1

EC0322 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL
COMMUNICATION LAB

LABORATORY MANUAL


SEMESTER VI

























DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SRM UNIVERISTY
(Under SECTION 3 of the UGC Act, 1956)
S.R.M. NAGAR, KATTANKULATHUR – 603203.
KANCHEEPURAM DISTRICT

2





Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering




EC0322 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL
COMMUNICATION LAB



Laboratory Manual



Course Team

Mrs. S. Vasantha Dev Suryakala
Mrs. M. Sangeetha
Mrs. P. Aruna Priya
Mrs P. Malarvizhi
Mr. R. Ramesh
Dr. Shanthi prince


January 2011

Revision: 1

3


L T P C
EC0322 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL
COMMUNICATION LAB
0 0 3 2
Prerequisite : nil



PURPOSE
To know and understand how communication is being established at microwave frequencies
and using fiber in optical communication.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
1. To have a detailed practical study on microwave equipments
2. To study the optical devices and to use in the appropriate application

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

MICROWAVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Characteristics of Reflex Klystron
2. Study of power distribution in Directional coupler, E & H plane and Magic tee.
3. Wavelength and Frequency measurement.
4. Impedance measurement by slotted line method.
5. Gain and Radiation pattern of Horn antenna.
6. Design of Micro strip antenna.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION EXPERIMENTS

1. D. C. Characteristics of LED and PIN photo diode.
2. D. C. Characteristics of Laser diode.
3. Measurement of Numerical aperture, Propagation and Bending Loss in fiber.
4. Fiber Optic Analog Link.
5. Fiber Optic Digital Link.

SPICE SIMULATION
1. Frequency response of RF amplifier.
2. Frequency response of IF amplifier.
3. Amplitude modulation
TOTAL 45


REFERENCE: 1) Laboratory Manual, ECE Department, SRM University.
2) Basic Microwave Techniques and Laboratory Manual by Sisodia and
Raghuvanshi







4

EC0322 – Microwave and Optical Communication Lab

Course designed by Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
1 Program
outcome
a B c d e f g h i j k
x x x
2 Category General
(G)
Basic
Sciences
(B)
Engineering
Sciences and
Technical Arts(E)
Professional
Subjects(P)
x
3
Broad area (for
‘P’category)
Communication
Signal
Processing
Electronics VLSI Embedded
x
4 Staff responsible for
preparing the syllabus Mrs.Shanthi Prince
Mrs.Neelaveni ammal Mrs.J.Manjula
5 Date of preparation
December 2006





























5
S.R.M University
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Sub Code : EC0322 Semester : VI
Sub Title : Microwave and Optical Communication Lab Course Time : Jan–May’11

Pre_requisite : NIL
Co_requisite : EC0302 Microwave and RF Design
EC0304 Optical Communication and Networks

Program Outcome

c. Graduate will demonstrate the ability to design and conduct experiments, analyze and
interpret data.

Experiment 1:Characteristics of Reflex Klystron

Experiment 2: Study of Power distribution in Directional coupler,

Experiment 3:Study of Power distribution in E&H Plane Tee

Experiment 4: Study of Power distribution in Magic Tee

Experiment 5: i) Wavelength and frequency measurement
ii)Impedance measurement by slotted line method

Experiment 6: Gain and radiation pattern of Horn antenna.

Experiment 7: Design of Micro strip antenna


d .Graduates will demonstrate the ability to design a system, component or process as per
needs and specifications

Experiment11:Setting up of Fiber Optic Analog link

Experiment 12:Setting up of Fiber Optic Digital link


f .Graduate will demonstrate the skills to use modern engineering tools, software’s and
equipment to analyze problems.

Experiment 13:Frequency response of RF amplifier

Experiment 14:Frequency response of IF amplifier







6
Sub Code : EC0322 Semester : VI
Sub Title : Microwave and Optical Communication Lab Course Time : Jan–May’11

Pre_requisite : NIL
Co_requisite : EC0302 Microwave and RF Design.
EC0304 Optical Communication and Networks

Program Educational Objectives vs Program Outcome

Program
Outcomes
Program Educational Objectives

1. To prepare
students to
compete for a
successful career
in their chosen
profession
through global
education
standards.


2. To enable the
students to aptly
to apply their
acquired
knowledge in
basic sciences
and mathematics
in solving
engineering
problems.
3. To produce
skill full
graduates to
analyze, design
and develop a
system/compone
nt/process for the
required needs
under the realistic
constraints.
4.To train the
students to
approach
ethically any
multidisciplinar
y engineering
challenges with
economic,
environmental
and social
contexts
5. To create an
awareness
among students
about the need
for life long
learning to
succeed in their
professional
career.
c. Graduate
will
demonstrate
the ability to
design and
conduct
experiments,
analyze and
interpret data

X X









d. Graduate
will
demonstrate
the ability to
design a
system,
component or
process as per
needs and
specification


X X X

f.Graduate will
demonstrate
the skills to
use modern
engineering
tools,
software’s and
equipment to
analyze
problems

X X







7
Sub Code : EC0322 Semester : VI
Sub Title : Microwave and Optical Communication Lab Course Time : Jan– May’11

Pre Requisite : Nil
Course Requisite : EC0302 Microwave and RF Design
EC0304 Optical Communication And Networks

Instructional Objective and Program Outcome


S.No. Instructional
Objective
Program Outcome Experiment Details
1 To have a detailed
practical study of
microwave
equipments

c. Graduate will
demonstrate the
ability to design and
conduct experiments,
analyze and interpret
data

Experiment 1:Characteristics of Reflex
Klystron
Experiment 2: Study of Power
distribution in Directional coupler,
Experiment 3:Study of Power
distribution in E&H Plane Tee
Experiment 4: Study of Power
distribution in Magic Tee
Experiment 5: i) Wavelength and
frequency measurement
ii)Impedance
measurement by slotted line method
Experiment 6: Gain and radiation
pattern of Horn antenna.
Experiment 7: Design of Micro strip
antenna

2 To study the optical
devices and to use in
the appropriate
application
c. Graduate will
demonstrate the
ability to design and
conduct experiments,
analyze and interpret
data

d Graduates will
demonstrate the
ability to design a
system, component or
process as per needs
and specifications

f Graduate will
demonstrate the skills
to use modern
engineering tools,
software’s and
equipment to analyze
problems.
Experiment 8: DC Characteristics of
LED and PIN Photodiode
Experiment 9: DC Characteristics of
Laser diode
Experiment10:Measurement of
Numerical aperture, propagation and
bending loss in fiber

Experiment11:Setting up of Fiber Optic
Analog link

Experiment 12:Setting up of Fiber Optic
Digital link


Experiment 13:Frequency response of
RF amplifier
Experiment 14:Frequency response of
IF amplifier






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EC0322 Laboratory Policies and Report Format

Reports are due at the beginning of the lab period. The reports are intended to be a complete
documentation of the work done in preparation for and during the lab. The prelab and postlab
report format is as follows:
1. A neat thorough prelab must be presented to your Staff Incharge at the beginning of your
scheduled lab period. Lab reports should be submitted on A4 paper. Your report is a
professional presentation of your work in the lab. Neatness, organization, and
completeness will be rewarded. Points will be deducted for any part that is not clear.
2. In this laboratory students will work in teams of three. However, the lab reports will be
written individually. Please use the following format for your lab reports.
a. Cover Page: Include your name, Subject Code, Section No., Experiment No. and
Date.
b.Objectives: Enumerate 3 or 4 of the topics that you think the lab will teach you.
DO NOT REPEAT the wording in the lab manual procedures. There should be one or
two sentences per objective. Remember, you should write about what you will learn,
not what you will do.
c.Design: This part contains all the steps required to arrive at your final circuit. This
should include diagrams, tables, equations, explanations, etc. Be sure to reproduce
any tables you completed for the lab. This section should also include a clear
written description of your design process. Simply including a circuit schematic is
not sufficient.
d. Questions: Specific questions (Prelab and Postlab) asked in the lab should be
answered here. Retype the questions presented in the lab and then formally answer
them.
3. Your work must be original and prepared independently. However, if you need any
guidance or have any questions or problems, please do not hesitate to approach your staff
incharge during office hours. Copying any prelab/postlab will result in a grade of 0. The
incident will be formally reported to the University and the students should follow the
dress code in the Lab session.
4. Each laboratory exercise (circuit) must be completed and demonstrated to your Staff
Incharge in order to receive working circuit credit. This is the procedure to follow:
a) Circuit works: If the circuit works during the lab period (3 hours), call your staff
incharge, and he/she will sign and date it.. This is the end of this lab, and you will get
a complete grade for this portion of the lab.
b) Circuit does not work: If the circuit does not work, you must make use of the open
times for the lab room to complete your circuit. When your circuit is ready, contact
your staff incharge to set up a time when the two of you can meet to check your
circuit.
5. Attendance at your regularly scheduled lab period is required. An unexpected absence
will result in loss of credit for your lab. If for valid reason a student misses a lab, or
makes a reasonable request in advance of the class meeting, it is permissible for the
student to do the lab in a different section later in the week if approved by the staff
incharge of both the sections. Habitually late students (i.e., students late more than 15

9
minutes more than once) will receive 10 point reductions in their grades for each
occurrence following the first.

6. Final grade in this course will be based on laboratory assignments. All labs have an equal
weight in the final grade. Grading will be based on pre-lab work, laboratory reports, post-
lab and in-lab performance (i.e., completing lab, answering laboratory related questions,
etc.,).The Staff Incharge will ask pertinent questions to individual members of a team at
random. Labs will be graded as per the following grading policy:
Pre-Lab Work 20.00%
In-Lab Performance 30.00%
Post Lab Work 20.00%
Laboratory Report 30.00%
7. Reports Due Dates: Reports are due one week after completion of the corresponding lab.
8. Systems of Tests: Regular laboratory class work over the full semester will carry a
weightage of 75%. The remaining 25% weightage will be given by conducting an end
semester practical examination for every individual student if possible or by conducting a
1 to 1 ½ hours duration common written test for all students, based on all the experiment
carried out in the semester.
9. Precautions:
Microwave experiments
a) During operation of Klystron, repeller does not carry any current and as such it
may severely be damaged by electron bombardment. To protect repeller from such
damage, the repeller negative voltage is always applied before anode voltage.
b) The repeller voltage should be varied in one direction to avoid hysteresis.
c) The heater voltage should be applied first and cooling should be provided
simultaneously. After some time other voltages should be applied
d) While measuring power, the frequency meter should be detuned each time because
there is a (attenuation) dip in the output power when the frequency is tuned.
e) To avoid loading of the klystron an isolator/attenuation should invariably be used
between klystron and the rest of the set-up.









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SRM UNIVERSITY
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC0322 Microwave and Optical Communication Lab

Laboratory Report Cover Sheet

EVEN SEM – 2011

Name: ______________________________________

Section: Tick One M ( ) TU ( ) W ( ) Th ( ) Fr ( )

Venue: _______________________________________

Title of Lab: ________________________________________

Preparation Verification


Staff Name & Signature: ______________________
______________________


Experiment Completion Verification

Staff Name & Signature: ______________________
______________________
Date, Time: ______________________


Particulars Max Marks Marks Obtained
Pre-lab Work 20
Lab Procedure 30
Post lab Work 20
Lab Report 30
Total 100


Report Verification
Staff Name & Signature: ______________________
______________________
Date, Time: ______________________



11
STUDY OF MICROWAVE COMPONENTS


RECTANGULAR WAVE GUIDE

Wave guides are manufactured to the highest mechanical and electrical standards and
mechanical tolerances.

L and S band wave guides are fabricated by precision brazing of brass-plates and all
other wave guides are in extrusion quality.

W.G. sections of specified length can be supplied with flanges, painted outside and
silver or gold plated in side.


















SPECIFICATIONS X Band

EIA No. : WR - 90

Frequency : 8.2 - 12.4 GHZ

Width : 2.286cm Height : 1.1016cm Width : 2.54 cm

Height : 1.27cm ± Tol. (µm) : 7.6 Material : Brass/Copper.

FIXED ATTENUATORS

Series 5000 fixed Attenuators are meant for inserting a known attenuation in a wave
guide system. These consists of a lossy vane inserted in a section of wave guide, flanged on
both ends. These are useful for isolation of wave guide circuits, padding and extending the
range of measuring equipments.
Fixed Attenuators are available for 3,6 or 10 dB attenuation values, but any attenuation valve
between 0 and 30dB can be provided.


12












SPECIFICATIONS

Model No: X-5000 /Frequency : 8.12 - 12.4 GHZ /Attenuation (dB) :
3,6,10/Callibration Accuracy : ± 0.2dB/Avg Power : 2W/Max VSWR : 1.10/Max Insertion
Loss (dB) : 0.2/W.G. Type: WG – 90/Flange Type (UG/U) : 39.

A precision built probe carriage has a centimeter scale with a vernier reading of
0.1mm least count and a dial gauge can be mounted easily if precise readings are required.

Model No. : X - 6051
Freq (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
Max Residual VSWR : 1.01
WG type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG-/U) : 39

TUNABLE PROBE

Model 6055 Tunable probe is designed for use with model 6051 slotted sections.
These are meant for exploring the energy of the EF in a suitably fabricated section of wave
guide.

The depth of penetration into a wave guide - section is adjustable by the knob of the
probe. The tip pick up the RF power from the line and this power
is rectified by crystal detector, which is then fed to the VSWR
meter or indicating instrument.

/Model No. : X6055 /Freq (Ghz) : 8.2 - 12.4 /output Connector :
BNC(F) /Detector : IN23.


WAVE GUIDE DETECTOR MOUNT (TUNABLE)

Model 4051 Tunable Detector Mount is simple and easy
to use instrument for detecting microwave power through a
suitable detector. It consists of a detector crystal mounted in a
section of a Wave guide and shorting plunger for matching
purpose. The output from the crystal may be fed to an indicating instrument. In K and R
bands detector mounts the plunger is driven by a micrometer.

13

Model No. : X - 4051
Freq. Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
O/P Connector : BNC (F)
Wave guide type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG/U) : 39
Detector : IN23


KLYSTRON MOUNT

Model 2051 Klystron mounts are meant for mounting corresponding Klystrons such
as 2K25, 723A/B, 726A or RK - 5976 etc.

These consists of a section of wave guide
flanged on one end and terminated with a movable
short on the other end. An octal base with cable is
provided for Klystron.

Model No. : X – 2051/ Freq. Range (GHz) 8.2 -
12.4/ WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG-/U): 39


CIRCULATORS

Model 6021 and 6022 are T and Y types of three port circulators respectively. These
are precisely machined and assembled to get the desired specifications. Circulators are
matched three port devices and these are meant for allowing Microwave energy to flow in
clockwise direction with negligible loss but almost no transmission in the anti-clockwise
direction.

Model No. : X - 6021
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.6 - 10.6 or 10.2 - 12.2
Min. Isolation (dB) : 20
Max. Insertion Loss (dB) : 0.4
Max. VSWR : 1.20








SLIDE SCREW TUNERS

Model 4041 slide screw tuners are used for matching purposes by changing the
penetration and position of a screw in the slot provided in the centre of the wave guide.


14
These consists of a section of wave
guide flanged on both ends and a thin slot is
provided in the broad wall of the Wave guide. A
carriage carrying the screw, is provided over the
slot. A VSWR upto 20 can be tuned to a value
less than 1.02 at certain frequency.

Model No. : X – 4041/ Freq. Range (GHz) : 8.2
- 12.4/WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange type (UG/U) : 39



MULTIHOLE DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

Model 6000 series Multihole directional couplers are useful for sampling a part of
Microwave energy for monitoring purposes and for measuring reflections and impedance.
These consists of a section of Wave guide with addition of a second parallel section of wave
guide thus making it a four port network. However the fourth port is terminated with a
matched load. These two parallel sections are coupled to each other through many holes,
almost to give uniform coupling; minimum frequency sensitivity and high directivity. These
are available in 3,6,10,20 and 40dB
coupling.

Model No. : X - 6003
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
Coupling (dB) : 3,10,20,40
Directivity (dB) : 35
Wave guide type (WR-) : 90
Flange type (UG/U) : 39



E PLANE TEE

Model 3061 E - plane tee are series type T - junction and consists of three section of
wave guide joined together in order to divide or compare power levels. The signal entering
the first port of this T - junction will be equally dividing at second and third ports of the same
magnitude but in opposite phase.


Model No. : X - 3061
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG/U) : 39

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H - PLANT TEE

Model 3065 H - Plane Tee are shunt type T - junction for use in conjunction with
VSWR meters, frequency - meters and other detector devices. Like in E-plane tee, the signal
fed through first port of H - plane Tee will be equally divided in magnitude at second and
third ports but in same phase.

Model No. : X - 3065
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG-/U) : 39



MAGIC TEE

Model 3045 E - H Tee consists of a section of wave guide in both series and shunt
wave guide arms, mounted at the exact midpoint of main arm. Both ends of the section of
wave guide and both arms are flanged on their ends. These Tees are employed in balanced
mixers, AFC circuits and impedance measurement circuits etc. This becomes a four terminal
device where one terminal is isolated from the input terminal.

Model No. : X - 3045
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UR-/U) : 39





MOVABLE SHORT

Model 4081 movable shorts consists of a section of waveguide, flanged on one end
and terminated with a movable shorting plunger on the other end. By means of this non
contacting type plunger, a reflection co-efficient of almost unity may be obtained.

Model No. : X - 4081
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG-/U) : 39







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MATCHED TERMINATION

Model 4000 are low power and non-reflective type of terminations. It consists of a
small and highly dissipative taper flap mounted inside the centre of a section of wave guide.
Matched Terminations are useful for USWR measurement of various waveguide components.
These are also employed as dummy and as a precise reference loads with Tee junctions,
directional couplers and other similar dividing devices.

Model No. : X - 4000, Freq. Range (GHz) : 8.2 -
12.4 Max VSWR : 1.04
A
V
Power : 2W, WG Type (WR-) 90, Flange
Type (UG-/U) : 39




PYRAMIDAL WAVEGUIDE HORN ANTENNA

Model 5041 pyramidal Wave guide Horn antenna consists of waveguide joined to
pyramidal section fabricated from brass sheet. The pyramidal section shapes the energy to
concentrate in a specified beam. Wave guide
horns are used as feed horns as radiators for
reflectors and lenses and as a pickup antenna for
receiving microwave power.

Model No. : X - 5041
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.2 - 12.4
Max VSWR : 1.20
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (UG-/U) : 39


GUNN OSCILLATORS

Model 2151 Gunn Oscillators are solid state microwave energy generators. These
consists of waveguide cavity flanged on one end and micrometer driven plunger fitted on the
other end. A gunn-diode is mounted inside the Wave guide with BNC (F) connector for DC
bias. Each Gunn oscillator is supplied with calibration certificate giving frequency vs
micrometer reading.

Model No. : X - 2152, Freq : 8.2 - 12.4 GHz, Min
output power : 10 MW
WG Type (WR-) : 90 Flange Type (UG-/U) : 39






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PIN MODULATORS

Model 451 pin modulators are designed to modulate the CW output of Gunn
Oscillators. It is operated by the square pulses derived from the UHF(F) connector of the
Gunn power supply. These consists of a pin diode mounted inside a section of Wave guide
flanged on it’s both end. A fixed attenuation vane is mounted inside at the input to protect the
oscillator.

Model No. : X - 451
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.3 - 12.4
Max RF Power : 1W
WG Type (WR-) : 90
Flange Type (GHz) : 39




GUNN POWER SUPPLY

Model X-110 Gunn Power supply comprises of an regulated DC power supply and a
square wave generator, designed to operate Gunn-Oscillator model 2151 or 2152, and pin
modulators model 451 respectively. The DC voltage is variable from 0 - 10V. The front panel
meter monitors the gunn voltage and the current drawn by the Gunn diode. The square wave
of generator is variable from 0 - 10V. in amplitude and 900 - 1100 Hz in frequency. The
power supply has been so designed to protect Gunn diode from reverse voltage application
over transient and low frequency oscillations by the negative resistance of the Gunn-diode.

SPECIFICATIONS

Amplifier Type : High gain tuned at one frequency
Frequency : 1000 Hz ± 2%
Sensitivity : 0.1 microvolt at 200 for full scale
Band width : 25 - 30 cps
Range : 70dB min in 10 dB steps
Scale selector : Normal Expand
Gain control : ‘Coarse’ & ‘Fine’
Mains power : 230V, 50Hz




18
ISOLATORS

The three port circulators Model 6021 may be converted into isolators by terminating
one of its port into matched load. these will work over the frequency range of circulators.
These are well matched devices offering low forward insertion loss and high reverse
isolation.

Model No. : X - 6022
Frequency Range (GHz) : 8.6 - 10.6 or 10.2 - 12.2
Min Isolation (dB) : 20
Max Insertion Loss (dB) : 0.4
Max VSWR : 1.20


19
CONTENTS


Lab: 1 Mode Characteristics of Reflex Klystron 1
1.1Objective
1.2 Hardware Required
1.3 Introduction
1.4 Prelab Questions
1.5 Precautions
1.6 Experiment
1.6.1 Procedure
1.6.2 Calculations
1.6.3 Block Diagram
1.6.4 Model Graph
1.6.5 Tabulation
1.7 Post Lab Questions
1.8 Result

Lab: 2.1 Study of Power Distribution in Directional Coupler
2.1.1Objective
2.1.2 Hardware Required
2.1.3 Introduction
2.1.4 Prelab Questions
2.1.5 Experiment
2.1.5.1 Procedure
2.1.5.2 Formula
2.1.5.3 Block Diagram
2.1.6 Post Lab Questions
2.1.7 Result

Lab: 2.2 Study of Power Distribution In E Plane & H Plane and Magic Tee
2.2 .1 Objective
2.2.2 Hardware Required
2.2.3 Introduction
2.2.4 PreLab Questions
2.2.5 Experiment
2.2.5.1 Procedure
2.2.5.2 Block Diagram
2.2.5.3 Tabulation:
2.2.6 Post Lab Questions
2.2.7 Result

Lab :3 Wavelength and Frequency Measurement
3.1 Objective
3.2 Hardware Required
3.3 Introduction
3.4 Pre Lab Questions
3.5 Experiment
3.5.1 Procedure
3.5.2 Calculation
3.5.3 Block Diagram
3.5.4 Tabulation
3.6 Post Lab Questions
3.7 Result

20

Lab: 4 Impedence Measurement By Slotted Line Method
4.1 Objective
4.2 Hardware Required
4.3 Introduction
4.4 Prelab Questions
4.5 Experiment
4.5.1 Procedure
4.5.2 Formula
4.5.3 Block Diagram
4.6 Postlab Questions
4.7 Result

Lab : 5 Gain and Radiation Pattern of Horn Antenna
5.1 Objective
5.2 Hardware Required
5.3 Introduction
5.4 Prelab Questions
5.5 Precautions
5.6 Experiment
5.6.1 Procedure
5.6.2 Block Diagram
5.6.3 Tabulation
5.7 Post Lab
5.8 Result

Lab: 6 Design of Microstrip Antenna
6.1 Objective
6.2 Hardware Required
6.3 Introduction
6.4 Prelab Questions
6.5 Experiment
6.5.1 Procedure
6.5.2 Tabulation
6.5.3 Radiation Pattern
6.6 Postlab Questions
6.7 Result

Lab: 7.1 DC Characteristics Of LED
7.1.1 Objective
7.1.2 Hardware Required
7.1.3 Introduction
7.1.4 Prelab Questions
7.1.5 Experiment
7.1.5.1 Procedure
7.1.5.2 Tabulation
7.1.5.3 Model Graph
7.1.6 Post Lab
7.1.7 Result

Lab: 7.2 DC Characteristics of Pin Photodiode
7.2.1 Objective
7.2.2 Hardware Required
7.2.3 Introduction
7.2.4 Prelab Questions

21
7.2.5 Precaution
7.2.6 Experiment
7.2.6.1 Procedure
7.2.6.2 Tabulation
7.2.6.3 Model Graph
7.2.7 Postlab Questions
7.2.8 Result

Lab: 8 DC Characteristics of Laser Diode
8.1 Objective
8.2 Hardware Required
8.3 Introduction
8.4 Pre Lab Questions
8.5 Precaution
8.6 Experiment
8.6.1 Procedure
8.6.2 Tabulation
8.6.3 Model Graph
8.7 Postlab Questions
8.8 Result

Lab: 9.1 Measurement of Numerical Aperture of Optical Fiber
9.1.1 Objective
9.1.2 Hardware Required
9.1.3 Introduction
9.1.4 Prelab Questions
9.1.5 Procedure
9.1.6 Tabulation
9.1.7 Post Lab Questions
9.1.8 Result

Lab: 9.2 Measurement Of Propagation Loss In Optical Fiber
9.2.1Objective
9.2.2 Hardware Requirement
9.2.3 Introduction:
9.2.4 Prelab Questions
9.2.5 Procedure
9.2.6 Tabulation
9.2.7 Result

Lab: 9.3 Measurement Of Bending Loss In A Optical Fiber
9.3.1 Objective
9.3.2 Hardware Requirements
9.3.3 Introduction
9.3.4 Prelab Questions
9.3.5 Experiment
9.3.5.1 Procedure
9.3.5.2 Tabulation
9.3. 6 Post Lab Question
9.3.7 Result

Lab: 10 Setting Up a Fiber Optic Analog Link
10.1 Objective:
10.2 Hardware Required:

22
10.3 Introduction:
10.4 Prelab Questions
10.5 Procedure:
10.6 Layout Diagram
10.7 Postlab Questions
10.8 Result

Lab: 11 Setting Up a Fiber Optic Digital Link
11.1 Objective:
11.2 Hardware Required:
11.3 Introduction:
11.4 Prelab Questions
11.5 Procedure:
11.6 Layout Diagram
11.7 Postlab Questions
11.8 Result

Lab :12 RF Amplifier
12.1 Objective
12.2 Software Required
12.3 Introduction
12.4 Prelab Questions
12.5 Procedure
12.6 Circuit Diagram
12.7 Netlist
12.8 Simulated Output
12.9 Postlab Questions
12.10 Result

Lab: 13 Frequency Response of If Amplifier
13.1 Objective
13.2 Software Required
13.3 Introduction
13.4 Prelab Questions
13.5 Procedure
13.6 Circuit Diagram
13.7 Netlist
13.8 Simulated Output
13.9 Post Lab Questions
13.10 Result

Lab: 14 Amplitude Modulation

14.1 Objective
14.2 Software Required
14.3 Introduction
14.4 Prelab Questions
14.5 Procedure
14.6 Circuit Diagram
14.7 Netlist
14.8 Output
14.9 Post Lab Questions
14.10 Result

Appendix

23
EXPT NO: 1

MODE CHARACTERISTICS OF REFLEX KLYSTRON

1.1 OBJECTIVE

1. To study and plot the reflex klystron output and frequency characteristics.
2. To find mode number, transit time, electronic tuning range (ETR) and
Electronic tuning sensitivity (ETS)
1.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron Power Supply, Klystron with mount, Isolator, Frequency meter, Variable
Attenuator, Slotted section with Probe carriage, CRO, Movable Short.

1.3 INTRODUCTION

Klystron is a microwave vacuum tube employing velocity modulation. These
electrons move towards the repeller (ie) the electrons leaving the cavity during the positive
half cycle are accelerated while those during negative half cycle are decelerated. The faster
ones penetrate further while slower ones penetrate lesser in the field of repeller voltage. But,
faster electrons leaving the cavity take longer time to return and hence catch up with slower
ones. In the cavity the electrons bunch and interact with the voltage between the cavity grids.
It consists of an electron gun producing a collimated electron beam. It bunches pass through
grids at time the grid potentials is such that electrons are decelerated they give by energy. The
electrons are then collected by positive cavity wall near cathode. To protect repeller from
damage, repeller voltage is applied before accelerating voltage.
Transit time is defined as the time taken for the electron to travel in to the reflector
space and back to the gap. t
1
=n+3/4, n is an integer. It depends on beam and reflector
voltages.
Several combinations of beam – reflector voltages provide oscillations for the
particular value of n. Each value of n corresponds to a different mode. Modes corresponding
n=2 and n=3 are often used for optimum efficiency.

ETR – Electronic tuning range i.e, the frequency band from one end of the mode to
another is calculated by

ETR = f
1max
– f
1min
(GHz) for N
1
mode
f
1max
, f
1min
→ half power frequencies

ETS – Electronic tuning sensitivity

ETS =
min 1 max 1
min 1 max 1
V V
f f


(MHz/V)
f
1max
, f
1min
→ half power frequencies
V
1max
, V
1min
→ corresponding repeller voltages for a particular mode.

24


PRELAB QUESTIONS

1 What is the effect of cavity gap on electron bunching?
2 Explain mode in reflex klystron.
3 Higher order mode occurs at ____________ repeller voltage.
4 When is the output power of reflex klystron maximum?
5 What is transit time?

1.5 PRECAUTIONS
1. During operation of Klystron, repeller does not carry any current and as such it
may severely be damaged by electron bombardment. To protect repeller from such
damage, the repeller negative voltage is always applied before anode voltage.
2. The repeller voltage should be varied in one direction to avoid hysterisis.
3. While measuring output power frequency meter should be detuned each time.
4. An isolator or attenuator should be used between klystron and other equipment in
the set up to avoid loading of the klystron.
5. Before switching on power supply the control knobs of klystron power supply
should be kept as below.

Meter switch : off
Mode switch : AM
Beam voltage knob : fully anticlockwise (min)
Reflector voltage : fully clockwise (max)
AM – Amplitude : fully clockwise (max)
AM - Frequency knob : mid position.

1.6 EXPERIMENT

1.6.1 PROCEDURE

1. Assemble the components as shown in fig.
2. After following the necessary precautions, the Klystron Power Supply is switched
ON.
3. Adjust the variable attenuator to obtain maximum output..
4. Vary the repeller voltage from it’s maximum negative value and increase it in steps of
1V and record output power and frequency.
5. Measure the frequency by tuning the frequency meter corresponding to a dip in the
output voltage each time.
6. The frequency meter is detuned before measuring the output power each time.
7. Plot the mode characteristics of Reflex Klystron. (i.e. Output Voltage Vs Repeller
voltage and Frequency Vs Repeller voltage)

1.6.2 CALCULATIONS

(i) Knowing mode top voltages of two adjacent modes, mode numbers of the modes
is computed from the equation,

4 / 3
4 / 3 ) 1 (
2
1
1
2
+
+ +
= =
n
n
V
V
N
N


25
where
V
1
and V
2
are the values of repeller voltages required to operate the klystron in
mode numbers N
1
and N
2
.

(ii) Knowing mode number, transit time of each mode is calculated from

01
1
01
1
) 4 / 3 (
f
N
f
n
t =
+
= seconds
f
01
→ frequency of microwave operation in one mode.

(iii) ETR – Electronic tuning range i.e, the frequency band from one end of the mode
to another is calculated by
ETR = f
1max
– f
1min
for N
1
mode (GHz)
f
1max
– f
1min
→ half power frequencies

(iv) ETS – Electronic tuning sensitivity
ETS =
min 1 max 1
min 1 max 1
V V
f f


(MHz/V)
f
1max
, f
1min
→ half power frequency
V
1max
, V
1min
→ corresponding repeller voltages for a particular mode.

26
1.6.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM:






Fig 1 Mode Characteristics of Reflex Klystron


1.6.4 MODEL GRAPH:




Klystron Power
Supply
Klystron with
Mount
Isolator
Frequency
Meter
Variable
Attenuator
Detector
Mount

C.R.O

27


1.6.5 TABULATION:

Mode Frequency (GHz) Repeller voltage (V) Output Voltage (mV)
1



2



3





1.7 POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. What is the effect of transit time?
2. List two basic configurations of Klystron tubes.
3. Why only discrete modes of operation are possible in reflex klystron.
4. Which mode number is most frequently used? Why?
5. Velocity modulation of electrons can result in density modulation of the same.
Comment.


1.8 RESULT

The mode characteristics of reflex klystron has been studied and plotted. Transit time,
ETR and ETS are determined for each mode of operation.


Modes Transit Time(µs) ETR (GHz) ETS (MHz/V)
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3









28

Lab Report

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Complete paper design for all three designs including K-maps and minimized
equations and the truth table for each of the output signals.
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

Grading
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff incharge































29

NO: 2.1

STUDY OF POWER DISTRIBUTION IN DIRECTIONAL COUPLER

2.1.1 OBJECTIVE

To study the power distribution in various ports of directional coupler and measure
the following parameters:

i) Insertion loss
ii) Coupling factor
iii) Directivity


2.1.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron power supply, Klystron with mount, Isolator, variable attenuator,, CRO,
Directional Coupler, Matched termination.

2.1.3 INTRODUCTION

A directional coupler is a useful hybrid waveguide joint, which couple power in an
auxiliary waveguide arm in one direction. It is a four-port device but one of the ports is
terminated into a matched load. Ref figure 1.

Characteristics of a Directional Coupler
An ideal directional coupler has the following characteristics
i) If power is fed into port (1) the power is coupled in ports (2) and (3) i.e.,
power flows in the forward direction of the auxiliary arm port (3) but no
power couples in port (4) i.e., in backward direction similarly power fed in (2)
couples into ports (1) and (4) and not in (3).
ii) All the four ports are matched, i.e. if three of them are terminated in matched
loads, the fourth is automatically terminated in a matched load.
iii) If power couples in reverse direction, power fed in (1) appears in ports (2) and
(4) and nothing in (3), then such type of coupler is known as backward
directional coupler. The conclusion is that in the auxiliary section the power is
coupled in only one direction.

We will measure coupling coefficient, directivity and the main line insertion loss as a
function of frequency.

30

Fig 1 Directional coupler as a three – port device:
Unidirectional coupler

2.1.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. How does power couple in a reverse coupler.
2. Give the applications of directional coupler
3. What is the purpose of measuring directivity, coupling factor?
4. Give the S matrix for directional coupler
5. What is the relation between directivity and isolation?

2.1.5 EXPERIMENT

2.1.5.1 PROCEDURE:

INSERTION LOSS
1. Set the equipment by connecting detector mount to the input end(without directional
coupler).
2. Set mode 3 and obverse the input voltage V
i
. Do not alter till the end of the
experiment.
3. Insert the directional coupler; terminate port 4 with matched termination.
4. Connect detector mount to port 2 and measure V
12
.
5. Calculate insertion loss as per the formula.

COUPLING FACTOR

1. To measure coupling factor, terminate port 2 with matched termination, connect
detector mount to port 4 and measure V
14
.
2. Calculate coupling factor as per the formula

DIRECTIVITY:

1. Set up the equipment as shown in fig Terminate port 2 with matched termination
and connect detector mount to port 4.
2. Measure the voltage at port 4 and note it as V
14
.
3. Connect the directional coupler in reverse direction. ie, port 2 – input, port 1 –
matched termination, port 4 – detector mount

31
4. Measure the voltage as V
24

5. Calculate directivity D as per the formula

2.1.5.2 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

Observations

V
i
=
V
12
=
V
14
=
V
24
=

INSERTION LOSS (L)

L = 20 log
10
(V
i
/V
12
) dB

COUPLING FACTOR (C)

C = 20 log
10
(V
i
/V
14
) dB

DIRECTIVITY (D)

D = 20 log
10
(V
14
/ V
24
) dB


2.1.5.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Mode 3 set up:

Input Voltage V
i
= -----------------(v)



32



DIRECTIVITY MEASUREMENT

1
2 1
3
4
Insertion Loss (V
12
) measurement
Coupling Factor (V
14
) measurement
4
2

33
2.1.6 POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Explain how back power is zero in a directional coupler with neat diagram.
2. What is multihole directional coupler.
3. List the performance of a directional coupler.
4. What factors determine parameters of directional coupler
5. List one practical application where DC is used.


2.1.7 RESULT:

Thus the power distribution in various ports of a directional coupler was studied and
the following parameters are calculated.

Coupling factor
Directivity
Insertion loss



Lab Report
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Complete paper design for all three designs including K-maps and minimized
equations and the truth table for each of the output signals.
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

Grading
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge



34
EXPT NO: 2.2.
STUDY OF POWER DISTRIBUTION IN E PLANE &
H PLANE AND MAGIC TEE

2.2.1 OBJECTIVE

To determine isolations and coupling coefficients for E, H plane Tee and Magic Tee
junctions.

2.2.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron power supply, Klystron with mount, isolator, variable attenuator, Magic
Tee, Matched termination, detector mount, CRO.

2.2.3 INTRODUCTION

H Plane Tee

Fig 1 shows the sketch of H plane tee. It is clear from the sketch that an auxiliary
waveguide arm is fastened perpendicular to the narrow wall of a main guide, thus it is a three
port device in which axis of the auxiliary or side arm is parallel to the planes of the magnetic
field of the main of the main guide and the coupling from the main guide to the branch guide
is by means of magnetic fields. Therefore, it is also known as H plane tee.
The perpendicular arm is generally taken as input and other two arms are in shunt to
the input and hence it is also called as shunt tee. Because of symmetry of the tee; equivalent
circuit of H plane, when power enters the auxiliary arm, and the two main arms 1 and 2 are
terminated in identical loads, the power supplied to each load is equal and in phase with one
another. Thus H plane tee is an `adder’.

E Plane Tee

Fig 2 shows the sketch of E plane tee. It is clear from the sketch of the E plane tee that
an auxiliary waveguide arm is fastened to the broader wall of the main guide. Thus it is also a
three port device in which the auxiliary arm axis in parallel to the plane of the electric fields
of the main guide, and the coupling from the main guide to the auxiliary guide is by means of
electric fields. Therefore, it is also known as E plane tee. It is clear that it causes load
connected to its branches to appear in series. So it is often referred to as a series tee. E plane
tee divides the power equally and 180 out of phase. Thus E plane Tee is a
subtractor/differentiator

Magic Tee

An interesting type of T junction is the hybrid tee, commonly known as `magic tee’
which is shown in fig 3. The device as can be seen from fig is a combination of the E arm and
H plane tees. Arm3, the H arm forms an H plane tee and arm 4, the E arm, forms an E plane
tee in combination with arms 1 and 2. The central lines of the two tees coincide and define
the plane of symmetry, that is, if arms 1 and 2 are of equal length, the part of structure on one
side of the symmetry plane shown by shaded area is the mirror image of that on the other.
Arms1 and 2 are sometimes called as the side or collinear arms.

35
The name `magic Tee’ is derived from the manner in which power divides among
various arms. If power is fed into arm3, the electric field divides equally between arms 1 and
2 and the fields are in phase. Because of symmetry of the T junction, no net electric field
parallel to the narrow dimension of the waveguide is excited in arm 4. Thus no power is
coupled in port 4. Reciprocity demands no coupling in port 3 if power is fed in 4. Another
property that results from the symmetry of the junction is, if power is fed in E or H arm, it is
equally divided between arms 1 and 2.

2.2.4 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:

1. What is Tee junction? Give two examples
2. What is the other name for Hybrid ring?
3. Name some wave guide components used to change the direction of the guide through
an arbitrary angle
4. What is the S matrix of H plane Tee junction.
5. List some Applications of magic Tee.

2.2.5 EXPERIMENT

2.2.5.1 PROCEDURE:

E Plane & H Plane Tee and Magic Tee
Isolation & Coupling Coefficient

1. Energize the microwave source and set mode 3.
2. Note down the input voltage as V
i
(mv) (should not alter the setting)
3. Now connect the magic tee/E-Plane/H-Plane Tee.
4. Determine the corresponding voltages V
j
(mv) for each pair of ports by connecting
one port to the source and measuring the output at other port while the remaining
ports are connected to matched termination.
5. Determine the isolation and coupling coefficients for the given Tee using the
following formula.
Isolation between port 1 and 2 is
I
12
= 20 log
10
(V
1
/ V
2
) dB, and when matched load and detector are
interchanged
I
13
= 20 log
10
(V
1
/ V
3
) dB

The coupling coefficient by the formula
C = 10
-α / 20

Where α is the attenuation in db between the input (i) and detector (j) arm when the third
arm is terminated in a matched load. Thus
α = 10 log P
i
/ P
j
dB
where P
i
is the power delivered to ‘i’ arm and P
j
is the power detected in arm j.

For example, when the attenuation measured between arms 1 and 2 is 3 db when arm 3
terminated in matched load, then the coupling coefficient between arms 1 and 2,
C
12
= 10
-α / 20
= 10
-3 / 20
= 0.708 db



36
E PlaneTee





H Plane Tee





Magic Tee





37
2.2.5.2 BLOCK DIARGAM

Characteristics of E&H Plane Tee


2.2.5.3 TABULATION:

E-Plane & H – Plane Tee
V
in
= ---------mv

Nature of Tee
Voltage (mv)
I/P O/P
Isolation
(I
ij
) dB
Coupling Coefficient
Cij = 10
Iij/20

E-Plane
1
st

arm

2
nd
C
12

3
rd
C
13

3
rd

arm

2
nd
C
32

1
st
C
31

H = Plane
1
st

arm

2
nd
C
12

3
rd
C
13

3
rd

arm

2
nd
C
32

1
st
C
31


38






2.2.5.3 TABULATION:

Magic Tee
Magic Tee orientation
V
i
(mv) V
j
(mv) I
ij
(dB) C
ij

Input
Arm-i
Output
arm-j
1
2
3
4

I
12
C
12

I
13
C
13

I
14
C
14

2
1
3
4

I
21

I
23

I
24



3
4
1
2

I
34

I
31

I
32



4
3
1
2

I
43

I
41

I
42





39

2.2.6 POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Microwave components used to connect branch waveguide to the main waveguide or
transmission line are known as_______
2. What are series and shunt Tee.
3. How to construct a Magic Tee
4. Why phase change of 180 degree is observed in series tee in electric foeld and not in
shunt Tee.
5. Why does power equally divide between two collinear arms.

2.2.7 RESULT:

Thus the power distribution in various ports of E, H and magic tee was studied .
Isolations and coupling factor are determined.

Lab Report

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Complete paper design for all three designs including K-maps and minimized
equations and the truth table for each of the output signals.
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions



Grading
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff incharge















40
EXPT NO: 3

MEASUREMENT OF GUIDE WAVELENGTH AND SOURCE FREQUENCY


3.1 OBJECTIVE

To measure the guide wavelength and frequency of a given microwave signal using
slotted section with probe carriage.

3.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron power supply, Klystron with mount, Isolator, Frequency meter, variable
attenuator, slotted section with probe carriage, slide screw tuner, matched termination,
VSWR meter, CRO.

3.3 INTRODUCTION

Standing waves result from the simultaneous presence of waves traveling in opposite
direction in the waveguide. The ratio of the maximum of the standing - wave pattern to the
minimum is defined as the standing wave ratio, designated by ρ. Thus
Standing wave ratio =
current or voltage Minimum
current or voltage Maximum

(ie) ρ =
min
max
min
max
I
I
V
V
=
The standing wave in a waveguide is due to improper termination. The standing wave
ratio results from the fact that the two traveling wave components either add in phase at some
points or subtract at other points. The distance between 2 successive maxima or minima is
λ/2. The standing wave is unity for a purely traveling wave and is infinity for a purely
standing wave. When the standing wave ratio is unity, there is no reflected line and the line is
called a flat line. The SWR, cannot be defined on a lossy line as standing wave pattern
changes from one position to another. On a low-loss line, SWR is constant for a defined
region. For a loss less line, the ratio stays the same throughout.
Since the reflected wave is defined as the product of an incident wave and its
reflection coefficient, the SWR ρ is related to the reflection coefficient Γ by
ρ =
Γ −
Γ +
1
1
and vice versa Γ =
1
1
+

ρ
ρ
. This relation is used for determining the
reflection coefficient from the SWR, which is usually found from the Smith chart. Since |Γ|
≤1, the SWR is a positive real number and never less than unity, ρ ≥ 1.

3.4 PRE LAB QUESTIONS:

1. Can you measure VSWR of a circuit using magic Tee? If yes give outline in brief.
2. What is slotted section with line carriage?
3. What is the main purpose of slotted section with line carriage?
4. What is a VSWR meter?
5. Waveguides are mainly used in microwaves because_________________________

41
3.5 EXPERIMENT

3.5.1 PROCEDURE

1. The equipments are setup as per the block diagram
2. Keep the attenuation minimum and set mode 3, after taking necessary precaution
3. With the load end terminated determine the frequency in the frequency meter.
4. Replace the termination with movable short and detune the frequency meter.
5. Move the probe along the slotted line and note down the successive minimum
positions as d1 and d2.
6. Find the guide wavelength using formula given
7. Find the frequency from the formula
8. Verify the frequency obtained with the frequency obtained in the frequency meter.
9. Repeat the procedure at different frequency settings.

3.5.2. CALCULATION

i) Guide wavelength:
λ
g
/2 = (d
2
-d
1
)

λ
g
=2(d
2
-d
1
)
ii) Frequency:

f
λg
=
2 2
1 1
c g
c
λ λ
+

λ
c
= Cutoff wavelength
2a, where a is inner broad dimension of the waveguide
c = 3 * 10^8 m/sec

3.5.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM


















Klystron Power
Supply
Klystron
with Mount
Isolator
Frequency
Meter
Variable
Attenuator
Slotted
Section
with Probe
Carriage
Tunable Probe

Load
M
a
t
c
h
e
d

T
e
r
m
i

CRO/VSWR
Meter
Matched
Termination

42
3.5.4 TABULATION

S.No
Frequency
Setting

d
1

cm
d
2

cm
λ
g

cm
f
M


f
λg















3.6 POST LAB QUESTIONS:

1. What is tunable detector?
2. When VSWR occur in microwave communication? How it is measured?
3. In measuring VSWR, the attenuation of the receiver should be___/ Why?


3.7 RESULT:

Thus the frequency and wavelength of a given microwave signal was determined and
found to be
Wavelength λ _____________

Frequency f _____________

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff incharge

43
EXPT NO: 4

IMPEDENCE MEASUREMENT BY SLOTTED LINE METHOD

4.1 OBJECTIVE

To measure the impedance of an unknown load using slotted Line.

4.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron Power supply, Klystron with mount, Isolator, Frequency meter, Variable
attenuator, Slotted section, Movable Short, CRO.

4.3 INTRODUCTION

The simplest method for measurement of impedance at microwave frequencies is as
follows. The unknown impedance is connected at the end of a slotted co axial line.
Microwave power is fed from the other end of coaxial line. Unknown impedance reflects a
part of this power. This reflection coefficient is measured by probing the standing wave fields
in the slotted line by a suitable arrangements. The reflection coefficient is given by

P =
o L
o L
Z Z
Z Z
+



Z
L
- Load impedance at any point

Z
O
- Characteristics impedance of waveguide at operating frequency

Thus if P is measured & Z
O
is known, Z
L
can be found. In general Z
L
is complex, both
magnitude and phase of P is needed. The magnitude of P may be found from VSWR
measurement.


1
1
+
− −
=
VSWR
VSWR
P

The phase of P may be found by measuring the distance of first voltage minima from
the load. Thus the measurement of impedance involves the measurements of VSWR and the
distance of the voltage minima from the load. These measurements may be carried out by
using a slotted line and probe arrangement.


4.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What are the types of methods used in microwave frequencies to measure impedance?
2. Relation-ship between S & P.
3. Define VSWR.
4. Microwave impedance measurement at different frequencies can be achieved with the
help of ______
5. A loaded cavity has a lower value of Q factor than an unloaded cavity. Comment.

44
4.5 EXPERIMENT

4.5.1 PROCEDURE

1 Assemble the components as per the circuit diagram

2 After making initial adjustments, mode3 is set up for operations

3 The frequency of the excited wave is found by adjusting the frequency meter for a dip
in the output meter. Thereafter detune the frequency meter slightly

4 The VSWR is found for the given load (horn), by measuring V
max
and V
min
.

5 Probe carriage is moved to one reference point. With load-end terminated with the
given load, the first minima(X) is noted from the reference point.

6 The given load is replaced with short-circuit, the first minima(Y) or d
1
is noted down
from the same reference point. Moving the carriage further determine the successive
minima(d
2
). i.e., With load - end short circuited, two successive minimas (d
1
and
d
2
)are found out by moving the probe carriage along the slotted waveguide line.

7 Find the shift (X-Y). Depending on whether the carriage is moved towards the load
or source, it will be positive or negative.

8 The impedance of the unknown load is found using smith chart and verified using
formula.

Calculation of Impedance using Smith Chart

1 Determine VSWR of the given load from the measurement
2 Draw a VSWR Circle
3 Calculate the shift βΛl in terms of wavelength.
4 Locate the shift point from (0,0) moving clockwise (if βΛl is negative) or
anticlockwise(if βΛl is positive) on the circumference.
5 Join the point to the centre of smith chart.
6 The intersection of VSWR circle and the line gives the normalized load
impedence(Z
L
)


Theoretical Calculations:

Load impedance (Z
L
) is calculated from the product of normalized impedance and
characteristic impedance of slotted line.








45
4.5.2 OBSERVATIONS AND FORMULA
Observations

f
o
=

For the Load

V
max
=
V
min
=
X = (First minima from the ref. point)

For the Short

Y = d1 = (First minima from the ref. point)
d2 = (successive minima)


FORMULA:

Characteristic impedance Z
o


2
1
120
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
fo
fc
z
o
π



(
¸
(

¸

Α −
Α −
=
) tan((
) ( tan ) ( 1
l j VSWR
l VSWR j
Z Z
o L
β
β


o
360 ×
|
|
.
|

\
|

= Α
g
Y X
l
λ
β

f
c
→ Cutoff frequency
f
c
= c/λ
c
λ
c
→ Cut off wavelength
λ
c
= 2a
a → inner broad dimension of waveguide
λ
g
= 2(d
1
– d
2
)
VSWR = V
max
/V
min



46
4.5.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM

IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT


Klystron Power
Supply
Klystron with
Mount
Isolator
Frequency
Meter
Variable
Attenuator
Slotted
Section with
Probe
Carriage
Movable
short/
Load
Tunable probe
CRO

47

4.6 POSTLAB QUESTIONS

1. How will you measure the impedance of the unknown load in the microwave setup
bench?
2. What are the application of smith chart?
3. What is the input impedance of the shorted line and open line?

4.7 RESULT

The impedance of an unknown load was calculated the value was found out to be
From smith chart:
From theoretical calculations:

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points
For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff incharge


48
EXPT NO : 5

GAIN AND RADIATION PATTERN OF HORN ANTENNA

5.1 OBJECTIVE

To obtain Gain and Radiation pattern of a Horn Antenna.

5.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

Klystron Power Supply, Klystron with mount , Isolator, Frequency meter, Fixed
Attenuator Detector, Parabolic Reflector, CRO.

5.3 INTRODUCTION

A horn antenna may be regarded as a flared out or opened out wave guide. A wave
guide is capable of radiating radiation into open space provided the same is excited at one end
and opened at the other end. However, the radiation is much greater through wave guide than
the 2 wire transmission line. To overcome reflection and diffraction in the wave guide, the
mouth of the waveguide is opened out which assumes the shape of a electromagnetic horn. If
the wave guide is terminated by any type of horn, the abrupt discontinuity existed is replaced
by a gradual transformation, then all the energy incident in forward direction in the
waveguide will now be radiated, provided the impedance matching is proper. This improves
directivity and reduces diffraction. If flaring is done only in one direction, then sectorial horn
is produced. If flaring is done along both the walls, then pyramidal horn is obtained. By
flaring the walls of the circular waveguide, a concial horn is formed. The fields inside the
waveguide propagate in the same manner as in free space, but on reaching the mouth of the
waveguide, these propagating fields continue to propagate in the same general direction but
also starts spreading laterally and the wave front eventually becomes spherical. However this
may be treated as transition region where the change over from the guided propagation to free
space propagation occurs. Since the waveguide impedance & free space impedance are not
equal, hence to avoid standing wave ratio, flaring of walls of waveguide is done which
besides matching of impedance also provide concentrated radiation pattern(ie)greater
directivity and narrower beam width. It is the flared structure that is given the name electro
magnetic horn radiator. The function is to produce a uniform phase front with a larger
aperture in comparison to waveguide and thus directivity is greater. If flare angle is very
large, the wavefront on the mouth of the horn will be curved rather than plane. This will
result in non-uniform phase distribution over the aperture, resulting in increased beam width
and reduced directivity, and vice versa occurs if the flare angle is very small. The directivity
of the horn antenna is given as D = 7.5 A/λ
2
where A area of horn mouth opening. Horn
antennas are extensively used at microwave frequencies under the condition that power gain
needed is moderate.









49

PYRAMIDAL HORN ANTENNA



5.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. List some of the types of antennas used in microwaves.
2. Why is a paraboloid preferred to horn at microwave frequencies?
3. Write the formula for directivity & power gain of horn antenna.
4. What are the different types of horn antenna used in microwave frequencies?
5. Comment on the radiation pattern of a practical antenna and a theoretical one.


5.5 PRECAUTIONS

1. Power flowing out of horns may damage retina of the eye so do not see directly inside
the horn antenna

5.6 EXPERIMENT

5.6.1 PROCEDURE

1. Setup the equipments as shown in fig. Keeping the axis of both antennas in same
axis line
2. Energize the microwave source, and set mode3 determine input power at
transmitting antenna end by connecting detector mount.
3. Connect the Receiving antenna.
4. Measure the power received at different transmitter-receiver antenna distances.
5. Make a plot of gain pattern with distance of the receiving antenna.
6. Fix the receiver antenna distance at an optimum, turn the receiving horn to the left
in 5° steps upto atleast 60° and note the corresponding output voltage.
7. Repeat the above step but this time turning the receiver to the right and note down
the readings.
8. Draw a relative power pattern on the polar graph ie, Output power versus
reception angle.
9. From the plot obtain the 3 dB beam width.

50
5.6.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM














































51
Beam Width
3 dB

52
Gain Vs. Separation distance


5.6.3 TABULATION

INPUT VOLTAGE V
T
= __________mv


S. No Separation Distance (cm) Output voltage V
R
(mv) Gain (dB) = 20 log
(V
R
/V
T
)
1
2
3
4
5
6


Separation distance = ___________cm

Angle (degree s)
V
R
(mv) Gain (dB) = 20 log (V
R
/V
T
)
Clock wise Anticlock wise Clock wise Anticlock wise
0
5
10
15
.
.
.
.
.
.
80
85
90


53

5.7 POST LAB

1. How to find an antenna Beam width?
2. Why measured values of gain and band width do not tally with theoretical values.
3. Why is the maximum signal detected when the transmitting and the receiving units
are axially aligned. Explain
4. When a reflectormeter is employed in the radiation of signals, how does it affect the
VSWR at the transmitter and the receiver.
5. List some important applications of antenna
5.8 RESULT

Thus the Gain Vs. separation distance and directional pattern of the given antenna
were drawn.

LAB REPORT
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge

54
EXPT NO: 6
DESIGN OF MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

6.1 OBJECTIVE

To Study the gain and radiation pattern of horn antenna.

6.2 HARDWARE REEQUIRED
Antenna Trainer kit
Microstrip antennas
CRO

6.3 INTRODUCTION

A microstrip antenna is basically a conductor printed on top of a layer of substrate
with a backing ground plane as shown in figure .




The length of the radiating conductor or patch is made approximatelyλg/2, so the
patch starts to radiate. In this experiment the patch will be fed by a microstrip transmission
line, which usually has a 50Ώ impedance. The antenna is usually fed at the radiating edge
along the width (W) as it gives good polarisation, however the disadvantages are the spurious
radiation and the need for impedance matching. This is because the typical edge resistance of
a microstrip antenna ranges from 150 Ώ to 300 Ώ . The design of a microstrip antenna begins
by determining the substrate used for the antenna and then the dimensions of the patch. Due
to the fringing fields along the radiating edges of the antenna there is a line extension
associated with the patch, which is given by the formula [3]:



The effective dielectric constant (∑eff) due to the air dielectric boundary is given by [3]:


55



1


PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What is a Microstrip antenna?
2. What are the advantages of MMIC?
3. What is an antenna. Why an oscillating dipole radiates in space isotropically?

EXPERIMENT

PROCEDURE

1. Setup the equipments as shown in fig. Keeping the axis of both antennas in same
axis line
2. Energize the microwave source, and set mode 3 determine input power at
transmitting antenna end by connecting detector mount.
3. Connect the transmitting antenna back. Turn the receiving horn to the left in 5°
steps upto atleast 60° and note the corresponding voltage.
4. Repeat the above step but this time turning the receiver to the right and notedown
the readings.
5. Draw a relative power pattern ie, o/p vs angle.
6. From diagram 3 dB beam width is determined.

6.5.3 TABULATION
INPUT VOLTAGE V
T
=

Angle (degree s)
V
R
(mv) Gain (dB) = 20 log (V
R
/V
T
)
Clock wise Anticlock wise Clock wise Anticlock wise












56
6.5.4 RADIATION PATTERN





POSTLAB QUESTIONS

1. When a reflector is employed in the radiation of signals, how does it affect the VSWR
at the transmitter and signal at the detector.
2. What is an isotropic radiator
3. Define directivity and Beam width

RESULT

Thus the Gain and Radiation pattern of Horn antenna is obtained

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to
your staff in charge.



57
EXPT. NO: 7.1
D.C. CHARACTERISTICS OF LED

OBJECTIVE

To study the Voltage Vs Current (V-I) and Power Vs Current ( P-I) characteristics of
the given LED.

HARDWARE REQUIRED

1. OFT Power Supply
2. A digital multi-meter
3. LED Module
4. Benchmark Fiber Optic Power Meter
5. Bare fiber adaptor-Plastic
6. 1.25m Plastic fiber

7.1.3 INTRODUCTION

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as
indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a
practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but
modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with
very high brightness.

The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased
(switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy
in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the
semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm
2
), and integrated optical
components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.

Symbol of LED


Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material
impregnated, or doped, with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current
flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse
direction. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with
different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and
releases energy in the form of a photon.


58
The wavelength of the light emitted, and therefore its color, depends on the band gap
energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the
electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical
emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have
a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet
light.
LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide.
Advances in materials science have made possible the production of devices with ever-
shorter wavelengths, producing light in a variety of colors.
LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value, for quick
testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or
less.

7.1.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. How to change the colour of an LED?
2. What are the two different types of LED structures?
3. What do you know about the spectral width of LED?
4. Give the expression that relates bandgap energy and wavelength.
5. How does an LED differ from a normal PN junction diode.


LED Module Setup





7.1.5 EXPERIMENT

7.1.5.1 PROCEDURE

Connect the OFT power supply properly to the module using the DIN-DIN cable
provided with the power supply. Turn the multi-turn pot to its minimum position and switch
ON the module.

59
1 Measure the voltage across the resistor R
1
(180 ohms and calculate the current
through the LED l
f
which is given as

i. 1
f
= V
1
/180

2 Now measure the voltage V
LED
across the LED and note down.


3 Remove the dummy adaptor cap from the power meter PD exposing the large area
photo-detector. Mount the bare fiber adaptor-plastic over the PD. Carefully hold the
LED source very close to the photo-detector window perpendicular to it to couple all
the optical power output P of the LED. Calculate the power in mW and note it down
which is given as

P
0
(mW) = 10
P(dBm)/10
4 Turn the potentiometer clockwise direction slightly towards the maximum till you get
a convenient reading V and repeat the steps 1 to 3 and tabulate.
4. Repeat step 4 till the potentiometer reaches its maximum position and plot the graph
for V
LED
V
S
I
f
and I
f
V
S
P
0
). The graphs should be similar to the one shown in fig.1
and fig. 2 respectively.
5. Calculate the E-O conversion efficiency `η’ of the LED from the plotted graph `I
f
’ V
S

P
0
which is given as
η = P
0
/ I
f

6. Unscrew the self locking cap in the LED without removing it completely and insert
the 1.25 m plastic fiber into the cap. Now tighten the cap. Remove the ST adaptor
from the power meter PD and mount the Bare fiber adaptor – plastic on to the PD.
Insert the other end of the plastic fiber to this adaptor Repeat above experiment but
the optical measurement with a plastic fiber and plastic fiber adaptor in Power meter,
instead of measuring it was explained in step 3.
Plot the optical power values and what do you see in the plots and what happens to the E-O
conversion efficiency?


7.1.5.2 TABULATION

Wavelength of the LED: _____________nm

S. No.
V
1

V
I
f

mA
V
LED

V
P
dBm
P
0

mW





0.1
0.2
0.3
..
..
..
1.1
1.2
1.3


60
7.1.5.3 MODEL GRAPH















Figure 1. Voltage Vs Current graph
















Figure 2. Power Vs Current graph



7.1.6 POST LAB

1. List the specifications of good LED materials.
2. What is lambertian pattern?
3. Discuss about fiber LED coupling.
4. On what factor does the speed of LED depend on?
5. What is OLED?


7.1.7 RESULT

Thus the DC characteristics of LED has been studied and plotted.


61
LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:

ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff incharge

62
EXPT. NO: 7.2

D.C. CHARACTERISTICS OF PIN PHOTODIODE

7.2.1 OBJECTIVE

To study the characteristics of the given Photo Detector at zero-bias, Forward Bias
and Reverse Bias conditions.

7.2.2 HARDWARE NEEDED

1. OFT power supply
2. A digital multi-meter
3. PD Module
4. Benchmark Fiber Optic Power Source
5. Benchmark Fiber Optic Power Meter
6. 1m Patch cord (PSTO-PC-1)
7. 1 M.10K resistors
8. 10K, 6.8K, 4.7K, 3.3K, 3.9K & 2.2K resistors (for reverse bias)
9. Ambient light arrester

7.2.3 INTRODUCTION

A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current
or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.

Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be
either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber
connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for
use specifically as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction rather than the typical PN
junction.

A photodiode is a PN junction or PIN structure. When a photon of sufficient energy
strikes the diode, it excites an electron, thereby creating a mobile electron and a positively
charged electron hole. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one
diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field
of the depletion region. Thus holes move toward the anode, and electrons toward the cathode,
and a photocurrent is produced.
Photovoltaic mode

When used in zero bias or photovoltaic mode, the flow of photocurrent out of the
device is restricted and a voltage builds up. The diode becomes forward biased and "dark
current" begins to flow across the junction in the direction opposite to the photocurrent. This
mode is responsible for the photovoltaic effect, which is the basis for solar cells—in fact, a
solar cell is just a large area photodiode.
Photoconductive mode


63
In this mode the diode is often reverse biased, dramatically reducing the response time
at the expense of increased noise. This increases the width of the depletion layer, which
decreases the junction's capacitance resulting in faster response times. The reverse bias
induces only a small amount of current (known as saturation or back current) along its
direction while the photocurrent remains virtually the same. The photocurrent is linearly
proportional to the illuminance.

Critical performance parameters of a photodiode include:
responsivity

The ratio of generated photocurrent to incident light power, typically expressed in
A/W when used in photoconductive mode. The responsivity may also be expressed as a
quantum efficiency, or the ratio of the number of photogenerated carriers to incident photons
and thus a unitless quantity.

dark current

The current through the photodiode in the absence of light, when it is operated in
photoconductive mode. The dark current includes photocurrent generated by background
radiation and the saturation current of the semiconductor junction. Dark current must be
accounted for by calibration if a photodiode is used to make an accurate optical power
measurement, and it is also a source of noise when a photodiode is used in an optical
communication system.
noise-equivalent power

(NEP) The minimum input optical power to generate photocurrent, equal to the rms
noise current in a 1 hertz bandwidth. The related characteristic detectivity (D) is the
inverse of NEP, 1/NEP; The NEP is roughly the minimum detectable input power of a
photodiode.
When a photodiode is used in an optical communication system, these parameters contribute
to the sensitivity of the optical receiver, which is the minimum input power required for the
receiver to achieve a specified bit error ratio

7.2.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS
1. What is photo detector?
2. List some of the operating performance and requirements of optical detectors.
3. What is impact ionization?
4. Draw the simple model of a photo detector receiver.
5. What is the figure of merit of a photodetector?

7.2.5 PRECAUTION
Before switching between the bias modes, it is recommended to switch OFF the PD
module and the power supply. This ensures that the voltages are not reversed or applied
quickly to the PD. Failure to do so may result in permanent damage to PD and its power
supply.


64
7.2.6 EXPERIMENT

7.2.6.1 PROCEDURE

Photo-detector at Zero bias

Connect of OFF power supply to the module using the DIN-DIN cable provided with
the power supply. Set the bias switch to the zero bias configuration (Bias switch moved to the
top most position). Turn the bias voltage varying pot in the PD module to its minimum
position and switch ON the module. The zero bias LED lights up.

The module at the zero bias configuration is shown in Fig.1. The photodiode is given
no bias voltage. The current induced by the photo-detector due to the incident optical power
on to it, flows through the load resistor.









Figure 1 : PD with zero bias configuration


1. Put 1 M ohm resistor across V
L
.
2. Connect the ST connector end of the patch cord supplied with the module to the
power source.
3. Set the Power source in CW mode and to give maximum output power (refer
Benchmark power source manual on how to adjust the power). Connect 1m patch
cord between source and meter (use bare fiber adaptor – plastic at the power meter
end) and measure this optical power P and adjust the power in source such that it
reads-18dBm approx. Note down this power.
4. Slightly unscrew the black colored cap of the PD to loosen it without removing it
from the connector assembly. Remove the patch cord from the power meter and
gently push the fiber into the black cap until it is held in place. Now tighten the
black cap by screwing it back. The fiber will now be held firmly in place. Now
measure the voltage across V
1
.
5. Vary the optical power P from -18dBm approx in steps of 5dBm.To reduce the
power more than what the power source can attenuate remove the ST connector of
the patch cord slightly that is connected to the power source. This gives the
natural attenuation. Ensure that this loose connector is not disturbed while
connecting and removing the patch cord between meter and PD. May be you can
stick the cable on to the table with a sticking tape near the source. Tabulate the
readings as follows:


65
7.2.6.2 TABULATION

S.No. Power P
dBm
Power P
0
µW V
L

Volts
Iz
µA





I
Z
= V
L
/1 x 10
6


1. Plot the graph P vs I
Z
The graph should be similar to the one shown in fig.2

7.2.6.3 MODEL GRAPH
Figure 2 Power Vs Current graph

Photo-detector at Forward bias

Connect the OFT power supply to the module using the DIN-DIN cable provided with
the power supply. Set the bias switch to the forward bias configuration (Bias switch moved
tot eh middle position). Turn the bias voltage varying pot in the PD module to its minimum
position and switch ON the module. The forward bias LED lights up.

66
The module at the forward bias configuration switches the photodiode to a basic
configuration as shown in Fig.3. The photodiode is given forward bias voltage.












Figure 3 : PD with forward bias configuration

1. Put 10K resistor across V
L
.
2. Adjust the potentiometer and fix the bias voltage at 10V
3. Connect the ST connector end of the patch cord supplied with the module to the
power source.
4. Set the Power source in CW mode and to give maximum output power (refer
Benchmark power source manual on how to adjust the power). Connect 1m patch
cord between source and meter (use bare fiber adaptor – plastic at the power meter
end) and measure this optical power P and adjust the power in source such that it
reads – 18dBm approx. Note down this power.


5. Slightly unscrew the black colored cap of the PD to loosen it, without removing it
from the connector assembly. Remove the patch cord from the power meter and
gently push the fiber into the black cap until it is held in place. Now tighten the black
cap by screwing it back. The fiber will now be held firmly in place. Now measure the
voltage V
L
.
6. Vary the optical power P from – 18 dBm to -40 dBm approx in steps of 5dBm. To
reduce the power more than what the power source can attenuate, remove the ST
connector of the patch cord slightly that is connected to the power source. This gives
the natural attenuation. Ensure that this loose connector is not disturbed while
connecting and removing the patch cord between meter and PD. May be you can
stick the cable on to the table with a sticking tape near the source. Tabulate the
readings as follows:

Forward Voltage: -------------- V I
f
= V
L
/10 x 10
3


S.No. Power P
dBm
Power P
0

µW
V
L

V
I
f

Ma








67












Figure 4 Power Vs Current graph


7. Plot the graph P vs I
f
. The sample graph is shown in fig.4

8. Now fix the power launched as – 20 dBm.

9. Vary the bias voltage from 2V to 10V by adjusting the potentiometer and measure
V
L
.

10. Tabulate the values and plot the graph V
BIAS
VS I
L
. The sample graph is shown in
Fig.5

Incident Power = ----------------dBm

S.No. Bias Voltage
V
BIAS
V
V
L

V
I
f

mA




















Fig. 5 Voltage Vs. Current graph


68
Photo-detector at Reverse Bias

Connect the OFT power supply to the module using the DIN-DIN cable provided with
the power supply. Set the bias switch to the reverse bias configuration (Bias switch moved to
the bottom most position). Turn the bias voltage varying pot in the PD module to its
minimum position and switch ON the module. The reverse bias LED lights up.

The module at the reverse bias configuration switches the photodiode to a basic
configuration as shown in Fig.6. The photodiode is given reverse bias voltage. The current
induced by the photodiode due to the incident optical power on to it, flows through the load
resistor.












Figure 6: PD with reverse bias configuration

1. Put 10K resistor across V
L
.
2. Adjust the potentiometer and fix the bias voltage at 10V.
3. Connect the ST connector end of the patch cord supplied with the module to the
power source.
4. Set the Power source in CW mode and to give maximum output power (refer
Benchmark power source manual on how to adjust the power). Connect 1m patch
cord between source and meter (use bare fiber adaptor plastic at the power meter end)
and measure this optical power P and adjust the power in source such that it reads –
18dBm approx. Note down this power.
5. Slightly unscrew the black colored cap of the PD to loosen it, without removing it
from the connector assembly. Remove the patch cord from the power meter and
gently push the fiber into the black cap until it is held in place. Now tighten the black
cap by screwing it back. The fiber will now be held firmly in place. Now measure the
voltage V
L
.
6. Vary the optical power P from – 18dBm to -40dBm approx in steps of 5dBm. To
reduce the power more than what the power source can attenuate, remove the ST
connector of the patch cord slightly that is connected to the power source. This gives
the natural attenuation. Ensure that this loose connector is not disturbed while
connecting and removing the patch cord between meter and PD. May be you can stick
the cable on to the table with a sticking tape near the source. Tabulate the readings as
follows:





69
Reverse Voltage = _______________V I
r
= V
L
/10 x 10
3



S.No. Power
P dBm
Power P
µW
V
L

V
I
R

mA







7. Plot the graph P vs I
R
. The sample graph is shown in figure 7.














Figure 7 Power Vs Current graph

8. Now fix the power launched as – 20 dBm.
9. Vary the bias voltage from 2V to 10V by adjusting the potentiometer and measure V
L
.
10. Tabulate the values


Incident Power = _____________ dBm

S.No. Bias voltage
V
BIAS
( V)
V
L

(V)
I
R

(mA)
R
λ

(A/W)
η
(%)







11. For each value of the bias voltage and current calculate the value of the responsivity
from the formula. Are all the R
λ
values approximately same? What do you infer from
this?

R
λ
= V
L
/(R
L*
P
S)
A/W

70

where P
S
is the power in W.

12. From the average value of R
λ
calculate the value of the quantum efficiency from the
formula

η = R
λ
h ν / e x 100%

where
h = 6.64 x 10
-34
JS, is the Planck’s constant
ν = C/λ = 3 x 10
8
/ 850 x 10
-9
Hz , is frequency of the incident photons
e = 1.6 x 10
-19
Coulombs, is the electric charge

Repeat the above steps for various values of R
L
6.8K, 4.7K, 3.9K & 2.2K.

Leakage Characteristics of Photo-detector

One among the important characteristics of a photodiode is its leakage characteristics
when it is reverse biased. Since the leakage current through the photo-detector is normally
very less, increased bias voltage and higher value of R
L
is used in the module at the reverse
bias configuration. The basic configuration of the PD module in leakage characteristics is
shown in Fig.8











Figure 8: PD with leakage characteristics


Caution

Before switching between the bias modes, it is recommended to switch OFF the PD module
and the power supply. This ensures that the voltages are not reversed or applied quickly to the
PD. Failure to do so may result in permanent damage to PD and its power supply.

Connect the OFT power supply to the module using the DIN-DIN cable provided with
the power supply. Set the bias switch to the reverse bias configuration (Bias switch moved to
the bottom most position). Turn the bias voltage varying pot in the PD module to its
minimum position and switch ON the module. The reverse bias LED lights up.

1. Put 10 M resistors across V
L
.
2. Adjust the potentiometer and fix the bias voltage as 10V.

71
3. Screw in the free end of the ambient light arrester unit supplied with the module to the
PD. This is done to avoid ambient light falling on the Photodiode.
4. Measure the voltage V
L
.
5. Repeat the above procedure for various values of bias voltage and tabulate.
6. Plot the graph using V
bias
and I
dark
and the sample graph is shown in fig.9

I
dark
= V
L
/ R
L
|| R
m
A

where R
m
is the multi-meter input impedance which is normally 10Mohm.


S.No. V
bias

(Volts)
V
L

(Volts)
I
dark

(nA)
























Figure 9. Voltage Vs Dark Current graph

POSTLABQUESTIONS

1. Photo detector is a square law device. Justify.
2. What is quantum efficiency?
3. What is dark current?
4. Define noise equivalent power.
5. What is the cutoff wavelength of a photodetector ? Give the expression.





72
RESULT

Thus the V-I characteristics of PIN photodiode has been studied and following
parameters are determined.
R
λ
=
η =

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff incharge.



73
EXPT. NO 8
DC CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DIODE

8.1 OBJECTIVE

To study the V-I and P-I characteristics of LASER diode.

8.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED

1. OFT power supply (OFT power supply can be used for LD module)
2. A digital multi-meter
3. Benchmark LD unit
4. Benchmark LD drive module with its accessories
5. Benchmark Fiber Optic Power meter with ST adaptor
6. Mounting Posts

8.3 INTRODUCTION

A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor similar to that
found in a light-emitting diode. The most common and practical type of laser diode is formed
from a p-n junction and powered by injected electric current. These devices are sometimes
referred to as injection laser diodes to distinguish them from (optically) pumped laser diodes,
which are more easily manufactured in the laboratory.
A laser diode, like many other semiconductor devices, is formed by doping a very thin
layer on the surface of a crystal wafer. The crystal is doped to produce an n-type region and a
p-type region, one above the other, resulting in a p-n junction, or diode.
When an electron and a hole are present in the same region, they may recombine or
"annihilate" with the result being spontaneous emission — i.e., the electron may re-occupy
the energy state of the hole, emitting a photon with energy equal to the difference between
the electron and hole states involved. (In a conventional semiconductor junction diode, the
energy released from the recombination of electrons and holes is carried away as phonons,
i.e., lattice vibrations, rather than as photons.) Spontaneous emission gives the laser diode
below lasing threshold similar properties to an LED. Spontaneous emission is necessary to
initiate laser oscillation, but it is one among several sources of inefficiency once the laser is
oscillating.
In the absence of stimulated emission (e.g., lasing) conditions, electrons and holes
may coexist in proximity to one another, without recombining, for a certain time, termed the
"upper-state lifetime" or "recombination time" (about a nanosecond for typical diode laser
materials), before they recombine. Then a nearby photon with energy equal to the
recombination energy can cause recombination by stimulated emission. This generates
another photon of the same frequency, travelling in the same direction, with the same
polarization and phase as the first photon. This means that stimulated emission causes gain in
an optical wave (of the correct wavelength) in the injection region, and the gain increases as
the number of electrons and holes injected across the junction increases. The spontaneous and
stimulated emission processes are vastly more efficient in direct bandgap semiconductors
than in indirect bandgap semiconductors; therefore silicon is not a common material for laser
diodes.
As in other lasers, the gain region is surrounded with an optical cavity to form a laser.
In the simplest form of laser diode, an optical waveguide is made on that crystal surface, such
that the light is confined to a relatively narrow line. The two ends of the crystal are cleaved to

74
form perfectly smooth, parallel edges, forming a Fabry-Perot resonator. Photons emitted into
a mode of the waveguide will travel along the waveguide and be reflected several times from
each end face before they are emitted. As a light wave passes through the cavity, it is
amplified by stimulated emission, but light is also lost due to absorption and by incomplete
reflection from the end facets. Finally, if there is more amplification than loss, the diode
begins to "lase".

8.4 PRE LAB QUESTIONS

1. What are multiquantum well lasers.
2. List the different types of Laser modes.
3. Expand (Nd: YAG) LASER = __________.
4. Mention the important transition process demonstrated by Einstein for LASER action.
5. In comparison to LED, Laser has-----------------spectral width .

8.5 PRECAUTION

Laser radiation. Avoid direct eye or skin exposure to laser beam while setting up the
system or conducting experiments. Always view only the reflected rays while setting up the
system or while conducting experiments.

Laser Diode (LD) module Setup



8.6 EXPERIMENT

8.6.1 PROCEDURE

1. Setup the LD module as shown in the figure.
2. Keep the potentiometer at the minimum position. Turn ON the power to the module.
3. Measure the voltage V
1
between ground and the point. Calculate the current hrough
the LD I
LD
which is given is I
LD
= V
1
/R
1

Note: Scientech module R
1
= 100, Benchmark module R
1
= 24
4. Now without changing any voltage or the multi-turn post position, measure the optical
power output P of the LD.
Calculate the power in mW which is given as P
0
(mW) = 10
P(dBm)/10


75
5. Increase the current through LD by turning the multi-turn pot clockwise direction
slightly towards the maximum till you get a convenient reading V
1
and repeat the
steps 2 to 5 and tabulate them as shown below.
6. Repeat step 4 till multi-run pot reaches its maximum position and plot the graph for
V
LD
V
S
I
LD
and I
LD
V
S
P
0
.
7. The threshold current of the LD can be found out from the P-I characteristics graph.
Note down the current from the P-I graph at which there is a sharp rise in the optical
output power. This is the threshold current of the LD

8.6.2 TABULATION

S.No.
V
1

Volts
I
LD

mA
V
ID

Volts
P
dBm
P
0

mW
1
.
10


8.6.3 MODEL GRAPH













Figure 1 P-I characteristics curve
















Figure 2 V-I characteristics curve

76

8.7 POSTLAB

1. When light amplification occurs in LASER?
2. Laser is preferred over LED in --------------- fiber.
3. State the threshold conditions for laser oscillations.
4. List some of the major advantages of LASER over LED’s
5. What are the sources of noise in LASER?

8.8 RESULT :

The P-I and V-I characteristics of a Laser Diode were studied and plotted the
threshold current was found to be _________.

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff in charge.

77
EXPT NO: 9.1

MEASUREMENT OF NUMERICAL APERTURE OF OPTICAL FIBER

9.1.1 OBJECTIVE:

To measure the numerical aperture of a given optical fiber at 650 nm

9.1.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED:

Optical fiber
Numerical Aperture measurement Kit

9.1.3 INTRODUCTION:

Numerical aperture (NA) of a fiber is a measure of the acceptance angle of light in the
fiber. Light which is launched at angles greater than this maximum acceptable angle does not
get coupled to propagating modes in the fiber and therefore does not reach the receiver at the
other end of the fiber. The Numerical aperture is useful in the computation of optical power
coupled from an optical source to the fiber, from the fiber to a photo detector and between
two fibers.

9.1.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. Define angle of acceptance
2. If the angle of acceptance is 30 degree, what is the value of numerical aperture.
3. What is the formula for numerical aperture.
4. What is lens coupling and butt coupling
5. How to relate snell’ s law with Numerical Aperture.

DIAGRAM




78


9.1.5 PROCEDURE:

1. Insert one end of the fiber into the numerical aperture measurement kit as shown in
the figure. Adjust the fiber such that its tip is 10 mm from the screen
2. Gently tighten the screw to hold the fiber firmly in the place.
3. Connect the other end of the fiber to the LED Source through a connector. The fiber
will project a circular patch of red light onto the screen. Let d be the distance between
the fiber tip and the screen. Now measure the diameter of the circular patch of red
light in two perpendicular directions (BC and DE in figure). The mean radius of the
circular patch is given by
X= (DE + BC)/4

4. Carefully measure the distance d between the tip of the fiber and the illuminated
screen (OA) as
shown in figure. The Numerical aperture of the fiber is given by

NA= Sin θ = X/(d
2
+ X
2
)
1/2

5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for different values of d, compute the average value of Numerical
aperture.



9.1.6 TABULATION:

S.No Radius of the
circular path X
Distance d NA= Sin θ = X/(d
2
+ X
2
)
1/2





Average:


79
9.1.7 POST LAB QUESTIONS

1. Why do single mode fibers have larger bandwidth as compared to that of multimode
fibers?
2. What is pulse dispersion?
3. Define total internal reflection.
4. Can optical fiber conduct electricity? Why?
5. At what wavelength does silica fiber show minimum attenuation?
6. Give the relation between bandwidth and Numerical aperture (NA).

9.1.8 RESULT
Thus the numerical aperture of an fiber optic cable is determined.

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff in charge.

80
EXPT NO: 9.2

MEASUREMENT OF PROPAGATION LOSS IN OPTICAL FIBER

9.2.1 OBJECTIVE

To measure the propagation loss in an optical fiber.

9.2.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:

Kit(Fiber link-D)
1m, 3m Fiber Cable
Link Patch cords
Power supply

9.2.3 INTRODUCTION:

Optical fibers are available in different variety of materials. These materials are
usually selected by taking into account their absorption characteristics of different
wavelengths of light. Losses are introduced in fiber due to various reasons. As light
propagates from one end of fiber to another end, part of it is absorbed in the material
exhibiting absorption loss. Also part of the light is reflected back or in some other direction
from the impurity particles present in the material contributing to the loss of the signal at the
other end of the fiber. It is known as Propagation loss

9.2.3 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What are the different types of dispersion
2. What is group velocity dispersion
3. What is the difference between attenuation and dispersion
4. How to increase the signal strength in optical fibers
5. Define attenuation coefficient.
6. What are the reasons for optical signal loss in fiber?

FORMULA:

Propagation loss- Attenuation in dB/m

α = ln(P
o1
/P
o2
) /(l
2
-l
1
)

where
P
o1
---- Output power level (µw) at the end of the fiber of length l
1
(m)
P
02
---- Output power level (µw) at the end of the fiber of length l
2
(m)







81

MODEL GRAPH




9.2.4 PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the power supply cables with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this,
ensure that the power supply is OFF.
2. Connect the AMP O/P as a constant signal to the TX I/P using a patch cord.
3. You will measure the light output using SIGNAL STRENGTH section of the kit. The
loss will be more for a longer piece of fiber. In order to measure the loss in the fiber
you first need a reference of how much light goes into the fiber from the Light
transmitter, You will use the short piece of fiber to measure this reference.
4. Switch on the power supply. Connect the short piece of fiber between the TX and RX
of the kit. Adjust the transmitter level until the signal strength reads 6, this will be
your reference value. Now connect the long piece of fiber instead of the short piece.
What reading do you get? Loss in optical fiber system is usually measured in dB. Loss
of fiber itself is measured in dB/meter.


5. Subtract the length of the short fiber from the length of the long fiber to get the
difference in the fiber lengths (4m-1m). The extra length of 3 m is what created the
extra loss you measured. Then take the signal strength reading you obtained for the
loss of the long fiber directly from the power meter.








82
9.2.6 TABULATION:


S No

Length of the optical fiber
cable
(m)
OpticalPower
Signal Strength

Propagation Loss

dBm

mW








9.2.7 RESULT
Thus the propagation loss in fiber optic cable is measured.

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge.















83
EXPT NO: 9.3
MEASUREMENT OF BENDING LOSS IN AN OPTICAL FIBER

9.3.1 OBJECTIVE

To measure the bending loss of a fiber optic cable

9.3.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

Kit (Fiber Link-D)
1 m or 3 m fiber cable
Spindles to wound the fiber around it
Power supply.

9.3.3 INTRODUCTION:

Though the fibers are good at bending, each time the fiber is bent, a little light is lost. This
experiment will measure how much of this light is lost for different sizes of bends.

9.3.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What is microbending and macrobending loss?
2. What is total internal reflection?
3. Define Snell’s law
4. Differentiate reflection, refraction and diffraction.


MODEL GRAPH




84



9.3.5 EXPERIMENT

9.3.5.1 PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the power supply cables with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this,
ensure that the power supply is OFF.
2. Connect the AMP O/P as a constant signal to the TX I/P using a patch cord.You will
measure the light output using SIGNAL STRENGTH section of the kit.
3. Switch on the power supply. Connect the long piece of fiber between the TX and RX
of the kit so there are no sharp bends in the fiber between them
4. Adjust the transmitter level until the signal strength reads 6, this will be your
reference value. Now take the portion of the fiber and loop it into the spindle and note
the signal strength from the power meter, which give the optical signal power in
dBW/m.
5. Repeat it for various diameters of the spindle and for various numbers of bend on the
spindle and measure the corresponding signal strength from the optical power meter.

85

9.3.5.2 TABULATION:

i) No. of turns Vs Signal Strength:
Diameter of Spindle: ___________________
S No Bending Signal Strength in mW
1 No Bend
2 1
3 2
4 3

ii) Radius of the Spindle Vs Signal Strength:

S No
Radius of
spindle
Signal Strength in mW
1
2
3
4

9.3. 6 POST LAB QUESTION:

1. How light is propagated inside a fiber?
2. Give the merits and demerits of Optical fiber cable.
3. In optical fiber propagation loss increases or decreases with the increase in length of
the fiber cable?

9.3.7 RESULT

Thus the bending loss in fiber optic cable is determined

LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge.



86
EXPT NO: 10
SETTING UP A FIBRE OPTIC ANALOG LINK

10.1 OBJECTIVE:

1. To set up an 850nm fiber optic analog link.
2. To observe the linear relationship between the input and received signal.
3. To measure the bandwidth of link
4. To observe the effect of gain control received signal

1.0.2HARDWARE REQUIRED:

1. Optical fiber trainer kit
2. Two channel 20Mhz oscilloscope
3. Function generator(1Hz – 10MHz)

10.3INTRODUCTION:

This experiment is designed to familiarize the user with optical fiber trainer kit. An
analog fiber optic link is to be set up in this experiment. The preparation of the optical fiber
for coupling light in to it and the coupling of the fiber to the LED and detector are quite
important. The LED used is an 850nm LED. The fiber is a multimode fiber with a core
diameter of 1000µm. The detector is simple PIN detector.

The LED optical power output is directly proportional to the current driving the LED.
Similarly, for the PIN diode, the current is proportional to the amount of light falling on the
detector. Thus, even though the LED and the PIN diode are non-linear devices, the current in
the PIN diode is directly proportional to the driving current of the LED. This makes the
optical communication system a linear system.

10.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS
1. What is point ot point link?
2. Define link power buget.
3. What is rise time budget?
4.What is the transmission frequency in optical fiber?
5.In Communication link what is the need for repeater?

10.5 PROCEDURE:

1. Set the switch SW8 to the analog position. Switch the power on. The power on
switch is located at the top right hand corner.
2. Feed a 1V p-p sinusoidal signal at 1KHZ from a function generator, to the analog in
post P11 using the following procedure:
i) Connect a BNC-BNC cable from the function generator to the BNC socketI/03
ii) Connect the signal post I/03 to the analog in post P11 using a patch cord.
3. With this, the signal from the function generator is fed through to the analog in signal
post P11 from theI/03 BNC socket.
4. Connect one end of the 1m fiber to the LED source.
5. Observe the light output at the other end of the fiber.

87
6. Feed a 5V p-p rectangular signal at 0.5HZat P11. Observe the signal on the
oscilloscope. Now observe the intensity of the light output at the other end of the
fiber.
7. Now, feed a 5V p-p sinusoidal signal at 0.5Hz at P11. Observe the variation in the
brightness of the light output at the other end of the fiber as a driving signal varies
sinusoidally.
8. Thus light intensity is modulated by an input rectangular of sinusoidal signal.
9. Connect the other end of the fiber to the detector PD1 in the optical Rx1 block.
10. Feed a sinusoidal wave of 1KHz, 1V p-p from the function generator of P11. The
PIN detector output signal is available at P32 in the optical Rx1 block. Vary the input
signal level driving the LED and observe the received signal at the PIN detector. Plot
the received signal peak to peak amplitude with respect to the input signal peak to
peak amplitude.
11. The Pin detector signal at P32 is amplified, with amplifier gain controlled by the
GAIN potentiometer. With a 3Vp-p input signal at P11, observe P31 as a gain
potentiometer is varied.
12. Measure the bandwidth of the link as follows:
Apply a 2V p-p sinusoidal signal at P11 and observe the output at P31. Adjust GAIN
such that no clipping takes place. Vary the frequency of input signal from 100Hz to
5MHz and measure the amplitude of the received signal. Plot the received signal
amplitude as a function of frequency. Note the frequency range for which the
response is flat.

10.6 LAYOUT DIAGRAM



88




Fig 1 Gain control





Fig 2 Signal at P31

TABULATION
Input : Sine Wave V
i
= ___________Vp-p

S.No. Frequency
(Hz)
Output Voltage
V
o
(V)
Gain (dB)
G = 20 log (V
o
/V
i
)
1
2
.
.
14
15

10.7 POSTLAB QUESTIONS

1. What is Optical Bandwidth and Electrical Bandwidth? Give their relation.
2. What is the maximum bandwidth the analog link can support
3. What are the important blocks of point to point links?
4. What is the function of Optical receiver?





89
10.8 RESULT
Thus the analog Link is established using the Fiber optic Kit. The bandwidth
of the link is found to be
Optical bandwidth =
Electrical bandwidth =


LAB REPORT
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions


GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge.


90
EXPT NO: 11
SETTING UP A FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL LINK

11.1 OBJECTIVE:

1. To set up a 650nm and 850nm digital link
2. To measure the maximum bit rates supportable on thee links.

11.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED:

Optical fiber trainer kit
Two channel 20 MHz oscilloscope
Function generator (1Hz – 10MHz)

11.3 INTRODUCTION:

The OFT can be used to set up two fiber optic digital links, one at a wavelength of
650nm and the other at 850nm. Led1, in the optical TX1 block, is an 850nmLED, and LED2,
in the optical TX2 block, is a 650nm LED.

PD1, in the optical Rx1 block, is a PIN detector which gives a current proportional to
the optical power falling on the detector. The received signal is amplified and converted to a
TTL signal using a comparator. The GAIN control plays a crucial role in this conversion.

PD2, in the optical Rx2 block, is another receiver which directly gives out a TTL
signal. Both the PIN detectors can receive 650nm as well a 850nm signals, though their
sensitivity is lower at 650nm.

11.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What is a TTL signal?
2. Compare Analog and Digital transmitter
3. Define sensitivity
4. What are the modulation formats used in optical Communication
5. What is a Trans impedance receiver.


11.5 PROCEDURE:

1. Set the switch SW8 to the digital position.
2. Connect a 1m optical fiber between LED1 and the PIN diode PD1.
3. Ensure that the shorting plug of jumper JP2 is across the posts B&A1.
4. Feed a TTL signal of about 20KHz from the function generator to post B of S6.
Observe the received analog signal at the amplifier post P31 on channel 1 of the
oscilloscope. Note the signal at P31 gets cutoff above 3.5V. Increase and decrease
the Gain and observe the effect.
5. Observe the received signal at post A of S26 on channel 2 of the oscilloscope while
still observing the signal at P31 on channel 1.

91
6. Set the gain such the signal at P31 is about 2V. Observe the input signal from the
function generator on channel 1 and the received TTL signal at post A of S26 on
channel 2. vary the frequency of the input signal and obser the output response.
7. Repeat steps 4,5 and6 with 3m fiber.
8.
9. 11.6 LAYOUT DIAGRAM





92


COMPARATOR TO CONVERT RECEIVED SIGNAL INTO A TTL SIGNAL




11.7 POSTLAB QUESTIONS

1. What is a Digital Link
2. What are the advantages of digital link over analog link?
3. What is a high impedance receiver?

11.8 RESULT
Thus the Digital link is established in fiber optic link.

93
LAB REPORT

Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits
to your staff in charge.

94
EXPT NO:12
RF AMPLIFIER

OBJECTIVE
To perform the PSPICE simulation of RF amplifier circuit .

SOFTWARE REQUIRED

ORCAD 9.2

12.3 INTRODUCTION

An RF power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power
radio-frequency signal into a larger signal of significant power, typically for driving the
antenna of a transmitter. It is usually optimized to have high efficiency, high output
Power(P1dB) compression, good return loss on the input and output, good gain, and optimum
heat dissipation.

An RF amplifier has variable resistors which represent impedance. The reactance of
an inductor and the capacitance varies as frequency changes. As the frequency increases,
inductive reactance increases and capacitive reactance will be equal. The frequency will
depend upon the value of the inductor and capacitor. If they are connected as a parallel LC
circuit, we have an ideal frequency RF amplifier.
Being a high power device and having large gain it gives large output signal power
while requiring very small amount of RF power which is normally available from any
commercial signal generator. Because of this the power amplifier (or the amplifier chain)
itself is commonly known as "The RF source" or sometimes "The Transmitter". The basic
applications of RF Power Amplifier includes driving to another high power source, Driving
an transmitting antenna, Microwave heating and Exciting resonant cavity structures. Among
these applications one for driving transmitter antenna is well known because of the growing
field of communication and information technology. The transmitter receivers are not only
used for voice and data communication but are also used for weather reporting and forecast
(in the form of a RADAR). Microwave or RF heating is an industrial application which is
also benefiting our homes in the form of "Microwave Oven". Exciting cavity resonators is
quite a research lab and industrial application of an RF source. Particle accelerators utilize RF
sources extensively.

12.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS
1. What is PSPICE
2. What is meant by transient analysis
3. List some applications of RF amplifier
4. What are inline amplifiers.
5. What is amplification Bandwidth.

12.5 PROCEDURE

1. Open the Pspice AD Lite software
2. Create a new text file
3. Type the program and save with an extension .cir
4. To execute the program go to debug menu and select run.

95
5. If any errors, modify the netlist accordingly.
6. If no errors, go to trace menu and add the required trace component i.e.,
7. output node voltage.

12.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

C3
1n
C2
0.01uF
C3
0.01uF
L1
0.101uH
L2
0.101uH
R1
100K
RE
500K
R2
100K
R4
100K
Vin
0Adc
1VAC
Q1
Q2N2222
RC
750K
CE
1uF
C3
1nF
R6
1k
0
VCC


12.7 NETLIST:
VCC 1 0 DC 10V
R1 1 3 100K
RC 3 0 100K
R3 1 7 0.75K
R4 5 6 0.100K
RL 8 0 1K
RE 4 0 0.5K
C1 7 2 0.01UF
C2 6 0 0.01UF
C3 2 8 1NF
C4 4 0 1NF
C5 6 3 1NF
L1 7 2 0.101UF
L2 6 0 0.1.132UH
Q1 2 3 4 Q2N2222
V1 5 0 AC 50MV SIN(0 59MV 1KHZ)
.LIB
.TRAN/OP 50NS 5US
.AC DEC 10 10HZ 50MEGHZ
.PROBE
.END

96
12.8 SIMULATED OUTPUT


12.9 POSTLAB QUESTIONS
1. What is AC analysis
2. What is frequency anlaysis
3. Define Fidelity
4. What is delayed AGC
5. What is squelch circuit.

12.10 RESULT

Thus the RF amplifier program has been written, compiled and simulated using
PSPICE simulator.

LAB REPORT
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge.

97
EXPT NO: 13
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF IF AMPLIFIER

13.1 OBJECTIVE

To perform the PSPICE simulation of RF amplifier circuit .

13.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRED

ORCAD 9.2

13.3 INTRODUCTION

An NE 592 acts as an IF Amplifier in which dc coupling occurs between mixer and
amplifier. It is practical because different supply voltages such as 6v and 12v are used. The
voltage at the differential input is about 4.5v. A narrow Band pass filter for the intermediate
frequency is achieved using only one crystal as the reactive element. Maximum IF gain is at
the crystal series response where the crystal impedance is low.

Unlike the broadband tunable radio-frequency amplifier, the intermediate-frequency
amplifier is designed to operate over a narrow band of frequencies centered about a dedicated
fixed frequency (the intermediate frequency); therefore, the intermediate-frequency amplifier
can be an extremely efficient stage. If the intermediate frequency is on the order of a few
megahertz, the undesirable images may be efficiently rejected, but narrow-band filtering for
noise and adjacent-channel-signal rejection is difficult and expensive because of the high
ratio of the intermediate frequency to the bandwidth of the intermediate-frequency amplifier.
If the intermediate frequency is much smaller, say, on the order of a few hundred kilohertz,
then inexpensive and more selective filters are possible that can separate the desired signal
from closely packed adjacent signals, but they do not reject images very well. A high-quality
double-conversion receiver combines the best of both approaches by cascading both high-
and low-frequency intermediate-frequency stages that are separated by a second fixed-
frequency mixer.

The superheterodyne structure is common for television, ground-based and satellite
communications, cell phones, ground-based and airborne radar, navigation, and many other
receivers. The intermediate-frequency amplifier function is ubiquitous. See Amplifier, Radio-
frequency amplifier

13.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS

1. What is the need for Intermediate Frequency conversion.
2. What is heterodyning
3. What is Beat frequency oscillator
4. What is diversity reception

13.5 PROCEDURE

1. Open the Pspice AD Lite software
2. Create a new text file
3. Type the program and save with an extension .cir

98
4. To execute the program go to debug menu and select run.
5. If any errors, modify the netlist accordingly.
6. If no errors, go to trace menu and add the required trace component i.e.,
7. output node voltage.

13.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

C1
50nF
R1
22K
RE
500K
R2
10K
Vin
0Adc
50mV
Q2
Q2N2222
RC
1K
CE
500nF
C2
1nF
RL
1k
VCC
0
C3
L3 .01uF


13.7 NETLIST
VCC 1 0 DC 6V
R1 1 2 22K
R2 2 0 10K
RC 1 3 1K
RE 4 0 500
RL 6 0 1K
CE 4 0 50NF
C1 2 5 50NF
C2 3 6 50NF
L 6 0 0.0122MH
C 6 0 0.01UH
Q1 3 2 Q2N2222
V 5 0 AC 50MV
.MODEL TRANS NPN BF=400
.LIB
.AC DEC 15 100KHZ 600KHZ
.OP
.PROBE
.END


99


13.8 SIMULATED OUTPUT



13.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS

1. What is the need for heterodyning.
2. What is Image frequency rejection.
3. What is a double conversion receiver
4. What is the need for Beat frequency oscillator

13.10 RESULT
Thus the PSPICE circuit for an IF amplifier is simulated and its frequency response is
verified.

LAB REPORT
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff in charge.

100
EXPT NO: 14
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
14.1 OBJECTIVE

To design and simulate a PSPICE circuit for Amplitude modulation and calculate the
modulation index for various levels of modulating voltages.

14.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRED

ORCAD 9.2

14.3 INTRODUCTION

Amplitude modulation (AM) is the modulation method used in the AM radio
broadcast band. In this system the intensity, or amplitude, of the carrier wave varies in
accordance with the modulating signal. When the carrier is thus modulated, a fraction of the
power is converted to sidebands extending above and below the carrier frequency by an
amount equal to the highest modulating frequency. If the modulated carrier is rectified (see
rectifier) and the carrier frequency filtered out, the modulating signal can be recovered. This
form of modulation is not a very efficient way to send information; the power required is
relatively large because the carrier, which contains no information, is sent along with the
information.

In a variant of amplitude modulation, called single sideband modulation (SSB), the
modulated signal contains only one sideband and no carrier. The information can be
demodulated only if the carrier is used as a reference. This is normally accomplished by
generating a wave in the receiver at the carrier frequency. SSB modulation is used for long-
distance telephony (such as in the amateur radio bands) and telegraphy over land and
submarine cables.

14.4 PRELAB QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference of plotting the output using TRAN and AC.
2. Which statement is used to get more than one plot.
3. How much power is transmitted if the modulation index of an AM wave is changed from
1 to 0.
4. What is the application of VSB AM.

14.5 PROCEDURE
• Open the Pspice AD Lite software
• Create a new text file
• Type the program and save with an extension .cir
• To execute the program go to debug menu and select run.
• If any errors, modify the netlist accordingly.
• If no errors, go to trace menu and add the required trace component i.e.,
• output node voltage.


101
14.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


14.7 NETLIST
VIN 1 0 AC 10MV SIN (0 10MV 1KHZ)
VCC 7 0 DC 15V
RS 1 2 500
R1 7 3 47K
R2 3 0 5K
RC 7 4 10K
RE 5 0 2K
RL 6 0 20K
C1 2 3 1UF
C2 4 6 1UF
CE 5 0 10UF
Q1 4 3 5 Q2N2222
.PLOT TRAN V(4) V(6) V(1)
.PLOT AC VM(6) VP(6)
.TRAN/OP 50 US 2MS
AC DEC 10 1HZ 10KHZ
.PROBE
.END

102
14.8 OUTPUT






















14.9 POST LAB QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by transient response
2. Expand SPICE
3. What are the simulation parameters.

14.10 RESULT:
Thus a PSIPCE circuit for amplitude modulation is simulated .

LAB REPORT
Each individual will be required to submit a lab report. Use the format specified in the
"Lab Report Requirements" document available on the class web page. Be sure to include the
following items in your lab report:
ƒ Lab cover sheet with staff verification for circuit diagram
ƒ Answer the pre-lab questions
ƒ Tabulate the experimental results, do the calculations and plot the required graphs
ƒ Answer the post-lab questions

GRADING
Pre-lab Work 20 points
Lab Performance 30 points
Post-lab Work 20 points
Lab report 30 points

For the lab performance - at a minimum, demonstrate the operation of all the circuits to your
staff incharge

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