Summer Internship Report On

Socio Economic impact of Financial Inclusion

REPORT

Submitted To: MBA Office, IMNU
Under partial fulfilment of Post graduate program in management (2011-13)

Submitted By:
Siddharth Shah MBA – FT Roll No. - 111255 Institute of Management Nirma University, Ahmedabad.

Student Name: Roll No: Date of Submission: Organization Name: Address:

Siddharth Shah 111255 30th June, 2012 The Adivasi Academy The Adivasi Academy, Mandaar, At post Tejgadh, Chota Udepur, District: Vadodara. Pin: 391 156

Project Guide:

Mr. Atul Garg . Executive Director, Bhasha Research and Publication Prof. Satish Nair

Internal Guide:

Project Title: Socio Economic Impact of Financial Inclusion

Acknowledgments
I am immensely grateful to Dr. Prof. Satish Nair without whose constant guidance and moral support, this work would not have been possible. I am also thankful to Prof. Ganesh Devy, the founder Trustee of Bhasha Research and Publication Centre, Vadodara for granting me a permission to undertake my internship at Bhasha and Adivasi Academy, Tejgadh; and also to Mr. Atul Garg, Executive Director, Bhasha research and publication and Mr. Vipul Kapadia, Ms. Sonal Baxi, of Bhasha Research and Publication Centre for their help and suggestions at every necessary stage of my stay and work there. I partly owe the success of this work to Ramsinh Rathva, my constant companion on the field, who took me to faraway places for data collection. I am also thankful to Shri Nagin Rathva, Naran Rathva, Harishbhai, the librarian at the Adivasi Academy and the entire team at Tejgadh for their help, support, warmth and affection. I cannot afford to forget to thank all my respondents who took out time to fill up the questionnaire and providing me all the necessary details. They all have opened up a new world of the adivasis, to which, in spite of sharing the same geographical space, most of us remain aliens. I should say that the entire project has given me an insight into the issues of the tribal communities of Central Gujarat in particular, and have sensitized me towards Nature and the adivasi ways of life.

Contents

Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………..1 Part A Chapter 1 Description of the organization……………………………………………………2
1.1 Bhasha Research and Publication Center…………………………………………………2 1.2 Tribal Artists Cooperative and Micro-credit Scheme…………………………………….4 1.3 Health Care Programs…………………………………………………………………….5 1.4 Himlok- Institute of Himalayan Studies………………………………………………….5 1.5 Green Economic Zones…………………………………………………………………...6 1.6 The National Consortium of Tribal Arts and Culture (NCTAC)…………………………7 1.7 Role of ‘The Adivasi Academy’ and ‘Bhasha’ in the field of microfinance…………….9 1.8 Vision……………………………………………………………………………………..9 1.9 Top management………………………………………………………………………….9 1.10 1.11

Board of advisors……………………………………………………………………..9 Future plans of the organization………………………………………………………10

Part-B Chapter 1 Data collection…………………………………………………………………….11
1.1 Problem…………………………………………………………………………………..11 1.2 Objective…………………………………………………………………………………11 1.3 Utility of the study………………………………………………………………………11 1.4 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………….11

1.5 Data collection…………………………………………………………………………...11 1.6 Quantitative and qualitative techniques………………………………………………….12 1.7 Sources of data…………………………………………………………………………..12 1.8 Sampling method…………………………………………………………………………12

Chapter-2 Data analysis………………………………………………………………………13 Part-A…………………………………………………………………………………………13 Part-B………………………………………………………………………………………….17 Part-C………………………………………………………………………………………….19 Part-D………………………………………………………………………………………….22

Chater-3 Calculations…………………………………………………………………………23

1.1Per capita family income and per capita income………………………………………...23 1.2Internal lending………………………………………………………………………….24 1.3Bank lending…………………………………………………………………………….24

Chapter-4 Discussions ………………………………………………………………………25 Part – A………………………………………………………………………………………25 Part – B………………………………………………………………………………………25 Part – C………………………………………………………………………………………27 Part – D………………………………………………………………………………………27

Part – C Learning……………………………………………………………………………………..28
1. Myth about the microfinance………………………………………………………..28 2. Myth about the poverty……………………………………………………………..29 3. Knowledge about the government schemes…………………………………………32 4. Sakhi Mandal………………………………………………………………………..32 5. Personal Relations…………………………………………………………………..33

Suggestions………………………………………………………………………………….33
1. Entrepreneurship…………………………………………………………………….33 2. Medicinal use of Mahuda flowers…………………………………………………..34 3. Organic farming……………………………………………………………………..35

Annexure-1 Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………..37

Executive summary
‘The Tribal Academy’ is located at Tejgadh in Vadodara district. It works for the tribal language and upliftment of the tribal people. The project which I have taken was in the field of microfinance. The academy plays a role of a facilitator to form Self Help Groups (SHGs). Four talukas of Vadodara district where I worked have majority of the tribal population. These tribal are small farmers and they rely on the informal source of credit. During the farming season

the tribal approach the money lenders. These money lenders charge exorbitant interest rate as high as 5% a month. The farmers take loan in July and they have to pay one and half times the loan in November. Over the decades such exploitation has happened and it has pushed the tribal in the vicious cycle of poverty. In order to break this vicious cycle, tribal should be provided with a formal source of credit. The tribal academy has made an attempt in this direction. The objective of the project was to measure the socio economic impact of the financial inclusion. The attempt was made to cover four talukas of Vadodara district namely ChotaUdepur, Pavi Jetpur, Kanwat and Naswadi. During the project tribal from two different tribes were surveyed namely Rathwas and Naikas. In the survey 28 villages and over 40 Self Help Groups (SHGs) were covered.

Part A
Chapter-1 Description of the organization 1.1 Bhasha Research and Publication Center

Bhasha Research and Publication Center was founded in Vadodara in 1996 as a voluntary, nonprofit organization to support, study and conserve history, culture, languages, literature, arts, and crafts. Notably, of India's vast population, around 90 million belong to the indigenous communities known as adivasis or tribals. Majority of the adivasi communities dwell in central India and the northeastern parts of India. They have developed their own knowledge systems related to ecology, agriculture, healthcare, craft and other art forms and possess a rich corpus of oral literature. Unfortunately, because of language policy of the Government of India, most of the adivasi languages do not have the recognition as major languages and suffer from neglect and marginalization. Moreover, the rich and varied cultures of the adivasi communities are threatened by the migration and displacement. Economic pressure has forced them out from their natural habitats to the urban industrial centres. Consequently, along with the rich corpus of tribal literature, their knowledge system embedded in their oral literature is vanishing faster than one can realize. Moreover, to the non-adivasi people, oriented by supremacy of print media are not aware of the culture, literature and traditions of the adivasis. To most of them, adivasis are ignorant, poor and illiterate lot of people, not worthy to merit their serious consideration. Bhasha Research and Publication Centre felt the necessity of a long-term strategy to value and recognize the principles that underlie the history and culture of the indigenous people of our country. The term ‘Bhasha’, originally in Sanskrit means language. However, going beyond this literary meaning, ‘Bhasha’ research and publication centre voices the ‘voices’ of the indigenous and marginalized groups of people. Its prime concern is to lend voice and establish spaces of equality for the adivasis, de-notified communities and nomadic communities of India. It aims at bringing about a significant shift in their socio-economic and cultural conditions. This organization operates form cenrtral Gujarat but besides the tribal belt of Gujarat, it works extensively in the tribal belts of neighbouring states like Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It has reached out to the other parts of the country as well through their extensive work for the de-notified and nomadic tribes. Bhasha's objectives are to locate, encourage and support the linguistic, literary, and artistic heritage of adivasi communities in India and by doing so make them visible to their non-adivasi counterparts. In order to achieve its objectives, ‘Bhasha’ also encourage research studies in these

fields and have collaborated with many national and international academic bodies of repute and have created a nationwide web of scholars engaged in the study of adivasi literature and culture. It has established an educational institution called ‘Tribal Academy’ at Tejgadh, a tribal village in Chhotaudepur Taluka of Vadodara district for promotion of adivasi languages, literature, culture, craft and different art forms besides the objective of initiating formal education in the area of conservation of adivasi identity. The academy offers the post-graduate diplomas in tribal studies program. The course content comprises of adivasi culture, languages, history, folklore, arts, craft, economy, law and human rights. Intensive training is provided to the registered students in the field of developmental economics so that as soon as they complete their study, they can be absorbed in the jobs pertaining to social reconstruction and empowerment by creating economic opportunities in adivasi areas. The academy also runs tailor-made courses to hone its students’ special skills in arts and crafts, entrepreneurship, innovative steps in the field of agriculture and forest development and allied subjects. The institution aims to create a community of volunteers, scholars and activists who can constructively contribute in the dovetailing of tribal studies and activism by bringing in awareness towards their issues and rights. The tribal academy, in order to fulfill its objective of documentation, publication and promotion of adivasi art and craft, traditional knowledge system, oral traditions, theatre, music, dance and literature, has initiated various programmes and projects. For instance, in order to salvage the adivasi languages from extinction and to preserve their vast cultural and literary treasures, Bhasha publishes a magazine named Dhol in 11 adivasi languages (Ahirani, Dungri Bhili, Panchamahali Bhili, Kunkna, Dehvali, Rathawi, Bhantu, Choudhri, Gor-Banjara, Pawri, and Marathi). This unique magazine provides a platform to the adivasi intellectuals to share their cultural knowledge and practices with the other adivasi groups of India. The circulation of the magazine is about 2,000 adivasi readers in each respective languages. In addition to Dhol, Bhasha publishes a newsletter named Budhan, for the denotified and nomadic communities of India. Bhasha also aspires to publish books in various tribal languages and as an initiative step to fulfill this dream Bhasha has invented a new convention, which has been adopted by India's National Academy of Literature (the Sahitya Akademi), for the written transcription of tribal languages. Bhasha has produced forty volumes of literature in tribal languages.

1.2 Tribal Artists Cooperative and Micro-credit Scheme

The adivasi communities are adept in crafts and have their own particular varieties or styles. Most of them use material produced from the local natural resources. To promote the indigenous art, Bhasha had organized a three-month workshop in 1998 for 300 artists of different communities, and artifacts as varied as sculptures, paintings, beadwork, cane work, pottery, and textiles were produced during the workshop. To encourage their craft styles through sales in the national market, Bhasha has also initiated a venture called the Artists Cooperative Society. The members of the Cooperative benefit from Bhasha's national exposure to sell their work while retaining 100 percent of the profits. The success of this programme inspired Bhasha to broaden the scope of its work. Consequently, for economic alleviation of the adivasis of Gujarat Bhasha has initiated a micro-credit scheme in which the State Bank of India, Tejgadh, and the Punjab National Bank, Vadodara are two collaborators. This scheme allows adivasis to develop a sense of saving and incur some profit from its investment. The scheme aims to empower them by helping them to be free from indebtedness to exploitative money lenders. Since July 1999, they have established 100 self-help groups in forty adivasi villages. More than 1,200 individuals, many of whom are artists, benefit from the program by becoming self-reliant to some extent. Regular practice of saving makes them entitled to small loans which can be used primarily for agriculture and entrepreneurship in traditional skills of arts and craft. Income generated through agriculture and arts is thus converted into productive capital holding. A couple of years later, Bhasha further expanded by integrating social empowerment with economic betterment and undertook new projects that aimed to address issues of health, children's education and migration, very central to the empowerment as well as survival of adivasi community.

1.3 Health Care Programmes
The Prakriti Programme, another of Bhasha initiative aims to address health problems among the adivasis. Keeping in view very less accessibility of formal health care facilities, by providing need based health care facilities, Bhasha transcended the formal set ups of clinics and hospitals. Through community participation, surveys related to health issues, followed by both, general and

specialized health camps and their follow up programmes, with special attention to two most prevailing diseases like sickle cell anaemia and tuberculosis are carried out in the adivasi areas. In addition to various service oriented programmes, Bhasha has instituted an annual lecture series in memory of Verrier Elwin, one of the most influential champions of tribal culture in India. Under this scheme number of tribal intellectuals from various states are invited to deliberate on various subjects specific to adivasi identity, existence and issues In 1998, an action group called DNT-RAG was constituted to protect human rights of the nomadic and denotified communities, which, under the able leadership of Mahasweta Devi and Ganesh Devy, convinced the Government of India to establish the National DNT commission and the Technical Advisory Group (TAG). The same year, to help the Chhara community to wash off the stigma of ‘criminal community’, Bhasha started a theatre group called Budhan Theatre. Remarkably, Bhudhan was a DNT, killed by the atrocity of police force. The group carries out activities like writing and performing plays on different issues related to DNTS; and very recently in February 2012, to commemorate its decade old success story, organized Ahmedabad Theatre Festival where more than twenty-five theatre groups across the country performed for three days.

1.4 Himlok- Institute of Himalayan Studies
In order to expand its scope and reach, in 2006, Bhasha has extended its work to encompass the area of the Himalayas and the Himalayan communities. An Institute called 'Himlok' located at Kalpa, Kinnaur District of Himachal Pradesh, is a sight for conservation, documentation, study and research of the Himalayan environment and communities. The institute, like its counterpart at Tejgadh offers certificate course in Himalayan Culture Studies, documents arts and craft of Himalayan communities, works for socio-economic empowerment of the villages of Kinnuaur District and also publishes a magazine called GOYAN. It also houses a museum at Keylong of Lahaul and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh.

1.5 Green Economic Zones

After an extensive work for more than a decadein the area of micro-credit federations, food grain banks, water harvesting cooperatives, organic agriculture and informal education centers, Bhasha has perceived a unique economic concept of creating several Green Economic Zones (GEZs) to counter balance the damage done by Special Economic Zones. The team of around 400 volunteers work in the direction to make adivasi villages self reliant by promoting environment friendly sustainable programmes like horticulture, organic farming, vermicomposting, herbal and medicinal gardens and village level processing and small scale manufacturing units. On June 5th 2009 hundreds of Adivasis, joined by activists from around the country, marched from Tejgadh to Vedcchi, spreading the word of Green Economic Zones. 1.6 The National Consortium of Tribal Arts and Culture (NCTAC) While working for the varied interests of the adivasis of India, the innovative researchers of Bhasha felt the need of creating more reliable mediums of conservation. They noticed that eighteen Tribal Research and Training Insititutes (TRTIs) are actively engaged in documenting and preserving the diversity of artistic tribal traditions and incredible tribal heritage of India and collectively hold over 25,000 artifacts. Soon to materialize its dream of conserving and consolidating these precious heritage in a digitized form, The National Consortium of Tribal Arts and Culture (NCTAC) was started by Bhasha with the support of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India. The project also involved the creation of VAACHA, a specially conceived touch screen installation for these ethnographic museums. By adopting different technological elements like film, still photography, animation and illustration, a visual presentation, imparting glimpse of adivasi arts, culture and lifestyle has been created.

1.7 Role of ‘The Adivasi Academy’ and ‘Bhasha’ in the field of microfinance
Way back in 1900s while doing his research on Rathvi language, Prof. Ganesh Devy, then heading the Department of English, M. S. University, observed social and economic backwardness of the tribal people living in Eastern belt of Gujarat. He also realized that tribal people were losing their unique culture which they had inherited from their ancestors.

For most of the adivasis, agriculture is the only source of income. Over the years, the land holding in this area has become very fragmented. The average land holding in 1990s was less than 5 acres. Also the agricultural income is fluctuating and depends upon the vagaries of the seasons. For most of the families, agricultural income was not sufficient and they had to migrate to the cities to eke out living during the non farming season. The literacy level was very low in this belt. Other factor which was of the deep concern was people were hugely indebted. More than ¾ of the people were dependent on the local financers or money lenders. These people charge the interest at exorbitant rate. Sometimes at the compound interest rate of 5% per month. Most of the people used to pay whatever surplus they get from farming in paying the interest. This trend was quite disturbing. It was very obvious that unless the adivasis become economically better off they cannot preserve their culture. It was a great challenge to emancipate the people from the clutches of the moneylenders. At the same time, it was even a bigger challenge to acquaint the illiterate people with the formal financial institutions-the banks. Prof. Devy, through Bhasha Research and Publication Centre, a Vadodara – based non-profit NGO, of which he was the founder trustee decided to intervene in order to help the adivasis by helping the adivasis to empower themselves. Consequently, an educational institute called Adivasi Academy was established at a tribal village in Chhotaudepur Taluka of Vadodara district for the promotion of adivasi languages, literature, culture, craft and different art forms besides the objective of initiating formal education in the area of conservation of adivasi identity. To fulfill its long term objective, a need for spread of education and also economic independence was deeply felt. In order to reduce dependency on private money lenders and gradually get free from their clutches, the Academy has set up the Micro Finance and Micro Enterprise Programmes. The programme is aimed at checking outward migration and creating livelihood opportunities using local and traditional resources. Initiated in 1999, the micro finance network presently has 2200 self help groups and reaches close to 48,000 people in six districts of Gujarat. These groups have transactions of over 10 crore Rupees. In the past year 7400 members of nomadic communities have also been linked to the microfinance programme.

Around 1100 SHGs exists alone in Vadodara district. The SHGs consist 10-16 members. Mostly the members are from the same neighborhood (faliya). The employee of the academy visits the villages and spread the awareness about the importance of the savings. They also explain how the savings in group would help the in getting rid of the financers. Once the group is convinced and ready to form a SHG, the field supervisors of the academy introduce them to the bank which is nearest to that village. Most of the members of the SHG visit the bank for the first time at that time. The employees of the academy help to open an account in the name of the SHG. An SHG by consensus elect a president and a secretary. All the SHGs have the stamp (seal) of their name. The employee of the academy helps these groups in any matter with the bank. Also he oversees that the monthly saving installments are paid regularly. If the groups do not deposit the monthly installment then the field supervisor inquires and tries to find the reason and solution. If any group member wants to secure the internal lending then at that time a written consensus has to be made in the meeting. Every member has to sign or give a thumbprint on the document. In the absence of any member, the consensus cannot be said to be made. The academy also helps the groups in securing loans from the banks. As the most of the members of the groups are illiterate they find quite a difficulty in doing the formalities to secure a loan. Generally the bank lend the amount which is four time of the total savings of the group. The bank charge the interest at 12% per annum. Whereas internal lending rate is decided by the groups within themselves. Generally internal interest rate is 10% per annum, lower than bank interest rate.

1.8 Vision
The Academy aims at building a new outlook to development by underlining tribal values of selfreliance, self-confidence, hard work and building capabilities to survive against all odds by rescuing their dignity and respecting their cultural heritage through festivals, organizing cultural performances, theatre, songs, dances, rituals, documenting folklore and promoting modernizing tools in their languages.

1.9 Top Management

1. Executive Director: Mr. Atul Garg 2. Honarary Director: Prof. Tridip Suhurd

1.10 Board of advisors
The Constitution of the Adivasi Academy provides that the highest authority of the Academy will be the Board of Advisors. At present the following persons are Members of the Board:

1. Dr. Sudershn Iyenger, Vice Chancellor, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Ahmadabad 2. Dr. Varsha Das, Director, National Gandhi Museam 3. Dr. Nandini Sunder, Professor, Department of commerce and economics, Delhi School of Economics 4. Smt. Vidya Rao, Orient Black Swan Pvt. Ltd 5. Professor Uttam Parmar, Kim Education Society 6. Dr. Tripad Suhrad, Gandhian scholar, Dhirubhai Ambani Institute for technology and information technology

Bhasha and ‘The Adivasi Academy’ are the NGOs. They work for the betterment of the tribal people. The academy has presence in 5 districts of Gujarat namely, Dang, Surat, Vadodara, Dahod and Panchmahal. Over 2200 Self Help Groups (SHGs) are connected with the academy. The organization has a staff of around 65-70 people which includes office staff, field supervisors, staff in health department and others. As this is an NGO, there is no competition from any other organization. Apart from the academy state government has also formed women SHG ‘Sakhi Mandal’. There are few other NGOs working in this under developed tribal area. Particularly Shrof Foundation is very active in providing the primary education.

1.11 Future plans of the organization
Over the years Bhasha and ‘The Adivasi Academy’ is working for the benefit of the tribal people. At present the program on micro finance and education is run successfully. An emphasis is given to the primary education in the program on education. This program is carried on with the help of ‘Reach to Teach, UK’. The academy has given the thrust on sustainability of its programs. The academy has tried that even in its absence, programs which it started should sustain in a long run. The program on education was initiated in September 2011 and still it is in the initial stages and there is a great scope to spread it.

Part B
Chapter-1 Data collection 1.1 Problem
Microfinance is perceived to be a means of eradicating poverty. Many success stories of the microfinance have made the microfinance one of the hot subjects of the discussion. At the same time in past year or two microfinance has also catered negative publicity. Many commentators have claimed the outcomes of the micro finance as exaggerated. In this scenario it is imperative to evaluate the socio and economic effect of the microfinance or rather of the financial inclusion.

1.2 Objective
Evaluate the socio-economic impact of the financial inclusion on the members of the SHGs.

1.3 Utility of the study
This study would provide an opportunity to introspect the outcomes of the financial inclusion. It will also help to find the loop holes or the scope for improvement.

1.4 Methodology
The project required both qualitative and the quantitative methods. The object of the project was to measure the impact of the financial inclusion on the members of the Self Help Groups (SHGs). The quantitative techniques were used to measure mainly the economic impact. Whereas qualitative techniques were used to evaluate the social change that the financial inclusion brought on the life of the members of the SHGs.

1.5 Data collection
A questionnaire was formed. A questionnaire was divided in to four parts. Part A consisted the information on the location of the SHG, the year of its formation and the demographic details of the group. The purpose for including such type of questions were to collect the data on age, education and number of family members. This information was further used to determine the income of the family. Part B includes the questions on financial literacy of the members. It was important to see whether each and every member of the group can deal with the bank after joining the SHG. The basis of the project depends on this part. Part C includes the questions on the assets of the members. Their land holding and farming practices. The data collected was essential to estimate the income of the family. Part D includes the observations. This part was essential to evaluate the condition of the villages. Also an attempt was made to get clues of the life style of the members.

1.6 Quantitative and Qualitative techniques This project has made an attempt to evaluate both social and economic effect of the financial inclusion. The economic effect is quantifiable but it is very difficult to quantify the social effect. The social effect can be seen after a long time gap and it was beyond the scope of this project to quantify it. Also the social effect such as elevation in the society due to improvement in the financial status, awareness about the social issues or sensitivity about the political issues is different for each individual. The in depth interviews were used extensively. The interviews were conducted with the employees of the Academy, the members of the Self Help Groups, the field supervisors and on many occasions with the family members of the members. One focus group interview was also conducted with the woman SHG in order to see the social impact of the financial inclusion.

1.7 Sources of data
The data has been collected from the primary source. The surveys have been conducted in the four talukas of Vadodara district and around 27 villages have been covered under the survey.

1.8 Sampling method
Simple random sampling has been adopted to collect the data. The villages were surveyed randomly taking care that every geographical part of the taluka is covered. If more than one SHGs were working in the village then any one or more than one SHG was surveyed. It was not possible to survey all the members of the SHG as many of them would have gone to their farms or some members also migrate to the cities. In this case the members available were surveyed. If all the members were available then six members were picked up randomly from the group. Initially sample of 234 out of the population of 385 was picked up. Later some unreliable samples were dropped. Also the members of SHG from the same family were dropped. That led to final sample size of 184 out of the population of 385.

At the time of planning the sampling it was decided that 30% of the samples would be picked from the SHGs which were formed prior to 2001, 20% from 2001-2005, 20% from 2006-2010 and 30% from the SHGs started after 2010. At the time of planning the desired sample size was 800 but it was soon realized that as it was non agricultural season many members had migrated and could not be reached. Also it was a flowering season for Mahuda tree so all the women members go to the forests to pick up the flowers. Adding to it the marriage season had also just begun. All these reasons compelled to reduce the sample size and later on sample size of 400 was decided. At the end of the sampling though the desired percentage samples from the groups could not be taken but the actual percentage was quite near the desired percentage. Actual % Desired sample sample 26.08695652 30% 21.19565217 20% 24.45652174 20% 28.26086957 30% %

before 2001 2001-2005 2006-2010 after 2010

Chapter-2 Data Analysis
Part A
1. Population, sample, number of villages and SHGs Table-1 Sample Chota Udepur Kanwat 74 41 Population SHG 163 82 67 73 385 21 7 6 6 40 Villages 15 3 5 4 27

Pavi Jetpur 36 Naswadi Total 33 184

2. No. of children Table-2 Male Chota Udepur Kanwat 149 59 Female 120 55 49 50 274 Total 269 114 106 103 592 2.78 2.94 3.12 0.52 0.53 0.51 Average Male children /total children 3.63 0.55

Pavi Jetpur 57 Naswadi Total 53 318

Sex ratio = 0.86

3. Education Table-3 illeterate Chotaudepur 54 Kanwat 35 Pavijetpur 23 Naswadi 18 Chart-1 till 5 2 1 3 8 till 7 4 2 5 3 till 10 9 3 3 2 till 12 4 0 1 0 Graduation 1 0 1 2

Table-4 Education ill till 5 till 7 till 10 till 12 graduation Chart-2 (%) 70.65217391 7.608695652 7.608695652 9.239130435 2.717391304 2.173913043

4. Formation of the SHG

Table-5 before 2001 18 23 7 0 48 20012005 16 12 11 0 39 20062010 21 6 12 6 45 after 2010 19 0 6 27 52 Total 74 41 36 33 184

Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total Chart-3

Part B
1. The status of the groups Table-6 closed months 2 2 1 0 for closed for 6 months to year 2 0 0 0 6 a between 1 to 2 year 1 0 0 0 closed for more than 2 years 1 0 1 0

Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi

regular 15 5 4 6

2. Age of a member at time of joining the SHG

Table-7 <25 Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total 4 9 11 14 38 25-35 49 24 17 17 107 35-50 21 8 8 2 39 >50 0 0 0 0 0

3. Bank balance Table-8 <10000 7 2 2 6 1000025000 5 1 2 0 2500050000 6 4 2 0 5000075000 2 0 0 0 75000100000 1 0 0 0 >100000 0 0 0 0

Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi

Chart-4

4. Data on financial literacy Table-9

bank ac before LIC Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total Chart-5 24 13 11 7 55 22 2 3 0 27

savings A/C 24 13 11 7 55

regular savings 4 7 5 2 18

some savings 20 16 13 8 57

5. Monthly savings Table-10 Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Rs.25 1 2 0 0 3 Rs.30 14 4 4 5 27 Rs.50 2 0 2 1 5 Rs.100 4 1 0 0 5

Chart-6

Part C
1. Land holding Table-11 Avg land holding 1.97 2.12 2.37 1.82

Chotaudepur Kanwat Pavijetpur Naswadi Chart-7

no 2 6 0 1

<1 9 12 9 4

1 to 2 38 11 11 21

2 to 3 18 9 9 4

3 to 5 6 3 7 3

>5 1 0 0 0

Total 74 41 36 33

2. No. of crops Table-12 1 Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Chart-8 28 11 7 25 2 41 24 24 6 3 3 0 5 0

3. Data on Migration Table-13 1-2 months Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total 13 0 0 8 21 3-4 months 9 3 3 5 20 4-6 months 0 0 1 0 1 >6 months 4 0 3 1 8

4. Vocational training and profession other than farming

Table-14 Vocational other training profession Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi 2 17 3 3 16 8 3 4

5. Fruit bearing tress Table-15 mango n other Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi 14 4 7 3 mahudo 51 0 2 4

6. Awareness about the government schemes

Table-16 awas Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total 20 20 11 10 41 irrigation other 7 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 1

Part D
Observations

Table-17 elecronic health Laterine gadget facility Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi Total Table-18 awareness of schemes Chota Udepur Kanwat Pavi Jetpur Naswadi 21 13 6 2 pakka pakka house other house than Awas 17 18 15 10 4 2 5 0 9 3 1 1 14 8 4 3 0 15 8 3 3 0 14 mobile primary phone in a school family 16 3 5 4 28 73 41 36 33 183

Chapter-3 Calculations
1. Per capita family income and per capita income

percapita family income 40% ferti, pesti, feed for live stock 50% interest on agriculture expense 26747.838 27856.72 33731.268 25742.58 per capita family surplus 8915.946 9285.573 11243.756 8580.859 percapita income 1583.649378 1942.588 2276.06397 1675.949

Chota Udepur 89159.46 53495.676

Kanwat Pavi Jetpur 92855.73 112437.56 55713.44 67462.536

Naswadi 85808.59 51485.15

Note: The income is calculated on the basis of sources of income. Two basic sources have considered. First the agricultural income and second is the income from the livestock. Approximation has been done to calculate the income from the live stock. During the survey conducted it could be ascertained that one buffalo produces around 3 liters of milk and a cow little less than 3 liters. The cost of fodder was ascertained and average price of the milk based on the percentage of fat at cooperative dairy was also ascertained. Based upon these calculations income from one buffalo was decided to be Rs.60, one cow to be Rs.45 and other animals to be Rs. 20. To calculate the agricultural income the productivity in terms of average income per acre was ascertained for all the four talukas. Data was collected on how much the surveyed people own land. Then data on number of crops each surveyed person takes was collected. First by deciding the average of land usage in terms of months and the by productivity in terms of the income per acre the average agricultural income was decided. Average agricultural income from per acre land Chotaudepur = Rs.180000 Kanwat = Rs. 15000 PaviJetpur = Rs. 20000 Naswadi = Rs. 18000 2. Internal lending Total Internal Lending Interest earned at 10% Interest saved on bank loan at 12% Interest saved on money lender at 50% 412200 Note: ChotaUdepur 824400 82440 98928 Kanwat 780000 78000 93600 390000 PaviJetpur 421200 42120 50544 210600 Naswadi 14400 1440 172800 7200 Total 2040000 204000 415872 1020000

The calculations are based on how many times each member has taken an internal lending from the group savings and for what amount. On many occasion the correspondents did not remember the exact amount of the lending and exact number of times the lending which they had taken. Due to these reason approximation has done.

3. Bank lending Bank lending Interest paid at 12% Interest saved at 50% on money lender Diff. (Overall interest saved) Note: Bank loan is sanctioned at 4 times of the savings of the SHG. The record on the bank loan is kept precisely by the academy and was accessible. The loan is provided to the whole group and later the group decides about which member would get what amount. In this case it was again not possible to know the exact amount of the loan taken by the member. The numbers are approximate but close to the real numbers. Chotaudepur Kanwat PaviJetpur 2472800 2325000 1246700 296736 279000 149604 1236400 939664 1162500 623350 883500 473746 Naswadi 102300 12276 51150 38874 Total 6146800 737616 3073400 2335784

Chapter-4 Discussions
Part A
1. Fertility rate of ChotaUdepur, Kanwat, PaviJetpur and Naswadi are 3.63, 2.78, 2.94 and 3.12 respectively. This has an important bearing on evaluation of economic condition of the next generation. The sex ratio is o.86. The average land holding is 1.97,2.12, 2.37 and 1.82 acres respectively. In this region a daughter when gets married does not inherit land. The ratios of male children to total children are 0.55, 0.52, 0.53 and 0.51 respectively.

It implies that in next 10 years the land holding will further divided by the above mentioned ratios. The likely land holding will be 0.98, 1.1, 1.26 and 0.92 respectively. When the land holding decreases it affects the agricultural income directly and income from live stock indirectly. One and half acre of land can support 2 cattle. Invariably one cattle would be a bullock so 1.5 acre land can support just one mulch animal. As the average land holding would fall down below 1.5 acres, it would severely affect the animal husbandry and eventually the income of the farmers.

2. The education is another factor for cause of concern. 70% of the people surveyed were illiterate and only 22% people have primary education. This fact shows the grim reality.

Part B
1. 75% of the SHGs are functional. The most defaults have happened in the year 2010 and 2011. The prime reason being the SBI had sanctioned the loan in excess of the savings of the SHG in 2009. It is an agreement between the bank and the academy that before sanctioning the loan, the bank first approach to academy. The academy will evaluate the necessity of the loan. On satisfactory reason s the academy will take signature or thumb print of all the members of the SHG for the agreement. On showing this agreement the bank will sanction the loan. In 2009 the SBI at various branches sanctioned the loan to the SHGs without consulting the academy. The loan was also sanctioned during the non agricultural season. Due to unproductive use of the loan the members who had taken the loan could not generate the income and eventually made default. According to the field supervisors the bank managers had acted irresponsibly to achieve the targets for lending. Apart from that the prime reason for closure of the SHG is demise of its active member. In many SHGs all the members do not take interest in dealing with bank. One or two of the members most of the time deal with the bank. When those members migrate or die, the

whole SHG get closed. That is why the academy give emphasis that every member of the group should get turn to deal with the bank. Migration is another problem for non functioning of the SHG. When the member migrates, he cannot give the installments for monthly savings. In that situation other members have to pay his share of the installments. If other members are willing to pay the extra share then it is well and good otherwise the whole group becomes non functional. It is very imperative for the banks that they do not lend with out consulting the academy. Especially in the marriage season. During marriage season many groups apply for the bank loans giving some other reasons. 2. The data on the age of the members when they joined the SHG shows the social and economic independence. 58% of the members joined the SHG in the age bracket of 25-35 years. More people were in their late 20s when they had joined the group. 3. 30% people had bank account before they joined the SHG and only 9% were doing a regular savings before they joined the SHG. It can be inferred that the SHGs have brought the people to the banking system and has made habit of saving regularly. It is apparent that the awareness of the life insurance is also very low. 4. 67.5% of members of the SHG do monthly savings of Rs.30. If there are 12 members in the group then the total monthly savings would be Rs.360 and yearly savings of Rs.4320. That implies that they will be able to get bank loan of 17000-18000. This loan amount is insufficient to bear the agricultural expenses and the members still have to approach the money lenders.

Part C
1. Migration is common in this region. Most of the migration happens to Vadodara and Rajkot cities. Around 27% of the respondents migrate. Most of the migration takes place during the non agricultural season.

Most of the respondents replied that they migrate to work in the farm in Saurashtra region. Naika tribe prefers to work in ceramic industry as their traditional profession is pottery. A few also work in Melamine mines and tur mills. 2. The penetration of vocational training is also quite low. A village called Chimali in Kanwat taluka has been made a model village by the ‘The Tribal Academy’ and women members of the SHGs have got the training in tailoring. The profession of the people is predominantly a farming. Apart from farming either people work as laborers or as drivers. 3. The awareness about the government scheme is unusually low. A subsidy of 75000 is provided to drill a bore well by the state government. But only 7 people out of 184 respondents had availed this benefit. 41 families living below the poverty line have got the pakka house under Indira Gandhi Awas Yojana. Due ignorance about the government schemes people have not received the benefits under the schemes.

Part D
1. Surprisingly 183 families out of 184 had mobile in their home. Many families had more than one mobile phones. This shows that the means of communication has without any doubt improved.

The problem on hygiene and sanitation is a challenge. As only 14 households had the latrines. All the 28 villages had a primary schools. Only 50% villages have health care centers which is a cause of worry.

Only 11 houses apart from the Houses built under the Awas yojana can be called pakka. It cannot be inferred that the people do not have capacity to build the pakka house. It is more

a trand to live in adha pakka house where the cement is used in constructing the house but mud is used for the plaster.

Part-C
Learning
The summer training at ‘The Adivasi Academy’, Tejgadh was once in a life time opportunity. Most of the times during the MBA corporate and multinationals are talked about. But seldom is it talked about the micro enterprises, development aspect of the finance or entrepreneurship. It is unfortunate that still over 65% people live in the villages and 60-70% of the employment is generated by the unorganized sector and small and micro enterprises but still most of the curriculum over emphasizes on how to become a better manager to serve the corporate. The two months of precious time that I spent in the rural areas has given me an opportunity to acquaint myself of various issues related to the rural India. It has also provided me an opportunity to learn about the rural consumer behavior which is going to be beneficial me for the years to come. The most important part of the learning was from conversations with rural people. Getting knowledge about their daily problems, about the government schemes, their beneficiaries and loopholes, etc have added a new dimension to my knowledge. 1. Myth about the microfinance Before I started surveying the villages I had a perception that by taking the microfinance people become enterprising overnight. They come out of the poverty quickly and I had considered micro finance as a messiah for the poor. This notion was very soon corrected. I had heard many success stories of micro enterprises started by getting assistance of micro loans. The book of Mahhamad Yunus is full of such stories. Very specifically I had kept a question whether a person has started any new enterprise from the micro credit or not. In as many surveys I have done I have have the affirmative reply just twice. Once where a woman had started a cutlery shop and second time where the whole SHG had invested to buy utensils which they can rent for the marriages.

I am really surprised that why people here are not enterprising. People of Bangladesh who could be considered as destitute when Grameen bank had started lending them could successfully turned entrepreneurs at micro level and people here are not at all interested in entrepreneurship. What can be the reason? I did not need to go any further to think about the reason. The reason is land. The average land holding in Bangladesh in 1980s was 0.5 acres. Many people who got first credit from Grameen bank were landless, farm laborers or pardashin women. They had no other option than to start a new enterprise in order to feed their families. The situation here is quite different. In my survey landless people are just 2%. The average land holding is still 1.25-1.5 acres. People do not need to remain hungry. The tribals are also socially better off than people in Bangladesh. Here a woman abandoned by her husband or widow forced to live in seclusion is the rarest. Whereas such incidents were in abundance in Bangladesh back in 80s and 90s. But if the next generation would not become enterprising then the situation would deteriorate dramatically.

2. Myth about the poverty Before I started my work of surveying the villages, I had a myth that I would come across an abject poverty and I may see people with malnutrition. But very soon I had realized that my perception was wrong. I have not seen any person dying of hunger nor have seen an emaciated body. The poverty is hard to define. How one can define poverty? Whether a person is not having a pakka house and living in a thatched house can be considered as a poor? Whether poverty should be defined on the basis of nutrition level, per capita disposable income, energy consumption or per capita asset? The answer is not simple. Empirical learning has provided me better insight to evaluate this question.

1. Suppose in a family there are five brothers and each brother inherited 1 acre of land. Each of them live in adha pakka (breaks are used for the construction but mud is used for doing a plaster) house. If the criteria of pakka house is considered then each of five brothers are poor. One of the brother got a pakka house through Indira Awas Yojna. His income levels would remain the same as other brothers but now he lives in a pakka house. Should he not be considered as a poor? This criteria simply cannot be considered. 2. I have visited around 37 villages and have surveyed over 150 people but I have not seen or heard of a person not having a square meal. Many times when I am in the field I take lunch at local people’s homes. Their staple food is corn and bajri. Also they take tur and udad daal and rice in their meals. It was a bit surprising for me that both tur and udad daal are so expensive, how can they afford to have. But most of the things which they consume are also grown by themselves. Considering the nutrition levels one cannot consider majority of the people which I surveyed as poor. 3. Evaluating the third criteria which is per capita disposable income would render half of the people as poor. The land holding is very fragmented here. The average land holding is around 1.25 acres. Usually people consume 40% of what they produce and sell the rest at around Rs.15000-20000. The annual family income of Rs.20000 would render them poor though they never remain hungry. 4. Defining poverty on the basis of per capita asset looks a tricky to me. I inquired the price of land and found that price of the irrigated land is around 4 lakh per acre and that of non irrigated is 2-2.5 lakh per acre. The price has doubled in the last five years. But definitely one cannot conclude that due to price rise many families have come out of the poverty. 5. The last criterion which is used mostly in the developed countries and it is totally irrelevant to the rural area. The energy consumption at these places is very less. Most of the people use hand pumps. Hardly 2% of the people have radio or televisions in their home. Dung cakes are used for cooking. Mobile penetration is 100%. Very few household have tube lights and fans. Most of the households use bulbs to light their homes. Many of these families can afford tube light or fan but they do not require them and that is why they have not bought.

I have got mixed responses from the people I surveyed. There are a few people who would like to call themselves poor though they possess a two wheeler. I also came across people who were very content especially of far of villages on the border of Madhya Pradesh. They were not at all concerned about whether they are included in the BPL list or not. They neither expect any help from the government nor from any NGO. They are content that they have forest nearby from where they get timber and they have sufficient land to produce enough food to feed their families. They also have quite livable houses. If I had to define poverty then I would consider the combination of per capita asset and per capita disposable income as criteria. Except Kanwat Pavi Jetpur, Choto Udepur and Naswadi have received above average rainfall in last six years. What if the people have to face two consecutive draughts? The people do not have any other source of income other than agriculture. If the land price is taken constant then per capita asset is also decreasing. The land fragmentation has direct effect on rearing of cattle apart from increasing operational cost. The reason being from 1 acre of land the available fodder is just sufficient for 3 cattle. People here do not visit doctor except when they have broken a bone. What if they had to borne cost of surgery. People here are quite content to provide education to their children till 8th class. Simply they cannot afford to bear the expenses of higher education. Considering all these factors at this point of time I can say that 60% of the people in these four talukas can be considered as poor. May be final data analysis can throw some more light on this issue.

3. Knowledge about the government schemes MGNREGA is the flagship scheme of the central government and it is believed that it has a potential to eradicate the poverty. Once in a while scams in this scheme also appear in the news papers. It is criticized on the basis of lack of auditing and leaking of funds.

I had kept a question in my questionnaire about the knowledge about the various government schemes. To my amazement only 5-6 people had knowledge about MGNRAGA. The people had heard about the scheme but had not taken any benefit. For further amazement they were issued the job cards under the scheme but those job cards were always kept either with sarpanch or gram sevak. It can be assumed that their names would be in the registers and the money paid for 100 days of the employment must be siphoned by the people who kept these cards. It is not possible to know where the trail of such corruption would end.

4. Sakhi Mandal This is a state government scheme where the Self Help Group (SHG) of 10 women is formed. These groups are provided with the micro lending and it is 50% subsidized. The concept is good to promote the micro entrepreneurship among the women. Unfortunately the government officers responsible for this scheme have been given the targets for the SHGs. To achieve these targets they do not see the group dynamics. It is the most important factor that the group members should have good understanding between them otherwise the group cannot sustain. Also a common problem is seen that one or two members from the group handle all the activities and the rest even do not know how much money is lent, how much monthly installment to be paid. In some cases one or two members uses all the money. Sakhi Mandal is for the women SHG but most of the time the husbands of one or two women are handling the dealings with the bank. Due to these problems the default rate is very high for these Sakhi Mandals. These frequent defaults spoil the psychology of the lenders. It is observed that many members of the SHGs of The Tribal Academy have joined the Sakhi Mandals due to 50% subsidy which they get on the repayment. After joing these Mandals they have defaulted in repaying the loans which they have taken with the consent of the Academy. The major flaw in forming the Sakhi Mandal is not giving proper attention while formation and inadequate monitoring. It is also spoiling the efforts of the academy.

5. Personal Relations

Personal Relations (PR) is much talked about in the corporate. PR is even more important for micro and small enterprises. Any organization having presence in the rural region has to be sensitive towards its stakeholders. In that case PR plays a vital role.

Suggestions
1. Entrepreneurship
The fact that less than 3% of the people surveyed have availed the microcredit to set up new enterprises is really disturbing. It raises three fundamental questions. First is whether tribal people are not enough enterprising. Second is where the organization as a facilitator has failed to institutionalize the enterprising spirit among its members. Third is sufficient availability of the credit. These questions may seem independent but they are interdependent. This particular problem needs a holistic approach. First for any new enterprise the seed capital is must. Micro credit provides this capital. The thing is ‘The tribal Academy’ is not a micro credit provider. It is just a facilitator and acts as an intermediary between the banks and the members of the SHGs. The banks provide four times the lending on the savings. So in order to get the lending first the savings has to happen. I am of the opinion that this process does not encourage the entrepreneurship. It is observed that even for the groups which had started before 2000, the savings have hardly reached to Rs. 50000. For such savings the available lending would be Rs. 200000 for the whole group. I am of the opinion that the group as a whole can become an entrepreneur. The lending from the bank would be sufficient for the whole group to start a new enterprise. In this process the role of the field directors and the academy is vital as they can advise to group and the members trust them. From my observation I can say that tribal people lack enterprising spirit. Again in this case the role of the academy is essential to motivate the members of the SHG to take entrepreneurship.

2. Medicinal use of Mahuda flower

The tribal are the forest dwellers. There is a large portion of forest products in their livelihood. Over the years the tribal have believed that they have the right over the forests where they live in and around. Especially bamboo and Mahuda tree have special bearing on their livelihood. I started the internship in the first week of April. That is the season when the Mahuda tree flowers. Mahuda tree has special importance in the tribal area. The tribal is culturally connected with this tree and on the festival of ‘Pithora’, they use a drink from Mahuda flowers. Mostly Mahuda flowers are used to make country made liquor. Mahuda trees flowers for 30-35 days. Over the years each family have established a right over the trees in their area. Each family owns two to three trees. When the flowering season is over the flowers are dried and later sold to the. The procurement happens on the number of the buckets. The traders pay thousand rupees for fifteen buckets of the dried flowers. In this way every family earns Rs. 4000-6000 every year from the Mahuda flowers. Out of four talukas that I surveyed, the families of ChotaUdepur and Kanwat own 2-3 Mahuda trees. The other two talukas Naswadi and Pavi Jetpur have very few such trees. Over the years Mahuda tree has become an integral part of the tribal and there is much more scope for income generation from this tree. The Mahuda flowers have various other medicinal and pharmaceutical uses. They can be used as laxative. Also they are useful in skin care and in curing skin diseases. If the medicinal use of the Mahuda flower is further explored then income of the people of this region can be increased.

3. Organic farming
From my interviews and conversations with the people one thing was very clear that the input costs of the farming are increasing mainly due to fertilizers and the pesticides. At the same time the produce have not increased. On the positive side almost all unanimously agreed that the rise in procurement rates have benefited them in the past two years. But it is seen that the rise in the procurement price was more a corrective measure. Over the years the agricultural produces were underpriced. This rise cannot go long. Besides that rising inflation is another cause of concern. The food inflation does not affect the tribal much as they are self sufficient in the food production. The biggest factor which affects is the rise in energy price. The rise in fuel affects the mobility and also increases the input cost of the agriculture.

In this situation it is quintessential that the input cost of the agriculture should be restricted and if possible should be decreased. One way of doing so is to switch to an organic farming. Bhasha has initiated a ‘model village program’. Under which they have chosen five villages which were backward, facing water scarcity and various other problems. Bhasha provides the guidance on organic farming. The organic farming has two benefits. The first is it reduces the input costs significantly. Another benefit is that it has a huge potential for the market of the health conscious consumers. This market is growing fast and if the organic products are marketed well then the producers can be benefited to a great extent. Unfortunately an organic farming has not produced the results the way it should have produced it. The biggest deterrent for the organic farming is the lack of consensus among the farmers to switch from the conventional inorganic farming to organic farming. The land needs a time period of 3-5 years to become organic completely. The farmer has to remain patient during this time and invariably the yield will reduce during this time. Most of the farmers who does not have savings cannot sustain such type of reduction in the income. Another deterrent is when one farm adopts the organic farming and the farms surrounding it uses inorganic farming, the pests generated from these farms infests the organic farm. It is important that at least about 600-800 acres of farm land is adopted for the organic farming to avoid such situation. Mostly organic farming is seen as a way to reduce the input costs. But it is seldom seen as a value proposition by the tribal farmers. The limited scope of marketing in the other than local markets has put a constraint on the selling price.

Annexure -1
Questionnaire
Part-A Name of the SHG Village Name of the member 1. No. of members in the SHG 3. No. of males, No. of females 4. When it was started 5. Whether all the families in the SHG are from the same tribe or from different. If from different then specify Part-B Data required determining the economic impact 1. Whether a person had bank savings account before he/she had joined the SHG Number of the SHG Taluka children 2. No. of different families in the SHG Age

2. Whether he/she used to save before he/she joined the SHG 3. If they used to save then what they used to do with these savings. Whether they deposited in the bank account 4. Whether each and every member of the group has visited the bank 5. Annual family income 6. How many members in the family are earning 7. Monthly savings 8. Total savings 9. Any default in depositing savings in the past one year 10. Whether after becoming the member of the SHG any new enterprise is opened or any new farm practice is employed 11. How much minimum balance is kept in the account 12. Whether a loan taken yes/no 13. If yes then a. How often a loan is taken b. The loan amount c. The reason for taking the loan Agriculture Marriage Funeral Health purpose Education Others d. Whether installments are repaid regularly e. Whether any other loan taken or whether installment of any other loan is still to be paid 14. Whether a member had taken the loan from the money lender before joining the SHG or micro credit group 15. Whether a member has taken the loan from the money lender after joining the SHG 16. If a member or group has made default in repaying the installments then try to find out the reason 17. Whether a member has a life insurance or any other kind of insurance

18. Does a member migrates during the non farming season 19. If yes then a. For how many months b. In which sector does he/she work Building construction Farm Industry Others Part-D Additional information 1. Whether a person owns his land or not 2. The land holding 3. Irrigated or non irrigated 4. No. of crops taken 5. Which crop taken Crop-1 6. Live stock No. of bullocks No. of cows Buffalos Others Crop-2 Crop-3

(Ask how does he sell the crop, how does he buy the fertilizers, from where, whether the government provides any subsidies or not, where does he sell the milk, to cooperative dairy) 7. Approximate yield of the farm (Find out what was the price of the crop) 8. Approximate cost of the farming. Cost of the fertilizers and the cost of the pesticides and other costs. 9. Any vocational training is taken 10. Whether a member is aware about various government schemes 11. If yes then whether any benefit taken or not. 12. If taken then before joining the SHG or after (The purpose of this question is to know whether a member got knowledge about the government schemes after joining the SHG. Through the employee of Bhasha or because he visits banks or by other means.) Hypothesis-3

13. Whether crop insurance taken or not 14. Whether crop loan or any loan from NABARD is taken or not 15. Whether a member has a fruit bearing tree or not Part-E Observations 1. Whether primary school is available in the village 2. Whether any kind of health facility is available in the village 3. Whether a person has a mobile phone 4. Electronic gadgets 5. Availability of the toilet 6. Type of the house pakka/ kaccha/ adha pakka

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