishedhAt " – because He
does not have a f or m. A t r anslat or t r anslat es t his as "One Who is of t he f or m
of non-mat er ial Spir it ". Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es t he bRhadAr aNya Upanishad in
suppor t – ast hUlam (BU 3.8.8)– He Who is not of a gr oss body. He might have
chosen t his int er pr et at ion – ast hUlah, because of t he next nAma – st hUlah (as
t he opposit e of t he next nAma).
Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i summar izes t his nAma and t he next one, by
obser ving t hat t he quest ion of whet her bhagavAn is One Who is lean or hef t y,
can be answer ed only if He can be seen, t o st ar t wit h. I f He is eit her so huge
t hat we do not even see Him, or so lean t hat we cannot see Him, t hen t he
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156
quest ion of whet her He is lean or huge cannot be answer ed. That is t he Nat ur e
of bhagavAn, whom we cannot see. I n f act , t he passage t hat Sr I Sa' nkar a
quot es f r om bRhadAr aNya Upanishad, r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn as ast hUlam, in
t he ver y next wor d says t hat bhagavAn is an-aNu also – ast hUlam an-aNu. The
point t o be under st ood is t hat He can be what ever He chooses t o be, whenever
He chooses t o be, and He can become anyt hing He want s in t he minut est
f r act ion of t ime. The Sakt i or aiSvar ya t hat is descr ibed in t he cur r ent nAma
specif ically, is His abilit y t o become as light as He chooses or as t hin as He
chooses, at His Will.
We saw bhagavAn descr ibed as aNu, and in t he next nAma He was descr ibed as
exact ly t he ot her ext r eme, bRhat . I n t he cur r ent nAma we see Him descr ibes
as kRSah, and in t he next nAma we will see Him descr ibed as it s ot her
ext r eme, st hUlah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda not es t hat t his is an example of how "t he Rshi-s have made
an ar t of ef f ect ively employing t er ms of cont r adict ion in or der t o br ing t he
incompr ehensible wit hin t he cognit ion of t he st udent s of cont emplat ion". We
have alr eady seen some examples of t his in t he upanishadic passages in t he last
f ew nAma-s.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj ' s int er pr eat ion is: kRSyat i t anUkar ot i
svaj anavipadam it i kRSah – He Who r educes or eliminat es t he dif f icult ies t o
His devot ees.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha also gives an int er pr et at ion t hat is not based on
t he ashTa aiSvar ya concept . He t akes t he gener ic meaning f or t he r oot – kRS–
t o make lean, and gives t he meaning t hat t he nAma r ef er s t o bhagavAn
ar chit ect ing t he cr eat ur es of t he f eat ur es in var ious f or ms by par ing t hem
down as needed f or t heir sur vival and comf or t . Sr I vAsishTha equat es t he
nAma kRSah t o t he nAma t vasTA in it s essent ial meaning (Slokam 6, nAma 52).
e) Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a' s int er pr eat ion is: dait yAn kar Sayat i it i kRSah –
He Who makes ' light wor k' of t he asur a-s. – He Who dest r oys t he evil asur a-s.
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nAma 842. nAma 842. nAma 842. F¤ ¬- F¤ ¬- F¤ ¬- st hUlah st hUlah st hUlah
a) He Who is immense.
b) He Who gr ows or enhances enor mously t he wealt h of His devot ees.
sthUlAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma can be der ived is st hUl - par ibRhamaNe - t o
become big or st out , gr ow bulky or f at . Not e t hat t he pr evious nAma was
kRSah - One Who can become as lean or t hin as He wishes. Now we have t he
nAma t hat descr ibes t he aiSvar ya of His abilit y t o become as big as He wishes.
a) Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat since bhagavAn has t he abilit y t o t ouch any
obj ect in any wor ld even while st anding in one place, He has t he nAma st hUlah.
The t r ivikr ama incar nat ion is an obvious illust r at ion of His aiSvar ya called
pr Apt i, t hat is r ef lect ed in t his nAma - st hUlah.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an givesr ef er ences t o nammAzhvAr - t AL par appi maN t Aviya
I San (t ir uvAi. 3.3.11), and t o ANDAL' s t ir uppAvai - O' ngi ulagaLanDa ut t aman.
Sr I vAsishTha quot es t he mant r a f r om I SAvAsya Upanishad in suppor t :
anej adekam manaso j avI yo naiand-deva Apnuvan pUr vamar shat |
t ad-dhAvat o' nyAnat yet i t ishThat t asminnapo mAt ar iSvA dadhAt i | |
(I SA. 4)
"The par amAt man is unmoving; The One wit hout an equal; swif t er t han t he
mind. The gods have not at t ained I t , even t hough I t has r eached t hem.
Remaining st at ionar y, I t over t akes ot her s who r un ahead of I t . By I t , vAyu
bear s wat er ".
He also quot es t he pur usha sUkt a mant r am in suppor t :
sahasr a Sir shA pur ushah; sahasr Akshah sahasr a pAt |
sa bhUmim viSvat o vRt vA at yat ishThat daSA' ngulam | |
"He is One wit h count less heads, count less eyes, and count less f eet . He
per vades all space, and it is not possible t o measur e His ext ent by our or dinar y
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knowledge of means of measur ement ".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is - sar va At makat vAt st hUlah it i uapacar yat e -
Because He is t he Soul of ever yt hing, He is f igur at ively called st hUlah or
"Huge".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he explanat ion - koTi br ahmANDa
vigr ahat vaAt st Ulah - Since bhagavAn is in t he f or m of t he inf init e
br ahmANDa-s or Univer ses, He is st Ulah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat as a consequence of His aiSvar ya or
power of being aNu, bRhat , kRSah, st hUlah, et c., at will, no one can
compr ehend Him f r om one moment t o t he next . Sr I SAst r i dr aws at t ent ion t o
t he similar it y of t his nAma t o t he nAma "st havishTha" (53 and 437, Sloka-s 6
and 47). The similar it y ar ises because ' st havishThah' is made of t he wor ds
' st hUla' and ' ishTha' , giving as one of t he meanings "He Who has Willed t o be
huge". Among t he ot her int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma st havishTha ar e t hat
bhagavAn manif est s Himself in t he f or m of t he huge br ahmANDa, t he huge
const ellat ion of st ar s and galaxies, et c.
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion - st hUlayat i
bRmhayat i svaj ana sampadam it i st hUlah - He Who gr ows or enhances
enor mously t he wealt h of His devot ees, is st hUlah. Not e t hat t he ` wealt h' f or
t he devot ees can be in t he f or m of t heir enj oyment in per f or ming kainkar yam
t o Him and t o His devot ees in t his wor ld, and need not necessar ily r ef er t o
mat er ial wealt h only.
nAma 843. nAma 843. nAma 843. ¬ T¬ 6 ¬ T¬ 6 ¬ T¬ 6 guNa guNa guNa-- -bhRt bhRt bhRt
a) The Suppor t er of all t hat ar e subj ect t o Him.
b) He Who suppor t s t he t hr ee guNa-s of sat t va, r aj as, and t amas.
c) He Who bear s (has) inf init e kalyANa guNa-s.
guNa-bhRte namah.
guNa r ef er s t o at t r ibut es such as dayA, dAkshiNya, et c., and also t o t he t hr ee
at t r ibut es – sat t va, r aj as, and t amas. The r oot f r om which t he par t bhRt is
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der ived is bhR – dhAr aNa poshaNayoh – t o hold, t o suppor t . The explanat ion
given by Sr I vAsishTha f or t he nAma is: guNa dayA dAkshiNyAdayahsat va
r aj as t ama AdayaSca, t eshAm bhRt = dhAr aka it yar t hah – Because of His
qualit y of Mer cy and compassion, He suppor t s t he t hr ee guNa-s of sat t va,
r aj as and t amas, t hat dist inguishes bet ween t he dif f er ent beings.
a) Sr I BhaTTar expands t he meaning of guNa-bhRt t o cover ever yt hing t hat is
subj ect t o t he t hr ee guNa-s. He int er pr et s t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o
bhagavAn’s supr eme power of r uling over all by making all t hings in all t heir
st at es subj ect t o Him, and suppor t ing t hem. By His mer e Will (sva-sankalpena),
He suppor t s all of t hem in t heir dif f er ent st at es. So He is called guNa-bhRt .
Thus t his nAma is an expr ession of His aiSvar ya or power of I Sit vam –
Lor dship. He gives t he suppor t f r om t he Upanishad – sar vasya vaSI sar vasya
I SAnah (t ait t .Upa. 6.1) – He keeps all under cont r ol and r ules over t hem all.
b) Sr I Sa’nkar a’s vyAkhyAnam is: sat t va r aj as t amasAm sRshTi st hit i
layakar masu adhishThAnat Rt vAt guNa-bhRt – Since He suppor t s t he guNa-s of
sat t va, r aj as, and t amas t o var ying degr ees in t he dif f er ent beings as par t of
His f unct ions of cr eat ion, pr eser vat ion and dest r uct ion, He is guNa-bhRt . Sr I
baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives a similar int er pr et at ion – guNAn sat t vAdI n
bibhar t i it i guNa-bhRt .
Bot h Sr I vAsishTha and Sr I cinmayAnanda comment t hat He suppor t s t he
t hr ee guNa-s by assuming t he sat t va guNa in His pr ocess of cr eat ion, t he r aj o
guNa in t he pr ocess of pr eser vat ion, and t he t amo guNa in t he pr ocess of
dest r uct ion or annihilat ion – in t his sense, He is t he ‘Bear er ’ of t he t hr ee
guNa-s.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he explanat ion – guNAn j ~nAna
AnandamAdhur ya vAt salyAdI n bibhar t i it i guNa-bhRt – He Who possesses t he
qualit ies such as per f ect ion in knowledge about t he past , pr esent and f ut ur e of
ever yt hing at all t imes, absolut e bliss, t he abilit y t o be kind and sweet even t o
t he enemies, at t achment t o His devot ees like t hat of a cow t o it s calf , et c.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a also gives an int er pr et at ion along similar lines –
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guNAnAnandAdI n bibhar t i it i guNa-bhRt .
nAma 844. nAma 844. nAma 844. |+¬ T- |+¬ T- |+¬ T- nir nir nir -- -guNah guNah guNah
He Who is ber ef t of t he qualit ies (common t o ot her s).
nir-guNAya namah.
The t er m guNa her e r ef er s t o t he t hr ee guNa-s – sat t va, r aj as, and
t amas,t hat ar e char act er ist ic of pr akRt i. Since He is unt ouched by t hese
guNa-s and t heir inf luence, He is called nir -guNah. While bhagavAn is t he
Suppor t er of t he t hr ee guNa-s in pr akRt i (guNa-bhRt ), He himself is beyond
t he inf luence of t he guNa-s. The nAma-s guNa-bhRt and nir -guNah ar e
out war dly cont r adict or y, but in t he case of bhagavAn, t hey ar e consist ent
guNa-s as we see in t he int er pr et at ion.
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat t he nAma nir -guNah indicat es t hat while
bhagavAn is in et er nal cont act wit h all t he j I va-s all t he t ime, He has t he
power t hat He will not be t aint ed by any of t heir def ect s. Sr I BhaTTar ’s
int er pr et at ion is: at at vaSyat ayA t at -samspar Se’pi aspRshTa-t ad-guNah nir -
gUnah – Even t hough He is in cont act wit h all, He is not t aint ed by t heir
def ect s, since He is not subj ect t o any one, and is above all of t hem. This nAma
is int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar as r epr esent ing t he aiSvar ya called vaSit vam –
The supr eme power of holding ot her s in magical submission t o His will. He gives
t he f ollowing suppor t s:
viSvasya mishat o vaSI
(t ait t . 3.6.1)
He bewit ches t he ent ir e wor ld wit h His wide-open eyes.
sat t vAdayo na sant I Se yat r a ca pr AkRt A guNAh
(vishNu pur A. 1.9.44)
sat t va and ot her guNa-s t hat ar e in t he pr akRt i have no place in bhagavAn, t he
Ruler .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he explanat ion – pr AkRt a guNa-
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t r ayavir ahit at vAt nir -guNah.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives a similar int er pr et at ion– sat t vAdi guNa
r ahit at vAt nir -guNah.
Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ion is: vast ut o guNa abhAvAt nir -guNah. This is
t r anslat ed as “He Who is devoid of all guNa-s” by f ollower s of t he advait a
sampr adAyam. Sr I Sa’nkar a gives suppor t f r om t he upanishad – sAkshI
cet Akevalo nir -guNaSca (Svet AS. 6.11) – He Who is t he wit ness in ever yone,
but who is not t aint ed by t he t hr ee guNa-s in t hem.
nAma 845. nAma 845. nAma 845. Prl+ Prl+ Prl+ mahAn mahAn mahAn
a) He Who is supr eme in ever yt hing.
b) He Who is Gr eat beyond compr ehension.
c) He Who is wor t hy of wor ship, and wor shiped by t he likes of indr a.
mahate namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is maha – pUj AyAm – t o honor , t o
delight , t o incr ease. mahAn means “One who is wor t hy of wor ship”.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma mahAn in t er ms of His supr eme excellence
in ever yt hing - par ama pr akar shAt mahAn. He can plunge int o t he ear t h as He
wishes, and emer ge out of it as He want s, j ust as we can ent er wat er and get
out of it at will. I n t he cont ext of t he ashTa aiSvar ya-s, Sr I BhaTTar explains
t he cur r ent nAma as signif ying t he aiSvar ya known as pr AkAmyam (ir r esist ible
will), t he power of achieving what ever He desir es.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes pr AkAmyam as t he abilit y t o ent er ot her s’
mind at will, make t hem r emember or f or get t hings at will, et c.
Sr i BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing suppor t :
sampr ayoj ya viyoj yAyam kAmakAr akar ah pr abhuh |
yad-yad-icchet ayam Sauir h t at -t at kur yAt ayat nat ah | |
“The power f ul Lor d, Saur i, act s as He chooses. He unit es and separ at es t hings
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as He likes. What ever He chooses t o do, He can accomplish it wit hout any
ef f or t ”.
Sr I Sa’nkar a explains t he nAma in t er ms of t he impossibilit y of const r aining
Him t o a descr ipt ion even f or t he sake of discussion – t ar kat o’pi yat o vakt um
na Sakyam, because He is “One t o whom sound and ot her at t r ibut es have no
r ef er ence, One who is immeasur ably subt le, One who is ever pur e and all-
per vading, One about whom anyt hing in t he nat ur e of an obst acle cannot be
advanced’.
b) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t he nAma as signif ying t hat He is beyond
compr ehension and descr ipt ion by wor ds, t hought s or ot her means. For
inst ance, t he pr evious six nAma-s descr ibed Him f ir st as one ext r eme, and
t hen as t he ot her ext r eme (small, big, t hin, huge, f ull of guNa-s, devoid of
guNa-s). He is unconst r ained by f or m, space, t ime, et c. So He is r ef er r ed t o
as mahAn.
Sr I cinmayAnanda echoes t he same t hought – “He is not condit ioned by t he
f ive element s, nor by t ime and space”.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj cont inues his independent st yle f or t his set of
nAma-s: mahyat e pUj yat e br ahmAdibhih it i mahAn - He who is wor shiped by
t he likes of br ahmA is mahAn – based on t he r oot maha – pUj AyAm. The
gener ic meaning is “mahyat e = pUj yat e it i mahAn” – He Who is wor t hy of
wor ship (Sr I vAsishTha).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion – sar vaih
abhyar cayat vAt mahAn – He is called mahAn becaue He is wor shipped by
ever yone.
nAma 846. nAma 846. nAma 846. H¤ 6- H¤ 6- H¤ 6- aa a-- -dhRt ah dhRt ah dhRt ah
a) The Unconst r ained.
b) The Unsust ained.
a-dhRtAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is dhR – dhAr aNe – t o hold,t o
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suppor t . While Sr I BhaTTar explained t he pr evious nAma (mahAn) as a
r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' s super ior power t o achieve anyt hing, he explains t he
cur r ent nAma as a r ef er ence t o His being t ot ally unobst r uct ed or
unconst r ained in His abilit y t o achieve anyt hing He want s. Thus, t he t wo nAma-
s t oget her mean "He Who has t he power t o achieve anyt hing He want s, wit hout
any const r aint or limit at ion". He gives t he example of bhagavAn f ir st giving
par amapadam t o t he sons of t he vaidika br Ahmin, and t hen br inging t hem back
t o t his wor ld and giving t hem r ebir t h because of His will t o br ing t hem back t o
t his ear t h, even t hough nor mally one who goes t o par amapadam is never r ebor n.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an indicat es t hat t he aiSvar ya called pr Apt i – t he abilit y t o
achieve anyt hing, is indicat ed by t his nAma.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is t he Suppor t er of ever yt hing
else t hat exist s, while He Himself is not suppor t ed by anyt hing else –
pRt hivyAdI nAm dhAr akANAmapi dhAr kat vAt na kenacit dhr iyat a it i a-dhRt ah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha r het or ically asks t hequest ion – yo hi sar vasya dhAt A
sa kena dhRt ah syAt ? - How can He be suppor t ed by anyt hing when He is t he
Suppor t er and Sust ainer of ever yt hing?
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he example t hat j ust as cot t onis t he suppor t behind
t he clot h, gold is t he suppor t behind t he golden or nament s, and mud is t he
suppor t behind t he mud pot , so also bhagavAn is t he suppor t behind ever yt hing
in t he univer se, and we should medit at e on Sr I man nAr AyaNa as t he suppor t
behind us.
nAma 847. nAma 847. nAma 847. F4¤ 6- F4¤ 6- F4¤ 6- sva sva sva-- -dhRt ah dhRt ah dhRt ah
nAma 848. nAma 848. nAma 848. F4lF4- F4lF4- F4lF4- svAsyah svAsyah svAsyah
nAma 849. nAma 849. nAma 849. 9l¹4 H- 9l¹4 H- 9l¹4 H- pr Ag pr Ag pr Ag-- -vamSah vamSah vamSah
nAma 850. nAma 850. nAma 850. 4 H4¤ +- 4 H4¤ +- 4 H4¤ +- vamSa vamSa vamSa-- -var dhanah. var dhanah. var dhanah.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s nAma-s 847 t o 849 as conveying t he Supr emacy of
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bhagavAn as f ollows:
1. sva-dhRt ah – He is super ior over t he baddha-s who may have some of
t he same ashTa aiSvar ya-s t hat we saw above, t hr ough medit at ion ,
pr ayer , et c.
2. svAsyah – He is super ior over t he mukt a-s, who have a st at us equivalent
t o Him in many r espect s, but who wer e once clouded by nescience.
3. pr Ag-vamSah – He is super ior over t he nit ya-s, t he et er nal souls in Sr I
vaikunTham, since He is t heir or igin, sour ce and et er nal suppor t .
Then Sr I BhaTTar concludes t he gist of t he t hr ee nAma-s wit h t he next one,
vamSa-var dhanah, as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn being t he One who f ost er s and
gr ows all t he t hr ee cat egor ies of j I va-s. Because of t his t hr ead bet ween t he
f our nAma-s in Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion, we will look at t he f our nAma-s
t oget her . Fir st , we will deal wit h his int er pr et at ion f or all t he f our nAma-s,
and t hen look at t he anubhavam of t he ot her vyAkhyAna kar t A-s.
nAma 847a. nAma 847a. nAma 847a. sva sva sva-- -dhRt ah dhRt ah dhRt ah
He Who is Self -sust ained.
sva-dhRtAya namah.
Following on t he pr evious nAma, sva-dhRt ah means "One Who is self -
suppor t ing". Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat t he nAma declar es t hat His
Sover eignt y does not depend on anyt hing else, and is innat e and nat ur al t o Him.
This dist inguishes t he sublime nat ur e of par amAt man f r om t he gr eat ness t hat
t he bound souls (baddha j I va-s) can acquir e t hr ough medit at ions, aust er it ies
et c. BhagavAn' s sublimit y is not dependent on medit at ion or aust er it ies, but is
nat ur al t o Him.
All t he ot her gods, who ar e all enj oying t he ef f ect s of t heir kar ma-s like t he
r est of us, ar e est ablished and suppor t ed by Him so t hat t hey can be
consider ed gods – niRut t inAn daiva' ngaLAga ad-daiva nAyagan t AnE
(t ir uvai.5.2.8) – The ot her gods have been est ablished by Him like t ax-
collect or s, and will f all f r om gr ace if He does not suppor t t hem. BhagavAn is
por u il t aninAyagan (t ir uvAi. 5.10.8) – The One and Only, incompar able,
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Supr eme Deit y – eko ha vai nAr AyaNa AsI t .
nAma 848a. nAma 848a. nAma 848a. svAsyah svAsyah svAsyah
a) He Who has a glor ious st at us.
svAsyAya namah
Asya r ef er s t o ' st at us' , and is der ived f r om t he r oot As – upaveSane - t o sit
(e.g., Asanam). This is t he meaning t hat Sr i BhaTTar uses. The wor d Asyam is
also used t o r ef er t o ' f ace' . We will see lat er t hat Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t his
second meaning in his int er pr et at ion.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is "One Who has a glor ious
st at us". The nAma can be looked at as su = SobhanA, SobhanA AsyA yasya
sasvAsyah – One Who has a magnif icent or super ior st at us; or , Asanam
AsyA,svayam svasmin AsyA yasya sa svAsyah (Sr I vAsishTha) – One Who has
His own innat e nat ur al super ior st at us.
Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat even t hough in Sr I vaikunTham, t he mukt a-s have
sAmyam wit h bhagavAn in t heir st at us, His st at us is super ior in t he sense t hat
it was never subj ect t o nescience at any t ime unlike in t he case of t he mukt a-s.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i summar izes t his explanat ion as "One Whose st at us
is such t hat it never was, is, or will be, t aint ed by ignor ance et c". Thus, His
st at us is uniquely super ior t o t hat of t he mukt a j I va-s.
nAma 849a. nAma 849a. nAma 849a. pr Ag pr Ag pr Ag-- -vamSah vamSah vamSah
He Who is t he cause of t he et er nally f r ee souls.
prAg-vamSAya namah.
pr Ak means "f ir st , f or emost , ear liest ". vamSa lit er ally means ' r ace' . Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m ' pr Ak' t o r ef er t o t he nit ya-s, or t he et er nally
liber at ed souls who have been in Sr I vaikunTham f r om t he ear liest of t imes.
He int er pr et s t he t er m ' vamSa' as meaning ' suppor t ' or ' AdhAr a' . Their
exist ence, t heir ashTa aiSvar ya-s or power s, ar e all der ived f r om His gr ace
and will. Thus, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he explanat ion f or t he nAma as "He Who is
t he et er nal suppor t f or t he f or emost souls – t he nit ya sUr i-s in
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Sr I vaikunTham". I n int er pr et ing t he t er m ' pr Ak' t o r ef er t o t he nit ya-s, Sr I
BhaTTar uses t he pur usha sUkt a passage in suppor t : yat r a pUr ve sAdhyAh
sant idevAh – par ama padam is t he place of vishNu wher e f r om t ime immemor ial
t he sAdhya devat A-s (t he et er nally f r ee Angels) live.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat it is cust omar y t o name t he dif f er ent
r aces af t er someone who is ver y impor t ant and pr ominent in t hat r ace – f or
inst ance, t he candr a vamSa, t he sUr ya vamSa, t he r aghu vamSa, t he yadu
vamSa et c. I n t his sense, bhagavAn is t he f or emost in pr Ag-vamSa – t he
vamSa of t he nit ya-s.
nAma 850a. nAma 850a. nAma 850a. vamSa vamSa vamSa-- -var dhanah var dhanah var dhanah
He Who keeps His pr ogeny gr owing.
vamSa-vardhanAya namah
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m vamSa (pr ogeny) in t his nAma t o r ef er t o
t he t hr ee t ypes of j I va-s t hat he has r ef er r ed t o in t he pr evious nAma-s. His
int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent nAma is t hat bhagavAn is t he cause f or ever
incr easing t he kainkar ya r asam (t he desir e t o do et er nal ser vice t o Him) in t he
t hr ee t ypes of j I va-s.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr :
mar undE na' ngaL bhoga magizhccikku enRu per um dEvar kuzhA' ngaL pidaRRum
pir An….
(t ir uvAi. 9.3.4)
"The deva-s, nit ya sUr i-s, et c., of f er obeisance t o t he Lor d in uncoor dinat ed
wor ds – because t hey ar e over whelmed wit h t heir f eelings on t he t hought of
t he Lor d, and declar e t hat He is t he medicine t hat of f er s t hem t heir bhogam
or enj oyment , t he t onic f or t hat enhances t heir happiness, pleasur e of lif e and
sust aining f or ce".
This is t he r eal gr owt h – var dhanam, t he ever -incr easing pleasur e in
wor shipping Him and doing kainkar yam t o Him and t o His devot ees t hat is t o be
sought in lif e.
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Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives an int er pr et at ion along t he lines of
Sr I BhaTTar : vamSam bhakt AnAm var dhayat e it i vamSa- vr dhanah – He Who
gr ows His devot ees.
So f ar , we dealt wit h Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam f or t he f our nAma-s: sva-
dhRt ah, svAsyah, pr Ag-vamSah, and vamSa-var dhanah. Now we will look at t he
anubhavam of t he ot her int er pr et er s.
nAma 847b. nAma 847b. nAma 847b. sva sva sva-- -dhRt ah: dhRt ah: dhRt ah:
b) He Who is self -suppor t ing (sva r ef er r ing t o Himself ).
c) He Who is held in t heir minds by His devot ees (sva r ef er r ing t o sva-
j anAh,t he devot ees).
d) He Who suppor t s t he pr osper it y of His devot ees (svam – dhanam).
Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es t he chAndogya upanishad in suppor t – sa bhagavahkasmin
pr at ishThit a it i, sve mahimni (chAn. 7.24.1) – "Wher e does t hat I mmensit y
abide, Sir ?" "I t abides in I t s own glor y."
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat by logic, anyt hing t hat suppor t s
somet hing is suppor t ed by somet hing else. I f t he quest ion is cont inually asked,
t her e comes a point at which we r ealize t hat ever yt hing else is suppor t ed by
One, t he Supr eme Self .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he meaning sva-j anah t o t he t er m sva, and
gives t he int er pr et at ion – svaih sva-j anaih dhRt ah cit t e it i sva-dhRt ah – He
Who is held in t heir minds by t he devot ees.
Sr I sat ya sandha yat ir Aj a gives a dif f er ent per spect ive – he int er pr et s t he
t er m svam as r ef er r ing t o dhanam – wealt h, and gives t he int er pr et at ion –
svamdhanam dhRt am yena it i sva-dhRt ah – He Who suppor t s and sust ains
pr osper it y and well-being in ever yt hing else.
nAma 848b. nAma 848b. nAma 848b. svAsyah svAsyah svAsyah
b) He Who has a count enance t hat is nat ur ally beaut if ul.
c) One Who has a beaut if ul f ace also because it is t he sour ce of t he veda-s.
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We saw ear lier t hat Sr I BhaTTar has used t he meaning ' st at us' f or t he wor d
Asya - der ived f r om t he r oot As – upaveSane - t o sit (e.g., Asanam).
b) The wor d Asyam is also used t o r ef er t o ' f ace' – asyat e
kshipyat enavanI t Adih asmin it i Asyam (amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam, based on asu
– kshepaNe– t o t hr ow). Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t his second meaning.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t hr nAma is: "One Who has a beaut if ul f ace"
– su = Sobhanam, padmodar a t alavat t Amr am abhir Upat amam asya Asyamit i
svAsyah – He Whose f ace is r osy like t he inside of t he lot us.
Sr I kRshNadat t a bhAr advAj also gives t he same int er pr et at ion – Sobhanam
Asyanm vadanamyasya ait i svAsyah.
c) Alt er nat ely, Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t hat t he beaut y of t he f ace is also
r ef lect ed in t he f act t hat t he veda-s emanat ed f r om His mout h –
vedAt makomahAn Sabdar ASih t asya mukhAt nir gat ah pur ushAr t ha
upadeSar t ham it i svAsyah. He gives suppor t f r om t he Upanishad: asya mahat o
bhUt asya niS-Svasit am et at Rg-vedoyaj ur -vedah sAma-vedah at ahr vA' ngir asa
it ihAsah pur ANam vidyA upanishadah SlokAhsUt r ANi anuvyAkhyAnAni
vyAkhyAnAni asyaiva et Ani sar vANi niS-Svasit Ani. (bRhad.Upa. 2.4.10) – The
veda, t he upanishads, t he pur ANa-s, t he sUt r a-s, et c., all ar ose f r om His vit al
br eat h.
nAma 849b. nAma 849b. nAma 849b. pr Ag pr Ag pr Ag-- -vamSah vamSah vamSah
b) He f r om whom t he f ir st r ace (namely, t he univer se it self ) or iginat ed.
c) He f r om whom, br ahmA, t he f ir st of all t hose t hat wer e cr eat ed, or iginat ed.
d) He Who moves ar ound maj est ically, and whose gr eat ness is expr essed
clear ly or loudly.
pr Ak means "f ir st , f or emost , ear liest ". vamSa lit er ally means ' r ace' .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he t er m ' pr Ag-vamSah' as r ef er r ing t o t he f ir st
r ace being t he univer se, af t er which alone all t he ot her r aces came int o
exist ence. Since t he univer se or iginat ed f r om vishNu, He is called pr Ag-
vamSah– asya vamSah pr Ageva, na pAScAt ya it i pr Ag- vamSah.
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c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj int er pr et s t he t er m vamSam as r ef er r ing t o
pr ogeny, and he t akes t he t er m pr Ag t o r ef er t o cat ur -mukha- br ahmA, and
gives t he explanat ion t hat t he nAma means "One Who has br ahmA as His
pr ogeny –pr A' ncat i it pr Ag br ahmA; sa vamSah sant Ano yasya it i pr Ag-vamSah.
d) Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he meaning f r om t he r oot a' nc – gat i=pUj anayoh– t o
go, t o wor ship, and t akes t he meaning ' t o go' f or t he cur r ent cont ext f or t he
r oot a' nc. Based on pANini, he der ives t he meaning: pr a + a' ncu + kvin = pr A' nc
(pANini 3.2.59) – being in f r ont , dir ect ed f or war ds. Using t he r oot van– Sabde
sambhakt au ca - t o sound, t o honor , t o aid, Sr I vAsishTha gives t he
explanat ion f or t he nAma pr Ag-vamSah as: pr akar sheNa a' ncat i = gacchat i,
vanat i= SabdAyat e sambahaj at e ca – pr Ag-vamSah – He Who moves ar ound
maj est ically,and whose gr eat ness is expr essed clear ly or loudly. (The
explanat ion in Hindi t hat is given by a t r anslat or is: pr akar sha se calt A huA j o
Sabda yA sambhAgkar t A hai uskA nAm pr Ag-vamSa hai).
nAma 850b. nAma 850b. nAma 850b. vamSa vamSa vamSa-- -var dhanah var dhanah var dhanah
b) He Who keeps t he Univer se gr owing (vRdh – t o gr ow).
c) He Who cut s of f t he Univer se at t he appr opr iat e t ime (var dh – t o cut ).
Recall t hat Sr I BhaTTar had int er pr et ed t he nAma vamSa-var dhanah, as a
summar izat ion of t he pr evious t hr ee Nama-s - sva-dhTt ah, svAsyah, and pr Ag-
vamSah, and gave t he meaning t o vamSa-var dhanah as One Who keeps all t he
t hr ee kinds of j I va-s gr owing (var dhana) in t heir anubhavam of enj oyment
t hr ough devot ion t o Him.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning f or t he nAma as "He Who expands t he
univer se", based on vRdh – t o incr ease – vamSam pr apa' ncam var dhayanvamSa-
var dhanah.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he example of His gr owing t he vamSa of
pANDava-s by pr ot ect ing par I kshit – par I kshit -samr akshaNena pANDu- kulam
var dhayat i it i vamSa0var dhanah.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN quot es t he gr owt h of yadu vamSa it self as t he
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example of His being vamSa-var dhanah – vamSam yadoh var dahayat iit i vamSa-
var dhanah yat r a shaT pa' ncASat koTayah pr adhAna bhUt A babhUvuh - wher e
t her e wer e numer ous pr ominent yAdava-s.
c) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a is based var dh – chedane
- t o cut : pr apa' ncam chedayan vA vamSa-var dhanah – He Who wit hdr aws t he
univer se.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i gives t he specif ic example of Lor d kRshNa
dest r oying t he yadu vamSa j ust bef or e He decided t o leave t his wor ld f or
Sr I vaikunTham (Sr I mad bhAgavat am 11.30).



















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Slokam 91 Slokam 91 Slokam 91
¬l¹¬ tT|¤6l 4l ¬l 4l ¬lH- B4 TlP7-· ¬l¹¬ tT|¤6l 4l ¬l 4l ¬lH- B4 TlP7-· ¬l¹¬ tT|¤6l 4l ¬l 4l ¬lH- B4 TlP7-·
Hl~P- ~PT- ¬lP- B 9Tl 4l4 4lr+-+ °°+ Hl~P- ~PT- ¬lP- B 9Tl 4l4 4lr+-+ °°+ Hl~P- ~PT- ¬lP- B 9Tl 4l4 4lr+-+ °°+
bhAr abhr ut kat hit O yOgI yOgI sah sar vakAmadah |
Aasr amah sr amaNah kshAmah supar NO vAyuvAhanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 851. nAma 851. nAma 851. ¬l¹¬ 6 ¬l¹¬ 6 ¬l¹¬ 6 bhAr a bhAr a bhAr a-- -bhRt bhRt bhRt
He Who shoulder s t he bur den.
bhAra-bhRte namah.
Bot h t he par t s bhAr a and bhRt ar e der ived f r om t he same r oot – bhR –
dhAr aNa poshaNayoh – t o hold, t o suppor t . bhAr a r ef er s t o bur den.
bhAr ambibhar t i it i bhAr a-bhRt – He Who shoulder s t he bur den is bhAr a-
bhRt .
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at i on in t he cont ext of bhagavAn' s
r elat ion t o t he j I va-s. I n t he viSishTAdvait a t r adit ion, t he j I va-s ar e of t hr ee
t ypes – t he baddha-s or t he bound souls, t he mukt a-s or t he liber at ed souls,
and t he nit ya-s or t he et er nal souls. The baddha j I va-s at t ain liber at ion and
become mukt a-s and t hen r eside in Sr I vaikunTham, per f or ming et er nal ser vice
t o Him. BhagavAn bear s t he bur den of br inging about t his liber at ion of t he
baddha-st o become mukt a-s t hr ough t he r ealizat ion of t heir t r ue nat ur e and
t he at t ainment of Himself , and so He is descr ibed as bhAr a-bhRt in Sr I
BhaTar ' s int er pr et at ion.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t he gI t A, wher e bhagavAn Himself declar es
t hat He shoulder s t his bur den of maint aining t he welf ar e and pr osper it y of His
devot ees:
ananyAS-cint ayant o mAm ye j anAh par yupAsat e |
t eshAm nit yAbhiyukt AnAm yogakshemam vahAmyaham | |
(gI t A 9.22)
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"Ther e ar e t hose who, excluding all else, t hink of Me and wor ship Me, aspir ing
af t er et er nal union wit h Me. Their pr osper it y and welf ar e (yoga and kshema)
ar e looked af t er by Me".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o
bhagavAn' s r ole of pr ot ect ing His devot ees – bhAr am bhakt a r akshAyA
bibhar t iit i bhAr a-bhRt .
Ther e is anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of t his ' bur den' of bhagavAn. I f
we so much as ut t er t he wor d ' namah' t o Him, He t r eat s it as maj or ' bur den'
of His t o make sur e t hat He pr ot ect s us. Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an quot es
nammAzhvAr :
vE' nkaTat t u ur aivAr kku nama ennal Am kaDamai, adu SumandAr gaTkE
(t ir uvAi.3.3.6)
"I t is our dut y t o say ' namah' t o t ir u vE' nnkaTat t An; t he r est is His bur den t o
shoulder ".
We ar e all f amiliar wit h t he sense of indebt edness t hat Lor d kRshNa car r ied
unt il t he day He lef t t his wor ld, t o dr aupadi who called out His name f or help
dur ing t he vast r a apahar aNa episode. Even t hough His nAma it self pr ot ect ed
dr aupadi at t hat t ime, st ill He cont inued t o f eel t hat He owed a debt t o her
t hat He could never f ulf ill t hr oughout His incar nat ion in t his wor ld – such is
His f eeling of indebt edness t o one who sur r ender s t o Him uncondit ionally.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he bhAr a or t he ' weight ' t hat He car r ies as a
r ef er ence t o His suppor t ing t he Univer se on His shoulder s in t he f or m of
AdiSesha – anant Adi r UpeNa bhuvo bhAr am bibhar t i it i bhAr a- bhRt .
Sr I sat yasandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn bear ing
t he Univer se in t he f or m of a Tor t oise – bhAr am bhAr a bhUt am br ahmANDam
kUr ma r UpeNabibhar t i it i bhAr a-bhRt .
Sr I cinmayAnanda comment s t hat t he "car r ying" t hat is r ef er r ed t o her e is
not as a man would car r y a load in t he t r adit ional sense. The sense t o be
enj oyed her e is t hat He is t he cause of t he Univer se, and t hus He is t he
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bhAr a-bhRt .
nAma 852. nAma 852. nAma 852. T|¤6- T|¤6- T|¤6- kat hit ah kat hit ah kat hit ah
He Whose gr eat ness is ext olled by all t he veda-s, pur ANa-set c..
kathitAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is kat h – vAkya pr abandhe – t o t ell,
t o nar r at e.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s bhAshyam is – "kat hit ah ukt a vakshyamANa guNavat t ayAsar va
SAst r eshu" – He is called kat hit ah because His f ullness of all guNa-s t hat have
been descr ibed so f ar and t hat will be descr ibed her eaf t er , is declar ed in all
t he SAst r a-s. Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om t he j it ant e st ut i(1.7) –
vacaSam vAcyam ut t amam – All t he wor ds (Sr ut i-s, smRt i-s et c.), declar e t he
gr eat ness of t his ut t aman
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr , who capt ur es t he gist
of t his nAma in his pASur am:
SollinAl t oDar cci nee, Solap paDum por uLum nee
SollinAl SolappaDAdut OnRuginRa Sodi nee
SollinAl paDaikka nee paDaikka vandu t OnRinAr
SollinAlSur u' nga nin guNa' ngaL Solla vallar E?
(t ir uccanda. 11)
"You ar e t he Ult imat e goal of t he veda-s; You ar e t he One declar ed as t he
Supr eme Br ahman by t he veda-s; You ar e t he Supr eme Ef f ulgence t hat cannot
be descr ibed t hr ough wor ds; You cr eat ed br ahmA so t hat he can per f or m t he
f unct ion of cr eat ion using t he veda-s as his aid, but even he cannot descr ibe
You t hr ough wor ds even r oughly".
Sr I r AmAnuj an also r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 3.1.10, wher e
AzhvAr r ef er s t o emper umAn as "maRaiyAya nAl-vedat t uL ninRa malar c-
cuDar E"– "You Who ar e t he essence of all t he f our veda-s, t hat ar e hidden t o
t he nAst ika-s (maRai), and r evealed t o Your devot ees (veda)".
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Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – vedAdibhih ayameka eva par at vena kat hit a it i
kat hit ah; sar vair -vedaih kat hit a it i vA kat hit ah - He alone is declar ed as
Supr eme by t he veda-s et c., and all veda-s ext ol His vir t ue, and so He is called
kat hit ah. He gives sever al suppor t ing quot es:
sar ve vedA yat -padam Amanant i
(kaTho. 2.15)
All t he veda-s descr ibe His st at us (as Supr eme).
VedaiSca sar vam ahameva vedyah vedAnt akRt veda-videva cAham
(bhagavad gI t A 15.15)
"I ndeed I alone am t o be known f r om all t he veda-s. I br ing about t he f r uit ion
of t he r it uals of veda-s; I alone am t he Knower of all t he veda-s".
vede r AmAyaNe puNye bhAr at e bhar at ar shabha |
Adau madhye t hat hA cAnt evishNuh sar vat r a gI yat e| |
(bhavishyat . 132.95)
"vishNu is sung ever ywher e at t he beginning, middle, and end of t he veda-s,
t he holy r AmAyaNa, and bhAr at a, O Best of bhar at a r ace".
sodhvanah par amApnot i t ad-vishNoh par amam padam
(kaTho. 3.9)
"He (who has sound int ellect as his char iot eer and cont r olled mind as t he
br idle) r eaches t he end of t he r oad, which is t he highest place of vishNu".
Ot her vyAkhyAna kar t A-s give specif ic inst ances of His being a kat hit a, or
One Whose gr eat ness is ext olled by gr eat sages.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he example of His f ame being sung by t he
likes of nAr ada, vAlmI ki, et c. – nAr ada vAlmI ki pr abhRt ibhih sa' kI r t it a yaSo
vist ar at vAt kat hit ah.
Sr I sat yasandha t I r t ha r ef er s t o His being pr aised by t he Agama-s – kat hit ah
sad-Agamaihpr at ipAdit ah.
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Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat even t he veda-s f ail in t heir at t empt
t o descr ibe Him complet ely. I t is f or singing His pr aise t hat we have been
pr ovided t he abilit y of speech. Her e is Sr I vAsishTha' s composit ion
summar izing his int er pr et at ion:
vishNur -hi loke kat hit ah pur ANah t asyAnt am Apnot i na vAg vacobhih |
t asmAt sanAdeva ca var t amAnA vAgast i vakt um pr at i-j ant u nishThA | |
He r emar ks t hat j ust as bhagavAn is kat hit ah or One Who should be spoken
about and pr aised,
He is also a dar Sat ah (He Who sees ever yt hing, He Who is t he Obj ect we
should see in ever yt hing we see, He f or seeing Whom we ar e endowed wit h t he
abilit y t o see, et c.,), Sr avaNah, spar Sanah, r Upah, ghr ANah, et c.
nAma 853. nAma 853. nAma 853. 4l ¬l 4l ¬l 4l ¬l yogI yogI yogI
a) He Who is endowed wit h super -human power s.
b) He Who is r ealized t hr ough yogic power s.
c) He Who bonds ever yt hing t oget her .
d) He Who has t ot al cont r ol of His Self .
e) He Who unit es t he devot ees wit h t heir wishes– i.e., He Who best ows t he
devot ees' wishes.
yogine namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is yuj – yoge – t o unit e.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion –
yuj yat e anena it i yogah;aghaTit Ar t ha ghaTanam mahA pr abhAvah
sa asya at iSayena nit ya yogena; sar vam et at sambhAvayat i it i yogI –
Ther e is a unique gr eat ness in Him of br inging t oget her a har monious
combinat ion of t hings t hat gener ally do not go t oget her ; t his unique gr eat ness
is pr esent in Him in an ext r eme measur e, and is quit e nat ur al t o Him. So He is
called yogI . The cont ext in which t his not ion is t o be under st ood is in t er ms of
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t he asTa aiSvar ya-s t hat we saw in t he pr evious Sloka–t he appar ent ly
conf lict ing char act er ist ics of aNimA and mahimA, kRSa and st hula (laghimA
and pr Apt i), et c. I t is not easy f or one t o have any one of t hese aiSvar ya-s in
f ull measur e. I t is not possible t o have all t he eight aiSvar ya-s in f ull measur e
in t he same per son, except in t he case of bhagavAn. Thus, He is a One who has
combined in Him t hese appar ent ly conf lict ing aiSvar ya-s t o co-exist in f ull
measur e simult aneously, and so He is called a yogI in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
anubhavam.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion – yogah – j ~nAnam, t enaivagamyat vAt
yogi – He Who can be at t ained t hr ough j ~nAna or knowledge alone. This is an
int er pr et at ion t hat is given along t he line of t he advait a philosophy. I n t he
viSishTAdvait a syst em, bhagavAn is at t ained only t hr ough t he bhakt i yoga or
pr apat t i mAr ga, and j ~nAna yoga is an accessor y along wit h kar mayoga in
leading t o t he bhakt i mAr ga.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t he t er m yoga as t he pr ocess by which one
dr aws his/ her mind t owar ds Him when it t r ies t o wander and st r ay away int o
ot her t hings. BhagavAn is called yogI since He is at t ained by t he pr ocess of
yoga (namely, by cont r ol of t he mind and t he senses).
c) Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn alone has
t he abilit y t o keep ever yt hing in t he univer se bound t oget her as one unit , and
so He is called yogi –
yogair -yukt am ca idam Sar I r am yogi,
sakala' nca viSvampar aspar am baddham yogi,
esha ca yoga r Upo guNo bhagavat o vishNur eva sar vat r a vyApt ah.
His der ivat ion as – yuj yat e sambadhyat e it i yogi – He Who unit es or bonds
ever yt hing t oget her , is yogI .
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat He is called yogI
because He has t ot al cont r ol of His Self – yogah samAdhih, sa hi
svAt manisar vadA samAdhat t e svAt mAnam t ena vA yogi.
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Sr I cinmayAnanda t akes his def init ion f or t he t er m yoga f r om t he yoga
SAst r a-s– yogah cit t a vRt t i nir odhah – yoga is st opping of all t hough f low. One
who has no t hought agit at ions – who has t ot ally conquer ed t he mind, and lives
in His own Ef f ulgent Self is t he gr eat est yogi, and hence bhagavAn has t his
nAma per cinmyAnanda.
e) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma
signif ies t hat He unit es t he devot ees wit h t heir wishes, in ot her wor ds, He
best ows t he desir ed wishes f or t heir devot ees – yoj ayat i svaj anAn t ad-
abhI shTenait i yogI .
We have seen t he nAma yogah (nAma 18 – Slokam 3), which is r elat ed t o t he
cur r ent nAma. . The wr it e-up f or nAma 18 complement s t he cur r ent wr it e-up,
and t he r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he ear lier wr it e-up f or addit ional enj oyment of
t his nAma.
nAma 854. nAma 854. nAma 854. 4l ¬lH- 4l ¬lH- 4l ¬lH- yogI Sah yogI Sah yogI Sah
He Who is t he f or emost Lor d of all yogins.
yogISAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar st ar t ed t he int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s f r om sva-dhRt ah
(nAma847) in t er ms of t he r elat ion of bhagavAn t o t he t hr ee t ypes of souls.
He cont inues t hat t hr ead in t his nAma also. For t he cur r ent nAma, his
int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is called yogI Sah because He is t he f or emost
Lor d of all yogins, and bear s t he r esponsibilit y t o br ing about t he per f ect ion of
yoga in t hese devot ees even as t hey ar e in t he midst of t he bound souls in t his
wor ld. Thus, even f or t he likes of sanaka who ar e by nat ur e gif t ed wit h t he
power s of medit at ion, it is He who has t o br ing about t he per f ect ion of t he
yoga so t hat t hey at t ain Sr I vaikunTham. He gives t he suppor t f or t his
int er pr et at ion f r om Sr I vishNu pur ANam:
sanandanAdI n apa-kalmashAn munI n cakAr a bhUyah at i-pavit r am padam |
(vishNupur Anam)
"He conf er r ed t he highly pur e goal, namely Sr I vaikunTham, upon sanaka and
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ot her sages who wer e f lawless".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am which
conveys t he sense of His being t he yogI Sa who is wor shipped by t he yogi-s:
kalakkam illA nal t ava munivar kar ai kaNDOr t uLakkam illA vAnavar
ellAmt ozhuvAr gaL.
(t ir uvAi. 8.3.10)
"The Seer s such as j anaka, sanaka, et c., who have clear per cept ion as a r esult
of t heir t r ue penance and devot ion, t he mukt a-s who have cr ossed t he ocean of
t he enj oyment of His unlimit ed auspicious qualit ies t hr ough enj oyment and
exper ience, and t he nit ya-s who have not had t he slight est t r ace of t he f ear
of t his samsAr a - all ser ve Him wit h pur e delight ". The mumukshu-s, t he
mukt a-s and t he nit ya-s ar e all r ef er r ed t o her e.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning "The Supr eme amongst yogin-s" t o t he nAma,
and explains t hat unlike ot her yogins who ar e subj ect t o being obst r uct edby
impediment s t o yoga and f alling of f f r om t heir pr ogr ess, bhagavAn is
unobst r uct ed and f r ee f r om any impediment s, and so He is called t he "Lor d of
t he yogin-s", or Supr eme among yogins.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is wor shipped
and medit at ed upon by t he kar ma yogin-s, j ~nAna yogins and bhakt i yogin-s,
and so He is yogI Sah. He gives t he f ollowing gI t A ver se in suppor t :
yoginAmapi sar veshAm mad-gat enAnt ar At manA |
Sr addhAvAn bhaj at e yo mAm sa me yukt a-t amo mat ah | |
( gI t A 6.47)
"He who wor ships Me wit h f ait h, whose inner most self is f ixed in Me, I
consider him as t he gr eat est of t he yogin-s". The idea conveyed is t hat He is
t he obj ect of wor ship - t he Lor d, of t he best among yogin- s.
Sr I cinmyAnanda descr ibes a yogin as one who is f r ee - complet ely and f ully -
f r om any involvement while being in t he midst of samsAr a and it s seet hing
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act ivit ies. BhagavAn alone qualif ies as t he King of yogi-s by t his descr ipt ion.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives an alt er nat e anubhavam t hat is dif f er ent f r om
t he ot her s - yoginAm Sam (=sukham) yasmAt it i yogI Sah - He t hr ough Whom
(by medit at ing on Whom) t he yogi-s at t ain gr eat delight is yogI -Sah.
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning "union" f or t he wor d yoga, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He keeps
ever yt hing bound t oget her - f or inst ance, all t he bones in t he body ar e kept
unit ed t oget her so t hat t he body is in one f unct ional piece. While t his example
may sound t r ivial, t he whole univer se is held t oget her only because of His
power of yoga or union.
nAma 855. nAma 855. nAma 855. B4 TlP7- B4 TlP7- B4 TlP7- sar va sar va sar va-- -kAma kAma kAma-- -dah dah dah
He Who best ows all desir es.
sarva-kAma-dAya namah.
sar vAn kAmAn dadAt i it i sar va-kAma-dah - He Who best ows all desir es is
sar va-kAma-dah.
Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat bhagavAn gr ant s all desir es sought by t he
devot ed yogin, including t he power s such as aNimA (one of t he pr eviously
discussed ashTasiddhi-s), even t hough t hese ar e impediment s t o t he pat h f or
Salvat ion. I n ot her wor ds, even if t he yogin f alls f r om his ult imat e pat h of
seeking Salvat ion, and inst ead seeks lesser benef it s, bhagavAn is st ill t he
best ower of what ever benef it s t he devot ee seeks.
Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat even t hose who have not per f ect ed t heir yoga and who
slip f r om t his pat h because of dist r act ion f r om desir e et c., will st ill get t he
benef it of t heir yogic ef f or t , and will be best owed wit h good bir t h in t he next
j anma. He quot es t he gI t A in suppor t :
pr Apya puNya kRt Am lokAn ushit vA SASvat I h samAh |
SucI nAm Sr I mat Am gehe yoga-bhr ashTo' bhij Ayat e | |
(gI t A 6.41)
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"He who has f allen away f r om yoga is bor n again in t he house of t he pur e and
pr osper ous af t er having at t ained t o t he wor lds of doer s of good deeds and
living t her e f or many long year s".
Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es t he br ahma sUt r a 3.2.38 in suppor t - phalamat a
upapat t eh, which declar es t hat t he Lor d alone is capable of best owing any
benef it s f or yoga or ef f or t of any kind. So He alone is sar va- kAma-dah.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
a-kAmah sar va-kAmo vA moksha-kAma udAr a-dhI h |
t I vr eNa bhakt i-yogena yaj et a pur usham par am | |
(bhAga. 2.3.10)
"He who has no desir e in anyt hing, or one who is desir ous of all benef it s, or one
who is r ealized enough t o be int er est ed in moksha, should wor ship t he par ama
pur usha wit h int ense devot ion".
I n ot her wor ds, He is t he Only One whom we should wor ship, no mat t er what
our desir es ar e - dhar ma,ar t ha, kAma or moksha, because He alone is t he
Ult imat e Best ower of all benef it s- sar va-kAma-dah. This concluding message is
given by Sr I Suka muni t o par I kshit af t er discussing sever al alt er nat e r out es
such as wor shiping t he lesser devat A-sf or at t aining t he lesser benef it s.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o t he Upanishad:
esha u eva vAmanI r esha sar vANi vAmAni nayat i |
sar vANi vAmAni nayat i ya evam veda | |
(chAndogya. 4.15.3)
"And He alone is vAmani, since He gr ant s all good t hings t o t hose who t ake
r ef uge in Him".
(Sr I N. S. anant a r a~ngAcAr ya explains t hat vAmanI her e r ef er s t o
vAmanI t vam -sva ASr it eshu Sobhana pr Apakat t vam - He Who best ows all
auspiciousness on t hose Who have t aken r ef uge in Him).
Not e t he double emphasis on "sar vAni vAmAni nayat i". I n vedic par lance,
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double emphasis is used t o r einf or ce t he st r engt h of t he declar at ion.
Sr I SAst r i also r ef er s us t o t he nAma kAma-pr a-dah in Slokam 32 (nAma
299), which has a similar meaning.
nAma 856. nAma 856. nAma 856. Hl~P- Hl~P- Hl~P- ASr amah ASr amah ASr amah
He Who pr ovides an abode of r est f or t he seeker s.
ASramAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is Sr amu - t apasi khede ca - t o t ake
pains, t o be f at igued. The pr ef ix A somet imes gives t he meaning opposit e t o
t hat of t he ver b it f ollows (e.g., gam - t o go, A- gam - t o come; dA - t o give, A-
dA- t o t ake). Similar ly, t he wor d A - Sr ama gives t he meaning - t o r est ,
opposit e of Sr ama. ASr ama r ef er s t o a place of r est , a her mit age.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues t he t hr ead f r om his int er pr et at ion f or t he pr evious
nAma, wher e he point ed out t hat bhagavAn best ows t he lesser benef it s f or
t hose who have swer ved f r om t he pat h of yoga af t er st ar t ing on t hat pat h.
When t hey have complet ed t he enj oyment of t he mer it or ious benef it s f or
t heir lesser ef f or t , t hen He gives t hem ` a place of r est ' - bir t h in t he houses
of Sr I vaishNava-s wher e t r ue knowledge of t he Lor d can be had in pr of usion
and t hey can become r ef r eshed: t at o vivRt ya subhiksha par a vidyeshu
vaishNava gRheshut eshAm viSr Ant i-het uh ASr amah. I n ot her wor ds, t his
bir t h in a good f amily is t o enable t hose who have been int er r upt ed in t heir
yoga in t heir pr evious bir t h, t o r est and t hen cont inue and succeed in t he
cur r ent bir t h by being pr ovided t he r ight condit ions and envir onment f or t he
successf ul complet ion of t he int er r upt ed yoga. Not e t he second line of t he
gI t A Slokam 6.41 t hat was given asa r ef er ence f or t he pr evious nAma -
SucI nAm Sr I mat Am gehe yoga-bhr ashTahabhij Ayat e - t hey ar e bor n in t he
house of t he pur e and pr osper ous (pr osper ous meaning t hey ar e delight ing
t hemselves in pur e and exclusive devot ion t o t he Lor d).
This "Place of Rest " t hat is r ef er r ed t o by t he nAma ASr amah is not hing but
medit at ion on His Holy Feet , and t he associat ion wit h bhAgavat a-s who have
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not hing but Him in t heir mind. This is nicely br ought out in t he pASur am by
nammAzhvar t o which Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us:
..... nalam koL nAn-maRai vANar gaL vAzh t ir umOgUr nalam kazhal avan
aDinizhal t aDam anRi yAmE
(t ir uvAi. 10.1.2)
Not e t he r ef er ence t o t he "nAn maRai vEdiyar gaL", and t o His "aDinizhal".
These ar e t he t wo t hings t hat r eally give t he r est , not only in t his bir t h, but
f or all bir t h t o come accor ding t o nammAzhvAr . I n t he vyAkhyAnam, it is
point ed out t hat t he associat ion wit h t he bhAgavat a-s is ext r emely benef icial
because t hey ar e "nalam koL vANar gaL" - t hose who ar e int er est ed in lif t ing us
up t o t heir levels, and t hose who ar e int er est ed in our welf ar e wit hout any
benef it f or t hem. I t is a delight t o dwell deep int o nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am-s.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion - ASr amavat sar veshAm samsAr a
Ar aNyebhr amat Am viSr ama st hAnat vAt ASr amah - He is called ASr amah (The
Her mit age of peace) since He is like an ASr amam f or t hose who wander in t he
f or est of samsAr a.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hose of
Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar - bhavATavyAm bhr amat Am sar veshAm
bhakt AnAm viSr ama dAyit vAt ASr amah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gener alizes t he concept of ASr amah as all t he
dif f er ent means by which bhagavAn gives r est t o t hose who have been
st r essed t hr ough t he f or est of samsAr a - including t he ASr ama-s of vAna
pr ast hA, sanyAsa, sleep, samAdhi, and f inally moksha.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as "He Who is t he Lor d of t hose
who have no Sr ama or har dship - na vidyat e Sr amo yeshAm t e a- Sr amA
mukt Ah, t eshAm ayam svAmi it i ASr amah.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha in his t at t va sAr a, based on bRhat sahasr a, gives t he
int er pr et at ion - A - samyak, Sr amyat e - t apyat e, gUhyat e it i A-Sr amah - He
Who complet ely conceals Himself .
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Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha int er pr et s t he f ir st syllable A' ng as an upasar ga
(pr ef ix), and gives t he explanat ion - ASr amyant e kar mAnur UpAm yonim
pr Apaya yena it i ASr amah - He by Whom t he j I va-s ar e made t o endur e t he
bir t h in t his wor ld accor ding t o t heir kar ma- s, is ASr amah; or , He t hr ough
medit at ion on whom t he t apasvin-s under go t he r igor s of medit at ion and
penance - is called A-Sr amah.
Not e t hat Sr I vAsishTha is not using t he pr ef ix A t o der ive t he meaning as
opposit e of Sr ama as Sr i BhaTTar and Sr i Sa' nkar a did, but has inst ead used
t he pr ef ix A as a r einf or cement of t he meaning of t he wor d Sr ama - One Who
ensur es t hat t he j I va-s go t hr ough t he t oils accor ding t o t heir kar ma-s.
nAma 857. nAma 857. nAma 857. ~PT- ~PT- ~PT- Sr amaNah Sr amaNah Sr amaNah
a) He Who makes it possible t o cont inue t he ef f or t of uncomplet ed yoga in t he
next bir t h.
b) He Who t or ment s t hose who have not exer cised t heir discr iminat ing abilit y.
c) He Who under t ook t apas in t he f or m of nar a nAr AyaNa f or t he welf ar e of
t he wor ld.
d) He Who is t he sour ce of subsist ence f or sanyAsin-s.
e) Subj ect mat t er of , and known by, hymns of pr aise.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is t he same as t hat f or t he pr evious
nAma - Sr amu - t apasi khede ca - t o t ake pains, t o be f at igued. Sr amyat e it i
Sr amaNah - He Who st r ains or makes one put in t he ef f or t is Sr amaNah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his t hr ead f r om t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma
853- yogI , and has int er pr et ed t he next f ew nAma-s in t er ms of bhagavAn' s
r elat ion wit h t he pr act it ioner s of yoga, and His suppor t ive t r eat ment of t hem,
even if t hey do not complet e t heir yoga in one bir t h. I n t his spir it , Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he cur r ent nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn making it
possible f or t hose t hat have not complet ed t heir yoga in a given bir t h, t o
r esume wher e t hey lef t of f wit h minimal ef f or t in t heir next bir t h -
"anAyesena" Sr amyat e it i Sr amaNah. He quot es suppor t f r om t he gI t A:
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t at r a t am buddhi samyogam labhat e paur va daihikam |
yat at e ca t at o bhUyahsamsiddhau kur unandana | |
( gI t A 6.43)
"Ther e he r egains t he disposit ion of mind which he had in his f or mer body, O
ar j una, and f r om t her e he st r ives much mor e f or success in yoga".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as "One Who t or ment s t hose who ar e not
capable of discr iminat ion" - avivekinah sar vAn sant Apayat i it i Sr amaNah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t his as t he sit uat ion wher e, even t hough
bhagavAn is indicat ing t he r ight pat h f or at t aining Him, t her e ar e many among
us who do not want t o f ollow t hat pat h, and t hen He is lef t wit h no choice
except t o make us under go t he ef f ect s of our kar ma, and as most of us know,
it is a t or ment ing exper ience t o be bor n and living in samsAr a.
Sr I cinamyAnanda put s t he idea mor e gr aphically: "One Who pr osecut es t he
wor ldly people - who, dr iven by t heir hunger s and passions, seek sense-
gr at if icat ions. By t he ver y nat ur e of t he ephemer al sense- obj ect s and t he
ever -changing inst r ument s of exper ience in us, t he lif e of gr at if icat ions can
only yield exhaust ing f at igue and wear y disappoint ment s. This is t he ` Law' and
Sr I nAr AyaNa is t he ' Law- Giver ' .
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj at t r ibut es t he Sr amam t o bhagavAn Himself ,
in His incar nat ion as nar a nAr AyaNa, f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he wor ld -
Sr Amayat it apas car at i nar a nAr AyaNa r UpeNa loka sa' ngr ahAya it i Sr amaNah.
d) Sr I sat ya sandha t ir t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as: Sr amaNAh sannyAsinah
asyadAsat t vena sant i it i Sr amaNah - Sr amaNa r ef er s t o sanyAsins, and since
sanyAsin-s exist t hr ough dAsat vam t o Him, He is called Sr amaNah.
e) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha in his t at t va sAr a, gives t he int er pr et at ion -
Sr amant i j Anant i anena it i Sr amaNam st ut ih |
st ut imAn st ut i vishayah Sr amNah | |
"Subj ect mat t er of , and known by, hymns of pr aise (t r anslat ion by Sr I
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185

K.Sr I pAdha r Ao).
nAma 858. nAma 858. nAma 858. ¬lP- ¬lP- ¬lP- ksAmah ksAmah ksAmah
a) One Who is in a diminished f or m (in t he f or m of dhr uva, t he Pole St ar ).
b) He Who helps t he yogi t o become well-equipped.
c) He Who alone is lef t behind at t he t ime of pr alaya.
d) He Who r educes ever yt hing t o it s un-evolved st at e at t he t ime of pr alaya.
e) He Who r emains hidden amongst us, and he in Whom ever yt hing is hidden.
f ) He Who is t he f inal abode f or all (kshAyat i).
g) He Who has est ablished t he Univer se in all it s dimensions (kshA + mAne)
h) He Who r est r ains and cont r ols t hose of demonic disposit ion (kshA + mavat e)
i) He Who bor e t he Ear t h (in His var Aha incar nat ion)
j ) Remover of obst r uct ions in t he pat h of cows (ksham + Ama).
k) He Who endur es pat ient ly.
kshAmAya namah.
This nAma was dealt wit h ear lier in Slokam 47 - nAma 444.
The nAma can be der ived f r om t he f ollowing r oot s:
kshi - kshaye - t o decay,
kshi - himsAyAm - t o dest r oy,
kshi - nivAsa gat yoh - t o dwell, and
ksham - sahane - t o allow, t o be capable of .
I n addit ion, int er pr et at ions have been given by looking at t he wor d as ksham
+Ama, kshA + mA, et c., f or which det ails ar e given below.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he r oot kshi - kshaye - t o decay, in his int er pr et at ion of
nAma 444, and ksham - sahane, f or his int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent inst ance
of t he nAma. I ncident ally, t his r esolves t he avoidance of r edundancy in
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186
int er pr et at ion in Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam.
nAma 444 was int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' s f or m
as t he Pole St ar .
Revisit ing t he wr it e-up f or t his nAma in Slokam 47, we have: "Sr I BhaTTar
explains t his nAma by point ing out t hat bhagavAn st ands in t he f or m of dhr uva
in a diminished f or m at t he t ime of t he dissolut ion of t he Ear t h inclusive of
t he f ive element s. All t he luminar ies up t o dhr uva disappear , and dhr uva alone
r emains shining in his place, as st at ed in vishNu pur ANa -
"yAvan-mAt r e pr adeSe t u mait r eyAvast hit o dhr uvah |
kshayamAyAt i t Avat -t ubhumer AbhUt asamplave | | "
(VP 2.8.92.)
b) For t he int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar
uses t he r oot (ksham - sahane - t o allow, t o be capable of ). Cont inuing on his
int er pr et at ions of t he nAma-s 855 t o 861 in t er ms of His r ole as One Who
uplif t s and suppor t s t hose t hat have not successf ully complet ed t he yogic
pat h, he explains t he cur r ent nAma as "One who allows t hose who have slipped
f r om t he pat h of yoga t o f ulf ill t heir ef f or t by giving t hem t he necessar y
st r engt h t o achieve t his, if only t hey show an inclinat ion f or t his - sva
yogAbhimukhyamAt r eNa t e yoga-bhr ashTA api dur gam t ar it um kshamant e
asmAt it i kshAmagh. He quot es t he gI t A Slokam 6.40 in suppor t :
pAr t ha naiveha nAmut r a vinASas-t asya vidyat e |
na hi kalyANa-kRt kaScit dur gat im t At a gacchat i | |
(gI t A 6.40)
"Neit her her e (in t his wor ld), nor t her e (in t he next ), ar j una, is t her e
dest r uct ion f or him. For , no on one who does good ever comes t o an evil end".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives t he meaning "One Who makes t he yogin skilled in
cont inuing and f ulf illing t he yoga" - "t iRamai uDaiyavanAgac ceybavan".
c) Sr i Sa' nkar a bases his int er pr et at ion f or t he inst ance of t he nAma in
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187

Slokam 47 on kshi - kshye - t o decay, and explains t hat bhagavAn has t his
nAma signif ying t hat He alone is lef t behind af t er ever yt hing disappear s
dur ing pr alaya - sar va-vikAr eshu kshapit eshu svAt manA avast hit a it i kshAmah.
d) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, he gives anot her var iant of t he act of
bhagavAn dur ing pr alaya - t hat He r educes all beings t o t he st at e in which
t hey wer e pr ior t o t he cur r ent cr eat ed f or m - kshAmAh kshI NAh sar vAh
pr aj Ahkar ot i it i kshAmah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he example of how bhagavAn gr adually
r emoves t he f unct ions of t he indir ya-s, mind et c., gr adually bef or e t he f inal
moment in our own lif e - t he f unct ion of kshAma or decay.
Sr I kRshNadat t a bhAr advAj give anot her anubhavam of His f unct ion of
kshAma or dest r uct ion- He eliminat es t he wicked - kshAmAn = kshI nAn kar ot i
dur - j anAn it i kshAmah.
e) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives an int er pr et at ion using t he meaning "hidden"
f or "kshaya", and explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn who r emains
hidden amongst us while being pr esent in all of us, or in whom we ar e all hidden
- ya et asmin viSve ant ar leenah t ishThat i sar vam vyApya, yasmin vA idam
viSvam pr aleeyat e.
f ) Alt er nat ively, using t he r oot kshi - nivAsagat yoh - t o dwell, Sr I vAsishTha
gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat t his nAma of bhagavAn signif ies t hat
He is t he ult imat e abode f or all at t he t ime of pr alaya -kshAyat i = nivAsayat i,
gamayat i it i kshAmah.
g) Among t he ot her anubhava-s of Sr I vAsishTha ar e: kshA r ef er s t o t he
Univer se (kshA = pRt hivee), and t he r oot mA' ng - mAne Sabde ca means "t o
measur e, t o sound". Using t hese, his int er pr et at ion is t hat t he nAma can r ef er
t o bhagavAn being t he One Who has est ablished t his Univer se as such and
such., has given it t he abilit y t o f unct ion, and has equipped it wit h sound et c.-
kshA it i viSva upalakshaNam; evam ca viSvam idam ya iyat t ayA
nibadhnAt i,gat idAnena Sabdavacca kar ot i it kshAmah.
h) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as kshA + mA - kshA -
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188
nar akaAh,t An mavat e - badhnAt i it i kshA-mah - He Who binds (r est r ains,
cont r ols) t he demons is kshA-mah. (The r oot is mav - bandhane himsAyAm ca -
t o f ast en, t o bind, t o kill).
i) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha is: kshamAyA
ayamdhAr ako var AhAdi r UpeNa it i kshAmah - He Who bor e t he Ear t h (bhU
devi) in His var Aha incar nat ion, is kshAmah.
j ) For t he inst ance in Sloka 47, Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives t he
int er pr et at ion - ksham gavAm samr odha viSesham Aminot i kRnt at i it i kshAmah
- Remover of obst r uct ions in t he pat h of t he cows (ksham + Ama).
k) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I r aghunat ha t I r t ha' s
int er pr et at ion is: kshamat e sahat e it i kshAmah - He Who endur es pat ient ly.
nAma 859. nAma 859. nAma 859. B 9T - B 9T - B 9T - supar Nah supar Nah supar Nah
a) One Who has beaut if ul wings – in t he f or m of hamsa, gar uDa, et c.
b) He Who helps t he yogi-s cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a.
c) He Who enables ever yt hing t o move ar ound.
d) He Who is in t he f or m of t he veda-s (as t he “leaves” of t he t r ee of
samsAr a).
e) One Who is decor at ed wit h t he beaut if ul gr een t ulasi leaves.
f ) One Who has t he gr een color of emer ald because of His associat ion wit h
Lakshmi.
g) One Who is easily pleased by pur e devot ion.
h) He Who is t he Abode of Supr eme Happiness (su-par -Nah).
i) He Who r est s on t he beaut if ul t ender gr een f ig-t r ee leaf (at t he t ime of
pr laya).
j ) He Who per vades t he ent ir e Univer se complet ely.
k) He Who has supar Na – gar uDa as His vAhana.
suparNAya namah.
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189

We enj oyed t his nAma ear lier as par t of Slokam 21 (nAma 194). Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t wo r oot s f r om which t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions
can be explained: pAr – t I r – kar ma samApt au – t o f inish, t o get t hr ough or
over ; and par N – har it a bhAve – t o make gr een. Based on t hese, t he wor d
par Na means “wing” as well as “leaf ”. The dif f er ent int er pr et at ions f or t he
nAma include: One who has beaut if ul wings, One Who enables t he j I va-s cr oss
t he ocean of samsAr a, One who gives ever yt hing t he abilit y t o move ar ound,
One who makes ever yt hing live and t hr ive (“gr een”), One who is decor at ed wit h
t he gr een t ulasi leaves, et c.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t wo inst ances of t he nAma as:
a) One Who has beaut if ul wings” (e.g., in His hamsa incar nat ion), and
b) One Who helps t he yogin-s cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a (wit h “beaut if ul
wings” t hat car r y t he samsAr in-s acr oss t he ocean of samsAr a) - Sobhana
par Nat vAt , samsAr a-pAr a-nayanAt vA supar Nah .
a) While Sr I BhaTTar himself has not made a dir ect r ef er ence t o t he hamsa
incar nat ion in his int er pr et at ion, ot her int er pr et er s have elabor at ed on Sr I
BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn’s hamsa incar nat ion, or
alt er nat ively as a r ef er ence t o His being t he ant ar yAmi of gar uDa.
Sr I M. V. r AmAnuj AcAr ya and Sr I P. B. aNNa’ngar AcAr ya explain t he nAma as
a r ef er ence t o His hamsa incar nat ion.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o gar uDa, who has
bhagavAn as his ant ar yAmi. Alt er nat ively, supar Na r ef er s t o gar uDa, and
bhagavAn is supar Nah since He has gar uDa as His vAhana. I n Sr I mad-
bhAgavat am we have - siddheSvar ANAm kapilah supar No' ham pat at r iNAm -
Among t he siddha-s, I am Kapila, and among bir ds I am Gar uDa (11.16.15).
I n Bhagavad-gI t A, we have mRgANAm ca mRgendr o' ham vainat eyaSca
pakshiNAM - Among beast s, I am t he lion, t heir king, and among bir ds, I am
Gar uDa, t he son of Vinat A (10.29).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t hat t he t wo wings of t his f or m of
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190
bhagavAn – supar Nah – can be enj oyed as:
a) one wing r epr esent ing t he veda-s t hat show t he pat h f or our conduct ; and
b) t he ot her wing r epr esent ing t he sadAcAr am pr act ised by our AcAr ya-s and
elder s t hr ough t heir conduct of lif e f ollowing t he t eachings of t he veda-s.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha explains t he nAma in t er ms of t he muNDakopanishad
passage quot ed below:
I n t he upanishad-s, we have r ef er ence t o t wo beaut if ul bir ds sit t ing on t he
same t r ee - signif ying t he j I vAt mA and t he par amAt mA dwelling in t he same
body. One (j I vAt mA) eat s t he f r uit s of act ions, and t he ot her (par amAt mA)
j ust gazes on (sAkshI ). VishNu is t his all-exper iencing Pr inciple of
Consciousness.
dvA supar NA sayuj A sakhAyA samAnam vRksham par ishvaj At e |
t ayor anyah pippalam svAdvant i, anaSnan anyo abhicAkaSI t i | |
(muNDakopanishad - 3.1).
“A pair of whit e-winged bir ds ext r emely f r iendly t o each ot her sit on one and
t he same t r ee; one eat s t he f r uit s, t he ot her eat s not and gazes on".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s t o one as t he gr eat enj oyer (pEr inbam), and
t he ot her as t he Gr eat Knower (pEr aRivu).
b) Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma is t hat
He enables t he yogi-s who have f allen f r om t he pat h of yoga t o get back in
t r ack and cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a – evam pr at yApanna samAdhI n samAdhi-
vipAka-dvAr A t amasah pAr am nayat i it i su-par Nah. He gives suppor t f r om t he
maula samhit A and f r om t he gI t A:
“sva-pAr am bhagavAn nayat i”
(maula.)
The Lor d leads t hem t o r each t he shor e
pr ayat nAd-yat amAnast u yogi samSuddha kilbishah |
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191

aneka j anma samsiddhah t at o yAt i par Am gat im | |
(gI t A 6.45)
“The yogin, st r iving ear nest ly, cleansed of all his st ains, and per f ect ed t hr ough
many bir t hs, r eaches Me”.
c) Sr I vAsishTha also gives anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam in t er ms of
His being “One wit h t he best and beaut i f ul wings” – He is t he One Who enables
ever yt hing in t he Univer se – including t he Sun, t he Moon et c., t o move ar ound
because of His “beaut if ul wings”, in ot her wor ds, by His Power .
d) Using t he meaning “leaf ” f or t he t er m “par Na”, Sr I Sa’nkar a explains t he
nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn in t he f or m of veda-s r epr esent ed by t he
“leaves” of t he t r ee of samsAr a, as descr ibed by Lor d kRshNa in t he gI t A
Slokam 15.1:
Ur dhva mUlam adhah Sakham aSvat t ham pr Ahur -avyayam |
chandAmsi yasya par NAni yas-t am veda sa veda-vit | |
(gI t A 15.1)
“They speak of an immut able aSvat t ha t r ee wit h it s r oot s above and br anches
below. I t s leaves ar e t he veda-s. He who knows it knows t he veda-s”.
Sr I SAst r i cont inues on t he above, and explains t hat He is also supar Nah
because He gives pr ot ect ion t o t he j I va-s in t heir soj ur n in t his samsAr a by
giving t hem t he shade in t he f or m of t he beaut if ul leaves of t his immut able
aSvat t ha t r ee while t hey go t hr ough t he samsAr a t o expend t heir kar ma-s.
e) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as “One Whose f or m is
decor at ed wit h t he gr een t ulasi leaves” – SobhanAni par NAni t ulasI dalAni
yan-mUr t au sa su-par Nah. For one of t he inst ances of t he nAma, Sr I vidyA
bhUshaN’s anubhavam is along t he same lines: bhagavAn is mor e pleased
wear ing t he beaut if ul gr een t ulasi leaves t han when wear ing t he pr ecious
j ewels, and so He is su-par Nah – SobhanAni par NAni t ulasI pat r ANyeva na t u
kanaka r at nAni yasmin sa su-par Nah..
f ) Sr I bhAr advAj gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion as well: He is su-par Nah
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192
since He has t he gr een emer ald color because of His associat ion wit h Sr I
lakshmi Who r esides in His vaksha-st halam - Sobhanah par No har it a bhAvo
yasya Sr I lakshmI devI sAnnidhyAt it i su-par Nah.
g) Sr I bhAr advAj gives a t hir d int er pr et at ion using t he r oot pRN – pr I Nane –
t o please, t o sat isf y, and explains t he nAma as – Sobhanam par Nam pr I Nanam
yasya it i su-par Nah – He Who is easily pleased and sat isf ied by t he sincer e
of f er ings of His devot ee. One is r eminded of t he gI t A Slokam
pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i |
t ad-aham bhakt yuoahRt am aSnAmi pr ayat At manah | |
(gI t A 15.1)
“Whoever of f er s Me wit h t r ue devot ion a leaf , a f lower , a f r uit or some wat er ,
I accept t his of f er ing made wit h devot ion by him who is pur e of hear t ”.
h) Sr I T. S. Raghavendr an has given t he f ollowing in his “Sr I vishNu sahasr a
nAma sa’ngr ahAr t ha” (t his also cor r esponds closely t o t he int er pr et at ion given
by Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha in his t at t va sAr a f or t his nAma in Slokam 21): su =
sobhana, par a = ut t ama, Nah = Anandah, t An sant i it i su-par -Nah – He is called
su-par -Nah because He is t he Abode of Supr eme happiness.
i) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha enj oys t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o One Who is r est ing
on t he beaut if ul gr een t ender leaf of a f ig-t r ee at t he t ime of pr alaya –
Sobhanam par Nam vaTa-pat r am SayyAt vena yasya sa su-par Nah.
j ) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I r aghnAt ha t I r t ha gives t he
int er pr et at ion: “su – samyak bhUmin pUr ayat i – vyApnot i it i su-par Nah – He
Who per vades t he ear t h complet ely.
nAma 860. nAma 860. nAma 860. 4l44lr+- 4l44lr+- 4l44lr+- vAyu vAyu vAyu-- -vAhanah vAhanah vAhanah
a) He Who makes t he wind f low f or t he benef it of sust aining lif e.
b) He Who lif t s up t he f allen wit h t he swif t ness of air wit h t he help of gar uDa
c) He Who had "The vAyu - hanumAn" as His vehicle dur ing His r Ama
incar nat ion.
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vAyu-vAhanAya namah
We enj oyed t his nAma in Slokam 36 - nAma 333 ear lier .
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot s involved in t he nAma: vA - gat i
gandhanayoh - t o go, t o blow, et c., and vah - pr ApaNe - t o car r y, t o f low. He
gives t he der ivat ion as: vAyuh vAhyat e - pr avar t yat e anena it i vAyu-vAhanah -
He because of Whom t he air f lows.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in Slokam 36 as a r ef er ence t o
bhagavAn' s act of dr iving t he air (making it move and f low) t hat is vit al f or t he
sur vival of all beings.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er s us t o t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr ' s t ir u ezhu
kURRir ukkai - mEdamum aim- per um bhUt amum neeyE - "You ar e t he For ce
behind t he f ive gr eat element s t hat ar e const it uent s of t he body t hat houses
t he j I va-s".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o t he bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad,
which descr ibes t hat bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi of vAyu, and makes vAyu f low
et c.
yo vAyau t ishThan vAyor ant ar o yam vAyur na veda yasya vAyuh Sar I r am yo
vAyur ant ar o yamayat i esha t a At mA ant ar yAmi amRt ah |
(bRhad. 3.7.11)
"He who dwells in vAyu, who is wit hin t he vAyu (Air ), whom Air does not know,
whose body is Air , and who cont r ols Air f r om wit hin, is t he I nner Ruler
(ant ar yAmi), t he I mmor t al".
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he f ir st inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 36 as "He Who
is t he Dir ect or of t he seven vit al air s - "vahat ah sapt a AvahAdI n vAhayat i it
vAyuvAhanah" - bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He is t he Cont r oller of
t he at mospher e in t he seven r egions of space.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes in det ail about t hese seven r egions t hat
ar e cont r olled by seven dif f er ent sons of kaSyapa and dit i, because of t he
power s given t o t hem by bhagavAn. They ar e called t he sapt a-mar ut a-s:
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1. A-vaha,
2. pr a-vaha,
3. sam-vaha,
4. ud-vaha,
5. vi- vaha,
6. par i-vaha, and
7. par A-vaha.
The upasar ga pr ior t o t he t er m vaha in each case signif ies t he kind of f or ce
t hat is exer t ed by t his t ype of f low, f or inst ance ud-vaha is t he f or ce t hat
lif t s up, et c. The seven mar ut s cont r ol seven r egions of t he Univer se. Six of
t hese r egions ar e list ed by many of t he aut hor s. These r egions ar e:
1. t he space bet ween ear t h and t he clouds,
2. t hat bet ween t he clouds and t he sun,
3. t hat bet ween t he sun and t he moon,
4. t he moon and t he st ar s,
5. t he st ar s and t he planet s,
6. and t he planet s and t he sapt a-Rshi manDala.
I t is said t hat it is because of t he pr essur e exer t ed by t hese r egions of air
t hat t he var ious st ellar obj ect s do not collide wit h each ot her .
I n shor t , Sr I cinmayAnanda summar izes t he above in t he f ollowing wor ds: "The
inconceivable might and power of t he winds and t heir lif e-sust aining abilit ies
ar e all lent t o t he air by bhagavAn' s own munif icence and, t her ef or e, He is
called "vAyu-vAhanah".
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t hat bhagavAn is
vAyu-vAhanah or "One Who makes t he air f low and sust ain all beings". I n t his
inst ance his anubhavam is t hat t he Air f lows because of t he f ear of bhagavAn
if t he air does not comply as dir ect ed. As ment ioned in t he t ait t ir I ya
Upanishad: - "bhI shAsmAd- vAt ah pavat e" (t ait t . 2.8) - "The wind blows
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t hr ough f ear of Him".
Anot her anubhavam given by Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i is t hat bhagavAn
r edeems His devot ees swif t ly like air , and so He is vAyu-vAhanah.
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat at t he t ime of cr eat ion, bhagavAn f ir st makes
t he air f low, and t hen gives body t o t he j I va-s so t hat t hey can move ar ound or
br eat he and live, and so He is vAyu-vAhanah. This gr eat Power of bhagavAn is
not easily per ceived by us. Sr i vAsishTha gives sever al r ef er ences t o t he vedic
passages in suppor t :
t ad-dhAvat o' nyAn-at yet i t ishThat -t asmin-apo mAt ar iSvA dadhAt i
(I SAvAsya. 4)
While not moving, I t goes f ast er t han t hose who r un af t er I t . By I t s Power ,
t he Air suppor t s all t he living beings".
kasmAd-a' ngAt dI pyat e agnir -asya kasmAd-a' ngAt pavat e mAt ar iSvA
(at har va. 10.7.2)
By Whose movement or f or ce t he agni glows, and by whose movement t he air
f lows".
kva pr epsan dI pyat a Ur dhvo agnih, kva pr epsan pavat e mAt ar iSvA
(at har va. 10.7.4)
How (by Whose Power ) t he agni always blazes upwar d, and by Whose Power t he
wind f lows".
yat r AgniS-candr amAh sUr yo vAt as-t ishThant yAr pit Ah |
skambham t am br Uhi kat amah svideva sah | |
(at har va. 10.7.12)
"That Suppor t on which t he ear t h, f ir mament and sky ar e set as t heir
f oundat ion, in Whom t he Fir e, Moon, Sun, and Wind have t heir f oundat ion".
yasmAd vAt A Rt udhA pavant e yasmAd samudr A adhi vikshar ant i
(at har va. 13.3.2)
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He f r om Whom winds blow pur e in or der ed seasons, and f r om Whom t he seas
f low f or t h in or der ed dir ect ions.
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma vAyu-vAhanah, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn lif t s up t hose t hat have f allen int o t he ocean of
samsAr a, using gar uDa, who is not ed f or his swif t ness. vAyu her e signif ies
gar uDa, t he king of bir ds, who is known f or his swif t movement . Sr I
BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e - t AnSca pr abala het ubhih pat it Anapi, vAyunA -
anupamagat var eNa pat agapat inA, vAhayat i ut t Ar ayat i it i vAyu-vAhanah. He
quot es an example f r om vishNu t at t va - t he st or y of King upar icar a vasu. This
king was cur sed by a gr eat sage t o wander in t he net her wor lds. He was a gr eat
devot ee of bhagavAn, and so bhagavAn sent gar uDa who lif t ed him up f r om t he
net her wor lds and br ought him back t o t he upper wor lds.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat bhagavAn is vAyu-vAhanah or "One
Who has Air as His vehicle" on account of anot her incident as well - I t is said
t hat when bhagavAn had t o r ush t o save gaj endr a, f inding t hat t he speed of
gar uDa was not f ast enough, bhagavAn j ust used t he Air as His vehicle, and
r eached gaj endr a and saved him.
c) Sr i anant a kRshNa SAst r i t akes "vAyu" t o r ef er t o "The vAyu" - t he son of
vAyu, namely hanumAn, and not es t hat bhagavAn is vAyu-vAhanah since He had
hanumAn as t he "vehicle" in His r Ama incar nat ion dur ing t he bat t le wit h
r AvaNa.
d) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion:
vAt i - gandhayat e sUcayat i Sr I mad-bhagavad Agamanam it i vAyuh |
t ad- vAhanam gar ut madAkhyam yasya it i vAyu-vAhanah |
gar ut mat ah sa' ncalane sAma-gI t ir -udbhavat i,
sA ca Sr I man nAr AyaNasya Agamanam sUcyat i |
That which, or one who announces t he ar r ival of bhagavAn is vAyu, based on
"vAt i - gandhayat e - sUcayat i". BhagavAn has gar ut mAn as His vAhana, who
announces His ar r ival, and so He is vAyu-vAhana. The movement of gar uDa
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pr oduces sAma gAnam, which again announces t he ar r ival of bhagavAn ahead
of His ar r ival.
e) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha looks at t he nAma as vAyuvAh + nah: vAyum - svAsa
vAyum vahant i it i vAyu-vAh, j I vAh; t An nayat i it i vayAvAha-nah - Those t hat
inhale and exhale t he pr ANa vAyu (vAyu) ar e called vAyu-vAh; One Who leads
t hem is vAyuvAha-nah.
f ) I n his alt er nat ive int er pr et at ion, Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha looks at t he
nAma as vAyuvah + vRt u - var t ana - t o exist , t o happen, t o live on; aha -
vyApt au - t o per vade. He Who makes vAyu exist , and t o per vade is vAyuvah +
ahanah - vAyuvaSca asau ahanaSca it i vAyuvAhanah.


















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Slokam 92 Slokam 92 Slokam 92
¤+ ¤ ¹l ¤+ 4 7l 7'7l 7P|46l57P-· ¤+ ¤ ¹l ¤+ 4 7l 7'7l 7P|46l57P-· ¤+ ¤ ¹l ¤+ 4 7l 7'7l 7P|46l57P-·
H9¹l|=6- B4 Brl |+4-6l |+4Pl 4P-+ °-+ H9¹l|=6- B4 Brl |+4-6l |+4Pl 4P-+ °-+ H9¹l|=6- B4 Brl |+4-6l |+4Pl 4P-+ °-+
dhanur dhar O dhanur vedO daNDo damayit A=damah |
apar Aj it ah sar vasahO niyant A niyamO yamah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 861. nAma 861. nAma 861. ¤+ ¤ ¹- ¤+ ¤ ¹- ¤+ ¤ ¹- dhanur dhanur dhanur -- -dhar ah dhar ah dhar ah
The wielder of t he bow.
dhanur-dharAya namah.
dhanusho dhar ah dhanur -dhar ah - One Who has t he bow.
Bot h Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et t his nAma as "One Who car r ies
t he bow in His hand".
The wor d dhanus is der ived f r om t he r oot dhan - t o sound, or f r om t he r oot
dhan - dhAnye - t o bear f r uit .
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma indicat ing t hat
He car r ies His bow by name SAr ' nga in or der t o r emove t he obst acles in t he
pat h of t he devot ees per f or ming yoga t o at t ain Him. The r eason f or Lor d r Ama
car r ying t he bow wit h Him dur ing His vana-vAsam was pr ecisely t o r emove t he
obst acles t o t he penance per f or med by t he Rshi-s in t he f or est . This is
kshat r iya dhar ma:
"et ad-ar t ham hi loke' smin kshat r iyair -dhAr yat e dhanuh"
I t is f or t his r eason t hat t he bow is wielded by t he kshat r iya-s in t his wor ld;
"dhAr yat e kshat r iyaih cApo na Ar t a Sabdo bhaved-it i" -
The bow is always car r ied by t he kshat r iya-s so t hat t her e may not be t he cr y
of dist r ess anywher e.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an nicely t r anslat es t he nAma int o t amizh as "Sar ' ngapANi" -
"One Who has SA' r nga in His hand".
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nammAzhvAr per sonif ies all His weapons t hemselves as being f illed wit h anger
at t he ver y sight of t he enemy, and r eady t o r emove t he sor r ow of t he
devot ees - kAi Sina Azhi Sa' ngu vAL t aNDu Endi em iDar kaDivAnE (t ir uvAi.
9.2.6). nammAzhvAr also r ef er s t o emper umAn as "kuni Sar ' ngan" (t ir uvAi.
8.8.1) - One Who has in His hand t he Sar ' nga bow t hat is bent as if wit h
r espect .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is - "Sr I mAn r Ama nAmA mahad-dhanur -
dhAr ayAmAsa it i dhanur -dhar ah - He Who car r ied t he gr eat bow in His r Ama
incar nat ion (t o pr ot ect t he sages). The key wor d t o emphasize is "t he gr eat
bow".
Ther e ar e ot her s who have car r ied t he bow, but none is equal t o r Ama in
wielding t he bow.
Lor d kRshNa decalr es as such in t he gI t A - Of t hose who bear weapons, I am
r Ama.
...... r Amah Sast r a bhRt Am aham |
(gI t A 10.31)
Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i r ef er s t o r Ama' s skill in wielding t he bow and
ar r ow - He could even conver t a shade of gr ass as an ar r ow in chasing
kAkAsur a all over t he t hr ee wor lds and making Him sur r ender at His Feet
ult imat ely.
c) Sr I cinmayAnanda gives an int er est ing r ef er ence t o muNDakpanishad,
wher e t he "bow" r ef er s t o t he pr aNava:
dhanur -gRhI t vaupanishadam mahAst r am
Sar am hyupAsAniSit am samdhayI t a |
Ayamya t ad-bhAva gat ena cet asA
lakshyam t adevAkshar am somya viddhi | |
(muNDa. 2.2.3)
"Having t aken t he bow (called pr aNava) well known in t he upanishads, one
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should f ix on it an ar r ow (t he At man) t hat has been shar pened by const ant
medit at ion. Dr awing it wit h t he mind f ixed on t he Br ahman, O good looking
one, know t hat t he I mmut able it self is t he t ar get ".
The next mant r a explicit ly declar es: "pr aNavo dhanuh, Sar o hyAt mA, br ahma
t al-lakshyamucyat e".
c) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN, an exponent of t he gauDI ya vaishNava
sampr adAyam, gives his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of bhagavAn' s kRshNa
incar nat ion, and r ef er s t o His bear ing t he bow t o shoot t he f ish at His
svayamvar am wit h lakshaNA - svayamvar e mat sya vedhanAya dhanusho
dhar aNAt dhanur -dhar ah. The incident of ar j una pier cing t hr ough t he f ish in
t he svayamvar a of dr aupadi is well-known, but t he r ef er ence her e is t o a
similar incident t hat r ef er s t o bhagavAn. This incident could not be t r aced
t hr ough t he int er net sear ch, and so t he or iginal r ef er ence t o t his incident
could not be locat ed.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives r ef er ence t o t he Rg vedic mant r a in suppor t :
aham r udr Aya dhanur -At anomi br ahmadvishe hant a vA u |
aham j anAya samadam kRNomy-aham dvAyavA pRt hivI AvivESa | |
(Rg. 10.125.6)
"I bend t he bow f or r udr a t hat his ar r ow may st r ike and slay t he hat er of
devot ion. I r ouse and or der bat t le f or t he people, and I have penet r at ed Ear t h
and Heaven".
nAma 862. nAma 862. nAma 862. ¤+ 4 7- ¤+ 4 7- ¤+ 4 7- dhanur dhanur dhanur -- -vedah vedah vedah
a) The Pr opounder of t he science of ar cher y.
b) The Knower of t he Science of ar cher y in it s complet eness (a r ef er ence t o
Lor d r Ama).
c) One Who has given t he means of self -pr ot ect ion (dhanush) t o all His
cr eat ion.
d) One Who has pr opounded medit at ion on "(pr aNavam)" as t he sur e means of
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Self r ealizat ion.
dhanur-vedAya namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as an example of His being t he
Pr opounder of all t hat is known and t o be lear nt . I n t his inst ance, He is t he
Pr opounder of t he Science of ar cher y - dhanur -veda. Even t he r uler s of men
(kings) and gods (indr a) get t heir knowledge of t he science f r om His blessings
alone.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr eat ion is: "sa eva dASar at hih dhanur -vedam vet t i it i
dhanur -vedah" - "The Son of daSar at ha, who alone is t he Knower of t he
Science of ar cher y (t o per f ect ion)". Thus as t he t er m "mahat " was emphasized
in Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion of t he pr evious nAma, t he t er m "eva" should
be st r essed her e. Ther e ar e ot her s who knew and know t he science of ar cher y,
but none who compar es t o r Ama.
Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i gives examples of Lor d r Ama' s knowledge of t he
science of ar cher y. He could dir ect t he ar r ows as He wished, r et r ieve t hem as
He wished, and even change Nat ur e t hr ough dischar ge of t he ar r ows (as His
use of t he ar r ow t o war n samudr a r Aj an f or His init ial lack of r esponse t o His
r equest ).
c) Sr I vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ions:
i) dhanur vindat i - labhat a it i - He Who has t he dhanus.
ii) dhanur -vedayat i sva-r akshaNAr t ham sar vebhya it i dhanur -vedah - He Who
best ows t he dhanus t o all His cr eat ion f or t heir self -pr ot ect ion is dhanur -
vedah. Her e Sr I vAsishTha gives a gener ic meaning t he t er m dhanus, and uses
t he t er m as a r ef er ence t o any means f or self - pr ot ect ion f r om t he nat ur al
enemies et c. Thus, he r ef er s t o t he hor n of t he cows et c. as t heir
' dhanush' (gavAdhikAnAm dhanur ast i SR' ngam), t he nails of t he t iger s, lions
et c. as t heir ' dhanush' (simhAdi himsr asya nakhAdir Upam), and t he int ellect as
t he dhanush f or human beings (dhanuSca mar t yasya su-buddhih).
Sr I vAsishTha gives suppor t f r om yaj ur -veda;
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avat at ya dhanushTvagm sahasr Aksha Sat eshudhe |
niSI r ya SalyAnAm mukhA Sivo nah sumanA bhava | |
(yaj ur . 16.13).
d) Sr I cinmayAnanda cont inues his anubhavam of t he nAma based on t he
int er pr et at ion of t he t er m dhanush t o r ef er t o t he "omkAr a" (see pr evious
nAma). He gives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma as "One Who pr opounded t he
unf ailing t echnique of medit at ion on "(pr aNavam)" f or r ealizat ion of t he Self ".
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as
"dhanUmshi vidant i it i dhanur -vedAh ast r ~j nAh bhRt yAh |
t e asya bhakt AnAm dAsAh sant i it i dhanur -vedah | "
He Who has His devot ees ser ved by t hose who have knowledge of t he science
of missiles and weaponr y.
nAma 863. nAma 863. nAma 863. 7'7- 7'7- 7'7- daNDah daNDah daNDah
a) The sour ce of punishment f or t he wicked.
b) He Who is ver ily t he weapon (power ) of yama - t he daNDa.
c) He Whom no one else cont r ols (a-daNDah).
d) He Who is t he sour ce of r est r aint f or all beings so t hat t hey f ollow dhar ma.
daNDAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is dam - upaSame - t o be t amed.
(dushTAn) daNDayat i it i daNDah - The means of punishment f or t he wicked is
daNDah. daNDam is a t er m used f or a st af f . I t r ef er s t o t he st af f t hat is
car r ied by a sanyAsin, and also is a symbol of t he power t hat one has (like t he
daNDam or st af f of a king). The sense in which it is used in t his nAma is t he
lat t er . Thus, daNDah her e r ef er s t o t he means t o administ er punishment or
t aming.
a) Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat bhagavAn is daNDah because He administ er s
t he r ules of dhar ma t hr ough t he kings who have t he r esponsibilit y t o punish
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t he wicked and br ing pr ot ect ion and happiness t o t he wor ld by f ollowing t he
dhar ma as laid down in t he vedas.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A, wher e Lor d kRshNa declar es t hat
among t hose t hat administ er chast isement , He is daNDa:
daNDo damayat Am asmi nI t ir asmi j igI shat Am |
(gI t A 10.38)
"I am t he Power of Punishment among t hose who administ er punishment when
t he law is t r ansgr essed".
nammAzhvAr descr ibes t he int ensit y wit h which bhagavAn punishes t he
wicked, in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 6.10.4) - r ef er ence by Sr I v.v.
r AmAnuj an:
AvAennAdu ulagat t ai alaikkum aSur ar vANAL mEl t I vAi vALi mazahi pozhinda
SilaiyA t ir u mA magaL kELvA
"He shower s His deadly pier cing f ier y r ain-shower of ar r ows on t he lif e-sour ce
of t he wicked asusr a-s who by t heir ver y nat ur e will t or t ur e t he people of t his
wor ld wit hout t he least mer cy". Such is t he int ensit y wit h which bhagavAn
dealt wit h kar a, dhUshaNa et c.
b) Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i int er pr et s t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he
weapon of yama in his r ole of samhAr am. BhagavAn is ver ily t hat power of
yama in t he f or m of his weapon, t he daNDa - t he ult imat e of weapons in t he
ult imat e of punishment s.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he explanat ion - dait yAn daNDayat i it danDah -
He Who punishes t he asur a-s.
c) He gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion using t he pATham "a-daNDah" - anya
kar t Rka SikshaNa r ahit ah a-daNDah - He Whom no one else cont r ols.
d) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives t he explanat ion t hat bhagavAn is called
daNDah because He is t he sour ce of r est r aint (daNDa = damana = niyamana
=r est r aint ) f or all beings so t hat t hey act accor ding t o His r ules.
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nAma 864. nAma 864. nAma 864. 7P|46l 7P|46l 7P|46l damayit A damayit A damayit A
a) The Subduer (of t he enemies of His devot ees).
b) The Dispeller (of t he miser ies and suf f er ings of His devot ees).
damayitre namah.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is t he same as t he one f or t he
pr evious nAma - dam - upaSame - t o be t amed. The dif f er ence is t hat t he last
nAma r ef er r ed t o bhagavAn being t he Sour ce or t he t ool of punishment of t he
wicked, and t he cur r ent nAma r ef er s t o Him as t he One who administ er s t he
punishment . The af f ix t Rn t hat appear s at t he end of t his nAma r ef er s t o
"One who has t he habit of " - t AcchI lya, accor ding t o pANini sUt r a 3.2.125, and
t hus t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn is in t he habit of punishing t he wicked.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he def init ion - damayat i = upaSamayat i t acchI lo
damayit A.
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion along t he above lines - svayam ca
r AvaNAdI n t AcchI lyena damayit A - He Who dest r oys t he likes of r AvaNa as a
mat t er of habit . The nir ukt i aut hor gives t he descr ipt ion f or t he nAma as
"t AccHilyAt r AvaNAdI nAm har t A - damayit A svayaam". I t is because of t his
habit of His t hat He t akes dir ect incar nat ions such as t he r Ama and kRshNa
incar nat ions t o r id t he wicked f r om t his wor ld. nammAzhvAr descr ibes t his
at t r ibut e of bhagavAn in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 7.5.2 (r ef er ence f r om Sr I
v.v. r AmAnuj an):
nATTil piRandu paDAdana paTTu maniSar kkA
nATTai naliyum ar akkar ai nADit t aDindiTTu
nATTai aLit t u uyyac ceidu naDandamai kETTumE?
(t ir uvAi. 7.5.2)
BhagavAn t akes bir t h among us, goes t hr ough innumer able suf f er ings f or our
sake in His incar nat ion (as evidenced by t he incar nat ion of r Ama wit h pir ATTi
sI t A), and t hen goes af t er and seeks t he wicked (nADi), and dest r oys t hem -
all f or t he sake of t he human beings who have no int er est in wor shipping Him
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and seeking His Feet . I t is t his "habit " of His seeking t he wicked and punishing
t hem t hat is emphasized in t he nAma damayit A.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is t he "Subduer " of t he wicked
in t he f or m of yama, t he r uler s et c. He gives suppor t f r om t he gI t A:
........ yamah samyamat Am aham
(gI t A 10.29)
(I am yama among t he subduer s).
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma along similar lines - dait yAn
damayat i it i damayit A - He Who subdues t he wicked asur a-s.
Sr I vAsishTha also echoes a similar t hought : BhagavAn has t his nAma
signif ying t hat He subdues t hose who violat e t he r ules of dhar ma as
est ablished by Him –
j agat i j agadI Sa kRt AyA j agad-vyavast hAyA
bha' nj akam upaSamya sva-vaSe st hApayat i.
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He "dispels" t he
sor r owf ul or miser able st at e of His devot ees (by r et r ieving t hem f r om t he
bondage of samsAr a): damayat i upaSamayat i dainyam sva-j anAnAm it i
damayit A. This is along t he lines t hat Sr I BhaTTar has int er pr et ed nAma
192 - damanah (Slokam 21). Bot h t he nAma-s have t he same r oot , and in f act
Sr I BhaTTar st r esses t he guNa of bhagavAn as a Subduer in nAma 192 also,
but a dif f er ent aspect of t his guNa of bhagavAn - t hat of subduing t he t Apa
or suf f er ing of His devot ees. Emper umAn is always act ing in t he int er est s of
His devot ees - eit her as a Subduer of t he t Apa of His devot ees (kAnt i -
mandAkinI bhih bhava t Apam damayat i it i damanah (He dispels t he suf f er ings
of samsAr a in His devot ees t hr ough t he Ganges-like st r eams of His lust er or
kAnt i- int er pr et at ion f or nAma 192), or as a Subduer of t he enemies of His
devot ees (t he cur r ent nAma).
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "One Who punishes t he wicked,
dest r oys t he sinner s and t hus r egulat es and cult ivat es lif e in t he univer se,
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making it a gar den f or t he blossoms of spir it ual beaut ies".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshAn, an exponent of t he gauDI ya vaishNava
sampr adAyam, gives his int er pr et at ions f or all t he nAma-s as f ar as possible
based on t he specif ic inst ances of bhagavAn' s kRshNa incar nat ion. For t he
cur r ent nAma, he gives t he anubhavam t hat t he nAma r ef lect s His "subduing"
t he seven bulls in His svyamavar am - nAgnaj it I svayamvar e sapt AnAmukshNAm
damanAt damayit A.
nAma 865. nAma 865. nAma 865. H7P- H7P- H7P- aa a-- -damah damah damah
a) He Who is not subdued by anyone.
b) He Who is in t he f or m of t he good ef f ect s of punishment t o t hose who er r .
c) He Who is t he means of cont r ol..
d) He Who cont r ols ever yt hing.
e) He Who best ows all wishes t o His devot ees.
a-damAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is dam - upaSame - t o be t amed, t he
same r oot as f or t he pr evious t wo nAma-s. Sr I BhaTTar looks at t he nAma as
a-damah - He Who cannot be t amed or subdued, and Sr I Sa' nkar a and ot her s
t r eat t he nAma as damah.
The nir ukt i aut hor summar izes Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam t hus: kaScit
damayit A na ast i yasya asau a-damah smRt ah - He is medit at ed upon as a-
damah because t her e is no one who can subdue Him in any way.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as:
dAmyat i it damo damanah par Abhavit A;
na damo yasya kaScit sah a-damah.
Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he mahA bhAr at a in suppor t :
bhasma kur yAt j agat -sar vam manasaiva j anAr danah |
na t u kRt snam j agac-chakt am ki' ncit kar t um j anAr dane | | (mahA. udyoga. 67.8)
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"J anAr dana by His mer e Will can t ur n int o ashes t he ent ir e Univer se. But all
t he Univer se combined t oget her can do no har m t o Him".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a, who t r eat s t he nAma as damah, gives t he int er pr et at ion -
damyeshu daNDa kAr yam phalam, t acca sa eva it i damah - He is also t he r esult
of t he act of punishment or discipline t hat is administ er ed. I n ot her wor ds,
what ever is t he ef f ect of t he punishment administ er ed t o one who er r s, such
as t he good ef f ect s t hat t ake place because of t he punishment , t he
cor r ect ions t hat occur in t he individual, et c., ar e also a manif est at ion of
bhagavAn.
Sr I cinmayAnanda capt ur es t his sense in his explanat ion: "That which is
ult imat ely gained by t he wor ldly punishment s - t he f inal exper ience of
Beat it ude in t he Self ". One should be able t o r ealize t hr ough t his
int er pr et at ion t hat what happens t o us - good or bad -is all f or our benef it ,
best owed by bhagavAn.
c) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t he t er m dama also r ef er s t o t he
means t hat ar e used t o cont r ol t he unr uly; t he net r esult of t his cont r ol is t he
cont r ol of t he senses et c., which is also r ef er r ed as t o dama.
d) Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he meaning f or t he nAma as "dAmayat i it i damah" -
He Who cont r ols. For t he pr evious nAma - damayit A, he int er pr et ed t he
f unct ion of cont r ol as it applies t o t hose who violat e dhar ma. For t he cur r ent
nAma, he gives t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of bhagavAn being t he Cont r oller of
ever yt hing such t hat t hey f ollow t he pr escr ibed pat h as t heir nat ur al behavior
- in ot her wor ds, He is t he Cont r oller of all t he planet s such t hat t hey f ollow
t heir pr escr ibed cour ses; He is t he Cont r oller of our indr iya-s such t hat t he
eye only sees and does not hear , t he ear only hear s but not smell, et c.
BhagavAn is pr esent ever ywher e and per vades ever yt hing, and has f ull cont r ol
of ever yt hing - He is damah, t he Cont r oller . Her e is Sr I vAsishTha' s
composit ion capt ur ing his int er pr et at ion:
damo hi sar vat r a vir Aj amAnah, kr iyAsu sar vam sa niyamya yu' ngt e |
gr ahAs-t ameva damamat r a vishNum namant i sar ve par idhau bhr amant ah | |
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e) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha t akes t he pATham Ada-mah, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He has t he nAma signif ying t hat He is t he Best ower of
wealt h on all - samyak dadAat i it i Adah, t eshAm mA - sampat yasmAt it i Ada-
mah.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives a similar int er pr et at ion in his t at t va sAr a, but
looking at t he nAma as da+mah - kalpa t ar u sAkhA iva bhakt AnAm
sar vAbhI shYTam dadAt i it i da-mah - He Who conf er s all t he t hings desir ed,
t o t he devot ees, like t he br anches of t he heavenly wish-giving t r ee, kalpa
vRksha.
nAma 866. nAma 866. nAma 866. H9¹l|=6- H9¹l|=6- H9¹l|=6- aa a-- -par Aj it ah par Aj it ah par Aj it ah
a) He Who is invincible.
b) He Who has no pr ot ect or above Him, and Who is Resplendent (a-pah +
r Aj it ah).
c) He Whose Power s do not per ish or diminish over t ime.
a-parAjitAya namah.
This nAma occur s t wice in t he st ot r am (Slokam 76 - nAma 721, and t he
cur r ent inst ance).
The r oot f or t he nAma is j i -j aye abhibhave ca - t o conquer . Sr I vAsishTha
gives t he explanat ion - par air -na par A-j I yat e, par AbhibhUyat e vA sa a-
par Aj it o vishNuh - He Who cannot be conquer ed or humiliat ed in any way by
anyone.
a) Among t he dif f er ent aspect s of bhagavAn' s invincibilit y, t her e ar e t wo t hat
ar e not ewor t hy:
1. He cannot be def eat ed by anyone or anyt hing at any t ime, anywher e,
under any cir cumst ance.
2. Anyone whom He suppor t s is also equally invincible, as illust r at ed by t he
case of t he pANDava-s against t he st r onger ar my of kaur ava-s.
Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma in t er ms of 1)
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above, and f or nAma 721 his anubhavam is based on 2 above. This is how Sr I
BhaTTar has avoided t he punar ukt i dosham or t he f ault of r edundancy in his
vyAkhyAnam f or t he t wo inst ances of t his nAma.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he f ir st int er pr et at ion as f ollows: kvacit , kadAcit ,
kut aScit a-pr at ihat ah a-par Aj it ah - He cannot be obst r uct ed by anyone, at any
t ime, anywher e or by any means.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj echoes t he same idea - na par Aj it ah kadApi
kenApi it i a- par aj it ah - He Who cannot be conquer ed by anyone and t hr ough
any means is a-par Aj it ah.
Sr I BhaTTar gives sever al suppor t s f or his int er pr et at ions:
Fr om t he gI t A:
yat r a yogeSvar ah kRshNo yat r a pAr t ho dhanur -dhar ah |
t at r a Sr I r -vij ayo bhUt ir -dhr uvA nI t ir -mat ir -mama | |
(gI t A 18.78)
"Wher e kRshNa, t he Lor d of t he yoga-s is, and wher e pAr t ha, t he bow-ar med
ar j una is, t her e is pr osper it y, t her e is vict or y, t her e is wealt h, and t her e is
f ir m j ust ice - t his is my conclusion".
Fr om t he Ayur veda car aka samhit A, wher e again t he invincibilit y of bhagavAn
is declar ed:
yat hA' ham nAbhij AnAmi vAsudeve par Aj ayam |
mAt uSca pANigr ahaNam samudr asya ca SoshaNam |
et ena sat ya-vAkyena sicyat Am agado hyayam | |
"On t he ver acit y of t he f ollowing st at ement s, may t his medicine be pounded
and be ef f ect ive:- "Ther e is no def eat f or vAsudeva"; "I have not wit nessed
t he mar r iage of my mot her "; "t he ocean will never become complet ely dr y".
(These ar e all absolut e t r ue st at ement s)".
I n vait ar aNa, t he f ollowing is used t o invoke t he ef f icacy of t he poison-
r emoving mant r a:
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r at nAkar a iva akshobhyo himavAniva ca acalah |
j At avedA iva adhRshyo nAr AyaNa iva aj ayah | |
"Let t his poison-r emoving mant r a be ef f ect ive j ust as t he ocean is
imper t ur bable, himAvan is unshakable, f ir e is unappr oachable, and nAr AyaNa is
unconquer able".
Fr om Sr I mad r AmAyaNa:
a-j ayyah SASvat o dhr uvah
(yuddha. 114.15)
"He is I nivincible, et er nal and st eady"
a-j it ah khaDga-dhRk
(yuddha. 120.14)
"He is unconquer ed, and is t he Wielder of t he Swor d".
Fr om t he mahAbhAr at a:
dASAr ham apar Aj it am
"Kr ishNa Who is invincible"
yat ah kRshNah t at o j ayah
(bhA. udyoga. 6.79)
"Wher e kRshNa is, t her e vict or y is cer t ain".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence f r om divya pr abandham in suppor t : -
"paRpanAbhan uyar vuRa uyar um per um t iRalOn" (t ir uVai. 2.7.11). Sr i
r AmAnuj an explains t he t er m "t ir al" as "par Abhibhavana sAmar t hyam" - t he
skill t o subdue and over come His enemies.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha enj oys t he nAma as (a-par ah + a-j it ah) - He Who has
none super ior t o Him, and He Who can never be conquer ed - na vidyat e par a =
ut t amo yasmAt it i a-par ah; a-par aSca asau a-j it aSca it i apar Aj it ah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives anot her dimension t o t he invincibilit y of bhagavAn,
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wit h suppor t f r om t he I SAvAsya upanishad - "nainad-devA Apnuvan" - The
deva-s could not over t ake I t - t he over whelming power s of desir es and
passions can never vanquish t he Self - t he Divine nAr AyaNa.
Sr I BhaTTar quot es sever al examples f r om t he mahAbhAr at a in suppor t of his
second int er pr et at ion above as well, wher e t he deva-s t hemselves have
descr ibed over and over again t hat t hose who ar e suppor t ed by bhagavAn
cannot be vanquished by anyone.
ekam hanishyasi r ipum gar j ant am t am mahAmRdhe |
na t u t am pr Ar t hayasyekam r akshyat e sa mahAt manA | |
yam Ahur -veda-vidusho vAr Aham a-j it am har im |
nAr AyaNam a-cint yam ca t ena kRshNena r akshyat e | |
(bhA. udyo.129.40)
indr a t ells kar Na: "I n t he gr eat f ight , I give you t he power t o kill one
t hunder ing war r ior , but t his cannot be t he one you wish t o kill (ar j una), since
he is pr ot ect ed by t he Gr eat Lor d (kRshNa). KRshNa is none ot her t han t he
I nvincible Har i, Who had assumed t he f or m of t he Wild Boar , and Who is t he
I ncompar able nAr AyaNa, as declar ed by t he vedic scholar s".
The same message is given t o j ayadr at ha by r udr a:
a-j ayyAnScApi a-vadhyAnSca vAr ayishyasi t An yudhi |
Rt e ar j unam mahA-bAhum devair api dur Asadam |
yam Ahuh amit am devam Sa' nkha-cakr a-gadA-dhar am |
pr adhAnah so' st r a-vidushAm t ena kRshNena r akshyat e | |
(bhA. vana.260.75)
"I n t he f ight you can war d of f t he at t acks of all invincible and indest r uct ible
war r ior s except t he long-ar med ar j una who is unassailable even t o t he gods,
since he is pr ot ect ed by kRshNa who is t he Unknowable Deit y Who bear s t he
conch, discus and mace as ar ms".
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BhI shma, dr oNa, et c., declar e t hat t hey could have annihilat ed t he pANDava-s
wit hout a t r ace if only vishNu had not been t heir Pr ot ect or , and t hat j ust as
cer t ainly as t r ut h r est s wit h a br Ahmin, humilit y is cer t ain in t he pious, and
wealt h is sur e in t he skillf ul, so also vict or y is cer t ain f or nAr AyaNa:
dhr uvam vai br AhmaNe sat yam dhr uvA sAdhushu sannat ih |
Sr I r -dhr uvA cApi daksheshu dhr uvo nAr AyaNe j ayah | |
- yasya mant r I ca gopt A ca suhRc-caiva j anAr danah |
har ih t r ailokya nAt hah san kim nu t asya na nir j it am | |
What is t her e in t his wor ld t hat cannot be conquer ed by t hat per son who has
bhagavAn Har i as His ment or , pr ot ect or , and f r iend?
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ences t o divya pr abandham in suppor t : - anRu
aivar ai velvit t a mAyap pOr t Er p pAganAr (t ir uvAi. 4.6.1) - He, who, in t he f or m
of t he Char iot eer , ensur ed t he vict or y of t he pANDava-s.
Sr I Sa' nkar a avoids r edundancy in int er pr et at ion by giving t he f ollowing t wo
anubhava-s: 1) BhagavAn is unconquer ed by desir e and t he r est - na Ant ar ai
r agAdibhih par aj it a it i apar Aj it ah (Slokam 76) 2) BhagavAn is invincible by His
f oes - Sat r ubhih na par Aj it a it i a-par Aj it ah (t he cur r ent Slokam)
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha enj oys t he nAma as (a-par ah + a-j it ah) - He Who has
none super ior t o Him, and He Who can never be conquer ed - na vidyat e par a =
ut t amo yasmAt it i a-par ah; a-par aSca asau a-j it aSca it i apar Aj it ah.
b) One of t he int er pr et at ions of Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha is based on looking at
t he nAma as a-pah + r Aj it ah: na vidyaye pah = pAlako yasya sa a-pah; sa cAsau
r Aj it aSca it i a-pa-r Aj it ah - He Who has no pr ot ect or above Him, and He Who
is r esplendent . He is also Unconquer ed in anot her sense - no one who is not
single-mindedly devot ed t o Him will be able t o at t ain Him.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha also der ives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma
st ar t ing f r om t he wor d par a meaning Supr eme. One of his int er pr et at ions is
same as t he f ir st int er pr et at ion of Sr I BhaTTar . The ot her int er pr et at ion is:
For one t o be def eat ed, t her e needs t o be someone or somet hing ot her t han
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t hat ent it y. But since t her e is not hing else t hat exist s ot her t han t he
Supr eme Self , t her e is no possibilit y of def eat f or t his One Tr ut h - "par a eva
kaScin-nAst i; na dvit I yo na t Rt I yah" it i at har va vacanAt , t asmAt par Aj it vasya
a-sambhavAt bhagavat ah apar Aj it a it i nAmnA samkI r t anam upapadyat e. This
pr obably f ollows t he advait a philosophy (Non-exist ence of anyt hing except of
Br ahman in t r ut h).
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives yet anot her dimension t o t he enj oyment of t his nAma.
The Supr eme Self is apar Aj it ah since t he Self alone r emains when ever yt hing
else is dest r oyed.
c) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha looks at t he invincible nat ur e of bhagavAn' s Power
over t ime as compar ed t o all ot her s, whose power s ar e per ishable over t ime –
par Aj I yat e kAlat ah it i par Aj it ah - naSvar Ah vibhUt ayah;
na vidyant e naSvar Aha vibhUt ayah yasya sah a-par Aj it ah
His vibhUt i-s ar e power s ar e not t r ansit or y, but ar e et er nal, and t her ef or e He
is called a-par Aj it ah.
nAma 867. nAma 867. nAma 867. B4 Br- B4 Br- B4 Br- sar va sar va sar va-- -sahah sahah sahah –
a) The Suppor t er of all t he ot her deit ies.
b) He Who conquer s all His enemies.
c) He Who is compet ent in all His act ions.
d) He Who f or gives t he apar Adha-s of ever yone.
sarva-sahAya namah
The wor d sah has mult iple meanings - ' t o bear or suppor t ' , ' t o bear or put up
wit h' , ` ' t o be capable of ' , ' t o be power f ul' . sahas also means st r engt h -
sahat e anena Sat r um it i sahah (amar a kOSam). The dif f er ence in t he dif f er ent
int er pr et at ions r esult s f r om t he use of t he dif f er ent alt er nat e meanings.
Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I vAsishTha use t he meaning "One Who Suppor t s -
bear s", Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' t o be capable of ' , ' t o be power f ul, t o
conquer ' , and ' t o suppor t ' , and Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning
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"One Who put s up wit h". I n addit ion, Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' st r engt h'
f or ' sahas' in one of his int er pr et at ions.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma specif ically in t he cont ext of bhagavAn' s
suppor t t o t he ot her gods. Because of His suppor t t o t he ot her gods, t hey
cont inue t o be wor shipped by people who have not achieved t he f ull r ealizat ion
t hat nAr AyaNa is t he Supr eme Deit y t o be wor shipped. As t he Pr ovider of t his
suppor t , He is called sar va-sahah - sva-SAsanena sar vam devat Ant ar amapi
mandAdhikAr iNAm Ar Adhyat ayA sahat e - bibhar t i it i sar va-sahah.
The same concept is given by nammAzhvAr in t ir uvAimozhi 5.2.8 (r ef er enced
by Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an):
iRukkum iRai iRut t u uNNa ev-vulagukkum t an mUr t i niRut t inAn deiva' ngaLAga
ad-deiva nAyagan t AnE ..
"The ot her deit ies have been est ablished like t ax-collect or s by my daiva
nAyakan - t he Chief of all gods; t hey ar e all His body".
I n one of his int er pr et at ions, Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning "suppor t ", and
gives a mor e gener al int er pr et at ion - bhagavAn has t his nAma because He
suppor t s and pr ot ect s ever yt hing including t he sky, t he ear t h, t he movables
and t he immovables.
b) c) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives mult iple int er pr et at ions:
1) sar vAn Sat r Un sahat a it i sar va-sahah - He Who conquer s all His enemies.
2) sar va kar masu samar t ha it i sar va-sahah - He Who is compet ent in all His
act ions.
3) pRt hivyAdi r UpeNa vA sar va-sahah - He Who suppor t s all in t he f or m of t he
ear t h et c.
d) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion - sar veshAm sva-j ana
apar AdhAnAm sahah it i sar va-sahah - He is sar va-sahah because He put s up
wit h all t he apar Adha-s of all His devot ees.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i also gives t his as his int er pr et at ion - The Lor d
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f or gives t he apr Adha-s of His enemies by consider ing t hat it is because of
t heir inher ent nat ur e t hat t hey per f or m t he apar Adham, and a per son of good
conduct and char act er should f or give and f or get , r at her t han punish and seek
r evenge. He r ef er s t o Sr I mad r AmAyaNam (yuddha. 116.49), wher e sI t A
pir ATTi inst r uct s hanuman t hat t he ser vant -maids of r AvaNa should not be
punished f or mist r eat ing her while in aSoka vanam: na kaScit na apar Adhyat i -
Ther e is no one who does not commit apar Adham (it is in t he nat ur e of all
beings).
Using t he meaning ' t o bear , t o put up wit h' Sr I vAsishTha gives an alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion along similar lines. J ust as t he sea does not lose it s nat ur e even
t hough all kinds of ot her wat er s mingle wit h it over t ime, so also bhagavAn is
unt ouched by all t he t hings t hat He has t o endur e. I t is t he r ef lect ion of t his
guNa of bhagavAn' guNa of sar va-sahat vam t hat is r ef lect ed in t he abilit y of
t he j I va t o endur e all t hat is happening when it is occupying one body, and
t hen move t o anot her body at t he end of t his body' s lif e.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives t he example of Lor d kRshNa put t ing up
wit h all t he insult s f r om t he likes of r ukmi (br ot her of r ukmiNi), dur yodhana,
SiSupAla et c. - sar vANi r ukmyava~j nA vadAmsi sahat a it i sar va-sahah.
nAma 868. nAma 868. nAma 868. |+4-6l |+4-6l |+4-6l niyant A niyant A niyant A
a) He Who dir ect s.
b) One Who has no one above Him t o dir ect and cont r ol Him (a- niyant A).
niyantre namah
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha der ives t he wor d f r om t he r oot yama - upar ame - t o
lif t up, t o show, t o of f er . ni is an uapasar ga (pr ef ix) t hat denot es, among
ot her t hings, command, or der , et c. t Rc is an af f ix added t o denot e agency.
niyant A is One Who cont r ols, dir ect s, gover ns, r est r ains, et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ext ends t he idea f r om t he pr evious nAma (sar va-sahah)
r elat ing t o t he wor ship of t he anya devat A-s. Those who wor ship t he ot her
devat A-s or gods, st ill ar e wor shiping t hese gods wit h t he suppor t of
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bhagavAn. The init ial f r eedom of choice is given t o t he individual, but once t he
choice is made, no mat t er what t he choice is, t hen bhagavAn suppor t s t his
individual in t he pur suit of t his choice. I t is t his guNa of bhagavAn t hat Sr I
BhaTTar br ings out t hr ough t he nAma niyant A - t at r a t at t at r ucI n pr ar ocayan
niyacchat i it i niyant A - He dir ect s and guides t hese individuals af t er let t ing
t hem make t he choice accor ding t o t heir t ast es. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
f ollowing quot e f r om t he gI t a in suppor t :
yo yo yAm yAm t anum bhakt ah Sr addhayA ar cit um icchat i |
t asya t asya acalAm Sr addhAm t Ameva vidadhAmyaham | |
(gI t A 7.21)
"Whichever devot ee seeks t o wor ship wit h f ait h what ever f or m, I make t hat
f ait h st eadf ast ".
This same idea is given by nammAzhvAr in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 1.1.5
(r ef er ence f r om Sr I v,.v. r AmAnuj an):
avar avar t ama t amadu aRivaRi vagai vagai
avar avar iRaiyavar ena aDi aDaivar gaL
avar avar ir Aiyavar kuRaivilar iRaiyavar
avar avar vazhi vazhi aDaiya ninRanar E
(t ir uvAi. 1.1.5)
"Each and ever y individual chooses, in accor dance wit h his nat ur e and
at t ainment s, limit ed by his int ellect , t o wor ship a par t icular deit y of his/ her
choice in t he hope of secur ing desir ed r esult s. These deit ies ar e, wit hout
doubt , capable of gr ant ing t he lesser boons (ot her t han moksha) t o t heir
devot ees accor ding t o t heir mer it s, because t he Lor d is t he inner soul,
cont r oller , and sour ce of t heir power ". The idea t hat bhagavAn is t he niyant A
of all t he ot her gods is t o be appr eciat ed her e.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is t he "Regulat or of all in
all t heir f unct ions" -
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sar vAn sveshu sveshu kRt yeshu
vyast hApayat i it i niyant A.
Sr I vAsishTha point s out t hat ever yt hing f unct ions accor ding t o t he cour se
laid out by Him as t he niyant A of all - including t he sun and all t he planet s, and
even t he hear t inside all of us - niyacchat i = nibhadhnAt i sar vam vyavast hit a
var t manA gamanAya it i ' niyant A' vishNuh.
b) Sr I cinmayAnanda uses t he pATham a-niyant A f or t his nAma, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion - One Who has none above Him t o cont r ol Him" - He is t he One
Who has appoint ed all cont r oller s of t he phenomenal f or ces as t he Sun, t he
Moon, Air and Wat er s.
nAma 869. nAma 869. nAma 869. |+4P- |+4P- |+4P- niyamah niyamah niyamah
a) He Who cont r ols.
b) He Who or dains.
c) He Who is at t ained t hr ough t he yogic pat h of niyama (and yama).
d) He Who has no Cont r oller or Dir ect or above Him (a- niyamah).
e) He Who best ows sacr ed knowledge about Himself t o devot ees in f ull
measur e.
f ) He Who per vades and sur r ounds ever yt hing (yama - par iveshane - t o
sur r ound).
niyamAya namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier in Slokam 17 - nAma 163.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d is der ived is yam-upar ame - t o check. Sr I
vAsishTha also gives anot her r oot - yama-par iveshaNe - t o sur r ound. The wor d
niyama means r est r aint or check, and niyamah is One Who r est r ains.
a) For nAma 163, Sr I BhaTTar br ings out t he r ole of bhagavAn in cont r olling
even t he likes of t he might y mahA bali - bali pr abhRt ayah api niyamyant e anena
it i niyamah.
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The nir ukt i aut hor capt ur es t he signif icance of t he int er pr et at ion as -
niymayat e j agat yena niyamah sa udI r it ah - He is called niyamah because t he
whole univer se is cont r olled by Him.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an emphasizes t he r ole of bhagavAn as t he ASr it a-r akshaka -
One Who pr ot ect s t hose Who seek r ef uge in Him, as t he guNa t hat is
por t r ayed in t his nAma. The Lor d cont r olled hir aNyAksha in His incar nat ion as
vAmana; He killed keSi and pr ot ect ed t he cowher ds of Ayar pADi; He
dest r oyed t he elephant t hat was deployed by kamsa t o kill Him; and t her e ar e
many ot her similar inst ances in His ot her incar nat ions such as t he r Ama
incar nat ion et c.
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma niyamah, Sr I BhaTTar enj oys anot her
aspect of His cont r ol - He or dains (pr escr ibes, specif ies) t he f r uit s of wor ship
t o each individual accor ding t o t he nat ur e of t heir wor ship of t he anya devat A-
s of t heir choice: t at -phalam ca - j At i, Ayuh, bhogAdikam niyamyat e asmin it i
niyamah. Following on t he r ef er ence t o t he gI t A Slokam 7.21 f or t he pr evious
nAma, Sr I BhaTTar t akes t he idea conveyed by bhagavAn in t he ver y next
Slokam - 7.22 of t he gI t A t o suppor t t he int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent nAma:
sa t ayA Sr addhayA yukt ah t asya Ar Adhanam I hat e |
labhat e ca t at ah kAmAn mayaiva vihit An hi t An | |
(gI t A 7.22)
"Endowed wit h t hat f ait h, he wor ships t hat f or m (of ot her devat A-s) and
t hence get s t he obj ect s of his desir e, gr ant ed in r ealit y by Me alone".
I t is t o be not ed t hat :
a) bhagavAn let s t he individual choose t he deit y t o be wor shiped by him based
on his limit at ions and knowledge;
b) bhagavAn t hen suppor t s t he individual in t his endeavor ;
c) bhagavAn best ows t he benef it s of t his wor ship by empower ing t he devat A
t hat t he individual wor ships t o best ow t he desir ed power s, depending on t he
eligibilit y of t he individual.
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I deas a) and b) ar e r ef lect ed in t he nAma niyant A in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion, and idea c) is r ef lect ed in t he cur r ent nAma; and t hese t wo
int er pr et at ions nicely f ollow t he t wo concur r ent Sloka-s, 7.21 and 7.22, in t he
gI t A. The concept of individual f r eedom of choice f or t he j I va as out lined in
t he above st eps is r ef lect ed in Sr I bhAshyam by Sr I r AmAnuj a (vyAkhyAna
f or sUt r a 2.3.41 - kRt a pr ayat nApekshat u vi hi t a- pr at i shi ddhA
avaiyar t hAdibhyah).
The idea t hat bhagavAn is t he One Who or dains t he benef it s t hat ar e
at t ained by r esor t t o t he lesser devat A-s, is r einf or ced by Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an
t hr ough a r ef er ence t o t ir uvASir iyam 4 by nammAzhvAr , wher e AzhvAr not es
t hat bhagavAn is t he One Who cr eat ed t he likes of br ahma, Siva et c., along
wit h t heir limit ed power s: daiva nAn-mugak kaDavuLai EnRu, mukkaN I SanODu
dEvu pala nudaliya mAyak kaDavUL (t ir uvASir i. 4).
Not e t he way Sr I BhaTTar has avoided r edundancy in int er pr et at ion (punar -
ukt i dosham) by giving t wo dif f er ent aspect s of bhagavAn' s cont r ol f or t he
t wo inst ances of t he nAma.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t wo dif f er ent ver sions of t he nAma-s in Slokam 92: a-
niyamah and a-yamah, or niyamah and yamah. I n t he ver sion "niyamo yamah",
his int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn has t hese nAma-s because He can be
at t ained t hr ough t he t wo means of yoga called niyama and yama.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o pat a' nj ali' s yoga sUt r a f or t he
def init ion of t he t er m niyama -
Soca sant osha t apah svAdhyAya I svar a pr aNidhAnAni niyamAh
(sUt r a 2.32)
"Pur it y of t he body, ment al cont ent edness, aust er it y, r ecit ing t he veda-s, and
per sever ing devot ion t o t he Lor d ar e called ' r eligious obser vances - niyama".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma niyamah in Slokam 17 is t hat He is
t he Dir ect or of all beings in t heir r espect ive f unct ions - sveshu sveshu
adhikAr eshu pr aj A niyamat i it i niyamah. (see d below f or Sr i Sa' nkar a' s
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int er pr et at ion wit h t he pATham a-niyamah).
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s explanat ion f or t he pATham a-niyamah in t he cur r ent Sloka
is t hat bhagavAn is One Who does not have anyone else who cont r ols or dir ect s
Him
niyamah niyat ih t asya na vidyat a it i a- niyamah |
sar va-niyant uh niyant ant ar a abhAvAt |
Since He is t he Cont r oller and Dir ect or of ever yt hing else, t her e is no
Cont r oller or Dir ect or above Him. Not e t hat He is t he niyant A of all (pr evious
nAma), and so by def init ion, He is a-niyamah.
e) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha in his t at t va sAr a gives t he explanat ion - sva-
vishaya j ~nAnAni bhakt ebhyo niyamayat i - pr ayacchat i it i noyamah - He is
called niyamah because He best ows sacr ed knowledge about Himself t o
devot ees in f ull measur e.
f ) Using t he r oot yama - par iveshTane - t o sur r ound, Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha
gives t he explanat ion f or t he nAma as "niyaman Sakt yA sakalam viSvam
vyApnot i t asmAt sa niyamayh" - One Who per vades and sur r ounds ever yt hing.
Using t he alt er nat e r oot yam - upar ame - t o check, Sr I vAsishTha gives t he
alt er nat e int er pr et at ion in t er ms of all t hings beings const r ained by being
bound t o Him, by r esiding in Him, and by moving only because of Him.
nAma 870. nAma 870. nAma 870. 4P- 4P- 4P- yamah yamah yamah
a) The Cont r oller (of all t he deva-s).
b) He Who is at t ained t hr ough t he yogic pat h of yama (and niyama).
c) He Who is beyond yama or mRt yu (a-yamah).
d) One Who has no one t o command Him (a-yamah).
e) One Who br ings t o end all lif e at t he t ime of pr alaya.
f ) One Who f eeds His devot ees wit h delect able f ood in t he f or m of
anubhavam of Himself .
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g) One Who knows and pr escr ibes t he mandat es t hat best ow vir t ue (aya+mah).
yamAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d is der ived is t he same as f or t he pr evious
nAma, namely, yam - upar ame - t o check, or yama - par iveshaNe - t o sur r ound.
We had anubhavam of t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 17 - nAma 164. I n f act , t he
sequence "niyamo yamah" occur s in Slokam 17, j ust as it does in t he cur r ent
Slokam. All t he f our nAma-s ar e der ived f r om t he same r oot . The f unct ions
of bhagavAn t hat Sr I BhaTTar chooses t o descr ibe f or t he f our nAma-s ar e,
r espect ively:
1. One Who cont r ol even t he likes of mahA bali,
2. One Who cor r ect s all as t heir ant ar yAmi,
3. One Who or dains and best ows t he f r uit s of t he wor ship of dif f er ent
gods, and
4. One Who cont r ols and dir ect s all t he deva-s.
Given t hat Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he whole set of nAma-s as but a
r ef lect ion of bhagavAn' s guNa-s which ar e inf init e, he is able t o pr ovide
dif f er ent anubhavam-s f or t he dif f er ent inst ances of t he same or r elat ed
nAma-s and pr ovide ever gr eat er enj oyment of His guNa-s in t he pr ocess.
Sr I sat ydevo vAsishTha has composed a Slokam in which He conveys nicely
t hat t he nAma-s niyant A, niyamah, yamah, a-niyamah, and a- yamah, all r ef er t o
Lor d vishNu:
vishNur niyant A niyamo yamo' sau vishNur niyant A a-niyamo a- yamo sah |
pr akASat e viSvam idam samast am yamair niyAmaiSca kRt a vyavast ham | |
a) For t he specif ic inst ance of t he nAma in t he cur r ent Sloka, Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam is: t at -t at phala niyAmakAn yamAdI n api yacchat i it i yamah - He
is called yamah because He is t he One Who cont r ols t he likes of yama who ar e
t he best ower s of t he r espect ive f r uit s". He quot es yama' s own wor ds f r om
vishNu pur ANa in suppor t : pr abhavat i samyamane mamApi vishNuh (vishNu.
3.7.13) - VishNu cont r ols me also.
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Sr I T. S. Raghavendr an r ef er s us t o I SAvAsya Upanishad mant r a 16, wher e
t her e is r ef er ence t o bhagavan as yamah - t he Cont r oller as ant ar yAmi of all:
pUshan! ekar she! yama! sUr ya! Pr Aj Apat ya! ... (mant r a 16)
"O pUshaN! The One Seer ! O Cont r oller ! Pr ompt er ! The I ndwelling Ruler of all
cr eat ur es bor n of pr aj Apat i!."
He also gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A, wher e ar j una pr aises bhagavAn as being
t he ant ar yAmi of all including yama et c.:
vAyur -yamo' gnir -var uNah SasA' nkah pr aj Apat is-t r vam pr apit AmahaSca | .
(gI t A 11.39)
"You ar e t he Cont r oller and ant ar yAmi of yama, agni, var uNa, t he Moon, and
br ahmA; You ar e t he Gr andf at her and Gr eat Gr andf at her of all".
Lor d kRshNa Himself declar es t hat He is yama among subduer s: "yamah
samyat Amyaham" - Among t hose who administ er punishment s, I am yama.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 4.10.8,
wher e AzhvAr gives an example t o show t hat bhagavAn cont r ols all t he ot her s,
including Siva:
pukk-aDimaiyinAl t annaik-kaNDa mAr kanDEyan avanai nakka-pir Anum anRu
uyyak-koNDadu nAr AyaNan ar uLE
(t ir uvAi. 4.10.8)
"I t is t r ue t hat Siva gr ant ed et er nal lif e t o mAr kanDeya when t he lat er
sur r ender ed t o him. But not e t hat Siva could best ow t his et er nal lif e on
mAr khanDeya only because of t he Gr ace of Lor d nAr AyaNa".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he f ir st inst ance of niyamah and yamah
r espect ively as: One Who est ablishes all t he beings in t heir r espect ive
f unct ions, and, One Who cont r ols all t he beings as t heir ant ar yAmi. Sr I
Sa' nkar a gives t wo ver sions f or t he second set of nAma-s: a-niyamah and a-
yamah, or niyamah and yamah. I n t he lat er choice, he gives t he int er pr et at ion
t hat since bhagavAn is at t ained t hr ough t wo yogic pat hs - niyama and yama,
He is called niyamah and yamah - at havA yama niyamau yogA' nge, t ad
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gamyat vAt sa eva niyamo yamah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ecalls t he yoga sUt r a of pat a' nj alai f or t he
def init ion of ' yama' -
ahimsA sat ya a-st eya br ahmacar yA par igr ahA yamAh
(sUt r a 2.30)
"Not hur t ing ot her s, ver acit y, not st ealing, cont inence, and not covet ing, ar e
par t of "For bear ance" - yama.".
c) Using t he pATham a-yamah (t he f ir st choice by Sr I Sa' nkar a), his
int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is a-yamah because He has no yama (deat h) -
na asya vidyat e yamah mRt yuh it i a-yamah. BhagavAn is beginningless and
endless, and He is t he One Who has cr eat ed yama and Who cont r ols and
dir ect s him.
d) Using t he r oot yam - upar ame - t o check, a-yamah can also be int er pr et ed
as "One Who has no one t o command Him at any t ime under any cir cumst ance,
or One Who has no one similar t o Him in any r espect - na vidyat e yamah =
niyAmakah, sadRSo vA yasya sah yamah. This is one of t he int er pr et at ions
given by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha.
e) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he addit ional int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn
is called yamah because He cont r ols t he lif e of all t he beings, and He is yama
in t his r ole - Cont r oller of t he lif et ime of all beings.
Sr I vAsishTha gives a similar int er pr et at ion, and r ef er s t o bhagavAn being
t he ' yama' or One Who t er minat es all lif e at t he t ime of pr alaya by keeping
t hem in Himself - yacchat i = upasamhar at i sar vam sar gAnt e it i yamah.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning "t o eat " f or t he r oot yama
(yamayat i br AhmaNan - He f eeds t he br AhmaNa-s; yama - par iveshane;
par iveshaNam - bhoj anam), and gives t he int er pr et at ion - yamayat i bhoj ayat i
svAdubhih annaih bhakt An it i yamah - He Who f eeds His devot ees wit h
delect able f ood (e.g., wit h delight f ul t hought s of anubhavam about Himself ).
g) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha is: ayam =
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SubhAvaha vidhim, mAt i = j AnAt i it i a-yamah - He is aya-mah because He
knows and pr escr ibes t he mandat es t hat best ow vir t ues (mA - mAne - t o
measur e).
Sr I BhaTTar concludes t his sect ion by r eminding us t hat t he pr evious f ew
nAma-s (851 onwar ds) have dealt wit h bhagavAn' s pr esiding over t he r aj as and
t amo guNa-s pr edominant in t he wor shipper s. He will int er pr et t he nAma-s
870 t o 880 in t er ms of bhagavAn' s r ole in pr esiding over t he sat t va guNa.






















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Slokam 93 Slokam 93 Slokam 93
Bx44l+ Bl|x4T- Bt4- Bt4¤P 9¹l4T-· Bx44l+ Bl|x4T- Bt4- Bt4¤P 9¹l4T-· Bx44l+ Bl|x4T- Bt4- Bt4¤P 9¹l4T-·
H|¬9l4- |94lrl 5r - |94T 6 9l|64¤ +-+ °°+ H|¬9l4- |94lrl 5r - |94T 6 9l|64¤ +-+ °°+ H|¬9l4- |94lrl 5r - |94T 6 9l|64¤ +-+ °°+
sat t vavAn sAt t vikah sat yah sat yadhar mapar AyaNah |
abhipr Ayah pr iyAr hOr hah pr iyakr ut pr I t ivar dhanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 871 nAma 871 nAma 871. Bx44l+ Bx44l+ Bx44l+ sat t va sat t va sat t va-- -vAn vAn vAn
a) He Who cont r ols t he sat t va guNa t hat paves t he way f or liber at ion.
b) One Who possesses cour age, st r engt h et c.
c) One Who is det er mined t o best ow His blessings on His devot ees.
sattva-vate namah.
The t er m ' sat t va' is gener ally used t o r ef er t o t he sAt t vic qualit y. However ,
t he t er m has ot her meanings, and t hese ar e used in some of t he
int er pr et at ions below.
Among t he meanings given ar e:
1. qualit y of goodness,
2. wealt h (dr avyam),
3. inher ent power ,
4. det er minat ion (vyavasAyah - niScayah), et c.
Her e is a list f r om a comment ar y on amar a koSam:
dr avye pr ANe bale j ant au vyavasAya svabhAvayoh |
guNe vit t e sat o bhAvo sat t vam guNini t u t r ishu | |
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives det ailed der ivat ion of t he nAma f r om t he
basics of gr ammar : st ar t ing f r om t he r oot as - bhuvi - t o be, he der ives ' sat ' ,
and t hen by pANini sUt r a 5.1.119 - t asya bhAvas-t va- t alau - t va is added t o
sat in t he sense of ' t he nat ur e t her eof ' , leading t o ' sat -t va' . Next , use of
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226
pANini sUt r a 5.2.94 - t at -asya- asmin-ast i it i mat up - t he mat up pr t yaya, in
t he sense of ' whose it is' or ' in whom it is' , is added t o sat -t va, leading t o
' sat -t va-mat ' ; and t hen va is subst it ut ed f or ma by sUt r a 8.2.9 - ma At
upadhAyAh ca mat oh dhah a yavAdhibyah, leading t o ' sat -t va-vat ' , which is t he
basis f or ' sat t va-vAn' . This det ail is included her e j ust as one example of t he
dept h t o which Sr I vAsishTha delves int o t he et ymological der ivat ion of t he
nAma-s, which he does in t his elabor at e det ail f or ever y single nAma. Anot her
special f eat ur e of his vyAkhyAnam is t hat he gives r ef er ences f r om t he Sr ut i-
s t o suppor t his int er pr et at ion. This is a super b piece of wor k f or t hose who
under st and samskRt gr ammar .
St ar t ing f r om t his nAma, up t o nAma 880, Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes t he nAma-s
in t er ms of bhagavAn being t he pr esiding Deit y over sat t va guNa. Sr I BhaTTar
not es t hat of t he t hr ee guNa-s, sat t va, r aj as and t amas, t he sat t va is t he
guNa t hat leads t o moksha ult imat ely. sat t va guNa has t he qualit ies of lust r e,
light ness and bliss, and is t he cause of salvat ion - par ama-pr akASa lAghava,
sukha-sampadA moksha mUlam sat t vam sAkshAt adhishTheyam asya it i sat t va-
vAn - BhagavAn is called sat t va-vAn because He dir ect ly pr esides over t he
sat t va guNa which has t he qualit ies of lust r e, light ness and bliss, and which
t her ef or e is t he cause of Salvat ion. Accor ding t o t he pANini sUt r a "t ad asya
ast i asmin it i mat up" - 5.3.94, t he mat pr at yaya or af f ix f ollows a wor d in f ir st
case in t he sense of "whose it is" or "in whom it is". I t is t o be not ed in passing
t hat t his pr at yaya is not used f or someone who j ust possesses t he obj ect in
some small measur e (like one having a couple of cows et c.), but t o one who has
t housands of cows, as an example. Thus, in t he cur r ent case, t he mat up
pr at yaya r ef er s t o One Who is f ull of sat t va qualit y. Her e Sr i BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn has leader ship of t he sat t va qualit y in His
devot ees.
Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om t he Svet ASvat ar a Upanishad:
mahAn pr abhur -vai pur ushah sat t vasya esha pr avar t akah |
su-nir malAm imam Sant im I SAno j yot ir -avyayah | | (Svet AS. 3.12)
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227

"This pur usha alone is t he Gr eat Giver of moksha. This pur usha is t he
pr opagat or of sat t va. Ther ef or e t his immut able light is t he r uler (or dainer ) of
t his pur e peace of t he f or m of moksha" - (Sr I N. S. anant a r a' ngAcAr ya' s
t r anslat ion).
Sr I BhaTTar also gives suppor t f r om t he var Aha pur ANa:
sat t vena mucyat e j ant uh sat t vam nAr AyaNAt makam |
(VP 3.7.13)
"A being is r eleased f r om bondage because of t he qualit y of sat t va in him.
sat t va is indeed nAr AyaNa Himself ."
Recent ly, asmad AcAr yan Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan quot ed sever al
r ef er ences f r om svAmi deSikan' s st ot r a r at na vyAkhyAnam f or Slokam 12 of
st ot r a r at nam, wher e bhagavAn' s sat t va aspect is emphasized:
I n li' nga pur ANam, ch. 14, we have:
hir aNyagar bho r aj asA t amasA Sa' nkar ah svayam |
sat t vena sar vago vishNuh sar vAt mA sadasanmayah | |
I n ch. 24 of t he above, we have:
t vat -kopa sambhavo r udr aha t amasA ca samAvRt ah |
t vat -pr asAdAt j agat -dhAt A r aj asA ca pit Amahah | |
t vat -svar UpAt svayam vishNuh sat t vena pur ushot t amah | |
I n t he ver y next chapt er , nandikeSvar a declar es:
par amAt mAnam I SAnam t amasA r udr a r UpiNam |
r aj asA sar va-lokAnAm sar ga-leelA pr avar t akam | |
sat t vena sar va-bhUt AnAm st hApakam par ameSvar am |
sar vAt mAnam mahAt mAnam par amAt mAnam I Svar am | |
t e dRshTvA pr Aha vai br ahmA bhagavant am j anAr danam | |
I n bhagavac-chAst r a (pA' ncar At r a) we have:
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228
sAt t vikaih sevyat e vishNuh t Amasair eva Sa' nkar ah |
r Aj asaih sevyat e br ahmA sa' nkI r Nais-t u sar asvat I | |
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha, based on bRhat I sahasr am, gives t he int er pr et at ion -
sat ah samI cI nasya bhAvah sat t vam viSishTa pr akRshTa AnandAdi guNa
j At am, t at asya ast i it i sat t va-vAn - Possessor of special supr eme qualit ies
such as Bliss.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ` power , cour age' , et c. f or t he t er m
' sat t ava' - Saur ya, vI r yAdikam sat t vam asya ast i it i sat t va-vAn - "One Who
possesses cour age, st r engt h, et c., is sat t va-vAn". (The t er m simha-sat t va
r ef er s t o t he ' st r engt h' of t he lion).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i elabor at es t hat t his qualit y is associat ed wit h t he
abilit y t o r emain f ear less in war , t o be unper t ur bed in sit uat ions which might
ot her wise cause one t o be dist ur bed and lose balance, et c.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning vyavasAyah - niScayah f or
t he t er m sat t va, and gives t he int er pr et at ion - sat t vam vyavasAyah - niScayah
bhakt Anugr aha sUcako var t at e yasmin sah sat t va- vAn - Since bhagavAn is
det er mined t o best ow His Blessings on His devot ees, He is called sat t v-vAn.
nAma 872. nAma 872. nAma 872. Bl|x4T- Bl|x4T- Bl|x4T- sAt t vikah sAt t vikah sAt t vikah
a) He Who conf er s t he f r uit s of sat t va guNa.
b) One Who is essent ially est ablished in sat t va guNa.
sAttvikAya namah.
The same r oot f r om which t he pr evious nAma was der ived is used f or t he
der ivat ion of t his nAma. The t addhit a af f ix ik is added t o t he wor d sat t va in
t he sense of "who deser ves t hat " - "t ad-ar hat i" pANini 5.1.63).
a) Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion - dhar ma j ~nAna vair Agya aiSvar ya
r Upa phala niyamanena ca sat t vam ar hat i it i sAt t ivikah - He dispenses t he
f r uit s of dhar ma, knowledge, non-at t achment and r iches, and so He is called
sAt t vikah.
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Sr I vAsishTha gives t he explanat ion - t at hA ca sar va manushyAdi
vanaspat yAdi var gaSca sat t va-yukt ah, sat t va-ar hah, sat t va-sambandhI vA -
He best ows t he sat t va aspect on people, on t he plant s et c., as t hey deser ve.
Essent ially t he same idea is echoed in Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha' s int er pr et at ion
in his t at t va t I kA - sat t va-guNa j anyat vAt sAt t vam - j ~nAnam, t ad-vAn
sAt t vI , sva-bhakt am sAt t vinam kar ot i it i sAt t vikah - Makes His devot ees
possessor s of sacr ed divine knowledge.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a vyAkhyAnam is - sat t ve guNe pr AdhAnyena st hit a it i
sAt t vikah -
One Who is essent ially est ablished in sat t va guNa.
nAma 873 nAma 873 nAma 873. Bt4- Bt4- Bt4- sat yah sat yah sat yah
a) One Who is well-disposed t owar ds pious souls.
b) One Who is good in a supr eme way.
c) He Who is est ablished in Tr ut h.
d) He Who is Real, and who alone exist s ( Sr i Sa' nkar a).
e) He Who is in t he f or m of pr ANa, anna, and sUr ya.
satyAya namah.
This nAma has been visit ed ear lier in Sloka-s 12 (nAma 107) and 23 (nAma
213). The addit ion of t he t addhit a af f ix (pr at yaya) ' yat ' t o t he wor d ' sat '
leads t o t he wor d sat ya. The pANini sUt r a "t at r a sAdhuh" (4.4.98) is used -
"The af f ix yat comes af t er a wor d in t he locat ive const r uct ion in t he sense of
' excellent ' in r egar d t her et o" (Sr I vAsishTha).
Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s us t o t he Sloka-s in bhagavad gI t A (17.26 and 17.27)
f or a def init ion of ' sat ' in Lor d KRshNa' s wor ds:
sad bhAve sAdhu bhAve ca sadit yet at pr ayuj yat e |
pr aSast e kar maNi t at hA sac-chabdah pAr t ha ucyat e | |
ya~j ne t apasi dAne ca st hit ih sadit i cocyat e |
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230
kar ma caiva t adar t hI yam sadit yevAbhidI yat e | |
(gI t A 17.26 and 27)
The wor d ' sat ' t hus r ef er s t o exist ence, goodness, good act s, devot ion t o
sacr if ice, aust er it ies, and gif t s, and any act s f or such pur poses. One who is
excellent in all t hese, or One who is excellent t o (i.e., suppor t s) t hose who do
act s along t hese lines, is sat ya.
a) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 12, Sr I BhaTTar t akes ' sat ' t o
r ef er t o t he ' pious souls' , and gives t he explanat ion t hat t he nAma means-
t eshu sat su sAdhuh - "One Who is well-disposed t owar ds t he pious souls".
b) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 25, Sr I BhaTTar ues t he meaning
' good' f or t he t er m sat , and int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who is good in a
supr eme way", or "One Who is except ionally good", and gives t he example of
His being good t o t hose who seek His help, such as Manu who sought r ef uge in
Him - manvAdishu t at -kAla samASr it eshu sat su sAdhuh.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am-s
9.10.6 and 9.10.7:
.......nALum t an meyyar ikku meyyanE
(t ir uvAi. 9.10.6)
"He is always t r ue t o His devot ees, and He will never abandon t hem".
meyyan Agum vir umbit t ozhuvAr kkellAm poiyan Agum puRamE
t ozhuvAr kkellAm ..
(t ir uvAi. 9.10.7)
"To t hose who ar e sincer ely devot ed t o Him wit hout looking f or any benef it s as
a r esult , He is always t r ue. I n ot her wor ds, t o t hose who desir e only
kainkar yam t o Him, and do not wor ship Him j ust f or some small benef it t o
t hem, He always deliver s. For t hose ot her s who may wor ship Him wit h desir e
f or small benef it s, He may give t hem t he benef it , but t hen He will leave t hem,
and t her e won' t be any bond bet ween Him and t hem." (ext r act f r om Sr I v. n.
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231

vedAnt a deSikan).
c) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as
"He Who is Tr ut h Himself " - sAt t vika SAst r a-pr at ipAdyat ayA
yat hAr t havaibhavah sat yah - "The Lor d is delineat ed by t he sAt t vika SAst r a-
s, and all t he gr eat ness at t r ibut ed t o Him is t r ue, and He st ands f ully
est ablished in Tr ut h".
He gives r ef er ence t o mahA bhAr at a in suppor t :
sat ye pr at isThit ah kRshNah sat yam asmin pr at ihThit am |
sat t Asat t e ca govindah t asmAt sat yah sat Am mat ah | |
(udyoga. 69.12)
"Lor d kRshNa is r oot ed in sat ya, and t he Tr ut h (sat ya) is r oot ed in Lor d
kRshNa. Exist ence and non-exist ence ar e bot h est ablished on Lor d Govinda.
Hence He is called ' sat ya' or "Tr ut h".
These ar e t he wor ds of sa' nj aya t o dhRt ar Asht r a on why kRshNa is called
vAsudeva, sat ya, et c.
Sr I v.v. r Amnuj an not es t hat bhagavAn' s t ir u nAmam in t he divya kshet r am by
name t ir umeyyam, is "sat ya mUr t i". He also r ef er s us t o per iya t ir umozhi
5.6.9, wher e t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr declar es t hat bhagavAn t r uly r eveals Himself
t o t hose who seek Him wit h sincer it y.
poi vaNNam manat t u agaRRi,
pulan aindum Sela vait t u
mei vaNNan ninRavar kku mein-ninRa vit t aganai.
(per iya t ir umozhi 5.6.9)
"He Who r eveals His Tr ue Nat ur e t o t hose who sincer ely seek Him by
f or saking t he pur suit of t he imper manent obj ect of t his wor ld, and by
desist ing f r om act s of t he f ive senses..".
d) e) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives sever al alt er nat e int er pr et at ions, some of which ar e
dir ect ed t owar ds a r einf or cement of his advait a philosophy. This conclusion is
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made based on t he English elabor at ions by scholar s, of t he vyAkhyAna-s in
samskRt t hat Sr I Sa' nkar a gives. Among his int er pr et at ions ar e:- He is called
sat yah because He is t he Real, Not False - avit at ha r Upat vAt . He r ef er s t o
t ait t . upanishad 2.1 - (sat yam, j ~nAnam, anant am br ahma) - in suppor t . - He,
Who alone exist s as manif est and unmanif est - sat ca t yat ca abahavat (He is
all t hat exist s in t he manif est and unmanif est condit ions). - He Who is in t he
f or m of pr ANa, anna, and sUr ya; or He Who is t he Or igin of pr ANa, anna and
sUr ya - sadit i pr ANAst I t yannam yamit yasAvAdit yah (t ait t . Ar aN. 1.3).
Sr I vAsishTha gives addit ional r ef er ence t o at har va veda f or t his
int er pr et at ion:
sat yenot t abhit A bhUmih sUr yeNot t abhit A ca dyauh |
Rt ena Adit yAs-t ishThant i divi somo adhiSr it ah | |
(at har va. 14.1.1)
"Tr ut h (sat ya) is t he Base t hat bear s t he ear t h; by sUr ya ar e t he heavens
upheld; By Law t he Adit ya-s st and secur e, and Soma holds his place in heaven".
- He Who is good t owar ds t he good - sat su sAdhut vAt .
Sr I annat akRshNa SAst r i t r anslat es t his as: "He Who is in t he f or m of vir t ue
in holy men". - He Who is embodied as t he vir t ue of t he t r ut h-speaking, or ,
He Who is t he Embodiment of Tr ut h since He speaks t he Tr ut h, or , He Whose
wor ds always come t r ue, depending on t he dif f er ent t r anslat or s - sat ya vacana
dhar ma r Upat vAt sat yah. He gives r ef er ence t o t he Sr ut i - t asmAt sat yam
par amam vadant i (mahAnAr ayaNa. 221.) - (Ther ef or e, t hey say t hat Tr ut h is
Supr eme). - sat yasya sat yam - The Tr ut h of t r ut hs. He quot es
bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad (2.1.20) in suppor t - "sat yasya sat yam it i pr ANA vai
sat yam, t eshAm esha sat yam" (The pr ANA-s ar e t r ue and He is t he Tr ut h of
t hose).
One of Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha' s int er pr et at ions is: sadbhAvam yApayat i it i
sat yah - He Who dir ect s His devot ees t owar ds good qualit ies is sat yah.
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I vAsishTha gives t he explanat ion -
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sat su - sAdhusvabhAveshu par amahit a kAr it vena mahApur usha pUj yah nit ya -
par amahit akAr I ca it yar t hah - He Who is best among t hose endowed wit h
sAt t vic qualit y because of His disposit ion t o help ot her s, and Who is
wor shipped by t he gr eat souls.
Sr I T. S. Raghavendr an has assembled and pr esent ed 34 dif f er ent
int er pr et at ions or pr amANa-s f or t he nAma. We will look at some of t hese.-
t at -sat yam-it yAcakshase (t ait t . upa. 3.6) - Ther ef or e Br ahman is called "one
of good deeds" (Sr I anant a r a' ngAcAr ya' s t r anslat ion).
He of all auspicious qualit ies as st at ed in t he f ollowing Sloka f r om Adit ya
pur ANA:
sat yeSam sat yasankalpam sat yam sat yavr at am har im |
sat yacar yam sat yayonim sat yaSI r sham aham bahaj e | |
(Adit ya. 3.5)
Sr I madhvAcAr ya in his bhAgavat a t At par ya descr ibes bhagavAn as:
sat yam nir -duhkha nit ya nir at iSaya Ananda anubhava svar Upam (1.1.1)
"He Whose Nat ur e is Tr ut h, One wit hout any t r ace of sor r ow, Et er nal, of
Ext r eme Splendor , Et er nally Blissf ul.".
Anot her quot e f r om Sr I madhvAcAr ya - sat yo hi bhagavAn vishNuh sad-
guNat vAt pr akI r t it ah - "vishNu is called sat ya because of His inf init e
auspicious at t r ibut es.
Sr I j ayat I r t ha in his "kar ma nir Naya TI kA" gives t he int er pr et at ion - sat yah
- svat ant r ah - He Who is I ndependent .
The at har vaNa Upanishad mant r a t hat f ollows, declar es bhagavAn as ' sat yah' :
sat yameva j ayat i nAnRt am, sat yena kat hAh vit at o devayAnah |
yanAkr amant i Rshayo hyApt akAmAh yat r a t at -sat yasya par amam nidhAnam | |

(at har . Upa. 2.6)
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chAndogya upanishad mant r a 7.16.1:
esha t u at ivadat i |
yah sayt ena t ivadat i |
so' ham bhagavah sat yenAvadAnI t i |
sat yam t veva vij i~j nAsit avyam it i |
sat yam bhagavo vij ij ~j nAsa it i | |
ait ar eya Upanishad mant r a 2.1.7:
t at sat yam |
sat it i pr ANah |
t i it i annam |
yam it i asau Adit yam |
t ad et at t r i-vRt | .. |
ya evam et at sat yasya sat yat t vam veda | |
"That Br ahman-vishNu is called sat yam. He is sar vot t ama and hence he is
called sat .
t i - t anu vist Ar e - vishNu is complet e and f ull by deSa, kAla, and guNa-s. He is
per f ect ly f ull and complet e, and so is called as ' t i' . Yam - yet i j ~nAnam
samuddishTam | He is sar vaj ~nA. All t hese denot e one Per son: sat , t i, yam".
(t r anslat ion f r om Sr I Raghavendr an' s book).
Sr I Raghavendr an has collect ed an ext ensive list of suppor t ing r ef er ences
f r om t he br ahma sUt r a-s et c. as well.
The int er est ed r eader is r ef er r ed t o his book f or det ails.
nAma 874. nAma 874. nAma 874. Bt4¤P 9¹l4T- Bt4¤P 9¹l4T- Bt4¤P 9¹l4T- sat ya sat ya sat ya-- -dhar ma dhar ma dhar ma-- -par AyaNah par AyaNah par AyaNah
a) He Who is pleased wit h t he t r ue dhar ma pr act iced by His devot ees.
b) He Who is ever devot ed t o, and est ablished in, Tr ut h and in r ight eousness.
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c) He Who pr ovides t he suppor t t o, and Who shows t he pat h f or , t hose who
f ollow t he super ior pat h of dhar ma.
d) Ref uge of devot ees such as yadu, t ur vaSa, et c., who t ake int er est in
dischar ging vir t uous dut ies.
satya-dharma-parAyaNaya namah.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he wor d par AyaNa f r om t he r oot s pRR - t o r ef r esh,
t o f ill, and ay - t o go. The meaning is "One Who conduct s Himself accor ding t o
t he sat ya dhar ma, or Who is t he Abode of sat ya dhar ma - sat yaSca asau
dhar mah sat ya-dhar mah saccidAnana lakshaNah, sa eva par ah ayanam =
Asr ayah svar Upam vA sa sat ya-dhar ma- par AyaNah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m sat ya-dhar ma as r ef er r ing t o "t he t r ue
dhar ma as laid down in t he SAst r a-s, namely t he nivRt t i dhar ma t hat is
pr act iced by pious men wit hout any expect at ion of benef it et c., and
par AyaNam as "par ama pr I Nanam" - t hat which gives t he most happiness t o
bhagavAn. BhagavAn is "sat ya-dhar ma-par AyaNah" because He is most
pleased wit h t he pr act ice of t he dhar ma t hat is pr act iced by pious men wit h no
expect at ion of any benef it , as laid down in t he sAt t vika SAst r a-s. All act ions
by us should be under t aken in t he spir it of "Sr I bhagavad Aj ~nayA Sr I man
nAr AyaNa pr I t yar t ham" - all act ions we under t ake should be in t he spir it t hat
t hese ar e His commands (we only should do what is pr escr ibed in t he SAst r a-s,
which ar e His commands), and f or His pleasur e only.
Sr I cinmyAnanda point s t o t he def init ion f or dhar ma - kar t avya, akar t avya
vidhr eva dhar mah - The r ules of do' s and don' t s (as per t he SAst r a-s) is
dhar ma.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "sat ye yat hAbhUt Ar t ha kat hane dhar ma ca,
codanA lakshaNe niyat a it i sat ya-dhar ma-par AyaNah" - He Who is ever
devot ed t o, and est ablished in,Tr ut h and in r ight eousness (i.e., act ing accor ding
t o scr ipt ur al inj unct ions of do' s and don' t s).
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as:
sat yah samI cI no dhar ma AcAr o yeshAm t e sat ya dhar mANah |
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t eshAm par am par amam ayanam gat ih AdhAr o vA yah
sa sat ya-dhar ma-par AyaNah | |
He Who pr ovides t he suppor t t o, and Who shows t he pat h f or ,t hose who
f ollow t he super ior pat h of dhar ma, is sat ya-dhar ma-par AyaNah.
d) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives t he der ivat ion -
sat su bhavah sat yah, sa ca asau dhar maSca sat ya-dhar mah |
sat ya-dhar meshu sAt t vika- dhar meshu par am t At par yam
yeshAm t e sat ya-dhar ma-par Ah, yadu, t ur vaSa Adi bhkt a-j anAh |
t eshAm ayanam Asr ayah it i sat ya-dhar ma-par AyaNah |
"Ref uge of devot ees such as yadu, t ur vaSa, et c., who t ake int er est in
dischar ging vir t uous dut ies".
He r ef er s us t o anot her r elat ed nAma - sat -par AyaNah, in Slokam 75 (nAma
708).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o t wo ot her nAma-s t hat ar e similar , and
t hat we have st udied ear lier :
sat ya dhar ma par Akr amah - Slokam 31 - 290;
sat ya dhar mA - Slokam 56 (nAma 532).
nAma 875. nAma 875. nAma 875. H|¬9l4- H|¬9l4- H|¬9l4- abhipr Ayah abhipr Ayah abhipr Ayah
a) He Who is t he obj ect of choice.
b) He t o Whom all beings go (pr ait i) dir ect ly (abhi) dur ing pr alaya.
c) He Who exclusively dir ect s t he act ivit ies of all ot her s.
abhiprAyAya namah.
' abhipr Aya' as is commonly used, means ' aim, pur pose, int ent ion, wish, desir e'
et c. Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as: abhipr I yat e -
kAmayat e svaj ana hit o yena it i abhipr Ayah - He Who desir es t he welf ar e of
His devot ees is "abhipr Ayah". He der ives t he meaning f r om abhi + pr I -
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t ar paNe kAnt au ca - t o please, t o t ake delight in.
a) Sr I BhaTTar enj oys t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o "One Who is t he aim or
obj ect of t he devot ees". His int er pr et at ion is: sat yadhar ma nishThena
svacchena nir upAdhika uddeSyat ayA abhipr et ah it i abhipr Ayah - He is t he
Highest Goal sought af t er by His devot ees who ar e pur e by nat ur e, pr act ice
t he sAt t vika dhar ma, and ar e not seeking lower pleasur es.
The niukt i aut hor explains - sacchena dhar ma nishThena yo abhit ah pr eyat e
punah - He Who is decidedly t he highest goal sought af t er by His devot ees
who ar e pur e at hear t ...
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an illust r at es t he spir it of t he int er pr et at ion wit h a
r ef er ence t o AzhvAr s' pASur am-s:
vizhumiya munivar vizhu' ngum kOdalin kani
(per iya t ir umozhi 2.3.2)
"The delight f ul f r uit wit h no r esidual f iber what soever , t hat is r elished by t he
excellent sages."
vizhumiya amar ar munivar vizhu' ngum kannaR-kani
(t ir uvAi. 3.6.7)
He is t he sugar block f or t he discer ning devas and sages.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he explanat ion - abhipr eyat e pur ushAr t ha ka' nkshibhih
- He Who is sought af t er by t hose who seek t he f our pur shAr t ha-s (dhar ma,
ar t ha, kAma and moksha).
Alt er nat ively, he gives t he int er pr et at ion - Abhimukhyena pr alaye asmin pr ait i
j agat it i vA abhipr Ayah - He t o Whom all beings go (pr ait i) dir ect ly (abhi)
dur ing pr alaya, is abhipr Ayah. This int er pr et at ion is based on ' abhi' , used as a
pr ef ix, meaning ' t o, t owar ds' , and pr Aya meaning ' going away, depar t ing' .
c) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha int er pr et s t he nAma in his t at t va sAr a as - ' abhi
abhit ah pr akar sheNa pr Ayah pr er aNAdikr iyA yasya it i abhipr Ayah' - He Who
exclusively dir ect s t he act ivit ies of all ot her s.
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nAma 876. nAma 876. nAma 876. |94lr - |94lr - |94lr - pr iyAr hah pr iyAr hah pr iyAr hah
a) He Who is r ight ly t he obj ect of love.
b) He Who deser ves t o be of f er ed our most beloved of f er ings.
priyArhAya namah.
The r oot s involved in t he nAma ar e: pr I - t ar paNe, kAnt au ca - t o please, t o
t ake delight in, and ar h - pUj AyAm yogyat ve ca - t o wor ship, t o deser ve.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t wo alt er nat e der ivat ions:
pr iyam ar hat i it i pr iayAr hah - He Who deser ves love.
pr iyeshu ar hah = yogyah, pr iyAr hah - He Who is most f it t ing among obj ect s of
love.
a) Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat bhagavAn is r ight ly t he obj ect of love f r om t he
devot ees, since He loves and r espect s t he devot ees int ensely. He is wor t hy of
love f r om His devot ees because of His at t it ude t owar ds t hem - bhagavAn f eels
t hat His devot ees ar e ' benevolent ' t o Him because t hey have chosen t o seek
Him f or t heir needs. By giving t heir devot ion t o Him, bhagvAn f eels t hat His
devot ees have benevolent ly given Him all t heir belongings:
udAr Ah sar va evait e j ~nAnI t vAt maiva me mat am |
Ast hit ah sa hi ukt At mA mAmemAnut t amAm gat im | |
(gI t A 7.18)
"All t hese devot ees ar e indeed gener ous (udAr Ah), but I deem t he man of
knowledge t o be My ver y self ; f or he, int egr at ed, is devot ed t o Me alone as t he
highest end". BhagavAn consider s t hat by wor shipping Him and seeking His
help, t hey have alr eady cont r ibut ed ever yt hing t hey have t o Him, and so He
consider s t hem benevolent and gener ous. Such is His r espect t o His devot ees,
and so he is deser ving of ext r eme love f r om t hese devot ees.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 7.5.11:
t eLivuRRu vI vinRi ninRavar kku inbak kadi Seyyum t eLivuRRa kaNNan....
"bhagavAn kaNNan best ows t he const ant t hought of His Divine Feet t o t hose
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devot ees who sur r ender t o Him wit h unswer ving devot ion, but even af t er t hat ,
He f eels t hat He has not done enough t o His devot ee" (Sr I v. n. vedAnt a
deSikan). The way t hat Lor d kRshNa f elt about His not having done enough t o
help dr aupadi even at t ime He r et ur ned t o Sr I vaikunTham, comes t o mind.
b) Sr I San' kar a int er pr et s t he t er m ' pr iya' as a r ef er ence t o ' t hings t hat ar e
dear t o oneself ' , and explains t he nAma as signif ying t hat Lor d vishNu
deser ves t o be of f er ed our most pr ecious and beloved t hings. He quot es t he
vishNu dhar mot t ar a in suppor t :
yad-yat ishTa-t amam loke yaccAsya dayit am gRhe |
t at -t at gRNavat e deyam t adeva akshayam icchat A | |
(mahA. 13.58.7, V.D. 55.3)
"By t hose t hat desir e t he imper ishable (Br ahman), t he most beloved t hings in
t he wor ld and t he choicest t hings in t he house should be of f er ed t o a
mer it or ious per son". (This will become a choice of f er ing t o God).
I n elabor at ion of t he above, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s t o a mant r a
f r om bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad - "At manast u kAmAya sar vam pr iyam
bhavat i", and not es t hat of all t he t hings t hat ar e dear t o one, t he self is t he
dear est . This would suppor t t he gr eat concept of At ma-samar paNam or
pr apat t i t hat is dear t o Sr I vaishNavas in par t icular .
Anot her anubhavam is pr ovided by Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj - pr iyANi
sr ak-candanAdI ni ar hat i it i pr iyAr hah - He Who deser ves t o be wor shipped
wit h a wr eat h or gar land of f lower s, sandal, et c.
Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s t o t he yaj ur vedic mant r a in suppor t :
pr iyANAm t vA pr iyapat im havAmahe |
(yaj ur . 23.19)
nAma 877. nAma 877. nAma 877. Hr - Hr - Hr - ar hah ar hah ar hah
The f it t ing Lor d t o be wor shipped.
arhAya namah.
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Ar hyat e - pr Apt um yuj yat a it i ar hah - He Who is f it t o be at t ained.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is - "ananya-spRhANAm t eshAmapi ayameva
yogya it i ar hah" - He is t he r ight Deit y t o be sought af t er by devot ees who
have no ot her desir e in lif e (ot her t han moksha).
Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o Lor d kRshNa' s wor ds in t he gI t A:
Ast hit ah sa hi yukt At mA mAmeva anut t amAm gat im |
(gI t A 7.18)
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o "One Who is deser ving of
wor ship" - svAgat a Asana, pr aSamsA, ar ghya, pAdya, st ut i namaskAr a Adibhih
pUj A sAdhanaih pUj anI ya it i ar hah - "He should be wor shipped by such t hings
as wor ds of welcome, of f er ing of a seat , pr aise, ar ghya or of f er ing of wat er ,
milk, et c., pAdya or wat er f or washing His Feet , glor if icat ion, pr ost r at ions,
et c". One is r eminded of t he Sr I vaishNava Ar Adhanam f or per umAl in t he
f or m of sAlagr Ama in t he houses.
Sr I vAsishTha ver y nicely capt ur es t he spir it of t he nAma in t he f ollowing
wor ds:
sar vAnt ar gat An sar vAn bhogAn vihAya,
Sr eyor t hinAm vidushAm sar va pr akAr aih sAdhanaih,
sopakar aNaih pUj A vidhAnaih,
sar va kar mAr paNena nishkAma kar mabhiSca sa eva pr Apt um
yogya it i ar t hah.
"Giving up int er est in all ext er nal pleasur es, and desir ing only t he ult imat e
bliss, t he lear ned dir ect all t heir ef f or t s , spir it ual pr act ices, dif f er ent ways
of wor ship, and all t he r esult ant benef it s f r om t hese act ions, t o t hat One
bhagavAn - vishNu, and t her ef or e He is ar hah - Fit t o be wor shipped". The
point t o not e is t hat He is f it t o be sought by t hose who have no int er est in
anyt hing else.
He point s out t hat t her e ar e sever al inst ances wher e t he t er m ' ar hat e' occur s
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in t he veda-s, and gives j ust one example:
imam st omam ar hat e j At avedase r at hamiva sam mahemA manI shayA |
bhadr A hi nah pr amat ir asya samsadyagne sakhye mA r ishAmA vayam t ava | |
(Rg. 1.94.1)
Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat we ar e all ar ha-s (f it ) in some sense or t he ot her
only because He r ef lect s His ar hat t vam in all of us in some t iny measur e.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha uses a dif f er ent pATham f r om t he ot her s by t r eat ing
t he nAma as "ar hapr iya-kRt " - He Who best ows af f ect ion and blessings on t he
devot ees who ar e deser ving - ar hebhyah -yogyebhyah bhakt ebhyah, pr iyam
kar ot i - r akshaNAdi kar ot i it i ar hapr iya-kRt .
nAma 878. nAma 878. nAma 878. |94T 6 |94T 6 |94T 6 pr iya pr iya pr iya-- -kRt kRt kRt
He Who does what is want ed by ot her s.
priya-kRte namah.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is t hat bhagavAn does f ulf ill t he
wishes of t hose who desir e ot her , lesser , pleasur es f r om Him as well (t hat is,
in addit ion t o best owing moksha), as long as t hey ar e His devot ees. He does
not look at t heir def iciencies, but only consider s t he f act t hat t hey ar e His
devot ees.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o divya pr abandham - "un aDiyAr kku en Seyvan
enr E ir ut t i nI ". This way, He pleases t hem and t her eby conver t s t hem over
t ime t o be solely int er est ed in at t aining Him – anya par Anapi bhaj at ah t ac-
chandAnuvar t anena pr iyAn kar ot i it i pr iya-kRt .
Sr I Sa' nkar a not es t hat He is not only wor t hy of being pleased pr iyAr hah –
(see nAma 876), but He is also One Who pleases His devot ees pr iya-kRt by
f ulf illing t he desir es of t hose who wor ship Him by means of hymns, et c. - na
kevalam pr iyAr ha eva, kim t u st ut yAdibhih bhaj at Am pr iyam kar ot i it pr iya-
kRt .
Sr I vAsishTha obser ves t hat when vedic mant r a-s ar e invoked in of f er ings,
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such as t he f ollowing, bhagavAn is pleased and best ows t he desir ed benef it s on
t he devot ee, and so He is called pr iya-kRt :
vashaT t e vishNavAsa akRNomi t an me j ushasva SipivishTa havyam | |
var dhant u t vA sushTut ayo gir o me yUyam pAt a vast ibhih sadA nah | |
(Rg. 7.99.7)
(May t hese my songs of eulogy exalt t hee. Pr eser ve us ever mor e wit h
blessings).
agne naya supat hA r Aye asmAn viSvAni deva vayunAni vidvAn |
yuyodhyasmad-j uhur ANameno bhUyishThAm t e nama ukt im vidhema | |
(Rg. 1.189.1)
(By goodly pat hs, lead us t o r iches. Remove t he sins t hat make us st r ay and
wander ; We will br ing t he most ample ador at ion t o you).
t at savit ur var eNyam bhar go devasya dI mahi |
dhiyo yo nah pr acodayAt
(Rg. 3.62.10)
(We medit at e on t he ador able ef f ulgence of t he Lor d who cr eat es ever yt hing,
so t hat it may ener gize our consciousness).
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha uses t he nAma as ' ar ha-pr iya-kRt ' , and gives t he
int er pr et at ion as "One Who best ows pr ot ect ion and af f ect ion t o t he
deser ving devot ees".
nAma 879. nAma 879. nAma 879. 9l|64¤ +- 9l|64¤ +- 9l|64¤ +- pr I t i pr I t i pr I t i-- -var dhanah var dhanah var dhanah
a) Who incr eases t he j oy of His devot ees.
b) He Who f ulf ills t he love of His devot ees.
prIti-vardhanAya namah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha not es t hat t he wor d ' var dhanah' can be der ived
f r om eit her of t he t wo r oot s - vRd - vRddhau - t o gr ow, or var dh - pUr aNa -
t o f ill.
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The t wo dif f er ent meanings could t hen be:
a) He Who gr ows t he love of t he devot ees t owar ds Him, or
b) He Who f ulf ills t he love of t he devot ee.
a) Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat by manif est ing His qualit ies mor e and mor e,
He incr eases t he j oy of His devot ees, and so He called pr I t i- var dhanah. He
quot es t he gI t A in suppor t :
t eshAm sat at a yukt AnAm bhaj at Am pr I t i pUr vakam |
dadAmi buddhi yogam t am yena mAm upayAnt i t e | |
(gI t A 10.10)
"To t hose who ar e const ant ly unit ed wit h Me and who wor ship Me wit h immense
love, I lovingly gr ant t hat ment al disposit ion (buddhi yoga) by which t hey at t ain
Me".
t ir umazhaippir An r ef er s t o emper umAn as "bhakt i uzhavan" - He who
cult ivat es bhakt i in t he devot ees like a peasant .
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an also r ef er s us t o bhagavd r AmAnuj a' s int r oduct or y sect ion
f or his gI t A bhAshya, wher e he says of bhagavAn kRshNa:
"nir at iSaya saundar ya sauSI lyAdi guNa gaNa Avishkar eNa akr Ur a
mAlAkAr AdI n par ama bhAgavat An kRt vA."
"He Who made akr Ur a, mAlakAr a, and ot her s His most ar dent devot ees by t he
manif est at ion of His unsur passed qualit ies such as beaut y and loving
compassion".
This is what t he nAma "pr I t i-var dhanah" r ef er s t o.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an also r ef er s us t o nAmmAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am
1.10.10, wher e AzhvAr r ecount s t hat bhagavAn has lodged Himself int o
namAzhvAr ' s hear t wit h t he beaut y of His lot us eyes, lest AzhvAr may f or get
Him accident ally: maRakkum enRu Sen-t Amar aik kaNNoDu maRappaRa ennuLLE
manninAn t annai. (t ir uvAi. 1.10.10)
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Sr I cinmayAnanda' s explanat ion is:
1. "The sense of dr unken j oy t hat ar ises in one' s bosom when one loves
deeply and t r uly is called pr I t i.”
2. "One Who incr eases t he pr I t i in t he devot ee' s hear t is Sr I nAr AyaNa.
The mor e He is cont emplat ed upon, t he mor e His glor ies ar e
appr eciat ed, t he mor e our pr I t i in Him incr eases".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha' s explanat ion f or t he nAma is: ”pr I t im bhakt eshu
var dhayat i pr I t yA bhakt An var dhayat i it i vA pr I t i- var dhanah" - He Who
gr ows t he love in t he devot ees, or He Who gr ows t he devot ees t hr ough love,
is pr I t i-var dhanah.
b) Using t he r oot var dh - chedana pUr aNayoH - t o cut ,. t o f ill, Sr I vAsishTha
gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion also - pr I t im var dhayat i = pUr ayat i it pr I t i-
var dhanah - He Who f ulf ills t he love of t he devot ees.













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Slokam 94 Slokam 94 Slokam 94
|4rl4B¬|674l |6- B 6|¬r 6¬ |¹4¬ -· |4rl4B¬|674l |6- B 6|¬r 6¬ |¹4¬ -· |4rl4B¬|674l |6- B 6|¬r 6¬ |¹4¬ -·
¹|4|4 ¹l ¬+- B 4 - B|46l ¹|4¬l ¬+-+ °v+ ¹|4|4 ¹l ¬+- B 4 - B|46l ¹|4¬l ¬+-+ °v+ ¹|4|4 ¹l ¬+- B 4 - B|46l ¹|4¬l ¬+-+ °v+
vihAyasagat ir j yOt ih sur ucir hut abhugvibhuh |
r avir vir Ocanah sUr yah savit A r avilOcanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma-s of t his Sloka and t he beginning nAma-s of
t he next Sloka in t er ms t he dif f er ent st eps t hat t he mukt a j I va t akes in
r eaching Br ahman. These st eps ar e descr ibed dif f er ent ly in dif f er ent
upanishad-s. chAndogya Upanishad list s seven st eps (chAndogya upanishad
4.15.5, 4.15.6, 5.10.1 and 5.10.2):
1. ar cis - agni,
2. ahaH - day,
3. Sukala paksha,
4. ut t r Ayana,
5. samvat sar a - year ,
6. Adit ya - r avi,
7. candr a - moon,
8. vidyut - light ning.
The kaushI t aki Upanishad list s six st eps (kaushI t aki upanishad 1.21):
1. agni loka,
2. vAyu loka,
3. var uNa loka,
4. Adit ya loka,
5. indr a loka, and
6. pr aj Apat i loka.
The bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad list s t he f ollowing (bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad
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8.2.15, 7.10.1):
1. ar cis,
2. ahah,
3. Sukla paksha,
4. ut t ar AyaNa,
5. deva loka,
6. Adit ya, and
7. vaidyut a.
The chAndogya Upanishad mant r a-s ar e given below:
t adya it t ham viduH; ye ceme' r aNye Sr addhA t apa it upAsat e - t e' r cisham
abhisambhavant i, ar cisho' haH, ahna ApUr yamANa paksham, ApUr yamANa
pakshAt yAn shaDuda' n' net i mAsAnst An | |
(chAnd. 5.10.1)
"Those who know t he nat ur e of t he f ive f ir es - pancAgni t hus, and t hose who
pr act ice in t he f or est medit at ing upon Br ahman wit h f ait h, will unit e wit h agni.
Fr om agni t o t he deit y of t he day and f r om t her e t o t he deit y of t he br ight
half of t he mont h and t her eon he comes upon t he deit y of t he half year while
t he sun moves t owar ds t he nor t h."
mAsebhyah samvat sar am samvat sar At Adit yam,Adit yAt candr amasam,
candr amaso vidyut am | t at -pur usho amAnavaH | sa enAn br ahma
gamayat i esha deva pat ho br ahma pat hah et ena pr at ipadyamAnA imam
mAnavam Avar t am nAvar t ant e nAvar t ant e | |
(chAn. 5.10.2)
"Fr om t hat half year he r eaches t he year - samvat sar a. Fr om samvat sar a he
comes t o t he sun. Fr om t he sun t o t he moon, f r om t he moon t o vidyut , and
f r om t her e t hat amAnava, super human, t akes him t o par abr ahman. This is
known as t he pat h of t he gods or t he pat h t o Br ahman. Those who go by t his
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pat h never again r et ur n t o t his wor ld of samsAr a".
The ot her upanishadic passages ar e not given her e, but t hese ar e discussed in
det ail in bhagavad r AmAnuj a' s Sr I bhAshya (sUt r a 4.3.1).
Bhagavad r AmAnuj a point s out t hat all t he pat hs descr ibed in t he t hr ee
Upanishad-s r ef er t o t he same ar cir Adi mAr ga wit h t he same st eps, and t hat
consist ency is t o obt ained by consolidat ing t he det ails f r om t he dif f er ent
descr ipt ions, since t hey all list t he same pat h in t he f inal analysis, but do not
list all t he st eps.
Thus, we end up wit h t he ar cir Adi mAr ga wit h t he f ollowing t welve st eps:
1. ar cis or agni,
2. ahas or day,
3. pUr va paksha or Sukla paksha,
4. ut t ar AyaNa,
5. samvat sar a or year ,
6. vAyu,
7. Adit ya,
8. candr a,
9. vaidyut a,
10 var uNa,
11 indr a and
12 pr aj Apat i.
The sequence of t hese st eps and t heir r elat ive ar r angement s is not ar bit r ar y
in any sense, but is based on int ense analysis of t he dif f er ent upaniahad-s, and
coming up wit h a sequence t hat is consist ent bet ween t he dif f er ent
upanishadic declar at ions. A det ailed discussion of t he sequencing is given in
bhagavad r AmAnuj a Sr I bhAshyam - br ahma sUt r a 4.3.2. These t welve ar e
t he deit ies t hat ar e est ablished by bhagavAn t o lead t he mukt a in his ascent
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t o par amapadam f r om t his wor ld. They ar e also called At ivAhika-s or ' t hose
t hat lead t he way' .
The mapping bet ween t he dif f er ent nAma-s by Sr I BhaTTar , and t he
dif f er ent st eps of ar cir Adi mAr ga as out lined in t he upanishads, is given below:
vihAyasa gat iH - The summar y st at ement t hat He is t he One who leads t he
mukt a j I va t o Himself .
1. j yot iH - agni
2. sur uciH - deit y of t he day
3. hut a-bhug-vibhuH - deit y of t he br ight half of t he mont h
4. r aviH - t he deit y of t he half year while t he sun moves t owar ds t he nor t h
5. vir ocanaH - t he year , samvat sar a
6. sUr ya - vAyu
7. savit A - t he sun
8. r avi-locanaH - a r ef er ence t o t he moon, t he light ning, and var uNa
9. anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A - indr a loka, and pr aj Apat i loka
I t is an ent ir ely delight f ul exper ience t o delve int o nammAzhvAr ' s descr ipt ion
of t he ascent of t he j I va t o Sr I vaikunTham in his pASur ams, and t heir
int er pr et at ions by our AcAr ya-s in par t icular . We get a dif f er ent dimension
of t he f unct ion of t hese At ivAhika-s as t he mukt a j I va is r eceived and led on
his way t o bhagavAn. BhagavAn' s deep love f or his devot ee who is ar r iving, is
expr essed by AzhvAr in his delight f ul devot ional out pour ing.
Her e, vaidyut a comes f ir st , and announces wit h j oy t he ar r ival of t he mukt a t o
t he r est of t he At ivAhika-s wit h his t hunder (Suzh viSumbaNi mugil t Ur iyam
muzhakkina - t ir uvAi. 10.9.1). Var uNa f ills t he sky wit h wat er -laden clouds, as
if wit h golden pot s - pUr aNa por k-kuDam (10.9.2). The oceans ar e dancing wit h
j oy wit h t heir r ising and f alling waves const ant ly - neer aNi kadalgaL ninRu
Ar t t ana. Not j ust t he 12 At ivAhika-s list ed above, but ever yone in t he
At ivAhika lokam come out and st and in line and of f er t heir obeisance t o t he
ar r iving mukt a, including t he usually medit at ing and silent sages (10.9.3).
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BhagavAn is decor at ing Himself wit h t ulasi gar lands, and is wait ing along wit h
pir ATTi t o r eceive His long-lost devot ee (10.9.4). The deva-s in all t he wor lds
on t he way of t he mukt a j I va ar e set t ing up delight f ully decor at ed hut s f or
t he t empor ar y st ay of t he mukt a j I va t o t ake r est on t he way. Var uNa, indr a,
and pr aj Apat i ar e eager ly wait ing at t he ent r ance t o t heir r egions t o welcome
and r eceive t he mukt a, wit h a r equest t o t he mukt a t o bless t hem by passing
t hr ough t heir r egions - emadu iDam puguduga (10.9.5). The likes of sanaka,
nAr ada, et c., ar e chant ing veda-s wit h gr eat delight t o welcome t he mukt a
j I va.
A big f est ive at mospher e is pr evalent ever ywher e on t he way. High-sounding
musical inst r ument s ar e being played all t he way along. As t he mukt a j I va
near s t he limit s of par ama padam, t he nit ya sUr i-s, who ar e supr eme in t heir
Seshat t vam, welcome t he mukt a t o t heir wor ld (10.9.8). Even t he Lor d is
shining br illiant ly in ant icipat ion of t his special occasion.
The nit ya sUr i-s ar e r ej oicing t hat at last a j I va has r ealized his Per manent
Abode, and is j oining t hem, and consider it t heir good f or t une t hat t his
incident is t aking place. They all welcome t he mukt a by of f er ing pAdya
upacAr a (washing his f eet ) at each house as t he mukt a passes along (pAda' ngaL
kazhuvinar - 10.9.10). I t is t hus t hat bhagavAn and pir ATTi look f or war d t o
t heir long-lost child, and welcome t he mukt a t o Sr I vaikunTham.
nAma 880. nAma 880. nAma 880. |4rl4B¬|6- |4rl4B¬|6- |4rl4B¬|6- vihAyasa vihAyasa vihAyasa-- -gat ih gat ih gat ih
a) He Who is t he means f or t he at t ainment of par amapadam.
b) He Who t r avels in t he f or m of t he Sun.
c) He Who t r avels in space t hr ough His vehicle gar uDa- t he King of bir ds.
d) He Who is at t ained by t apasvin-s t hr ough t heir t apas (hA - t yAge - t o
abandon).
vihAyasa-gataye namah.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma st ar t ing wit h vi as an upasar ga, t he r oot hA
- gat au - t o, t o get , t o at t ain; or hA - t yAge - t o abandon, and adding t he ' asun'
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pr at yaya accor ding t o a r elat ed uNAdi sUt r a. gat i means "t hat which is
at t ained". That t hr ough which one t r avels is vihAyasa, meaning space.
vihAyasa also can r ef er t o t hose who sacr if ice, or t hose sAt t vik people who
per f or m t apas et c. Thus, vihAyasa-gat ih can mean "One Who t r avels in space",
or "One Who is at t ained by t hose who f ollow t he sAt t vik pat h". The amar a
koSa gives t he meanings "sky", "bir d", Lor d' s vishNus' Abode, et c., f or t he
wor d vihAyasa - viyad vishNupadam vihAyasI .
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he last of t hese, and gives t he int er pr et at ion - t at hA
nir UDha bhakt i par akoTibhih vihAyasam = par ama vyoma padameva gamyat e
asmAt it i vihAyasa-gat ih - He is called vihAyasa-gat ih since it is t hr ough Him
and because of Him t hat t hose devot ees who have r eached t he highest st age
of bhakt i at t ain t he supr eme abode, namely par amapadam.
He quot es f r om t he vishNu pur ANa in suppor t :
bhunkt vA ca vipulAn bhogAn t am ant e mat -pr asadAdaj am |
mamAnusmar aNam pr Apya divyam lokam avApsyasi | |
(V.P. 5.19.26)
"Having enj oyed t he wor ldly pleasur es in abundance by My gr ace, you will
r emember Me at t he last moment of lif e, and will at t ain t he divine wor ld of
par ama padam".
He also quot es br ahma sUt r a 4.2.16 in suppor t :
t adokah agr a-j valanam t at -pr akASit a-dvAr o vidyA-sAmar t hyAt t ac-
cheshagat yanusmRt i yogAcca hAr dAnugRhI t ah Sat AdhiikayA |
"Because of t he ef f icacy of t he bhakt i yoga t hat has been pr act iced by t he
devot ee and because of t he const ant medit at ion on t he pat h t hat leads t o t he
Supr eme Abode of t he Lor d" - t he devot ee is able t o see t he opening by which
he has t o go when he leaves t he body, and when t he soul leaves t he body
t hr ough t he mUr dhanya nADi or t he sushumnA nADi, it leads him t o t he
Supr eme Abode of t he Lor d.
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Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o divya pr abandham, wher e AzhvAr r ef er s t o
bhagavAn let t ing His devot ee enj oy t he pleasur es of t his wor ld, and t hen t akes
t hem t o His wor ld in t he end:
"i' ngu ozhindu bhOgam nee eidip pinnum nam iDaikkE pOduvAi".
(per iya t ir u. 5.8.5)
nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn as " vAneRa vazhi t anda
vATTARRAn" (t ir uvAi. 10.6.5), and "maN ulagil vaLam mikka vATTARRAn vandu
inRu viN ulagam t ar uvAnAi viRaiginRAn" (t ir uvAi. 10.6.3).
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' abode' f or t he t er m ' gat i' , and gives t he
explanat ion f or t he nAma as: "One Who has His abode in t he f ir mament -
r ef er r ing t o eit her Lor d vishNu or His f or m as t he Sun" - vihAyasah -
vihAyAsam gat ih ASr ayah asya it i vihAyasa gat ih, vishNu padam, Adit yo vA.
Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s t o t he nAma of bhagavan - sUr ya nAr AyaNa, in t his
cont ext . Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha also gives an int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma
r ef er s t o bhagavAn in t he f or m of t he Sun - vihAyase ant ar ikshe gat ih
gamanam yasya sa vihAyasa-gat ih - sUr yah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i t akes t he t er m vihAyasa as a r ef er ence t o t he sky,
and obser ves t hat bhagavAn is called vihAyasa gat ih because He has t he sky as
His pat h - unobst r uct ed, unsuppor t ed, vast , limit less - in t he f or m of t he Sun.
He comment s t hat bhagavAn manif est s in t he f or m of t he Sun as one
r ef lect ion of His immense love f or His cr eat ion - pr iya-kRt , pr I t i-var dhanah
et c. He will look at t he next 10 nAma-s as descr ibing bhagavAn in t he f or ms of
var ious aspect s of t he Sun.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he dual meaning "sky" and "bir d" f or t he
wor d vihAyasa, and int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who t r avels in space by
means of t he king of bir ds - gar uDa, as His vAhana - vihAyase - vyomni
vihAyah pat inA gat ih yasya it i vihAyasa-gat ih.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also gives t he explanat ion in t er ms of bhagavAn' s
gar uDa vAhana - vihAyaso - gar uDah, t ena t ena gat ih yasya sa vihAyasa-gat ih.
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d) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion pr ovided by Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning
' t apasvin' f or t he t er m ' vihAyasa' (see f ir st par agr aph f or t his nAma; hA -
t yAge - t o abandon): "He Who is at t ained by t he t apasvin-s t hr ough t heir
t apas" - vihAyasaih t apasvibhih, abhigamyat e pr Apyat a it i vihAyasagat ih
vishNuh.
nAma 881. nAma 881. nAma 881. 74l |6- 74l |6- 74l |6- j yot ih j yot ih j yot ih
a) The Light t hat leads t o Sr I vaikunTham.
b) The Light t hat is self -luminous.
c) The Light t hat illuminat es t he Sun, t he moon et c.
jyotishe namah.
St ar t ing f r om t his nAma, Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he next f ew nAma-s as a
descr ipt ion of t he dif f er ent st eps involved in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga, t he pat h
t aken by t he mukt a-s in t heir way t o par amapadam. The r oot f r om which t he
nAma is der ived is dyut a - dI pt au - t o shine. The uNAdi sUt r a - dyut er -isin
AdeSca j ah (uNAdi. 2.110) r esult s in t he wor d j yot ih st ar t ing f r om t he r oot
duyt a. dyot yat e asmAt it i j yot ih - He by Whom t hings ar e illumined, is j yot ih.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t his nAma as t he f ir st st ep in t he ascent of t he
j I va-s t o par ama padam. This st ep is also called ar cih.
ar cih r ef er s t o t he f ir st deit y t hat escor t s t he mukt a j I va t o t he Supr eme
Abode. Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o chAndogya Upanishad (5.10.1) and t o t he
br ahma sUt r a-s f or t he above det ails:
t e ar cisham abhisambhavant i
(chAn. 5.10.1)
"They unit e wit h agni; f r om agni t o t he deit y of t he day, and f r om t her e t o t he
br ight half of t he mont h".
(Sr i anant a r a' ngAcAr ya t r anslat es ar cih as a r ef er ence t o agni).
br ahma sUt r a 4.3.1 - ar cir AdinA t at -pr at it heh | - "Along t he pat h beginning
wit h light , t his is well-known" -
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The mukt a-s (Released souls) ar e led along t he st ages beginning wit h ar ci
(light ), and t his is well-known f r om t he upanishadic t ext s.
br ahma sUt r a 4.3.4 - At ivAhikAh t al-li' ngAt |
"They ar e per sons deput ed t o t ake t he medit at or s t o Br ahman, because t her e
is indicat ion of t his" - ar cih and t he ot her deit ies ar e known as At ivAhika
(Escor t ing Angels) because of t he nat ur e of t heir dut y which is t o lead t he
mukt a-s t o t he Supr eme Abode.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A (Sloka-s 8.24 t o 8.27), wher e
t he pat h t aken by t he knower s of Br ahman t o r each Br ahman is descr ibed.
agni j yot ir -ahah Suklah shaNmAsA ut t ar AyaNam |
t at r a pr ayAt A gacchant i br ahma br ahmavido j anAh | |
(gI t A 8.24)
"Light in t he f or m of f ir e, t he day, t he br ight f or t night , t he six mont hs of t he
nor t her n cour se of t he Sun - t he knower s of Br ahman who t ake t his pat h go t o
Br ahman."
By cont r ast , t hose who r each svar ga (a t empor ar y abode wher e t he j I va enj oys
t he benef it s of his good kar ma and t hen is r ebor n in t his wor ld) t ake t he
dhUmAdi mAr ga (Slokam 8.25) - smoke et c., and t hose who ar e headed f or
nar akam t ake t he yAmaya mAr ga accor ding t o t he SAst r a-s.
I n divya pr abandham also we have t he descr ipt ion of t he pat h t aken by t he
knower s of Br ahman. Sr I r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o nammAzhvAr ' s
t ir uvAimozhi 10.9 (SUzh viSumbaNi), wher e t he t en pASur am-s descr ibe in
det ail t he welcome t hat is of f er ed t o t he mukt a j I van on his way t o Sr I
vaikunTham.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hat of Sr I
BhaTTar : "dyot at e sushumnayA nir gat ah t ad-bhakt ah ar cih pr Apya yasmAt sa
j yot ih" - He Who is t he guiding light f or t hose devot ees whose souls leave t he
body t hr ough t he sushumnA nADi, is j yot ih.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat
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bhagavAn is "One Who shines of His own accor d". He quot es t he mahA
nAr AyaNa upanishad in suppor t - nAr AyaNa par o j yot ir -At mA nAr Ayanah
par ah.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives addit ional suppor t f r om bRhadAr aNyaka
upanishad - at r a ayam pur ushah svayam j yot ih (bRhadA. 4.3.9).
Sr I T. S. Kr ishnamoor t hy t r anslat es Sr i Sa' nkar a' s comment ar y as: "One
Who is t he light of self -luminous consciousness - He Who r eveals Himself
(wit hout ext er nal aid), as well as ot her t hings - is j yot ih".
Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s us t o t he gI t A: j yot ishAmapi t ad-j yot ih - (gI t A
13.18) - The Light of all light s. Sr I cinmayAnanda also gives suppor t f r om
muNDakpanishad:
t ameva bhAnt am anubhAt i sar vam t asya bhAsA sar vam idam vibhAt i
(muNDa. 2.2.10)
"Ever yt hing shines f ollowing Him alone as He shines. All t his shines by His
light ".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as - dyot at e dI pyat i kAnt yA
it i j yot ih - He Who enlight ens t hr ough His kAnt i is j yot ih.
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha obser ves t hat t he Sun and Fir e ar e bot h r ef er r ed
t o as j yot i in t he vedic t er minology, and since bhagavAn is t he One who
illumines t hese, He is appr opr iat ely j yot ih:
agnir -j yot ir -j yot ir -agnih svAhA |
sUr yo j yot ir -j yot ih sUr yah svAhA | |
(yaj ur . 3.9)
nAma 882. nAma 882. nAma 882. B 6|¬- B 6|¬- B 6|¬- su su su-- -r ucih r ucih r ucih
a) He of lovely ef f ulgence - The Day t ime.
b) One Who has t he good desir e or Will t o pr ot ect t he wor ld.
c) He Who is t he cause of all t he ef f ulgence in ever yt hing.
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d) He Who has int ense at t achment t o His devot ees.
su-rucaye enamah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is: r uc - diPt Avabhipr I t au - t o shine,
t o look beaut if ul, t o be pleased wit h.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he der ivat ion: sushThu r ocat a it i su-r ucih - He Who
shines beaut if ully and well is ' su-r ucih' .
a) Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion as a cont inuat ion of t he pr evious
nAma, and int er pr et s t he cur r ent nAma as a r ef er ence t o "Day t ime", which is
t he second st ep in t he ascent of t he mukt a t o Sr I vaikunTham.
He der ives t he int er pr et at ion as f ollows: sUr yodayAt r ocat e it i r ucih, sA asya
SobhanA it i su-r ucih - The r ising of t he Sun is pleasing because of it s
ef f ulgence. Since He is t he cause of t hat beaut y, He is called su-r ucih.
Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he Sr ut i - ar cisho-ahah - (chAndog. 5.10.1) - Af t er agni
t o t he deit y of t he day.., wher e t he pat h t o Br ahman is descr ibed.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion t hat associat es t he nAma
su-r ucih t o t he dayt ime, similar t o Sr I BhaTTar . His vyAkhyAnam is:
Sobhano r ucih = divasah yasmAt sa su-r ucih - He by Whose Gr ace we have a
pleasant day t ime is su-r ucih.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as: "One Whose ef f ulgence is beaut if ul,
auspicious and at t r act ive", or , "One Whose Will is beaut if ul, auspicious and
at t r act ive".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i uses t he meaning ' t ast e' f or t he wor d ' r uci' , and
gives t he explanat ion f or t he nAma as "One who has good desir e or t ast e t o
pr ot ect t he wor ld".
c) Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn being t he
cause of anyt hing t hat is ef f ulgent .
Sr I cinamyAnanda uses t he meanings "Glor y" or "Desir e" f or t he t er m ' r uci' ,
and gives t he meanings: "He of auspicious Glor y or He of auspicious desir e",
bot h r ef er r ing t o t his wor ld being an expr ession of His Will or Desir e.
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d) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as - SobhanA su-r ucih =
abishva' ngaH anur AgaH yasmin bhakt AnAm it i su-r ucih - He Who is int ensely
at t ached t o His devot ees, is su-r ucih. He quot es t he amar a koSa in suppor t -
abhishva' nge spRhAyAm ca gabhast au ca r ucih st r iyAm - 3.3.29, giving t he
meaning "abishva' ngaH = int ense at t achment , af f ect ion" t o t he wor d r uciH.
nAma 883. nAma 883. nAma 883. r 6¬ |¹4¬ - r 6¬ |¹4¬ - r 6¬ |¹4¬ - hut a hut a hut a-- -bhug bhug bhug-- -vibhuh vibhuh vibhuh
He t hat is t he Br ight For t night of t he Moon.
huta-bhug-vibhave namah.
The t er m hut am is f or med f r om t he r oot hu - dAnAdanayoH - t o of f er , t o
per f or m a sacr if ice, t o eat . ' bhuk' is f or med f r om t he r oot bhuj - pAlana,
abhyavahAr ayoH - t o pr ot ect , t o consume. One who consumes t he of f er ing is
hut a-bhuk - hut am bhu' ngt e = hut a-bhuk. The t er m vibhuH is def ined by Sr I
vAsishTha as: vi is an upasar ga or pr ef ix, meaning vividha; t he r oot bhU -
sat t AyAm - t o be, t o exist . vividho bhavat i it vibhuH - That which manif est s
it self in dif f er ent ways.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m hut ag-bhuk t o r ef er t o t he moon - hut am
bhu' nj Anah - somah, and t he t er m vibhuH is given t he meaning "One who
gr ows and becomes f ull - pUr No bhavat i". I n ot her wor ds, t he t er m hut a-
bhug-vibhuh is int er pr et ed as a r ef er ence t o t he waxing moon - one t hat has
consumed (bhuk) t he of f er ings (hut a) made t o it , and has become f ull (vibhuh -
pUr No bhavat i).
The nir ukt i aut hor summar izes Sr i BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion as f ollows:
hut am sudhA par iNat am bhu' nj AnaS-candr amAs-t at hA |
vibhuh pUr No bhavet yasmin sa vai syAt hut a-bhug-vibhuh | |
This is t he t hir d st ep in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga. Again, r ef er ence is made t o t he
chAndogya Upanishad 5.10.1 in suppor t - ar cishaH ahaH ahna ApUr yamANa
paksham. "Fr om agni t o t he deit y of t he day and f r om t her e t o t he deit y of
t he br ight half of t he mont h... "
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s vyAkhyAnam f or t he cur r ent gr oup of nAma- s
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cont inues t o par allel t hat of Sr I BhaTTar . He int er pr et s t he nAma hut a-
bhug-vibhuh as a r ef er ence t o t he waxing per iod of t he moon, t he Sukla
paksha, similar t o Sr I BhaTTar . His explanat ion is: hut a- bhuk = candr aH,
vibhuH = pUr NaH, yat r a sa hut a-bhug-vibhuH Sukla pakshaH.. He because of
Whom His devot ees have all t heir dar kness r emoved j ust like Sukla paksha is
called ' hut a-bhug-vibhuh' . (The t r anslat or of Sr I vidyA bhUshaN' s
vyAkhyAnam in Hindi says - "j inkI kRpA se bhakt on kA nit ya Sukla paksha hai,
ar t hAt unke sar va andhakAr dUr ho j At A hai ").
Sr I Sa' nkar a t r eat s "hut a-bhuk-vibhuh" as cont aining t wo nAma-s: hut a-bhuk,
and vibhuH. The dvait a AcAr ya, Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha, and Sr I sat ya devo
vAsishTha also f ollow t he same syst em. Wit h t his pATham, t he nAma hut a-
bhuk r e-occur s in Slokam 95 in t he pATha-s of bot h above vyAkhyAnaa-kar t A-
s (I n Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam, t he nAma is t r eat ed as anant a-hut a-bhug-
bhokt A in Slokam 95, as we will see lat er ).
hut a hut a hut a-- -bhuk bhuk bhuk
i) He Who is t he Consumer of oblat ions in homa-s et c.
ii) The Pr ot ect or of t he sacr if ices.
huta-bhuje namah:
i) The int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a f or t he inst ance of t he nAma in
t he cur r ent Slokam is: "He Who is t he Consumer of t he oblat ions". Sr I
Sa' nkar a' s wor ds ar e: samast a devat oddeSena pr avRt t eshvapi kar masu hut am
bhu' nkt e bhunakt i it vA hut a-bhuk - "Though of f er ed t o dif f er ent gods in
sacr if ices, He is t he r eal Enj oyer , or He pr ot ect s t he of f er ings"
ii) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 95, Sr i Sa' nkar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion - hut am bhunakt i it but a-bhuk - He Who pr ot ect s t he sacr if ice.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t hat hut am r ef er s t o t he of f er ings in t he f ir e dur ing
homa et c., accompanied by t he associat ed mant r a-s: hut amit i agnau
pr akshipt am sa-mant r am. He r ef er s us t o t he seven t ongues of f ir e t hat we
have descr ibed ear lier , under t he nAma sapt a-j ihvaH: sapt a t e agne samidhaH
sapt a j ihvAH (yaj ur . 17.79). He f ur t her adds t hat it s is t his ' hut a-bhuk' guNa
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of bhagavAn t hat is r ef lect ed in, and is r esponsible f or , our being able t o
consume t he of f er ings in t he f or m of f ood t o our body. Associat ed wit h t he
pr ANa vAyu t hat we inhale and t he f ir e t hat is in our body, t his f ood or
of f er ing get s ' consumed' .
vibhuh vibhuh vibhuh
i) He Who is pr esent ever ywher e, or He Who is t he Lor d of all t he wor lds.
ii) He because of Whom all t he beings of t his univer se become dist inguished.
iii) He Who manif est Himself in dif f er ent f or ms.
vibhave namah:
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: sar vat r a var t amAnat vAt t r ayANam lokAnAm
vibhut vAt vA vibhuH - Because He is ever ywher e, or because He is t he Lor d of
all t he t hr ee wor lds, He is called vibhuH.
Sr I cinmayAnanda t r anslat es t he nAma as "All-Per vading" - Lor d nAr AyaNa,
t he Self , is uncondit ioned by t ime or space, f or He is Et er nal, t he
Omnipr esent . He is All-per vading as He is unlimit ed by any condit ionings.
ii) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he int er pr et at ion - viSishTA bhavant i asmAt
it vibhuh - Since beings become dist inguished and dist inct because of Him, t he
Lor d is called vibhuh.
iii) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as: vividho bhavat i it i vibhuh
- He Who manif est s Himself in many f or ms is vibhuH.
nAma 884. nAma 884. nAma 884. ¹|4- ¹|4- ¹|4- r aviH r aviH r aviH
a) The Sun in his ut t ar AyaNa or Summer solst ice.
b) He Who is r esponsible f or t he abilit y of all cet ana-s and acet ana-s t o make
sound.
c) He Who is pr aised by His devot ees.
ravaye namaH.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he r oot r u - Sabde - t o sound, and int er pr et s t he nAma
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as as r Uyat e - pr aSasyat i it i r avih - One Who is pr aised. I n his mapping of t he
nAma-s of t his Sloka wit h t he dif f er ent st eps in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga, Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who is pr aised as t he ut t ar AyaNa, or
t he Summer solst ice" - t he per iod in which t he Sun begins his movement
t owar ds t he nor t h. ut t ar AyaNa is t he f our t h st ep in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga (see
t he det ailed int r oduct ion at t he beginning t his Slokam).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hat of Sr I
BhaTTar . He der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot r u - gat ir eshaNayoH - t o go, t o
hur t , and gives t he explanat ion f or t he nAma as -
r avat e gacchat i ut t ar AyaNena yasmAt sa r aviH;
yad-anukampayA ut t ar AyeNa yAt i it i ar t haH.
The t r anslat or in hindi gives t he meaning as - J inkI kRpA se sUr ya
ut t ar AyaNa mem gaman kar t A hai | - He by Whose Gr ace t he sun is able t o
t r aver se t he ut t ar AyaNa mAr ga, is r aviH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he Sun - Adit ya At mA -
The dr iving f or ce behind t he sun. ' r asAn Adat t a it i r aviH' - The Sun has t he
name r avi because he absor bs all t he r asas or f luids f r om all obj ect s. Sr I
Sa' nkar a quot es t he vishNu dhar mot t ar a 1.30.16 in suppor t of his
int er pr et at ion - r asAnAm ca t at hA AdAnAt r avih it i abhidhI yat a.
Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y r ef er s t o bhagavad gI t A 10.21 - Adit yAnAm aham
vishNuH j yot ishAm r avir -amSumAn | - "Of Adit ya-s I am vishNu, of luminous
bodies I am t he r adiant Sun".
b) Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot r u - Sabde - t o cr y, t o yell,
t o sound as bees; The applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 4.139 - "aca iH" leads t o
t he wor d r aviH - t he Sun. Sr I vAsisTha indicat es t hat t he af f ix ' i' adds t he
sense of "one who does", "one who causes ot her s t o do" - kar t ar i kar aNe vA.
So in his int er pr et at ion, t he t er m r aviH means "One who causes sound", or
"One who enables ot her s t o make sound", and indicat es t hat it is because of
Him t hat t he beings ar e able t o cr eat e sound, and so He is called r aviH.
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c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as - r Uyat e st Uyat e bhakt a
j anaih it i r aviH - He Who is pr aised by His devot ees is r aviH.
nAma 885. nAma 885. nAma 885. |4¹l ¬+- |4¹l ¬+- |4¹l ¬+- vir ocanaH vir ocanaH vir ocanaH
a) The I lluminant (t he year ).
b) He of var ious splendor s - such as Sun, moon, day, night , et c.
c) He Who shines in t he minds of His devot ees in var ious special ways.
d) He Who gave special sight (divya cakshus) t o ar j una, sa' nj aya et c. (vi-
locanaH).
virocanAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is ' r uc' - dI pt Avabhipr I t au - t o
shine, t o look beaut if ul, t o be pleased wit h. vi- is an upasar ga or pr ef ix. The
pr at yaya which leads t o t he wor d r ocana f r om r uc, (t he pr at yaya yuc, which
becomes ana), has t he sense of "one who has a habit of ", accor ding t o Sr I
vAsishTha, who gives pANini sUt r a 3.2.149 - anudAt t et t ah ca halAdeh - in
suppor t . Thus, vir ocat e t acchI lo vir ocanaH - He Who has t he habit of , or f or
whom it is par t of His nat ur e, t o shine and t o look beaut if ul. He Who is
nat ur ally shining, and Who enlight ens t his Univer se, is vir ocanaH.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "dvAbhyAm ayana-gat ibhyAm samvat sar o
r at hena vir ocayat i it i vir ocanaH" - He is t he year t hat illuminat es t he Sun
when he r ides his char iot t hr ough t he t wo ayana-s or t he t wo per iods of six
mont hs each (t he ut t ar AyaNa and t he dakshiNAyana - t he summer solst ice
and t he wint er solst ice). This is t he f if t h st ep in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga (see t he
det ailed int r oduct ion at t he beginning of t his Sloka).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN cont inues t o par allel t he int er pr et at ion of Sr I
BhaTTar - vir ocayat i samvat sar eNa gacchant am svopAsam abhipr aut am
dI pr a' nca kar ot i it vir ocanaH - He Who makes t he Sun shine as he t r avels
t hr ough t he samvat sar a or t hr ough t he year .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as "vividham r ocat a it i vi-r ocanaH" - He of
var ious splendor s. One t r anslat or gives t he example of His shining in f or ms
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such as t he Sun, t he moon, et c.; anot her r ef er s t o His shining as t he day,
night , t wilight , et c.; Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s t o His pr oviding var ious
t ypes of r ays t o assist in t he gr owt h of t he plant s et c.
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj point s t o His shining in special ways in t he
minds of His devot ees - viSesheNa r ocat e bhakt ebhya it i vir ocanaH. He
quot es t he yaj ur vedic mant r a - namo r ucAya br Ahmaye (yaj ur .31.20). Sr I
cinmayAnanda not es: "What ever f or m t he devot ee chooses t o cont emplat e
upon Him, t he Lor d manif est s in t hat ver y For m f or t he sake and j oy of t he
devot ee".
Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s us t o a f ew mant r a-s wher e t he nAma vir ocana occur s in
t he Sr ut i:
t asyA vir ocanaH pr AhlAdir -vat sa AsI d-ayaspAt r am pAt r am |
(at har va. 9.10.2)
Sr iye sudRSI r upar asya yAh svar -vir ocamAnaH kakubhAmacodat e |
(Rg. 5.44.2)
ayam punAt a ushaso vir ocayat
(Rg. 9.86.21)
d) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives an alt er nat e pATham -vi-locanah - One Who
gave t he special sight t o ar j una, t o sa' nj aya et c. - divyam locanam pAr t hasya
yasmAt sa vi-locanaH. He suppor t s his int er pr et at ion wit h a r ef er ence t o t he
gI t A - divyam dadAmi t e cakshuH (gI t A 11.8).
nAma 886. nAma 886. nAma 886. B 4 - B 4 - B 4 - sUr yah sUr yah sUr yah
a) The sour ce of movement in t he f or m of wind.
b) He Who br ings f or t h ever yt hing, or He Who br ings f or t h wealt h.
c) One who gener at es Sr I or br illiance in sUr ya or agni (sacr ed f ir e).
d) He because of Whom we get enlight enment .
sUryAya namah.
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Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot sR - gat au - t o go, or sU -
pr er aNe - t o excit e, t o impel. The pANini sUt r a 3.1.114 - r Aj a sUya sUr ya ..
leads t o t he wor d sUr yah by t he addit ion of t he kvip pr at yaya. The meaning is
"That which moves", or "That which impels all beings t o act ion" - sar at i
gacchat i it i sUr yah, or suvat i kar maNi pr er ayat i lokAn it i sUr yah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda not es:- "The t er m et ymologically means t he One Sour ce
f r om which all t hings have been bor ne out , or out of which t hey have been
deliver ed. The Lor d as t he Fir st Cause is t he Womb of t he Univer se". The
t er m is commonly used t o r ef er t o t he Sun, because on t he sur f ace of t he
wor ld it is t he Sun t hat nur t ur es and nour ishes all living cr eat ur es.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he r oot sR wit h t he meaning ' t o move' . He not es
t hat t he kRt af f ix (kvip in t he pr esent case) has got wide applicat ion, and t he
meaning of t he af f ix is not r est r ict ed. Thus, t he wor d sUr ya can be
int er pr et ed in a way suit able t o t he cont ext , and he int er pr et s t he t er m in
associat ion wit h ' vAyu' , since t he wind always moves out of Him - vAyuh sadA
sar at i yasmAt it i sUr yah. I n ot her wor ds, he maps t he nAma sUr ya t o t he
sixt h st ep in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also gives t he same int er pr et at ion - vAyum sar at i
svopAsakam nI t vA it i sUr yah.
Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o One Who
st r eaks t hr ough t he skies like a snake (sar at i). This can closely r elat e t o t he
int er pr et at ion of t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he wind. vAyu is placed next t o
samvat sar a in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga based on t he kaushI t akI Upanishad - sa
vAyu lokam (kaushI t akI upa. 1.3) - "He (t he j I va) goes t o t he vAyu loka".
b) & c) Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is -
sUt e sar vam it i sUr yah |
sUt e Sr iyam it i vA sUr yah |
One t r anslat or t r anslat es t his t o mean "He Who br ings f or t h ever yt hing, or
He Who br ings f or t h wealt h, is sUr yah". Anot her t r anslat or gives t he
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f ollowing as t he int er pr et at ion - "One who gener at es Sr I or br illiance in sUr ya
or agni (sacr ed f ir e) is sUr yah".
d) I n addit ion t o some of t he above int er pr et at ions, Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha
gives one anot her int er pr et at ion - sUr i gamyat vAt sUr yah - He because of
Whom we get enlight enment is sur yah.
Somewhat r elat ed t o t his int er pr et at ion, Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives t he
f ollowing explanat ion - sUr ibhih j ~nAnibhih pr Apyat e it i sUr yah - He Who is
at t ained by t he enlight ened Sages.
nAma 887. nAma 887. nAma 887. B|46l B|46l B|46l savit A savit A savit A
a) He Who pr oduces or br ings f or t h t he cr ops et c., in t he f or m of t he Sun.
b) He Who br ings f or t h ever yt hing in t he Univer se (including t he sun et c.).
savitre namah.
sUt e it i savit A.
This nAma occur s again as nAma 969 (Slokam 104).
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot sU - pr ANi gar bha vimocane -
t o br ing f or t h, t o pr oduce.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he vyAkhyAnam - sUr ya dvAr A vRshTi sasyAdikam sUt e it i
savit A - BhagavAn pr oduces, t hr ough t he sun as t he medium, r ain and t he
cr ops, and so He is called savit A or Adit ya.
This is t he sevent h st ep in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga.
For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 104, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn' s nAma her e signif ies t hat He is t he Cr eat or of
ever yt hing (including t he sun) - sar veshAm sAkshAt j anayit A savit A.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion - sar vasya j agat ah pr asavit A savit A - He
Who br ings f or t h or cr eat es all t he Univer ses. He gives suppor t f or t he
int er pr et at ion f r om vishNu dhar mot t ar a:
r asAnAm ca t at hAdAnAt r aviH it i abhidhI yat e |
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pr aj AnAm t u pr asavanAt savit A it i nigadyat e | |
(vishNu dhar mot t ar a 1.30.15).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ences t o Sr ut i:
devo var uNah pr aj Apat iH savit A
(chAndogya. 1.12.5)
"He who shines br illiant ly, He who br ings r ain, He who is t he Pr ot ect or of
people, t he Lor d Savit A";
savanAt savit A - (mait r AyaNi 5.7).
Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y gives an int er est ing alt er nat e pATham t hat has t he
same meaning - "sa pit A - He, The Fat her of All".
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he explanat ion - sUr ya dvAr A vRshTi sasyAdikam
ut pAdya j agat j anayat i it i savit A - He Who cr eat es gr ains et c. t hr ough r ain by
means of t he sun and gener at es and sust ains lif e, is savit A.
nAma 888. nAma 888. nAma 888. ¹|4¬l ¬+- ¹|4¬l ¬+- ¹|4¬l ¬+- r avi r avi r avi-- -locanaH locanaH locanaH
a) He Who illuminat es (t hr ough t he r ays of t he sun).
b) He t hat has t he Sun f or His eye.
c) He f r om Whose eyes t he Sun was bor n.
d) He Who is f ond of pr aise.
ravi-locanAya namaH.
r aviNA - t at pr akASena, locayat i - dar Sayat i it i r avi-locanaH - That which
r eveals ever yt hing t o us t hr ough it s lust r e. The r oot f r om which ' locana' is
der ived is ' loc - dar Sane - t o see' . r avi r ef er s t o t he Sun.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ues t his nAma t o cover t he eight h, nint h and t ent h st eps of
ar cir Adi mAr ga - t he Moon, indr a (light ning), and var uNa. All t hese shine by
means of t he sun' s r ays, and so t hey ar e t oget her cover ed by t his nAma in Sr I
BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion - r avi r aSmi sa' nkr Ant yAdi mukhena candr a-vidyud-
var uNAn locayat i it i r avi- locanaH.
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The chAndogya Upanishad mant r a quot ed at t he beginning of t his Sloka -
"Adit yAt candr amasam, candr amaso vidyut am", and t he kaushI t akI Upanishad
passage - sa var uNa lokam (1.3), ar e invoked in suppor t of t he int er pr et at ion.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is - r aviH locanam = cakshuH asya it i r avi-
locanaH - He Who has t he Sun as His eye is r avi-locanaH. Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es
t he muNDakopanishad passage in suppor t - agnir -mUr dhA cakshushI candr a
sUr yau (Mundako. 2.1.4) - "He Who has f ir e f or t he cr own of His head, and
Who has candr a and sUr ya as His eyes".
c) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj int er pr et s t he nAma as "One f r om Whose
eyes ar ose sUr ya" - r aviH bhAskar aH locanAd-yasya it i r avi-locanaH. He
r ef er s us t o pur usha sUkt a - cakshoh sUr yo aj Ayat a (Rg. Veda 10.90.13).
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives mult iple explanat ions:
1. r aviNA locayat i sar vasm it i r aiv-locanaH - He Who enlight ens
ever yt hing t hr ough t he Sun;
2. He Whose eyes ar e t he Sun, and t hr ough which we see - locyat e anena
it i locanaH, r aviH locanam = cakshuH yasya sa r avi-locanaH.
d) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha seems t o der ive his int er pr et at ion based on t he
r oot r u - Sabde - t o sound, f or t he wor d r aviH, and gives t he meaning ' pr aise'
f or t he wor d ' r aviH' . His int er pr et at ion f or t he t er m locanaH is "One Who is
pleased", pr obably based on t he r oot loc - t o shine. His int er pr et at ion f or t he
nAma is: r aviH st ut iH; locanI yat vAt locanam pr iyam; r aviH st ut iH, locanam -
pr iyam yasya sah r avi-locanaH - He Who is f ond of pr aise, is r avi-locanaH.







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Slokam 95 Slokam 95 Slokam 95
H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l B G7l + T7l 5¤=-· H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l B G7l + T7l 5¤=-· H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l B G7l + T7l 5¤=-·
H|+|4 'T- B7lP9l ¬l T|¤Ul+ PT‚ 6-+ °-+ H|+|4 'T- B7lP9l ¬l T|¤Ul+ PT‚ 6-+ °-+ H|+|4 'T- B7lP9l ¬l T|¤Ul+ PT‚ 6-+ °-+
anant ahut abhug bhokt A sukhadO naikadO=gr aj ah |
anir viNNah sadAmar shI lOkadhishThAna madbhut ah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 889. nAma 889. nAma 889. H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l H+-6r 6¬ ¹¬l ±l anant a anant a anant a-- -hut a hut a hut a-- -bhug bhug bhug-- -bhokt A bhokt A bhokt A
a) He Who is indr a and br ahmA of immeasur able gr eat ness.
b) He Who is endless, and Who consumes t he of f er ings t hr ough f ir e.
ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktre namah.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t his nAma as r epr esent ing t he last t wo st eps (t he
elevent h and t welf t h) in t he ar cir Adi mAr ga. indr a and br ahmA escor t t he
j I va in t he f inal t wo st eps in t he ascent of t he j I va t o par ama padam t hr ough
t he ar cir Adi mAr ga (sa indr a lokam, sa pr aj Apat i lokam - kaushI t akI . ).. Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m hut a-bhuk as a r ef er ence t o indr a, since he is
t he consumer of t he of f er ings t hr ough f ir e in t he sacr if ices - sapt a t ant ushu
hut am bhu' nkt e it i indr o hut a-bhuk. He maps t he t er m ' bhokt A' in t his nAma
t o ' br ahmA' - pr aj Ah bhunakt i - pAlayat i it i pr aj Apat ih bhokt A. Since br ahmA
sust ains and pr ot ect s t he pr ocess of cr eat ion - bir t h et c., he is called bhokt A
(pr aj A means pr opagat ion, pr oduct ion, bir t h). Since bot h indr a and br ahmA,
who ar e endowed wit h immense gr eat ness (anant a), ar e under bhagavAn' s
cont r ol, He is called anant a- hut a-bhug-bhokt A.
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN, who has given t he same anubhavam as Sr I
BhaTTar f or t he past f ew nAma-s (i.e., in t er ms of bhagavAn leading t he mukt a
j I va-s in t heir pat h t o Sr I vaikunTham af t er t hey leave t heir body in t his
wor ld), t r eat s ' anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A' as consist ing of t wo nAma-s -
' anant ah' and ' hut a-bhug-bhokt A' , and gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hat
of Sr I BhaTTar f or t he t er m ' hut a-bhug-bhokt A' -
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hut a-bhugbhih amRt a par iNAma r Upam hut am
bhu' nj Anaih vidyut a par yant a Agat ena amAnavena pur usheNa sahit aih
var uNa indr a pr aj Apat ibhih sva-pada gAminam bhakt am bhunakt i pAlayat i it
hut a-bhug-bhokt A
"He is t he Pr ot ect or of t he devot ee who have been escor t ed by t he amAnava
pur usha-s t hr ough t he indr a lokam, et c., and who ar e on t heir f inal st ages of
r eaching His Abode, escor t ed by var uNa, indr a, and pr aj Apat i".
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj t r eat s ' anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A' as one
nAma, but int er pr et s it as consist ing of t wo par t s - na ant ah yasya it i anant ah
- One f or Whom t her e is no end, is anant ah; and, hut a- bhuj A pAvakena
bhu' nkt e it i hut a-bhug-bhokt A - He Who consumes (t he of f er ings of oblat ions
in sacr if ices) t hr ough f ir e is hut a-bhug- bhokt A; anant aSca asau hut a-bhug-
bhokt A it i anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A - He Who is endless,and Who consumes
t he of f er ings t hr ough f ir e, is anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A.
Now we will look at t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions by ot her vyAkhyAna kar t A-s
who have int er pr et ed ' anant a-hut a-bhug-bhokt A' as consist ing of t hr ee nAma-
s - anant ah, hut a-bhuk, and bhokt A.
Sr I Sa' nkar a is t he leading vyAkhyAna kAr t A who t akes t his appr oach. (The
nAma ' anant ah' occur s as nAma 665 (Slokam 70) in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion, and t he nAma bhokt A has been st udied as nAma-s 145 and 502
in Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion).
i) anant ah anant ah anant ah - The I nf init e.
anantAya namah.
' ant a' means ' end' ; anant a means "One Who is not limit ed", "One Who is
endless", et c. - na ant am yasya sa anant ah. The r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he
det ailed wr it e-up f or t his in Slokam 70 (nAma 665). I n addit ion t o t he
int er pr et at ions given f or t he inst ance of t his nAma in Slokam 70, Sr I Sa' nkar a
gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion her e - Because He is in t he f or m of
AdiSesha, He is called anant a - Sesha r Upo vA.
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ii) hut a hut a hut a-- -bhuk bhuk bhuk
a) The Pr ot ect or of t he sacr if ice.
b) The Consumer of t he of f er ings in a sacr if ice.
huta-buje namaH.
We encount er ed t he nAma hut a-bhuk ear lier in Slokam 94 in Sa' nkar a pATham
(Sr I BhaTTar t akes t he nAma as hut a-bhug-vibhuh in Slokam 94).
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he r oot hu - dAnAdanayoH - t o of f er , t o per f or m a
sacr if ice, t o eat ; and t he r oot bhuj - pAlanAbhyavahAr ayoH - t o pr ot ect , or
anavane - t o eat , t o consume, f or der iving t he nAma.
a) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma in Sr I Sa' nkar a' s pATham, t he
int er pr et at ion given is - hut am bhunakt i it i hut a-bhuk - He Who pr ot ect s t he
sacr if ice.
Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t his pr ot ect ion r ef er s t o t he successf ul
complet ion of t he sacr if ice by His blessing, even when t her e may be
inadver t ent def iciencies in t he per f or mance of t he sacr if ice -
yasya smRt yA ca nAmokt yA t aop yAga kr iyAdishu |
nyUnam sampUr nat Am yAt i sat yo vande t am acyut am | |
b) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 94 in Sr I Sa' nkar a' s pATham, he
gives t he explanat ion - hut am bhu' ngt e it i hut a-bhuk - He Who consumes t he
of f er ings in t he sacr if ice.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i elabor at es on t his f ur t her : When of f er ings ar e
made t o dif f er ent devat A-s in a sacr if ice, agni (f ir e) again r eceives it f ir st ,
and t hen passes it on t o sUr ya, who t hen t akes it t o t he r espect ive deit ies.
All t he deit ies ult imat ely of f er t hese t o bhagavAn, Who is t he ult imat e
r eceiver of all t he of f er ings.
iii) bhokt A bhokt A bhokt A
a) The Enj oyer of all of f er ings made by devot ees wit h love.
b) Enj oyer of of f er ings made in all sacr if ices.
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c) Enj oyer of of f er ings made t o t he pit R-s et c.
d) He Who consumes (dest r oys) ever yt hing over t ime t hr ough dif f er ent f or ms
- as agni, sUr ya, kAla et c.
e) He Who pr ot ect s ever yt hing (bhuj - pAlane - t o pr ot ect ).
bhoktre namaH.
The r oot f or ' bhokt A' is t he same as f or t he t er m ' bhuk' , namely, bhuj - t o
pr ot ect , t o eat . We have st udied t he nAma ' bhokt A' pr eviously in Sloka 16
(nAma 145) and Sloka 53 (nAma 502). Two der ivat ions f or t he t er m ' bhokt A'
ar e - bhunakt i it i bhokt A - The Pr ot ect or , and bhunkt e it i bhokt A - The
Enj oyer .
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha nicely expr esses t his as ' r akshako bhakshaNaSca' .
BhagavAn cr eat es, pr ot ect s, and t hen swallows at t he t ime of pr alaya.
a) For nAma 145, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is t he
Enj oyer of t hings of f er ed by His devot ees wit h love, like nect ar . He r ef er s us
t o Lor d kRshNa' s wor ds in t he gI t A:
pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i |
t adaham bahkt yupahRt am aSnAmi pr ayat At manah | |
(gI t A 9.26)
"I f a devot ee of f er s t o Me a mer e leaf , f lower , f r uit , or wat er wit h sincer e
devot ion and love, I accept it as invaluable t r easur e."
b) Alt er nat ively, Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn is bhokt A since He is
t he Ult imat e r ecipient and Enj oyer f or all t he sacr if icial of f er ings ir r espect ive
of t he deit y t o whom t he of f er ing is made.
Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o Sloka 5.29 of t he gI t A, wher e Lor d kRshNa
declar es:
bhokt Ar am yaj ~na t apasAm sar va-loka-maheSvar am |
suhRdam sar va-bhUt AnAm j ~nAt vA mAm Sant imRcchat i | |
(gI t A 5.29)
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"Knowing Me as t he Enj oyer of all sacr if ice and aust er it ies, as t he Supr eme
Lor d of all t he wor lds, as t he Fr iend of ever y being, one at t ains peace".
We also have bhagavAn' s declar at ion in Sloka 9.24 of t he gI t A.
aham hi sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A ca pr abhur eva ca |
na t u mAm abhij Anant i t at t vena at ah cyavant i t e | |
(gI t A 9.24)
"For , I am t he only enj oyer and t he only Lor d of all sacr if ices. They (The
or dinar y people) do not r ecognize Me in My t r ue nat ur e, and hence t hey f all".
c) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 53 (nAma 502), Sr I BhaTTar
ext ends t his guNa of bhokt a of bhagavAn t o include not only t he of f er ings t o
t he gods (havya), but also t o t he kavya, t he of f er ing t o our pit R-s or t he
deceased ancest or s - havya kavya bhuj o vishNoH udak-pUr ve mahodadhau
(mahAbhAr at a SAnt i par va 348.3) - "bhagavAn is st at ioned in t he nor t h-east
ocean and consumes t he havya and kavya t hat ar e of f er ed wit h sincer it y".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives sever al r ef er ences t o suppor t t he above
int er pr et at ions:
Seigaip-payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum
(t ir uvAi. 5.6.4)

ahamannam_ahamannam_ahamannam ahamannAdo_' hamannAdo_' hamannAdah
(t ait t i. Upa.)
"I am t he f ood or t he obj ect of enj oyment f or My devot ees, and
I am t he Enj oyer or consumer of t he of f er ings of My devot ees as well".
vAr ik-koNDu ennai vizhu' nguvan kANil enRu..
ennil munnam pAr it t u t An ennai muRRap par uginAn
(nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 9.6.10)
AzhvAr and bhagavAn ar e compet ing wit h each ot her t o enj oy each ot her , and
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bhagavAn succeeds in t he compet it ion!
avA aRac-cUzh ar iyai
(t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 10.10.11)
"He who mingles wit h His devot ees int imat ely and t o His hear t ' s cont ent ."
The obvious examples of kaNNan accept ing wit h gr eat delight t he handf ul of
puf f ed r ice f r om kucela, and His accept ing t he f ood of f er ed by vidur a over
t hat of f er ed by dur yodhana ar e well-known.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er explains t he f unct ion of bhagavAn as bhokt A in a
way t hat applies t o our day-t o-day lif e, using Sr i Sa' nkar a vyAkhyAnam f or
Sloka 13.22 f r om t he gI t A. BhagavAn is in all of us - as t he obser ver , as t he
guide, as t he Enj oyer , et c.
upadr ashTA anumant A ca bhar t A bhokt A maheSvar aH |
par amAt mA it i cApyukt o dehe' smin pur ushaH par aH | |
(gI t A 13.22)
"Close Obser ver , Giver of sanct ion, Sust ainer , Exper iencer , t he pr e- eminent
Lor d, Supr eme Self - t hus is st yled t he Supr eme Spir it in t he human body".
For t hose who spend t heir t ime in wor ldly pur suit s, He is j ust t he obser ver .
For t hose who obser ve t he pat h of dhar ma, He is t he bhar t A or Pr ot ect or and
Suppor t er in t imes of need - as in t he case of pANDava-s. For t hose who
of f er t o bhagavAn t he wor ldly gains t hat t hey get , such as t he f ame et c. t hat
come t o t hem, He is t he bhokt A or Enj oyer , i.e, He accept s t hese as
of f er ings, and He best ows on t hem His anubhavam inst ead.
The mor e we dedicat e our act ions and t he benef it s of t hese act ions t o Him,
and t hus make Him t he bhokt A, t he mor e He r eveals t o us what t r ue happiness
is, and t he mor e we ar e r elieved of undesir able at t r ibut es such as ahamkAr am,
mamakAr am, et c.
The signif icance of t his nAma t hus is f or us t o r ealize t hat we should dedicat e
all our act ions and t heir ef f ect s t o bhagavAn as t he bhokt A, and we should
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inst ead enj oy Him and at t ain et er nal bliss.
d) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha uses t he meaning bhuj - t o eat , and int er pr et s t he
nAma ' bhokt A' as One Who consumes or swallows ever yt hing in t he f or m of
kAla or t ime - kAla r Upo hi bhgavAn kAlakRameNa sar vam bhu' nkt e. He also
links t he t er m ' anant a' t o ' bhokt A' by point ing out t hat bhagavAn consumes all
t hings over t ime in dif f er ent f or ms - agni, sUr ya, kAla or yama, et c.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o t he kaThopanishad mant r a:
yasya br ahmaSca ksht r am ca ubhe bhavat a odanaH |
(kaTho. 2.25)
"He f or whom br ahma and kshat r a (t he movables and immovables) bot h become
f ood".
Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat j ust as t he ocean is t he sour ce of t he r ain t hat
r esult s in t he small r iver s, and t he r iver s mer ge back int o t he ocean, so also
bhagavAn is t he Or igin of ever yt hing, He is t he Suppor t f or ever yt hing
(bhokt A), and He is also t he end of ever yt hing (One Who consumes ever yt hing
in t he end - bhokt A) - ut pAdayit A, r akshit A, bhakshit A ca bhavat i.
e) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses t he meaning "t o pr ot ect " f or t he r oot
' bhuj ' , and int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who pr ot ect s t he good" - bhunakt i
pAlayat i SishTAn it i bhokt A.
nAma 890. nAma 890. nAma 890. B G7- B G7- B G7- sukha sukha sukha-- -dah dah dah
a) The Giver of Bliss t o His devot ees.
b) The Remover of happiness f or t he wicked.
c) The Remover of t iny pleasur es f r om His devot ees (dyat i - cut s) so t hat
t hey can seek t he Higher Bliss.
d) The Remover of unhappiness f or His devot ees (a- sukha-dah; dyat i - cut s).
e) He Who is t he sour ce of wat er f or all beings (sukham = udakam = wat er ).
f ) He Who has given a beaut if ul body t o t he j I va-s.
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sukha-dAya namah.
We st udied t his nAma in Slokam 49 (nAma 460). The r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he
wr it e-up f or nAma 460 as well.
a) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 49, Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion
was t hat t his nAma indicat ed bhagavAn' s guNa of best owing bliss on t hose who
f ollowed t he sadAr Aca. I t should be r emember ed t hat t he ' sukha' t hat is
best owed by bhagavAn, in addit ion t o including t he or dinar y pleasur es of lif e,
specif ically r ef er s t o t he pEr inbam or t he Supr eme Bliss of moksha, which He
alone can best ow among all t he deit ies.
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar cont inues on t he
int er pr et at ion of t he immediat ely pr eeceding nAma-s descr ibing t he ascent of
t he j I va t o par ama padam, and int er pr et s t he cur r ent nAma as f ollows:
amAnava mukhena spRshTvA sa-vAsanam samsAr amut sAyam,
svApt i sukham dadAt i it i sukha-dah.
"Once t he j I va r eaches t he f inal st ep, bhagavAn r emoves t he last t r aces of
cont act of t he j I va wit h t his wor ld along wit h t he lat ent impr essions, and
conf er s Bliss on t he j I va, and so He is called sukha-dah. The t ouch by t he
amAnava pur usha r emoves all t r aces of associat ion of t he j I va wit h samsAr a,
and t hus pur if ied, t he j I va is led t o par amAt mA."
Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om t he Upanishad:
t at pur ushah amAnavah sa enAn br ahma gamayat i |
esha devayAnah pant hA it i | |
(chAndogya. 5.10.2)
"Fr om t her e (t hr ough t he moon, vidyut et c.), t he amAnava, t he super - human,
t akes him t o par abr ahman. This is known as t he pat h of t he gods."
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s int er pr et at ion is along t he same lines -
t at o mAnavena sva-pAr shadena AnI t Aya vidhvast a-li' nga dehAya
sva- bhakt Aya sva-pAr shada t anu lAbha r Upam sukham dadAt i it sukha-dah.
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b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t wo alt er nat e int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma ' sukha-dah' :
i) He Who best ows happiness on t he r ight eous ones - sukahm dadAt i; or
ii) He Who depr ives t he wicked of t heir happiness - sukham dyat i.
c) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives anot her anubhavam f or t he nAma: sukha-
dah = sukham dyat i - bhagavAn even t akes away t he ' sukham' of His devot ees,
namely t he or dinar y pleasur es of lif e, in or der t o help t he devot ees lose t heir
at t achment t o t he mat er ialist ic pleasur es, and inst ead seek t he higher Bliss of
at t aining Him.
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a also uses an alt er nat e pATham - a-sukha-dah, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn r emoves t he miser y of His devot ees - asukham
dyat i, and so He is called a-sukha-dah.
e) Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat sukham means ' udakam' or ' wat er ' as specif ied in
nighanTu (1.12) - pr obably based on t he r oot khanu - avadhAr aNe - t o dig. So
he int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn being t he Giver of wat er in
t he f or m of wells, r iver s, ponds, et c., f or t he sur vival of all t he beings.
f ) Alt er nat ely, Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he t er m su-kha as a r ef er ence t o
t his body - a well-dug moat , and since bhagavAn has given t his body t o t he
j I va-s, He is su-kha-dah - suvyavast hit a khAt am ca idam Sar I r am j I vebhyo
dadAt i it i su-kha-dah. The Lor d has beaut if ully mixed f lesh and bones wit h
f luids and made a beaut if ul piece of cr eat ion called t he ' body' , and so He is
' su-kha-dah' .
nAma 891. nAma 891. nAma 891. + T7- + T7- + T7- naika naika naika-- -daH daH daH
a) The Giver of many t hings (Lit er ally, The Giver of Not j ust one t hing).
b) He Who is not ` bor n' j ust once, but many t imes (naika-j aH).
naika-dAya namaH.
a) The nAma can be looked at as na-eka-daH. Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his
int er pr et at ion based on t he r ecept ion accor ded t o t he mukt a j I va who is
ar r iving at Sr I vaikunTham. He explains t he nAma as f ollows: ekam dadat i it i
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eka-dAH; t ad-vir uddAh naika-dAH - Those who give only one t hing ar e called
' ekada-s' ; unlike t hese, naikada-s ar e t hose t hat give not j ust one t hing, but
many t hings. The cont ext in which Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma is in
t er ms of t he r ecept ion accor ded t o t he mukt a j I va as he ascends t o par ama
padam. BhagavAn has t housands of celest ials as His at t endant s, who ar e well-
ver sed in t he ar t of giving t o t he mukt a-s, and who best ow count less gar lands,
clot hes, et c., as t he j I va ar r ives. He quot es t he kaushI t akI Upanishad (1.4) in
suppor t :
t am pa' nca-Sat Ani apsar asaH upadhAvant i Sat am mAlA-hast Ah
Sat am a' nj ana-hast AH .t am br ahmAla' nkAr ena ala' nkur vant i.
"Five hundr ed apasar a-s (divine damsels) r ush f or t h t o r eceive t he mukt a. A
hundr ed of t hem have gar lands in t heir hands, and anot her hundr ed have
scent ed oint ment s et c., in t heir hands t o decor at e him..They decor at e him wit h
t he ador nment s of t he Br ahman it self ".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s int er pr et at ion is also t hat He is t he Giver of
many t hings - "na ekam vast u dadAt i, api t u sva-par yant Ani sar vANi vast Uni
dadAt i" - He gives ever yt hing, including Himself .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives a similar int er pr et at ion, namely, t hat
bhagavAn' s nAma ' naika-dah' r ef er s t o His being t he Best ower of all t he f our
pur ushAr t ha-s - dhar ma, ar t ha, kAma and moksha -
bhakt ebhyo na ekAn ar t hAn bahUn eva kAmAn cat ur -var ga
ant ar var t ino dadAt i it i naika-dah.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he pATham ' naika-j ah' - One Who is not bor n j ust once,
but has many bir t hs f or pr ot ect ing dhar ma - dhar ma gupt aye asakRt
j AyamAnat vAt naika-j ah. Not e t hat t he bir t h r ef er r ed t o her e is t o His
incar nat ions out of His own f r ee Will, and not t he bir t hs because of kar ma
t hat t he j I va-s t ake. Lor d kRshNa declar es:
par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAaya ca dushkRt Am |
dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge | | (gI t A 4.8)
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"For t he pr ot ect ion of t he good and also f or t he dest r uct ion of t he wicked, f or
t he est ablishment of dhar ma, I am bor n f r om age t o age".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o Lor d kRshNa' s wor ds in t he pr evious
Slokam of gI t A:
yadA yadA hi dhar masya glAnir -bhavat i bhAr at a |
abhyut t hAnam adhar masya t ad-At mAnam sRj Amyaham | |
(gI t A 4.7)
"Whenever t her e is a decline of Dhar ma, and an upr ising of adhar ma, O
ar j una!, t hen I incar nat e Myself ".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha uses t he pATham, naikaj ah, but gives an ent ir ely
dif f er ent int er pr et at ion - he looks at t he nAma as consist ing of t he upasar ga
' ni' , and t he wor d ka-j a. He int er pr et s t he wor d ka-j a as ' bor n f r om wat er ' ,
namely lot us et c. ke j Ayant i it i kaj Ani kamalAni. He t hen int er pr et s ' ni-kaj A
as a r ef er ence t o Sr I mahA lakshmi, and gives t he meaning t o naikaj ah as "The
Lor d of Sr I mahA Lakshmi". Alt er nat ively, he int er pr et s ' nikaj am' as a
r ef er ence t o t he gar dens or f or est s cont aining lot uses, t ulasi f lower s et c.,
and t hen gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn' s nAma symbolizes t hat He is
ever pr esent in t hese places - nit ar Am kaj Ani yasmin t ad-vanam ni-kaj am,
t at r a bahvo nai-kaj a it i - He Who is pr esent wher e t her e ar e lot s of lot us
f lower s, t ulasi f lower s et c. He quot es:
t ulasI kAnanam yat r a yat r a padma vanAni ca |
vasant i vaishNavA yat r a t at r a sannihit o har iH | |
"Har i is pr esent in t he t ulasi gar dens, in t he f or est s wher e t her e ar e lot us
f lower s, and in places wher e vaishNava-s live".
As his last int er pr et at ion, he gives t he explanat ion of His being bor n many
t imes t hr ough His incar nat ions.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha, anot her AcAr ya of t he dvait a sampr adAya, uses yet
anot her pATham - aneka-dah, but t he meaning he gives is t he same as t he ones
who use t he pATham naika-daH - anekAni bahUni dadAt i it i aneka-daH.anekAni
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bahUni dadAt i it i aneka-daH.
nAma 892. nAma 892. nAma 892. H¤=- H¤=- H¤=- agr a agr a agr a-- -j aH j aH j aH
He Who manif est s in f r ont of t he mukt a-s.
agra-jAya namaH.
agr a means f ir st . agr a-j aH means One Who is bor n f ir st , or exist ed bef or e
ever yt hing - agr e j Ayat a it i agr a-j aH. Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s us t o t he
pur usha sUkt a mant r a - "pUr vo yo devebhyo j At aH; namo r ucAya
br Ahmaye" (yaj ur . 31.20).
Sr I BhaTTar uses t he wor d agr a in t he sense of ' in f r ont ' , and j a in t he sense
of "One who came f or war d". He cont inues t he int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent
nAma along t he lines of t he mukt a j I va' s ar r ival at Sr I vaikunTham. He
explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn coming f or war d, or manif est
Himself , along wit h Sr I or mahA Lakshmi, t o welcome t he mukt a j I va on his
ar r ival at Sr I vaikunTham. His wor ds ar e:
"evam pr Apt AnAm mukt AnAm agr e saha sar veSvar yA Sr iyA yat hA -par ya' nka
vidyam par ama bhogyo j Ayat e it i agr aj ah "
This is descr ibed in t he kaushI t aki Upanishad:
" sa Agacchat i amit auj asam par ya' nkam" it i pr abhRt i |
upaSr I r upabRmhaNam t asmin br ahmAst e, t amit t hamvit pAdenaiva agr e
Ar ohat i, t am br ahma Aha "ko' si" it i" it i pr abhRt i ca | sA yA
br ahmaNi cit iH yA vyashTiH t Am cit im j Ayat i, t Am vyashTi vyaSnut e
it i" it yevamant A hi par ya' nka vidyA |
(kaushI . 1.5, 1.6)
"The mukt a comes near t he dazzlingly lust r ous couch. The Supr eme Br ahman is
seat ed on it wit h Lakshmi beside Him and t he celest ial at t endant s ar ound Him.
The mukt a who has medit at ed on t he Lor d t hus, now r ealizes Him in t his
manner , and climbs on t he couch. The Supr eme Br ahman enquir es about t he
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mukt a. Then t he mukt a acquir es t he knowledge t hat t he Supr eme Br ahman
has. He also enj oys t he Bliss t hat is t hat of Br ahman".
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he explanat ion - agr e j Ayat a it i agr a-j aH - "The Fir st -
Bor n". Ot her int er pr et er s give int er pr et at ions t hat all r ef er t o His having
exist ed bef or e anyt hing else exist ed. Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj r ef er s us
t o Sr I mad bhAgavat am, which descr ibes t hat br ahmA was able t o see Lor d
Sr I man nAr aYaNa and His loka-s pr ior t o st ar t ing his cr eat ion, t hr ough
int ense t apas:
t asmai sva-lokam bhagavAn sabhAj it aH
sandar SayAmAsa par am na yat -par am |
vyapet a samkleSa vimoha sAdhvasam
sva-dRshTavadbhiH abhishTut am | |
(bhAga. 2.9.9)
"Thus wor shipped, Lor d vishNu r evealed t o br ahmA His Abode, Sr I
vaikunTham, t hat is blemishless, above which t her e is not hing super ior , and
which is t he obj ect of medit at ion and pr aise by t he lear ned At ma-j ~nAni-s".
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "The One Who was Fir st -Bor n".
Nat ur ally, ever yt hing came f r om Him alone. That f r om which ever yt hing comes,
in which ever yt hing exist s, and int o which ever yt hing f inally mer ges, is agr a-
j aH.
nAma 893. nAma 893. nAma 893. H|+|4 'T- H|+|4 'T- H|+|4 'T- aa a-- -nir nir nir -- -viNNah viNNah viNNah
a) He Who is not despondent t hat t he j I va-s ar e not r esor t ing t o Him f or
r edempt ion.
b) He Who is r elieved of wor r y af t er having liber at ed a j I va who becomes a
mukt a.
c) He Who is not depr essed because He has not hing t o wish f or .
d) He Who is not t ir ed of f ulf illing t he wishes of His devot ees.
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a-nir-viNNAya namaH.
We st udied t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 47 - nAma 436.
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives t wo r oot s f or der iving t he nAma: vid -
sat t AyAm - t o happen, t o be; and vid - vicAr aNe - t o discuss, t o consider . ni-
is an upasar ga or pr eposit ion t hat is used in many senses, including ' a
collect ion' . nir viNNa means ' despondency, depr ession' . a-nir viNNah r ef er s t o
"One Who does not have any concer ns". Sr I vAsishTha gives t he
int er pr et at ion - nir vedam kshobham kleSam Alasyam vA na pr Apnot i sa a-
nir viNNo vishNuH - He Who does not become despondent , indif f er ent ,
depr essed, lazy, et c., is a-nir viNNah; or , yo na kadAcidapi nir -vedam =
khinnat Am (vir akt at Am) pr Apnot i sa a-nir -viNNah - He Who does not at t ain
depr ession, despair , f r ust r at ion et c., on any account is a-nir -viNNah. The
dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s give dif f er ent anubhavam-s of why He is
wit hout concer ns or wor r ies.
a) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 47, Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat
bhagavAn engages in His act of cr eat ion, and gives bodies t o t he j I va-s, and
gives t hem t he benef it of all pleasur es, hoping t hat t hey will t ur n t o Him f or
r edempt ion. But t he j I va-s cont inue t o r evel in mat er ial pleasur es, and His wish
is not f ulf illed. But He does not become despondent over t his unsuccessf ul
out come, and goes on wit h His next cycle of cr eat ion. This is how t he cycle of
cr eat ion and dest r uct ion go on r epeat edly, and He never gives up or becomes
dispir it ed in t he pr ocess. a-nir viNNaH = an-alasaH - He Who does not become
indolent , lazy, f r ust r at ed, giving up, et c.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr - SOmbAdu ip-pallur uvai ellAm
paDar vit t a vit t A - per iya t ir uvant Adi 18. t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr also r ef er s t o
bhagavAn as "bhakt i uzhavan" in his nAnmugan t ir uvant Adi 23 - BhagavAn t r ies
t o inculcat e bhakt i even in t hose who have gone away f r om Him, wit hout giving
up, even as a f ar mer keeps cult ivat ing his land no mat t er whet her he get
r esult s out of f ir st ef f or t or not .
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion
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t hat bhagavAn ' ceases t o be concer ned - because he is r elieved' , and so He is
a-nir viNNah - devoid of concer n. This int er pr et at ion is a cont inuat ion of his
int er pr et at ions of t he pr evious nAma-s st ar t ing wit h vihAyasa-gat ih (nAma
880), descr ibing t he pat h t aken by t he r eleased soul - mukt a j I va, t o Sr I
vaikunTham. Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn is at last r elieved t hat His
devot ee - t he mukt a, has ar r ived saf ely at Sr I vaikunTham, and has been
unit ed wit h Him. Unt il t his t ime, t his j I va as an obj ect of compassion f or
bhagavAn, who keeps wor r ying about whet her t his j I va will use his lif e t o
become f r ee of his kar ma-s and move t owar ds Him. Now t hat t his j I va has
become a mukt a - a r eleased soul, bhagavAn does not have wor r ies about t his
j I va any mor e.
Sr I BhaTTar give t he example of how r elieved Lor d r Ama was, once He
cr owned vibhI shaNa as King of la' nkA. He had given His wor d t o vibhI shaNa
t o cr own him as t he king of Sr I la' nkA, and unt il t he t ime of cor onat ion of
vibhI shaNa, Lor d r Ama f elt t hat He had a wor d t hat He st ill had t o f ulf ill.
Af t er t he cor onat ion, He f elt r elieved as One who had f ulf illed His dut y at last
- kRt akRt yas-t adA r Amo vi- j var aH pr amumoda ha - (bAla kANDam 1.85).
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an comment s t hat in t he ver y f ir st pASur am of t ir uvAimozhi,
t he t er m "t uyar aRu SuDar aDi", was enj oyed by emper umAnAr as "t uyar aRum
SuDar aDi" - t he Lot us Feet t hat became f r ee of t uyar or sor r ow, because He
had blessed AzhvAr wit h "mayar vaRa madi nalam" - t he int ense j ~nAna and
bhakt i t hat ar e f r ee f r om any f laws or def iciency.
c) Sr i Sa' nkar a explains t hat bhagavAn is ' not depr essed - a- nir viNNaH' ,
because He has not hing t o be depr essed about , since He has all His desir es
f ulf illed, and He has not hing mor e t o at t ain - avApt a sar va kAmat vAt ,
apr Apt a het yabhAvAt , nir vedaH asya na vidyat a it i a-nir viNNaH.
Sr I cinmAyananda r ef er s us t o t he gI t A Slokam 3.22:
na me pAr t ha ast i kar t avyam t r ishu lokeshu ki' ncana |
nAnavApt am avApt avyam var t a eva ca kar maNi | |
(gI t A 3.22)
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"For Me, ar j una, t her e is not hing in all t he t hr ee wor lds which ought t o be
done, nor is t her e anyt hing not acquir ed t hat ought t o be acquir ed. Yet I go on
wor king".
d) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r i gives anot her view - BhagavAn never get s t ir ed
of f ulf illing t he desir es of His devot ees, and so also He is a- nir viNNah - One
Who does not get exhaust ed, negligent , lazy, et c., in f ulf illing His devot ees'
desir es.
The same explanat ion is given by Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj - na nir vindat i
kadApi svaj ana kAmanApr amapar A pUr t ishu it i a-nir viNNaH.
Sr I vAsishTha and Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i bot h not e t hat nir viNNa -
vir akt i - f r ust r at ion, despondency, et c., ar e char act er ist ics of t hose who keep
changing const ant ly, or f or t hose who can' t get enough of what t hey want , or
not sat isf ied wit h what t hey get . All of t hese happen because of t he ef f ect s
of pUr va-j anma kar mA. None of t hese is an issue f or bhagavAn - He has no
bir t h and no kar ma, He is never - changing, He has ever yt hing He want s, and can
get anyt hing He want s at His will. So He is beyond being dissat isf ied,
f r ust r at ed et c. He is f ull of Bliss, br ahmAnanda svar Upan. BhagavAn' s
cr eat ions ar e changing const ant ly, and ar e suf f er ing f r om t heir kar ma-s, and
so t hey under go nir viNNa, but He Himself is beyond all t hese, and so He is a-
nir viNNaH.
nAma 894. nAma 894. nAma 894. B7lP9l B7lP9l B7lP9l sadA sadA sadA-- -mar shI mar shI mar shI
a) He Who is ever pat ient (sadA _ mar shI ).
b) He Who is pat ient t owar ds t he mist akes of good people (sat +A+mar shI ).
c) He Who is ext r emely impat ient wit h t he wicked people (sadA + Amar shI ).
sadA-marshiNe namah.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is mRsha - t it ikshAyAm - t o suf f er ,
t o allow, t o par don.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his descr ipt ion of t he ar r ival of t he mukt a j I va in Sr I
vaikunTham. He enj oys t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s t r ait of helping t he
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mukt a j I va in per f or ming kainkar yam t o Him once he is in Sr I vaikunTham. The
' pat ience' aspect comes in since bhagavAn pat ient ly accept s, wit h pleasur e, all
kainkar yam of f er ed t o Him by t he mukt a. What ever kainkar yam t he mukt a
wishes t o per f or m t o bhagavAn out of his int ense love and bhakt i t o t he Lor d,
He will accept it wit h a sweet disposit ion, even if it is not a kainkar yam t hat He
needs.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 10.8.10:
uRREn ugandu paNi Seidu una pAdam peRREn, EdE innam vENDuvadu ent Ai ..
"Oh Lor d! I t was given t o me t o enj oy Your Lot us f eet . The kainkar yam (in t his
case, t he singing of t ir uvAimozhi by AzhvAr ) was per f or med wit h an ar dor
t hat led t o t he enj oyment of Your Lot us f eet . This enj oyment of Divine f eet is
what I would r equest f or all t ime".
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - sat aH sAdhUn Abhimukhyena
mRshyat e kshamat a it i sadA-mar shI - He Who always f or gives, especially if
t he good men commit any apar Adham unint ent ionally. Sr I Sa' nkar a looks at
t he nAma as sat + A + mar shI , ' sat ' r ef er r ing t o t he ' good people' . (Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i). The pr ef ix A is used in some inst ances t o signif y "f r om
all sides" (Sr I vAman Apt e' s dict ionar y).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj echoes t he same t hought s - sat aH sAdhUn A
samant At masr shit um Seelam yasya it i sad-A-mar shI .
Sr I SAst r i r ef er s us t o Sr I mad r AmAyaNam in suppor t :
kat ha' ncit upakAr eNa kRt ena ekena t ushyat i |
na smar at i apar akAr ANAm Sat amapi At mavat t ayA | |
(ayodhyA. 1.11)
"Lor d r Ama is int ensely pleased wit h even a single act , even minor , t hat is
per f or med t owar ds Him; On t he cont r ar y, He does not even keep it in His mind
even if a hundr ed act s ar e commit t ed t hat ar e unhelpf ul t o Him, out of His
sheer nat ur e".
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha gives suppor t f r om t he Rg veda, illust r at ing t he
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ext r eme pat ience of bhagavAn:
nAkshas-t apyat e bhUr i bhAr aH
(Rg. 1.164.13)
"The axle of t he wheel t hat suppor t s all t he living cr eat ur es never becomes
over -heat ed, and is never br oken".
c) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha der ives t he exact opposit e meaning f or t he t er m
sadAmar shI , based on looking at t he nAma as "sadA + Amar shaH" (inst ead of
sadA + mar shaH) - sadA Amar shaH kopo dait yeshu asya ast i it i sadAmar shI -
He Who is ext r emely impat ient wit h t he evil people, t he demons. I n samskRt ,
t he pr ef ix A is somet imes used t o give t he opposit e meaning of t he ver b it is
associat ed wit h (e.g., gam - t o go, Agama - t o come). So also, mar shI - One
who is pat ient , A- mar shI - One who is angr y or impat ient . Sr I Apt e gives t he
meaning "anger " t o t he wor d "Amar shaH" in his dict ionar y.
nAma 895. nAma 895. nAma 895. ¬l T|¤Ul+P ¬l T|¤Ul+P ¬l T|¤Ul+P lokAdhishThAnam lokAdhishThAnam lokAdhishThAnam
The Suppor t of all t he wor lds.
lokAdhishThAnAya namaH.
The r oot wor d f or t he nAma is st hA - gat i nivRt t au - t o st and, t o be. adhi is a
pr ef ix, which means ' pr incipal, chief , supr eme' in t he cur r ent cont ext . ' loka'
r ef er s t o t he wor lds. He Who is t he Pr incipal Suppor t f or all t he wor lds is
"loka adhi-sThAnam" - lokasya adhishThAnam lokAdhishThAnam.
I n cont inuat ion of his anubhavam of t he pr evious nAma-s in t er ms of t he mukt a
j I va' s ar r ival at Sr I vaikunTham, Sr I BhaTTar specif ically r ef er s t o bhagavAn
being t he Suppor t of t he wor ld t hat t he mukt a j I va enj oys, namely t he wor ld
of bhagavAn' s nit ya vibhUt i.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes similar t hought s - lokAnAm svAnt ikam
Agat AnAm svaj anAnAm nit yam ASr yat vAt lokAdhishThAnam - He is t he f inal
r est ing place and Abode f or t hose who have r eached t he end of t heir j our ney
and r eached Him.
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Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi: ...
SAi koNDa immaiyum SAdit t u vAnavar nATTaiyum nI kaNDu koL enRu vI Dum
t ar um ninRu ninRE.
(t ir uvAi. 3.9.9).
"He gives all mundane pr osper it y. Then He t akes us t o vaikunTham, and t ells us:
"This is your house. Take it ". We t hen become owner s of vaikunTham.".
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives sever al suppor t s f r om t he Sr ut i:
t asminnAt hast hur -bhuvanAni viSvA
(Rg. 1.164.13)
Rco akshar e par ame vyoman yasmin devA adhi viSve nisheduH
(Rg. 1.164.39)
yasminnidam sam ca vicait i sar vam
(t ait . Ar aN. 10.1.1)
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives addit ional suppor t :
yasmin viSvAni bhuvanAni t ast huH
(yaj ur . 17.30)
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion - t am anAdhAr am adhishThAya t r ayo
lokAH t ishThant i lokAdhisThAnam - The t hr ee wor lds r est in Him as Suppor t ,
even t hough He Himself needs no suppor t .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat He is t he Suppor t f or t he wor ld in t he
f or ms of His kUr ma and var Aha incar nat ions, and in t he f or m of AdiSesha.
nAma 896. nAma 896. nAma 896. HT‚ 6- HT‚ 6- HT‚ 6- adbhut ah adbhut ah adbhut ah
a) He Who is ext r emely wonder f ul.
b) He Who makes appear ances occasionally amongst us.
c) He because of Whom gr ains, f ood et c. exist (Adyam = gr ains).
adbhutAya namaH.
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Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he nAma using t he r oot bhU - t o be, and
t he uNAdi sUt r a 5.1 (adi bhuvo dut ac). ' ad' is an indeclinable meaning
' occasionally' or ' sudden' . The t er m ' adbhut a' also means ' AScar ya' -
wonder f ul.
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of His being "I nsat iable" - He is
always delight f ul t o enj oy, no mat t er how much we have enj oyed Him. He is a
sour ce of wonder always, as if unseen bef or e - sar vadA sar vaiH sar vat hA
anubhave' pi apUr vavat at i- vismayanI yaH.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN capt ur es t he spir it of t he int er pr et at ion t hr ough
t he f ollowing wor ds - "vicit r aiH pr at ikshaNam nI t anaiH guNa r Upa car it aiH
t aiH t eshAm vismaya kar aNAt adbhut aH" - He makes His devot ees - t he
mukt a-s enj oy Him ever y second in gr eat wonder and amazement , by
expr essing His guNa, r Upa, et c. t hr ough numer ous act s t hat give pleasur e t o
t hem.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives suppor t f r om divya pr abandham:
paNDu ivar aik kaNDu aRivadu evvUr il yAm
(per iya t ir umozhi 8.1.9)
"Wher e did I see Him ear lier ? I n what divya kshet r am?
Or , have I not seen Him bef or e anywher e?"
innAr enRu aRiyEn; annE! AzhiyoDum pon Ar Sa' ngam uDaiya
aDigaLai innAr enRu aRiyEn
(per iya t ir umozhi 10.10.9)
"My mot her ! I am unable t o ident if y Him Who has t he divine cakr a in His hand,
and also t he golden hued bow by name Sar ' ngam. I j ust can' t def ine Him."
aRpudan nAr AyaNan, ar i, vAmanan
niRpadu mEvi ir uppadu en ne' nj agam..........
(t ir uvAi. 8.6.10)
"Lor d nAr AyaNa who delight s in per f or ming wonder f ul act s"
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adbhut a cEshTit angaLai uDaiya en appan.
What ar e His ' adbhut a cEshTit a' ngaL' - His wonder f ul act s? He helps not only
His devot ees but also His enemies. He t akes incar nat ions and assumes all kinds
of f or ms including t hat of a boar , a t or t oise, or anyt hing at all, t o make sur e
He helps His devot ees, and He gives us delight beyond measur e when He get t o
enj oy Him. He comes as a dwar f vAmana, and t hen r ises t o all t he t hr ee
wor lds; and while He st ands spr eading over all t he wor lds t hus, He at t he same
t ime is occupying a seat in my hear t . Such is t he nat ur e of His adbhut a
ceshTit a' ngaL.

adbhut Aya namaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives suppor t f r om t he Upanishad and f r om bhagavad gI t A:
kaThopanishad: (kaTho. 2.7)
Sr avaNAyApi bahubhir -yo na labhyaH SRNvant o' pi bahavo yam na vidyuH |
AScar yo vakt A kuSalo' sya labdhA AScar yo j ~nAt A kuSalAnuSishTaH | |
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287

"The Supr eme Self is such t hat He is not gained by many f or t he mer e hear ing,
and not known by many even while hear ing. Rar e is an expounder of Him, and
r ar e is an able at t ainer , and r ar e is he who knows Him under t he inst r uct ion of
an adept t eacher ".
Sr I cinmayAnanada summar izes t he message as: "He, and t he t eacher who
t eaches of Him, and even t he st udent who gr asps Him ar e all ' wonder s' ".
Bhagavad gI t A:
AScar yavat paSyat i kaScidenam AScar yavat vadat i t at haiva cAnyaH |
AScar yavac-cainam anyaH SRNot i Sr ut vApyenam vada ca caiva kaScit | |
(gI t A 2.29)
"One looks upon t his self as a wonder ; likewise, anot her speaks of I t as a
wonder ; st ill anot her hear s of I t as a wonder ; and even af t er hear ing of I t ,
one knows I t not ".
The message of bot h passages is ident ical.
b) Sr I vAsishTha gives t he meaning: ad = kadAcit bhavat i it i adbhut am - He
Who occasionally appear s, is adbhut am. sannapi a- bhUt am iva it i ar t hah -
Being pr esent , He is not pr esent at t he same t ime. While bhagavAn exist s
amongst us all t he while, we ar e oblivious t o t his f act , and mor e or less live in a
st at e wher e He does not exist f or us. This is signif ied by t he nAma
' adbhut aH' .
c) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as "Adyam = bhogyam annAdikam
bhavat i asmAt it i adbhut am" - "He because of whom gr ains and f ood exist f or
sust aining lif e, is adbhut aH". (The t er m Adyam r ef er s t o gr ains, f ood et c.).

(TO BE CONTINUED IN VOLUME V)
dAsan KRshNamAcAr yan

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