Lecture 6--The Engineer's Transit and Theodolite | Surveying | Equipment


The Engineer’s Transit and Theodolite
Lecture 6 GE10: General Surveying I I. Engineer’s Transit I. Main Parts
I. Upper Plate II. Lower Plate III. Leveling Head Assembly II. Setting up the transit III. Leveling of the Transit IV. Care of the Transit II. Theodolite I. Types of Theodolite I. Repeating Theodolite II. Directional Theodolite III. Digital Theodolite II. Main Parts III. Setting up the theodolite

Department of Geodetic Engineering University of the Philippines, Diliman

Engineer’s Transit
Credited to Roemer, a Danish Astronomer, who in 1690 used the instrument to observe the passage (transit) of stars across the celestial meridian Essentially a telescope and two large protractors 1 protractor mounted in the horizontal plane and the other in a vertical plane An instrument of precision

Main Parts
1. Upper Plate (or Alidade) 2. Lower Plate 3. Leveling Head Assembly

Main Parts of the Engineer’s Transit

Parts of the Engineer’s Transit


Hold into position the horizontal axle level 2. TELESCOPE Used for: 1.11/24/2011 I. Upper Plate 3. Allow rough checks on measured angles Magnetic needle can be lifted from its pivot by the needle lifter I. Upper Plate 1. COMPASS BOX Used to: 1. Elevate or depress the telescope by rotating on an axis perpendicular to the LOS I. Upper Plate 4. PLATE LEVEL VIALS Positioned at right angles to each other Used to establish the upper and lower plates in a horizontal plane I. VERTICAL CIRCLE Attached to the telescope and rotates with it Used to measure vertical angles 2 . Upper Plate 5. Viewing the objects 3. Establish magnetic meridian 2. Upper Plate 2. Magnification in the FOV Can be rotated about its horizontal axis Direct position => level vial is above the telescope Reversed position => level vial is below the telescope I. Upper Plate Consists of the entire top of the transit Entire assembly rotates about a vertical axis Contains the ff: vertical circle and vernier standards: supports the telescope and level tube compass box circular cover plate and plate level vials upper clamp tangent screw needle lifter I. STANDARDS Integral parts of the upper plate Used to: 1. Fixing the direction of LOS 2.

it causes the upper and lower plates to lock together Most have round heads and usually turn in the direction tangent to the motion they control I.k. vertical circle tangent screw Enables the telescope to be rotated in small movements about the horizontal axis when the telescope clamp is tightened Useful when setting the cross hairs precisely on a distant point sighted I. Upper Plate 10. Upper Plate 6.a. Upper Plate 8.TELESCOPE TANGENT SCREW a. Upper Plate 9. Lower Plate Or horizontal circle Where horizontal angles are measured Graduated on its upper face and divided around its circumference into 360o and further subdivisions Can be held stationary while the upper plate is rotated or can be rotated independently As one unit. Upper Plate 7. can be rotated also with the upper plate The underside is attached to a vertical and tapering spindle called the outer spindle 3 .11/24/2011 I. OPTICAL PLUMMET Small telescope thru the vertical center of the transit Enables the instrument to be centered over a given point quickly and precisely by means of an optical system II. TELESCOPE CLAMP Tightened to hold the telescope horizontal or at any desired inclination Located near the horizontal axle of the transit I. UPPER CLAMP A locking device When tightened. PLATE VERNIERS Two opposite verniers (A & B) A vernier is adjacent to the eyepiece where it is easily used B vernier is 180o from A vernier I.

PLUMB BOB CHAIN Chain with a hook: Suspended from the bottom part of the leveling head assembly Hangs between the tripod legs Used for attaching a string an a plumb bob so that the instrument may be set exactly over the selected point on the ground Plumb bob string always hang vertical due to gravity SETTING UP THE TRANSIT 4 . LEVELING SCREWS Used for leveling the instrument by the plate levels Operate in pairs and always turned in opposite directions Screws are loosened when desired to shift transit laterally with respect to the foot plate III. Lower Plate 2.11/24/2011 II. LOWER CLAMP Attached to the horizontal circle Does not rotate with the horizontal circle Used to control the rotation of the horizontal circle Stops any motion between the leveling head and the lower plate II. 4. Leveling Head Assembly 1. LOWER TANGENT SCREW Used to make precise settings after the lower clamp is tightened It moves the lower plate to a desired exact position using a small range of movement III. Leveling Head Assembly 2. Lower Plate 1. Leveling Head Assembly Lower part of the transit Allows the transit to be leveled and centered over a point Consists of: 1. 2. bottom horizontal foot plate 4 leveling screws plumb bob chain a device that permits small lateral movements of transit III. 3.

On fairly level ground: tripod is set up near and over the selected point with the legs well spread apart to ensure stability see to it that the tripod head is nearly stable 2. FINAL CENTERING See to it that the wing nuts of the tripod is tightened Shift the leveling head of the transit along the foot plate to exactly center the plumb bob Use the optical plummet if available for accurate centering: look at the optical plummet shift the instrument until the reticle is precisely centered on the ground point LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE LEVELING OF THE TRANSIT 5 . With one hand. On hillsides or along a slope: 1 of its legs should extend uphill and the 2 downhill each tripod leg is then moved as required to make the tripod head nearly level 3.5 cm above the ground point Bring the plumb bob close to the center of the point by moving or pressing 1 or 2 tripod legs more firmly into the ground 4. 4.11/24/2011 1. POSITIONING THE TRIPOD 1. ATTACHING THE PLUMB BOB Plumb bob and a string is attached to the transit by suspending it from the hook and chain that hangs at the bottom of the leveling head. Remove the objective cap and replace with the sunshade 2. Set the tripod in a convenient height (no need to stretch or stoop) 3. MOUNTING THE TRIPOD 1. Remove the transit from its carrying case by grasping it with both hands at the leveling head assembly or at the upright standards 2. The transit should fit snugly and bear firmly. screw the leveling head of the transit and firmly onto the tripod head while holding the standards at the other hand 3. Raise or lower the plumb bob using the sliding loopknot Lower down the plumb bob within about 0.

Repeat the previous steps so that all bubble tubes are leveled in every direction. playing children. boulders. 11.It should never be left unattended because it may be upset by passing vehicles. There is danger of striking the instrument against any obstructions 6 . Store the transit in its carrying case when not in use 2. stray animals. Protect the instrument at all times from any shock or sudden jolt never allow the instrument to fall or drop CARE OF THE TRANSIT 7. Remove the transit from the tripod and carry it in its box when transporting in a vehicle or over a long walking distance 3. 8. Carrying it inside a building 2. 10. dry it off with absorbent cloth or preferably in sunlight 4. and steel plates 6.11/24/2011 LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE 1. wind or maybe stolen. 6. CARE OF THE TRANSIT CARE OF THE TRANSIT 1. If it becomes went or damp. Rotate through 180o so that end A of the bubble tube is on line with level screw . The objective lens should not be wiped as it is easily scratched clean it by rubbing gently with a piece of soft cloth moistened in alcohol or with a piece of lens paper finish off with a camel’s hair brush CARE OF THE TRANSIT 5. Tripod shoes should be sunk firmly to the ground. The bubble is centered by rotating screws 1 and 2 in opposite directions the rotations (see figure) will cause the bubble to move from left to right 2. Hold the transit in the arms with the tripod sticking out to the side or behind NOT on the shoulder do this when: 1. 9. Center the bubble in this position by rotating this remaining screw 4.Avoid setting the transit on concrete slabs. Return to the original position and check centering of the bubble. Next. The rotation indicated in the figure will cause the bubble to move away from level screw 3 LEVELING THE PLATE LEVEL BUBBLE 5. The transit should be lifted from the carrying case by grasping the standards and NOT by the telescope. Tripod legs should be spread apart to make it stable. 7. rotate the instrument so that the one end of the bubble tube is aligned with the remaining screw 3.

This will tarnish their surfaces.A waterproof cover for the transit should always be brought along in case of rains.Tighten clamps in a definite and firm manner. 14. 15. LC = where: s n LC = Least Count s = value of the smallest division on the main scale n = no.Tarnished surfaces should are cleaned by applying a thin film of oil which is left for a few hours and then wiped off with a soft clean rag. there will always be 2 coincident line 1 for a CW angle & the other for a CCW angle The index mark of the vernier will show the number of degrees or fractional part of a degree (usually in multiples of 30. 13.11/24/2011 CARE OF THE TRANSIT 12. READING TRANSIT VERNIERS MAIN SCALE AND VERNIER MAIN SCALE AND VERNIER LEAST COUNT Fineness of reading of the vernier and main scale Determine by dividing the length of the smallest division on the main scale by the total number of vernier divisions. showers and thunderstorms.Graduated circles and verniers should not be touched with the fingers. 15 or 10 min) passed over on the main scale Additional fractional parts of a degree (to be added to the main scale reading) are to be determined from the coincident graduation on the vernier 7 . not too severe. of divisions on the vernier MAIN SCALE AND VERNIER LEAST COUNT (Example) READING TRANSIT VERNIERS A horizontal or vertical angle is read by finding the graduation on the vernier scale which coincides with a graduation on the main (circle) scale used In case of double vernier. 20.

the name theodolite was retained. designed and built in England in about 1725. Directional Theodolite: Horizontal circle remains fixed during a series of observations Telescope is sighted on each of the points and directions rather than angles to these points are read on the circle Required horizontal angle is determined by calculating the difference of two observed directions A reading on a directional theodolite represents the mean of two diametrically opposed sides of the circle. Repeating Theodolite: can measure a horizontal angle as many times as required by adding them successively on the graduated circle capable of accumulating angles on its horizontal circle by means of its upper and lower motions horizontal scales may allow horizontal angles to be read directly to 10 sec or 20 sec. In Europe. It is equivalent to averaging the readings of the A and B verniers of a transit. Types of Theodolite 3.11/24/2011 READING TRANSIT VERNIERS Theodolite The name given to the earliest version of a device to measure angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Repeating Theodolite 2. although this capability was included in an instrument called transiting theodolite. 8 . s = 30 min LC = 30 min/30 Readings: CW: 178o30’+12’ = 178o42’ CCW: 181o00’+18’ = 181o18’ n = 30 LC = 1 min Check: 178o42’+ 181o18’ = 360o Types of Theodolite 1. Theodolite in the 1800’s were not capable of the ability to be transited or turned 1800 about its horizontal axis. in the United States the term transit was kept. Types of Theodolite 2. Digital Theodolite: Resembles very closely a standard theodolite since horizontal and vertical angles in a survey are measured in a similar manner. It can be combined with an EDM instrument and microcomputer to assemble into what is called a total station instrument or an electronic tachoemeter. Directional Theodolite 3. Digital Theodolite Types of Theodolite 1.

T2) Reading: = 94010’ + 02’44.4” is estimated 9 .4” = 94012’44.11/24/2011 Parts of a Theodolite Parts of a Theodolite Parts of a Theodolite Parts of a Theodolite Reading Microscope Adjustable mirror to illuminate vertical circle Adjustable mirror to illuminate vertical circle Clamping screw for vertical circle Clamping screw for vertical circle Inverter knob Horizontal Tangent Screw Vertical circle tangent screw Vertical circle tangent screw Horizontal Clamp Horizontal Clamp Parts of a Theodolite (Wild T2) Horizontal Circle Reading (Wild Theodolite.4” where 0.

et. USA: McGraw-Hill. Inc.E. Elementary Surveying. R. T2) References: Davis. J.P. La Putt.11/24/2011 Horizontal Circle Reading (Wild Theodolite. Surveying: Theory and Practice. (2007). THANK YOU ☺ 10 .. Philippines: National Book Store. al (1981).

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