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Anna Robertson

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Declan McCullagh,2006

NOx

Nitrogen Oxides NOx = NO + NO2 to Ozone (O3) formation NOx + VOC + hv O3 to humans and plants

Precursor

Harmful Need

to know source before effective emissions policies can be enforced


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Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Ozone (O3) From AVOCET:
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Trace Level Chemiluminescence Analyzer


NO + O3 NO2 + O2 + hv

NO (sample)

Reaction Chamber

O3 (ozonator)

NO2*

Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)


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June 27 - morning

GPS Visualizer

June 27 -17:46 UTC (10:46am PST), 420 m AGL

Igor

GPS Visualizer

non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) tracers


industrial/urban:
perchloroethylene (C2Cl4) ethene

biomass burning:
methyl chloride (CH3Cl)

combustion:
ethyne

vehicle emissions:
isopentane, toluene

dairy emissions:
methane, methanol ethanol, acetone

Dairy Emissions
June 27 -17:46 UTC (10:46am PST), 420 m AGL

Igor

Industrial and Vehicle Emission


June 27 -17:46 UTC (10:46am PST), 420 m AGL

Igor

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Combustion and Biomass Burning


June 27 -17:46 UTC (10:46am PST), 420 m AGL

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Hysplit Back Trajectory

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Design/build

algorithm to determine

sources
use mixing ratios of compounds large data sets

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Chemical

composition of an air mass can help establish source region NOx near Flint Dairy Farm is likely from local urban and highway pollution upwind of the site worked for multiple cases

High

Technique

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GPS Visualizer

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Emily Schaller Rick Shetter Advisors: Barry Lefer, Nicole Grossberg and Jimmy Flynn The BNBs All of my fellow SARPians SARP Mentors and Faculty P-3B Flight Crew

Draxler, R.R., Rolph, G.D.: HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD (2003) Enhalt, D., and M. Prather. "Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases." Ed. F. Joos and M. McFarland. Print. "Nitrogen Dioxide." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012. Web. 12 July 2012. nitrogenoxides/>. "(no Subject)." Message to Josh Richardson. 3 Aug. 2012. E-mail. "SARP Question." Message to Melissa Yang. 5 Aug. 2012. E-mail. Shim, Changsub, Yuhang Wang, Donald R. Blake, Hanwant B. Singh, and Alex B. Guenther. "Source Characteristics of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds and Hydrogen Cyanide." Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (2007): 1-2. Print. "Tropospheric Ozone, the Polluter." UCAR, n.d. Web. 16 July 2012. <http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_7_1.htm>. Wang, T., T. F. Cheung, Y. S. Li, X. M. Yu, and D. R. Blake. "Emission Characteristics of CO, NOx, SO2 and Indications of Biomass Burning Observed at a Rural Site in Eastern China." Journal of Geophysical Research 4157th ser. 107.D12 (2002): n. pag. Print. <http://www.epa.gov/airquality/