Procter & Gamble

Introduction When Alan Lafley became CEO in the summer of 2000, things had not been looking good for Procter & Gamble (P&G). Under his predecessor, Dirk Jager, costs had gone up, volumes stagnated and profit margins shrunk on P&G's biggest brands like Pampers, Tide, and Crest. But in 2004, many analysts believed that the situation seemed to have improved significantly with Lafley having done a great job of turning the company around. Lafley had focused on building the core brands even as he commenced a restructuring that involved $1.7 billion in cost cuts. He had also cut prices on many P&G products. As a result, over the past three years, core volume (units sold in P&G's existing businesses) rose on an average by 7% annually. The stock price had nearly doubled. Lafley had attempted to introduce more creativity into P&G's innovation process, a major challenge for a company with a rule-bound culture. Since 2002, P&G had raised its new-product hit rate (the percentage of new entries that delivered a return above the cost of capital) from 70% to 90%. In the first quarter of 2004, 19 of P&G's 20 largest brands improved their market shares. Overall core volume also rose by 12%, due to new product launches such as Olay Regenerist anti-aging creams, Prilosec heartburn pills, Swiffer dusters, and Mr.Clean AutoDry, a power gun spray that cleaned cars. Though Lafley had made a few targeted transformation was largely driven by organic growth. acquisitions, P&G's

"It's the most precious kind of growth," Lafley remarked 1, "Organic growth is more valuable because it comes from your core competencies….Organic growth exercises your innovation muscle. It is a muscle. If you use it, it gets stronger." But Lafley admitted there were still major concerns to be addressed2: "We've had the most problems innovating two of our biggest brands." Pampers and Crest had lost their No. 1 market positions in the US to Kimberly-Clark and Colgate-Palmolive respectively, who had innovated more aggressively than P&G did. Colgate grabbed the market for teethwhitening and breath-freshening toothpastes, while Kimberly-Clark

replaced Smale as the CEO. In the 1940s and 1950s. the company formed a joint venture to manufacture products in China. P&G also faced intense competition from companies like Kimberley-Clark and Colgate. purchasing. when candle maker William Procter and his brother-in-law. P&G's financial performance was under pressure. The company introduced Ivory. P&G became the biggest cosmetics company in USA when it acquired Noxell (1989) and Max Factor (1991). the first all-vegetable shortening. sold in 1968) and Folgers Coffee (1963). with sales of $1 million. soap maker James Gamble merged their small businesses. Chairman Paper Mills (1957). It also modified compensation plans for managers and plant workers to eliminate the obsession with short-term returns. Background Note Early History Procter & Gamble was established in 1837. the company initiated an everyday low-pricing policy that reduced its reliance on coupons and trade promotions. They set up a shop in Cincinnati and made candles and soaps from left over fats. in 1879 and Crisco. In 1973. By 1859. P&G responded by slowing down its research efforts. Smale became the CEO. manufacturing. Two years later. . Recent History In 1990. In the same year. P&G had become one of the largest companies in Cincinnati. P&G embarked on a series of acquisitions. engineering and distribution. Duncan Hines (1956). P&G announced several major organizational changes relating to category management.000 due to P&G's acquisitions. Ed Artzt. A year later.gained share in the market for toddlers' training pants. The move helped in smoothening demand fluctuations and allowed P&G to cut prices on major brands. Manpower strength had crossed 100.Vicks and G D Searle's non-prescription drugs division in 1985. It had to withdraw its Rely tampons from the market after the product was linked to the deadly disease . a floating soap. P&G stumbled in many categories. who had been heading P&G's international operations since the 1980s. Spic and Span (1945). P&G moved into health care when it purchased Richardson . P&G began manufacturing and selling its products in Japan through the acquisition of Nippon Sunhome Company3. losing market share and profits. In 1988. in 1911. when John G. In 1981.Toxic Shock Syndrome. Clorox (1957.

for use in snacks and crackers. Pampers has just turned 35. each selling more than 2.more than 60. but it realized it had to offer low prices consistently to remain a market leader. P&G agreed to buy baby wipes brands (Baby Fresh. and glop. P&G also purchased the Eagle Snacks brand name from Anheuser-Busch. After years of trying to penetrate the orange juice market. and Ivory is so long in the tooth that your grandmother might have used it. P&G faced major challenges in the mid-1990s. P&G realized it had the highest marketing overheads in the industry due to its complex product line. No matter how many times Tide has been 'new and improved' over the years . P&G decided to prune its Head & Shoulders product line which had 31 varieties. P&G introduced a new brand for every significant technological innovation that occurred. There were five divisions with three sales layers.P&G initiated another restructuring program. and Crest which had 52 versions. Jif Peanut butter has been sticking to kids gums since 1956. Special deals meant that an average of 55 price changes worked through the system every day. In wash. sop. P&G also began to exercise strict control over its advertising budget to reduce overall marketing costs to 20% (from 25%) of revenues by 2000. P&G reduced the number of pricing brackets from 17 to just 3 and the number of special prices from 55 to only one per day. In 1996. The company announced that it would pass on the cost savings to customers. in case you were wondering . It also reduced the number of SKUs by 25%. a fat substitute developed by P&G. To simplify this complex process. The company indicated it would use it in a fat-free version of Pringles potato chips.000 jobs and closing 30 manufacturing plants. which covered 34 product categories and 17 basic pricing brackets. To cut costs. P&G pulled off a major coup when the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved the use of olestra. Typically. The company must look elsewhere . In 1993-94.300 Stock Keeping Units (SKUs). had only a short-term impact due to P&G's complex product line. Many of its products looked tired and worn out a Fortune report4 in October 1996 summarized P&G's competitive position: "Procter & Gamble has a cupboard full of aging brands that do mostly mundane tasks . however. cutting 13. market research revealed that families loyal to P&G brands were paying $725 more each year than families buying private label or store brands. P&G disposed off its Citrus Hill juice line and took a $200 million charge in 1992. wash-a-byebaby.its still fundamentally detergent. P&G established eleven cross-functional teams to examine various work processes. These changes. mop. and Kid fresh) from Kimberly-Clark. P&G had been offering retail customers discounts from time to time.

In October 1999. P&G also explained that it would take several measures to provide a stimulating work environment to its employees. Baby and Family Care.. In May 2004. Health Care. Baby and Family Care. In April 1997. and new businesses. and Snacks and Beverages. In November. Actonel. Hoechst to market P&G's new prescription bone health drug. Towards the end of the year. new countries. was one of the world's leading direct sellers whose premium products reached consumers in more than 100 countries.for growth. Business Segments P&G had five major business segments: Fabric and Home Care. and Household Care. P&G announced that it would begin test marketing of Dryel. P&G formed a global alliance with the German pharmaceutical company. Each of the new Global . This agreement sought to combine Regeneron's strengths in molecular biology with P&G's development efforts and bring more products to the market in the long term. The $ 1." In new products. P&G decided to form three global business units: Beauty Care. The company also signed a ten year agreement with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. a new product that would enable consumers to take care of "dry clean only" clothes in the convenience of their homes. conservative.1 billion Tupperware. which would include the current Fabric and Home Care business and the Snacks and Beverages business. The acquisition was completed on July 21. P&G announced that it would revamp the work processes to improve efficiency and cut costs. The alliance would explore global business building opportunities including the co-promotion and cross-endorsement of products. Under the Organization 2005 program. to develop and commercialize pharmaceutical products. P&G signed a global cooperation agreement with Tupperware to explore joint-marketing and promotion opportunities.1997. Beauty Care.85 billion. and insular enterprise will have to become more innovative. P&G decided to acquire Tambrands. a company dealing in feminine protection products. used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Health. P&G reached an agreement to sell its Duncan Hines baking mix trademark to Aurora Foods. P&G announced plans to redesign the company's management and operating structures. P&G announced the realignment of some of its business units to streamline operations and facilitate growth. This methodical. In September 1998. more outward looking. Inc. for approximately $1. as it came to be known.

Soon. however. Customers sometimes wrongly interpreted the questions asked of . This simple innovation led to a dramatic increase in sales. P&G's researchers found that the apartments were quite small. inhaled employees' armpits before and after they used the company's deodorants and mouthwashes. Clinical trials constituted an important part of P&G's product development activities. Human tests. The new design. P&G was one of the pioneers in 'in-situ' research. Though the consumers did not seem to mind the effort. saw an opportunity. When P&G conducted market research. ran down the front of the bottle. became very popular. In another such study. P&G realized the importance of using information objectively and critically. customers articulated the need for good cleansing power. Market Research P&G was one of the first consumer product companies in the world to conduct formal market research. Researchers went to the homes of customers to observe them directly as they went about their daily chores. realized that fragrance would be equally important. it quickly changed the soap so that all the bars would float. "Trained judges" rated odor from zero (lack of offensive odor) to ten (very strong smell). P&G came up with a simple redesign. which included a spout that funneled any drips back into the bottle. however. Since the bathroom was adjacent to the living room. In 1879. however. P&G went ahead and developed a box. Customers were happy to wipe the drip with a piece of cloth. at the time of pouring. when customers wrote to P&G for more of its "floating soap" (an accidental product that was a result of extra stirring during the soap making process). P&G's researchers observed consumers opening detergent packages with screwdrivers and razors. which incorporated a plastic insert in the cardboard. P&G observed that some of the liquid laundry detergent. In the 1970s. The products launched by P&G became very popular in Eastern Europe. This helped in identifying and solving problems. P&G regularly carried out tests on animals. P&G's dentists enlisted employees for various experiments involving dental products. provided the most useful data. P&G.Business Units (GBU) and the Market Development Organization would be headed by a vice-chairman reporting to the CEO. the smell of the detergent filled the apartment whenever clothes were washed. P&G. The problem was worsened when inferior detergents having an offensive odor were used. In many parts of Eastern Europe. which the customers themselves were not aware of. which would be easy to open. P&G's "armpit sniffers" and "bad breath brigades".

While determining the best fragrance for Camay soap. When P&G's researchers reported quantitative research results. the customers gave ambiguous replies. A trainer would be alongside the new recruit. It realized the importance of separating facts from implications. Normally.them. P&G believed that if researchers looked for conclusions. they also disclosed the statistical significance of the data. e-mails and summaries of incoming phone calls were routinely circulated to brand managers. whether clean hair meant lively. researchers learnt how customers responded to questions and how misinterpretations took place. P&G attached great importance to the quality and reliability of information. P&G trained its researchers to frame questions carefully so that customers found it easy to answer them. Not only that. Questionable information was ignored. These insights then became the basis for developing the hypothesis to be tested or for designing a quantitative research program. For example. P&G imparted rigorous and extensive training to new entrants. one such hypothesis was whether using a fabric softener had any perceived connection with being a good mother. P&G believed that no research was better than wrong research. the strength of the fragrance changed after the soap was consumed and came in contact with water. it was the brand group and not the research department. P&G responded to consumers' letters promptly. bouncy. As a result. which analyzed the information. P&G realized that the smell of the perfume was quite different after it was diluted and made part of a soap. shiny or easy to comb and so on. P&G used focus groups to gain useful insights. the research interview became more like a conversation as the researcher memorized the structure of the interview and did not find the need to use a questionnaire. production teams and the top . Gradually. P&G used qualitative research findings very carefully. The company research reports attempted to be factual. P&G emphasized on objectivity in market research. fluffy. Researchers were trained to detect such ambiguity and continue discussions with the customers to understand the true meaning. The company did not arrive at generalizations or take major decisions on the basis of a few focus groups. Managers regularly checked and validated data. For example. To improve the quality of research. researchers would ask customers whether "clean" meant the way it looked or the way it felt. there might well be a bias that could distort an objective presentation of the data. product development teams. Letters. In some cases. Instead. P&G rejected its earlier research findings and decided to test the soap while in actual use. Over a period of time. They would typically be asked to spend months on the telephone and in the field conducting interviews with customers and collecting data.

P&G felt that Pampers was substantially better than the prevailing brands. which customers were looking for. it realized that there would be . Developing new products P&G sought to introduce products that offered a distinct benefit to consumers. almost 15 years after stannous fluoride had been identified as a potential anti-cavity fighter. P&G's brand group took the cue and developed an unscented version. P&G had to deal with cultural factors and entrenched customer habits. it found that customers were resistant to the idea of using disposable diapers. a researcher used a roller to measure how deep the lather was in a machine. When P&G was ready with Pampers. The company also used hidden video cameras in grocery store parking lots to monitor the habits of shoppers. For some customers. Bar soaps were tested by continual hand washing to see how many movements were required to make a good lather. Customers also felt that the quality of cloth diapers was much better than that of disposable diapers. P&G collected washing machines from around the world to study how they worked and what kind of detergents would be suitable. who handled the Oil of Olay calls to identify key benefits. In the case of "Pampers". Most families restricted the use of disposable diapers to special occasions like when they were travelling.6 cents too high. In the test labs. For instance. Consumers were given scanners to register the bar codes on packages before they were stored.8% of the diaper changes in the US. P&G sometimes took several years to develop a product. The company received millions of phone calls each year. P&G introduced Crest toothpaste in In many cases. In case of Pampers. They also found the prevailing price of about 8. offering value-for-money became a critical factor. When one consumer inquired whether Oil of Olay lotion came in an unscented version. Finding this difference involved an in-depth understanding of consumer behavior. Crest was another product that had taken a long time to develop. P&G began to follow up some of the correspondence with phone calls to get more inputs from the consumers. Research revealed that cloth diapers accounted for about 99. When it test marketed Pampers at 10 cents per piece. In the late 1990s. it took more than ten years just to figure out how to develop the product and commercialize production. P&G placed a box on their television sets to monitor what programs they watched. time and money constraints prompted P&G to send questionnaires by mail and conduct telephone surveys. The brand group also conducted focus groups among the telephone operators. In the 1970s.

when it had launched its . In June 1999. The chips were stacked in a "tennis ball container" to keep them from breaking or becoming stale—a problem traditionally faced by conventional bagged potato chips. it began to use sodium fluoride. The Journal. Subsequently. P&G had changed the formulation of its Crest toothpaste several times. a more effective cavity fighter. Subsequently. Pantene became one of the P&G's biggest brands. In 1998. In the late 1990s. The company had upgraded Tide detergent's product formulation and packaging more than seventy times. mentioned that consumers did not like the taste of Olestra chips. Then researchers took on the challenge of coming up with a tarter-control product. In 1955. a study in the Journal of American Association concluded that consumers suffered no higher levels of gastric distress from Olestra-made potato chips than from traditional ones. Pampers rapidly gained popularity among customers. It took P&G years to determine the right taste. it had to reduce costs significantly. Pringles potato chips were made of Olestra-a fat free substitute that tasted and fried like a fat but was easily digestible. P&G scientists developed a new technology that made uniform. P&G converted it into a shampoo-and-conditioner product with its patented "2-in-1" technology. the Economist magazine reported that P&G's last real new product innovation had come way back in 1982. P&G scientists discovered an ingredient. One way to do this was to increase volumes and generate economies of scale in manufacturing. Pantene was a small shampoo brand that came along with P&G's Richardson. P&G conducted three more test-marketing exercises before fixing a price of 6 cents per diaper. Higher volumes would also be needed to convince supermarkets to distribute the product." In the 1990s. P&G announced that it would soon begin selling fatfree Pringles made with a new recipe and a new flavor. when Crest was first developed.Vicks acquisition in 1985. however. it was still a minor brand in its category.few takers. soluble pyrophosphate that reduced tarter. Though a seemingly good product with the mystique of a high-priced department store brand. which are the traditional outlets for diapers. the pace of product development at P&G slowed down. The Wall Street Journal named Crest tarter-control toothpaste as one of the "milestones of the decade. 98% of diaper changes in the US were made with disposable diapers of which P&G accounted for more than one third. it had stannous fluoride. Distribution through super markets would be more efficient as supermarkets operated on far lower margins compared to drugstores. Pringles "newfangled potato chips" was a dismal failure when it was first introduced. elliptical chips from dehydrated potatoes. P&G attempted to improve its products on an ongoing basis. marketing and procurement. In the late 1990s. In the 1990s. To bring down the price.

P&G launched Swiffer. creating. . In the early 1990s. P&G collected feedback from marketing executives regarding the preferred blend of price and features and then worked to make the product within the price limit. P&G offered Pampers Uni.'Always' feminine hygiene range. P&G also looked outside for new ideas. Febreze was a success with sales of $230 million in the US in its first year. P&G also planned to move away from its traditional "sequential" method of testing. Consequently. reduce pre-market laboratory testing requirements and launch products faster. where customers could not afford to pay premium prices for its technologically sophisticated products. P&G also indicated that it would take more risks. In the late 1990s. Swiffer went from test marketing to global launch in just 18 months. P&G's risk-averse culture seemed to be standing in the way of commercializing new ideas quickly. P&G had followed the strategy of producing technologically superior goods and used clever marketing to sell them at a price that would not only cover the high R&D costs. The company responded by setting up innovation teams to rapidly explore promising ideas within the company and bring them fast to the market. In the late 1990s. where products were first introduced in American cities before being launched globally. This helped undernourished children put on weight. The process for developing new products was revamped to ensure that new ideas reached the market faster. a lower-priced and simpler version of the sophisticated Pampers line. By test marketing new products worldwide instead of only in American cities. none of which were variants of old products. Launched in June 1998. To develop Nutri Delight. GBUs supervised new product development. a fortified orange drink. P&G realized that most of the growth opportunities lay in emerging markets. P&G worked with UNICEF and licensed the technology that allowed iron to exist with iodine and vitamin A in a stable form. In addition to marketing and pricing. Febreze and Dryel. P&G changed its approach to R&D. So brand management was an integral part of the innovation process. in developing markets such as Brazil. The Global Business Units (GBUs) were asked to develop and sell products on a worldwide basis replacing the old system that allowed P&G's country managers to set prices and handle products as they saw fit. P&G attempted to cut down product development cycle time. For several years. Analysts felt that more consistent innovation would be needed to generate faster growth opportunities in the 1990s. but also generate adequate profits. P&G announced the Organization 2005 program. For example. nurturing and revitalizing brands. Brand Management P&G's business was all about.

In the past. colors or flavors. A brand manager typically focused on a single product or a small family of products and coordinated activities ranging from market research and manufacturing to sales. In the early 1920s. When Camay's performance did not match expectations. P&G's share in a number of important markets began to slip. P&G brands had different performance characteristics and provided distinct consumer benefits. There were rumors that a decision about whether the company's new decaffeinated instant Folgers Coffee should have a green or a gold cap had been taken all the way to the CEO! In the early 1980s. The shape of Mr." They felt Camay had fared poorly because it had not been allowed to compete head-to-head with Ivory. The Tide graphics conveyed power and heavy duty. almost every decision was pushed to the top.Clean bottle suggested the strength of the product. The baby on Pampers packet suggested gentle softness. P&G encouraged rival brands within the company to compete against one another. However. They competed with one another around the edges. Palmolive and Cashmere Bouquet soaps were introduced by its competitors. The result was the creation of a brand management system that encouraged internal competition. The management emphasized greater cross-functional cooperation. if a P&G brand manager put forward a proposal. the approach worked well. package design. P&G introduced Camay. the management concluded that it had been held back by "too much Ivory thinking. raising serious doubts about the effectiveness of its branding strategy. when Lux.Products which emerged from the R&D and were ready to be marketed were assigned to brand managers. P&G also formed business teams and task forces in key result areas. It decided to replace the one-page memo5 by a talk sheet. In the 1990s. Brand managers held profit and loss responsibility for their brand(s). while offering different primary benefits. it had to pass through the . The talk sheet was an informal outline that allowed managers at several levels to develop and refine a proposal through discussions. distinctive and easy to remember. by taking steps to reorient its bureaucratic culture. rather than through written memos alone. Gradually. P&G maintained a fairly centralized approach to brand management. excessive centralization began to create problems. over the years. P&G's brand names were typically one or two syllables long. P&G attempted to maintain consistency while presenting its brands to the consumers and was very cautious about changing anything about the brand that the consumer had become familiar with— logo. package design and advertising. P&G looked for design elements consistent with the brand's positioning. In the beginning. P&G responded to these difficulties. easy to pronounce.

In the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1950s. a liquid version of Tide was introduced. In the case of Crest. In the late 1990s. P&G decided to launch a new line. and asked them about their habits and frustrations. resulting in clothes that were tougher to clean. a key issue for P&G was the rationalization of its product line." . P&G continued to streamline its idea generation. P&G announced that its diapers had become so absorbent that such segmentation was not necessary anymore. In 1984. several young mothers watched their children get undressed and diapered. In the late 1980s. P&G also evolved products through different forms.hierarchy of functional unit heads and the top management. brighter colors and synthetic fabrics became more popular. As a result. such as gels and pump dispensers. teams included representatives from different functional areas who were involved right from the start of the proposal. the typical brand marketer spent less than four hours a month with consumers. Pampers Feel 'n Learn Advanced Trainers. So P&G improved Tide's whitening power with fluorescers. Under the new approach. designed to stay wet for two minutes. the development of tartar control technology was a major achievement and added vitality to the brand. Later. P&G attempted to lengthen the product life cycle by regularly revitalizing its brands. P&G could cut costs. Marketers spent time with consumers in their homes. reduce product development time and generate more sales. The company began to review its brand extension policies. P&G cut its reliance on focus groups. By 2004. Pampers' value proposition changed from "we want the driest diapers" to "helping moms with baby's development. cleaned their floors. The company continued its efforts to prune the product line. be it through performance improvement or through added functionality. watching the ways they washed their clothes. test marketing and new product development activities. and put diapers on their babies. When P&G opened a diaper-testing center right in its office premises. The Road Ahead In the early 2000s. P&G realised that parents were frustrated by "how long it took their youngsters to be toilet trained". P&G had launched separate disposable diapers for boys and girls. alerting toddlers to try and use the toilet. P&G believed the real opportunities lay in meeting needs that consumers might not articulate. Hardly 25% of P&G's new products remained in national distribution in the US for more than two years after the launch. Back in 2000. this number had tripled. P&G's "Extra Action" Tide came with new technology that facilitated soil removal from all kinds of clothing. white cotton was the predominant fabric.

This Aroma helped her develop a scratch-and-sniff feature on Crest packages." he explained. he held an auction to find a company that could market patented adhesive-film technology that P&G used in its packaging and in Crest Whitestrips. had benefited both parties. and developed Mr. In 2002.500 R&D people. The winner was Clorox. compared to 45% for Colgate and 35% for Unilever. P&G's biggest success lately had been in selling Prilosec. took the help of her colleagues in other departments while developing Crest's new flavors. "Inventors are evenly distributed in the population. Getting ideas from outside also meant working with other companies. which owned the Glad brand (and competed with P&G in floor mops and water purification). the over-the-counter version of AstraZeneca's prescription heartburn medicine launched in September 2003. P&G-owned factories produced the concentrate of secret cleaning ingredients. the Head of North American oral-care. She also looked for marketing advice when she went to the "top-15 meetings" convened every quarter for the key people who worked on P&G's 15 biggest brands. In China. in some cases even with outright competitors. For example. and we're as likely to find invention in a garage as in our labs. Glad Press 'n Seal had overtaken S C Johnson's Saran as the top-selling food wrap in the US More products were on the way. It bought SpinBrush from an inventor named John Osher in 2001. In 2002. Then contractors added standard ingredients like sulfates and . it used a different business model to manufacture Tide. Sales in the first year were expected to total $300 million. There were signs that sharing of ideas was gaining momentum. Lafley was also keen on forming alliances. cheaper ways to make products for the developing markets. So the company began coming up with smarter. P&G's 7. It began to use contract manufacturers to produce Safeguard soap and Always feminine pads. Lafley evaluated the degree of idea sharing amongst scientists and marketers when he conducted half-day "innovation reviews" in each business unit annually. located in 20 technical facilities in nine countries.P&G also launched knowledge management initiatives to accelerate the innovation process. P&G started bringing technology from entrepreneurs. some P&G managers spotted an eraser that took marks off walls in Japanese retail outlets. up from 20% in 2000 to about 35% in 20046. Glad Press 'n Seal. P&G generated 20% of its revenues in developing countries. The joint venture and the product that had come out of it. posted problems on an internal website and also met in "communities of practice" dedicated to areas of expertise. P&G's costs had always been so high that it could not sell its products at affordable prices and still earn an adequate profit. Lafley's goal was to derive half of P&G's invention from external sources. Clean Magic Eraser.

A thick pad made them feel more secure. 2. 1. P&G had recently gained eight share points in Russia. P&G invested heavily in gathering deeper insights about what consumers across the world wanted. 3. and packaged it.phosphates. it learned that most of them disliked the technologically advanced thin Always pads for feminine protection. As in the US. Product Management Brand Management Marketing strategies for future growth . Discuss the case with reference to any one of the following theoretical aspects. By designing one. When P&G talked to ordinary Russian women.

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