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MSC Confidential

Part Number: MDAM*R3*Z*FLEX*Z*SM-ADM710-NT Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation


July 2009
ADM710 Course Notes
ADAMS/FLEX
MSC.Software Corporation
Europe
MSC.Software GmbH
Am Moosfeld 13
81829 Munich, Germany
Telephone: (49) (89) 43 19 87 0
Fax: (49) (89) 43 61 71 6
Corporate
MSC.Software Corporation
2 MacArthur Place
Santa Ana, CA 92707 USA
Telephone: (800) 345-2078
Fax: (714) 784-4056
Asia Pacific
MSC.Software Japan Ltd.
Shinjuku First West 8F
23-7 Nishi Shinjuku
1-Chome, Shinjuku-Ku
Tokyo 160-0023, JAPAN
Telephone: (81) (3)-6911-1200
Fax: (81) (3)-6911-1201
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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Legal Information
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and
educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or
design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect
damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of
this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the
prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited.
The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Dytran, Easy5, Fatigue, Laminate Modeler, Marc, Mentat, MD Nastran, Patran,
MSC, MSC Nastran, Mvision, Patran, SimDesigner, SimEnterprise, SimManager, SimXpert and Sofy are trademarks or
registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a
registered trademark of NASA. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
3
CONTENTS
Section Page
0.0 Welcome to Adams/Flex Training
About MSC.Software ..... 0-3
Course Overview ... 0-4
Getting Help .... 0-5
1.0 Introducing Adams/Flex
Virtual Prototyping Process ..... 1-4
How You Benefit from Using Adams/Flex . 1-8
Linear Assumption . 1-12
Flexible Body Linear Limit Check 1-13
Controlling Modal Content 1-14
Inertia Modeling . 1-19
Visualization Attributes . 1-22
Workshop 1: Preparing a Can Crusher Presentation .. WS1-1
2.0 Theoretical Background
Modal Superposition ..... 2-4
Craig-Bampton Component Mode Synthesis ... 2-7
Mode Shape Orthonormalization . 2-8
Kinematics of Markers on Flexible Bodies . 2-10
Applied Forces ... 2-14
Flexible Body Equations of Motion ..... 2-19
3.0 Replacing Rigid Bodies (Part I)
Renaming Flexible Bodies ....... 3-4
Modeling Attributes ....... 3-5
List Info ........ 3-6
Nodes ... 3-7
Plotting ........ 3-10
Workshop 2: Performing a Simple Swap ....... WS2-1
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
4
CONTENTS (cont.)
Section Page
4.0 Replacing Rigid Bodies (Part II)
About Joints and Motions ..... 4-4
Joints Connection Limitations ...... 4-5
About Dummy Parts ...... 4-7
About Forces ...... 4-9
Workshop 3: Performing an Advanced Swap ....... WS3-1
5.0 Optimizing MNFs and Exporting Loads
Modal Neutral Files .... 5-4
Introducing Adams/Flex Toolkit .. .... 5-5
MNF Browser Application ..... 5-6
Adams/Flex Toolkit Optimization Options .. 5-10
Command Line Flex Toolkit . 5-25
Exporting FEA Loads .... 5-29
FEMDATA 5-32
Workshop 4: Optimizing MNFs and Exporting Loads ..... ..... WS4-1
6.0 Using Flexible Body Statements
Data Transfer ... 6-4
Statements Used .... 6-5
Matrix Files ...... 6-6
Workshop 5: Using External Adams/Solver ...... WS5-1
7.0 Contacts and Modal Forces
Contact with Flexible Bodies . 7-4
Modal Applied Force and Preloaded Flexible Bodies .. 7-6
Workshop 6: Using Contacts and Modal Force ..... ... WS6-1
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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CONTENTS (cont.)
Section Page
8.0 Stress Recovery with Adams/Durability
Introduction to Adams/Durability . 8-4
Theory of Modal Stress Recovery .. 8-5
MSR Nastran Example 8-13
Improving Graphics Performance in Adams/PostProcessor .. 8-18
Using the Hot Spots Table ... 8-23
Workshop 7: Stress Recovery with Adams/Durability ......... WS7-1
9.0 Fatigue Analysis
What is Metal Fatigue? ..... 9-4
Durability Design Process .... 9-5
Determining Loads .... 9-6
Overview of Fatigue Life Analysis ....... 9-7
Stress Life (S-N) Approach .. 9-8
Strain Life (E-N) Approach 9-9
MSC.Fatigue .. 9-10
Workshop 8: Fatigue Analysis using Adams and Fatigue ........................ WS8-1
10.0 MNF Generation in Nastran
Modal Neutral Files 10-3
Superelement Definition ... 10-4
Selecting Attachment Points 10-9
What is a Spider Web? .. 10-10
ADAMSMNF Case Control .. 10-11
Units . 10-16
ADMOUT = YES 10-18
FLEXONLY = NO .. 10-19
Residual Vectors ....... 10-20
Releasing DOF ...... 10-25
Common MD DB 10-26
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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CONTENTS (cont.)
Section Page
11.0 Modeling Considerations
First Thoughts .... 11-4
FE Modeling Considerations ... 11-5
Special Adams Modeling Considerations ..... 11-12
Concluding Thoughts .... 11-15
12.0 Validating and Debugging
Validating Your Flexible Body ...... 12-4
Workshop 9: Validating and Debugging ........ WS9-1
13.0 Appendix A Application Examples
Industrial Robot ...... A-4
Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker .... A-6
Flexible Go-Kart ........ A-11
Comfort Tire Model ....... A-13
Satellite with Flexible Panels and Antennas ..... A-15
Flexible Vehicle Suspension .... A-17
Shell Panels for Missile Separation ........ A-18
Landing Aircraft ...... A-20
Flexible Vehicle Frame and Chassis ..... A-22
Flexible Car Body in Passing Maneuver .... A-23
Pothole Passing with a Truck ...... A-25
Rail Vehicle Comfort Calculations ... A-33
14.0 Appendix B Making an MNF Using FEM Software
ABAQUS ...... B-4
ANSYS ........ B-5
I-DEAS ......... B-6
Nastran ........ B-7
Marc ...... B-10
Other MSC Products ...... B-12
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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CONTENTS (cont.)
Section Page
15.0 Appendix C Adams/View Command Language Syntax
Flex Body ..... C-4
Establish the Selected Modes .. C-5
Modifying/Disabling Modes ... C-6
Visualization Attributes ......... C-7
Auto-generated Matrix ... C-8
Flex Body Markers ..... C-9
16.0 Appendix D Adams/Vibration Frequency Domain Analyses
Adams to Nastran for NVH D-4
Nastran Modal Export for Frequency Domain Stress Recovery . D-5
Frequency Response Function Plots for Stress and Strain . D-6
17.0 Appendix E Answer Key
Answer Key for Workshop 1 .... E-4
Answer Key for Workshop 2 .... E-6
Answer Key for Workshop 3 .... E-7
Answer Key for Workshop 4 .... E-9
Answer Key for Workshop 5 .... E-14
Answer Key for Workshop 6 .... E-17
Answer Key for Workshop 9 .... E-18
MSC Confidential
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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ADM710, Section 0, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 0
WELCOME TO ADAMS/FLEX
TRAINING
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ADM710, Section 0, July 2008
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ADM710, Section 0, July 2008
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ABOUT MSC.SOFTWARE
Find a list of MSC.Software products at:
http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/products.cfm
Find a list of Adams products at:
http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/products_detail.cfm?
PI=413
Find additional training at:
http://store.mscsoftware.com/training/
Or your local support center
Run through verification problems at:
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB9587
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COURSE OVERVIEW
Lecture
Hands-on workshops
Theory
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GETTING HELP
Online Help
To access the Online Help, do either of the following:
While working in any Adams/Flex dialog box, press F1 to
display Online Help specific to that dialog box.
From the Help menu, select Adams/View Help.
Once the Online Help is displayed, you can browse through
the table of contents or the index, or search for any terms.
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GETTING HELP (CONT.)
Contents of selected tab
Table of Contents for selected tag
Index/search for entire Adams/Flex
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GETTING HELP (CONT.)
Technical support
To find your local support center, go to:
http://www.mscsoftware.com/support/contacts/index.cfm
To read the Standard Enhancement & Technical Support
Usage Guide, do one of the following:
If in the United States, go to
http://www.mscsoftware.com/support/Tech_Spt_Guide_Americas.
cfm
If outside the United States, go to:
http://www.mscsoftware.com/support/contacts/, and then select
your region
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GETTING HELP (CONT.)
Knowledge base
Go to http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb
Consulting services:
Go to http://www.mscsoftware.com/services/esg/
Adams News and Users Forums
To join the community of Adams users, go to:
http://forums.mscsoftware.com/news/ubbthreads.php
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SECTION 1
INTRODUCING ADAMS/FLEX
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INTRODUCING ADAMS/FLEX
Whats in this section:
Virtual Prototyping Process
How You Benefit from Using Adams/Flex
Linear Assumption
Flexible Body Linear Limit Check
Controlling Modal Content
Inertia Modeling
Visualization Attributes
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING PROCESS
Build a model of your design using:
Bodies
Forces
Contacts
Joints
Motion generators
Build Test
Review
Improve
DESIGN
PROBLEM
Cut time and
costs
Increase
quality
Increase
efficiency
IMPROVED
PRODUCT
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VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING PROCESS (CONT.)
Test your design using:
Measures
Simulations
Animations
Plots
Validate your model by:
Importing test data
Superimposing test data
Build Test
Review
Improve
DESIGN
PROBLEM
Cut time and
costs
Increase
quality
Increase
efficiency
IMPROVED
PRODUCT
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VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING PROCESS (CONT.)
Review your model by adding:
Friction
Flexible Parts
Forcing functions
Control Systems
Iterate your design through variations using:
Parametrics
Design Variables
Build Test
Review
Improve
DESIGN
PROBLEM
Cut time and
costs
Increase
quality
Increase
efficiency
IMPROVED
PRODUCT
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING PROCESS (CONT.)
Improve your design using:
DOEs
Optimization
Automate your design process using:
Custom menus
Macros
Custom dialog boxes
Build Test
Review
Improve
DESIGN
PROBLEM
Cut time and
costs
Increase
quality
Increase
efficiency
IMPROVED
PRODUCT
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HOW YOU BENEFIT FROM USING
ADAMS/FLEX
Better loading prediction for durability analysis
Improved system performance
Additional benefits
Adams/Flex provides valuable insight for the analyst,
balancing strength and flexibility design factors with the cost
and weight of a mechanism.
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HOW YOU BENEFIT FROM USING
ADAMS/FLEX (CONT.)
Better loading prediction for durability analyses
The flexible component is the focus of your attention.
What is the system doing to my flexible component?
Examples:
Connecting rod
Automotive jack stand
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HOW YOU BENEFIT FROM USING
ADAMS/FLEX (CONT.)
Improved system performance
The model fidelity is the focus of your attention. Component
flexibility is just another parameter of the system design.
What is the flexible component doing to my system?
Examples:
Handling characteristics of a vehicle with a flexible frame
Robot manipulator path
Manipulator
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HOW YOU BENEFIT FROM USING
ADAMS/FLEX (CONT.)
Contrasting MSS and FEA
Finite element analysis (FEA) offers excellent modeling
capabilities for individual components in isolation. Estimating
loads is an art.
FEA is too inefficient for system level modeling and is
incapable of analyzing large motion.
Rigid body mechanical system simulation (MSS) efficiently
analyzes large motions of complex systems and can be used
to generate component loads for FEA. However, failure to
account for component flexibility can dramatically reduce
modeling fidelity.
Flexible body MSS gives you the best of both worlds.
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LINEAR ASSUMPTION
Modal flexible bodies are linear modeling elements.
Deformations are assumed to be small and within the linear
range.
With large deformations (> 10% of its characteristic length),
the assumptions of modal superposition are violated and
results will be inaccurate.
Sometimes, a flexible body can be deformed beyond its
linear limit.
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FLEXIBLE BODY LINEAR LIMIT CHECK
Linear limit check (C++ Solver Only):
Settings > Solver > Flex Bodies
Limit Check
Skin: Solver will check the deformation of all the surface nodes on the skin of
the flexible body to see whether they violate the linear limit.
Selnod: Solver will only check the nodes specified in the SELNOD section of
the mtx file.
Limit Action
Halt: Terminates execution of Solver.
Return: Stops the simulation and returns to the command level.
Message Only (Default): Only issues a warning message.
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CONTROLLING MODAL CONTENT
Mode enabling and disabling
Disabling a mode prevents Adams/Flex from considering that
shape when generating the overall deformed shape of the
component.
Manual
Table (modal ICs)
Range
By strain energy (auto)
If a mode does not contribute to the response of the flexible
component during a simulation, consider disabling it.
Your control over modal degrees of freedom (DOFs) can
greatly affect the success of your analysis:
Too many DOFs can mean unacceptably long computation time
Too few DOFs can prevent Adams from converging to an
acceptable solution
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CONTROLLING MODAL CONTENT (CONT.)
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CONTROLLING MODAL CONTENT (CONT.)
Modal damping
Default:
1% damping for all modes with frequency lower than 100 Hz.
10% damping for modes with frequency between 100 and 1000
Hz.
100% critical damping for modes with a frequency higher than
1000 Hz.
Single scalar damping value applied to all the modes
Function expressions:
Damping ratio can be defined by any generic function expression
Two special functions can be used to define the damping ratio:
FXMODE: Returns the mode number of the current mode of the
flexible body
FXFREQ: Returns the modal frequency (Hz) of the current mode of
the flexible body.
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CONTROLLING MODAL CONTENT (CONT.)
Example:
FLEX_BODY/1
CRATIO = IF(FXFREQ-100:0.01,0.1,if(FXFREQ-
1000:0.1,1.0,1.0))
This example recreates the default modal damping scheme using
nested IF function expressions.
Cycles/user time
Control the damping using a DMPSUB user-written
subroutine:
If you want to specify the modal damping using more
complicated expressions, consider a DMPSUB user-written
subroutine. For more information, see Knowledge Base
Article 9000 at:
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB9000.
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CONTROLLING MODAL CONTENT (CONT.)
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INERTIA MODELING
Inertia modeling
There are four preset options and one custom option:
Rigid body - approximates rigid body behavior but uses
flexible body formulation (INVAR6 disabled).
Constant - deformations dont affect the inertial properties.
Partial coupling - the default.
Full coupling - uses all nine invariants and, therefore, is the
most computationally intensive choice.
Custom - allows you to set your own or view a preset option,
as shown next. Note that check mark indicates on (or true).
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INERTIA MODELING (CONT.)
Preset options
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INERTIA MODELING (CONT.)
Custom
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES
Plot type
Deformation scale factor
Datum node
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
Plot type
Enable color contour or vector plots for a flexible body
Options include:
Contour - Sets Adams/Flex so it displays color contour plots
Vector - Sets Adams/Flex so it displays vector plots
None - Displays neither the color contours or vector plots
Both - Displays both the color contours and vector plots
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
Deformation scale factor
Used to exaggerate deformation for viewing purposes only
Can scale up or down
The deformation scale does not affect the position of marker
icons
Constraints can appear violated when the scale is >1. This is
merely visual: the analysis will, of course, maintain the
constraints youve defined.
When the scale is equal to 0, only the rigid body motion of
the flexible body will be animated. This produces faster
animations for flexible bodies.
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
Datum node
Deformation is a relative term and should be expressed with
respect to a node:
You select which node Adams/Flex considers as the
undeformed (datum) node and then color contour plots reveal
deformation relative to it.
LBRF (local body reference frame, the default) is in the same
location as the reference frame used in FEA.
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
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VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES (CONT.)
Example of using different datum nodes
Here, node 1000 is the datum node.
In this case, node 1001 is the datum node.
The color red denotes maximum deformation relative to the
datum node.
Node 1000 Node 1001
Node 1000 Node 1001
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ADM710, Workshop 1, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1
PREPARING A CAN-CRUSHER
PRESENTATION
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WORKSHOP 1 PREPARING A CAN-CRUSHER
PRESENTATION
Problem statement
You have just been promoted to a high-profile project. Your
supervisor is responsible for the dynamic analysis of a can-
crushing mechanism. He wants you to prepare a
presentation that includes:
Table of eigenvalues from Adams/Linear
Screen snapshot (.jpg) of system mode 8
A plot of the y-component of the torque in a revolute joint
versus the distance the can has been compressed
Animation movie files (.avi) of the flexible body model alongside
the rigid body model
A Web page with the presentation. For example:
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Mechanism information
This model represents a can-crushing mechanism, as shown
in Figure 1:
Can
Base
Coupler
Plunger
Node 2505
Node 2502
Node 2498
flx_lever
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
The mechanism includes the following parts:
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
An input force is applied to the end of FLX_LEVER with a
STEP function and turns off after 0.55 seconds.
F
o
r
c
e
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Setting up the model
To set up the model:
1. Start Adams/View from the directory
exercise_dir/mod_01_cancrusher.
Where exercise_dir is the directory where the workshop
subdirectories reside.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file
cancrusher_start.cmd.
ADAMS/View displays the model named cancrusher.
Inspecting the flexible lever
You can quickly inspect the flexible lever to see how each mode
would contribute to its deformation.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
To inspect the flexible lever:
1. From the Main Toolbox, select the Isometric tool , and then select
Render.
2. Turn off icon (v) and grid visibility (g). You can turn on and off the icon
and grid visibility as needed throughout the course.
3. If the strip chart is blocking the view, you can move it aside.
4. Right-click FLX_LEVER, point to Flexible_Body: FLX_LEVER, and
then select Modify.
5. In the Mode Number text box, enter 10, and then press Enter.
ADAMS/View displays mode 10 superimposed on the undeformed
body:
Mode 10
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
6. In the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, select the Animate tool .
Adams/View animates mode 10 for three cycles.
7. To see how Adams/View displays the deformation mode and the
undeformed body, toggle the Superimpose option a few times.
8. Set Plot Type to Contour.
The resulting contours show deformation, not stress.
9. To exaggerate the results, set Deformation Scale Factor to 2.0, and
then press Enter.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
10. Animate mode 10 once again and note the difference caused by the
increased deformation scale factor.
11. Review modes 7 - 28. The first six modes are rigid body modes and
are automatically disabled because Adams/Flex already handles the
dynamics for those modal degrees of freedom.
12. Set Deformation Scale Factor back to 1.0.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Simulating the rigid lever
Make the lever temporarily rigid, and then simulate it to observe
the can-crushing operation.
To simulate the rigid lever:
1. Set Inertia modeling to Rigid body.
2. Select OK.
3. Confirm that the flexible body is not selected. From the Main Toolbox,
select the Select tool to clear the Select List. You should do this
whenever you want to stop seeing the model in a dimmed
appearance.
4. From the Simulate menu, select Scripted Controls.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
5. Run scripted simulation using the script .cancrusher.RIGID_SCRIPT.
The script uses the following Adams/Solver commands:
SIM/STATICS
INTEGRATOR/GSTIFF, HMAX=.01
SIM/TRANSIENT, END=0.75, STEPS=50
The strip chart CAN_COMPRESSION_MEA displays the deformation
of the can versus time.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
6. From the Simulation Control dialog box, select the Save Simulation
Results tool .
7. Save the results with the name rigid. You will use these results later
in your presentation material.
8. Animate the results of the simulation.
The lever arm stays blue because its not deforming. It is not
deforming because you set Inertia Modeling to Rigid Body.
9. Close the Animation Controls dialog box or reset the model to the
modeling view by other means.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Simulating the flexible lever
Make the lever flexible again, and then simulate it to observe its
motion.
To simulate the flexible lever:
1. Right-click FLX_LEVER, point to Flexible_Body: FLX_LEVER, and
then select Modify.
2. In the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, set Damping Ratio to
default.
Deformations of the flexible body are displayed relative to the datum
node. You'll choose node 2505 because it is at the opposite end of the
applied load, as shown in Figure 1. The colors indicate the magnitude
of the deformation: red indicates the most deformation, blue the least.
2. Clear the selection of LBRF.
3. In the Datum Node text box, enter 2505.
4. Set Inertia modeling to Partial coupling.
Partial coupling is the default flexible body representation of the inertia
invariants.
5. Select OK.
6. Clear the selection of the lever.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
7. Perform another scripted simulation using
.cancrusher.FLEX_SCRIPT.
The script uses the following Adams/Solver commands:
SIM/STATICS
LINEAR/EIGENSOL
INTEGRATOR/GSTIFF, SI2, HMAX=0.01
SIM/TRANSIENT, END=0.75, STEPS=50
8. Save the simulation results as flexible.
9. Animate the results of the simulation.
By animating the results you've seen how the flexible lever deforms as
the load is applied. You may have noticed in the script that an
Adams/Linear eigenvalue solution was performed at the static position.
In the next section you will learn how to export a table of eigenvalues
and create an image of one of the eigenmodes which will be used in
your presentation.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Preparing the eigenvalue data table
For your presentation, generate a table of system eigenvalues
from Adams/Linear and export it to a text file.
To prepare the data table:
1. From the Review menu, select Postprocessing or press the F8 key.
2. Right-click the viewport, and then select Load Mode Shape
Animation.
3. From the Database Navigator, under flexible, double-click the Eigen
results (for example, EIG_1).
Adams/PostProcessor displays the model and updates the dashboard
with mode shape animation controls.
4. From the dashboard, select Table of Eigenvalues.
The Information window displays the table.
5. Select Save to File, and save the file as system_modes.txt.
6. Close the Information window.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Creating an image of the lever
For your presentation, create a color image of system mode
8 and name it mode_8.jpg.
Figure 2. System Mode 8
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
To create the image:
1. To display the triad, from the dashboard, select the View tab, and
then select Display Triad.
2. For optimal viewing, fit the model in the viewport by using the view
control keyboard shortcuts, rotate, zoom, and translate so that you
have a view of the model similar to the view in Figure 2.
3. From the dashboard, select the Mode Shape Animation tab.
4. Set Mode Number to 8, to display mode 8 and its frequency. Note its
frequency: _____(hz).
5. Change the Scale Factor to 0.1.
6. To animate mode 8, select the Play tool .
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
7. Observe the mode shape animation, and when youve finished
animating, press the Pause tool .
Why do you think that mode 8 is important?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
8. Select the Reset tool .
9. From the File menu, select Print.
10. Set Print to File.
11. In the File Name text box, enter mode_8.jpg.
12. Set the pull-down menu, directly under File Name, to JPG.
13. Select OK.
Adams/PostProcessor creates the image file.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Comparing animations
You use Adams/PostProcessor to compare the animations
of the rigid and the flexible levers. You compare animations
using the overlay feature.
Figure 3 shows how your window looks after youve
completed the steps in this section.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Figure 3. Overlaying Animation Results
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
To compare animations:
1. Delete the current page to remove the mode shape animation.
2. From Adams/PostProcessors Main toolbar, from the Page layout
tool stack, select the 2 Views, side by side tool .
3. Right-click the viewport on the right, and then select Load Animation.
4. Double-click rigid.
5. For optimal viewing, fit the model in the viewport.
6. As shown in Figure 3, overlay the simulation named flexible:
From the dashboard, select the Overlay tab.
In the Offset text box, enter -10, 0, 0.
In the Colors text box, enter blue.
Hold down the Control key and multiple-select .cancrusher.rigid and
.cancrusher.flexible.
Move the pointer out of the dashboard area, to execute the command
(which can take a while).
7. Fit the models in the viewport and then animate by selecting the Play
tool.
8. After you finish viewing the animation, pause it.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Observing deformations
Deformations of the flexible body are displayed relative to the
datum node you assigned earlier, in Simulating the flexible lever.
Increase the deformation scale so that you can better visualize the
deformation in the movie file you will be creating soon.
To exaggerate deformations:
1. Right-click the flexible body, point to Flexible_Body: FLX_LEVER,
and then select Select.
2. In the Flex Props tab, set Scale to 20, and then press Enter.
3. To clear the selection of the flexible body, select the Select tool .
4. Animate again.
Notice how increasing the scale factor has exaggerated the flexible
lever deformations.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Comparing joint torque plots
As the lever crushes the can, you can see the combined
twisting and bending of the lever. The twisting and bending
produces force components that act as a torsional load on
the revolute joint (at the coupler). The torque climbs until the
can finally collapses from the crushing operation. At the end
of the duty cycle, the load in the lever is relieved and the
joint torque drops back to zero. The measure for the joint
torque is named LVR_CPLR_REV_MEA_TY and you will
plot it versus the deformation of the can,
CAN_COMPRESSION_MEA.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
To compare plots:
1. Right-click the viewport on the left and select Load Plot. If an alert box
appears, select OK to dismiss it.
2. In the dashboard, set Source to Measures.
3. Set Independent Axis to Data, and then select
CAN_COMPRESSION_MEA as the independent data measure.
4. Select Surf. The Surf feature lets you quickly browse or surf through
multiple results. Using it can eliminate mouse clicks and other
operations, such as delete, undo, and so on.
5. Select both the rigid and the flexible analyses, and plot
LVR_CPLR_REV_MEA_TY.
6. If the legend obscures the plot, select it and move it up slightly.
7. Clear the selection of the legend.
8. Select the viewport on the right, and then animate.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Preparing the movie file
To prepare the movie file:
1. Click on the viewport on the right.
2. From the dashboard, select the Animation tab.
3. Choose a frame range of 1 to 50, and then press Enter.
4. Reset the animation so it displays the first frame.
5. For optimal viewing, fit the models in the viewport.
6. To prepare for recording the .avi file, select the Record tab.
7. Clear the File Name text box.
8. In the File Name text box, enter the name movie.
9. Verify that Format is set to AVI.
10. Select the Record tool.
11. Select Play.
Note: Do not change windows during the record phase.
12. After the animation goes through one pass, or 50 frames, select Pause.
Note: Do not return to Adams/View because you will complete the next
steps in Adams/PostProcessor.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Publishing to the Web
For publishing to the Web, you export data in the current
session of Adams/PostProcessor as HTML pages for
viewing by others in your organization.
Adams/PostProcessor also creates:
Plots and animations as .png, .jpg, .bmp, .xpm, or .tiff images.
Movies of animations as .avi or .mpg.
Information about the parts, constraints, forces, and more in
the selected models. This is the same information that appears
when you select Info.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
To publish to the Web:
1. From the treeview in Adams/PostProcessor, select page_1.
2. From the Edit menu, select Rename, and then rename the page to movie.
3. From the main toolbar, select the Create a new page tool .
4. Rename this page to system_modes.
5. From the Page Layout tool stack , select the 1 View tool .
6. Right-click the viewport, and then select Load Report.
7. Double-click system_modes.txt.
8. From the main toolbar, select the Create a new page tool.
9. Rename this page to can_compression.
10. Right-click the viewport, and then select Load Plot.
11. Set Source to Measures.
12. Plot the CAN_COMPRESSION_MEA for both the rigid and flexible bodies.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
13. From the File menu, point to Export, and then select HTML Report.
14. Select OK.
Note: Do not change windows because the movie will be re-recorded.
Adams/PostProcessor creates a folder, named html_export, in your
working directory.
15. From the Adams/PostProcessor Main toolbar, select to return to the
modeling environment.
16. Save the database using the default name.
17. Exit Adams/View.
18. Open the html_export folder.
19. In a browser, open index.html.
20. To view the results, expand the pages folder.
21. Expand the cancrusher folder to browse information on the parts,
constraints, and forces in the selected model.
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WORKSHOP 1 CAN-CRUSHER PRESENTATION
(CONT.)
Module review
1. How does the system mode 8 compare with the flexible
body mode that is near the same frequency?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
2. Can you suggest a better reference frame in which to
express the measure LVR_CPLR_REV_MEA_TY?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
S2-1
ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 2
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-3
ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
Whats in this section:
Modal superposition
Craig-Bampton Component Mode Synthesis
Mode Shape Orthonormalization
Kinematics of Markers on Flexible Bodies
Applied Forces
Flexible Body Equations of Motion
S2-4
ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL SUPERPOSITION
Represent deformation as a linear combination of
mode shapes
Simple example
Craig-Bampton modes distinguishes boundary nodes
from interior nodes
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL SUPERPOSITION (CONT.)
Fixed boundary normal modes
Obtained by fixing the boundary DOF and computing an
eigensolution. There are as many fixed-boundary normal
modes as the user desires. These modes define the modal
expansion of the interior DOF. The quality of this modal
expansion is proportional to the number of modes retained
by the user.
Two fixed-boundary normal modes for a beam that has
attachment points at the two ends.
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL SUPERPOSITION (CONT.)
Constraint modes
Static shapes obtained by giving each boundary DOF a unit
displacement while holding all other boundary DOF fixed. The
basis of constraint modes completely spans all possible
motions of the boundary DOFs, with a one-to-one
correspondence between the modal coordinates of the
constraint modes and the displacement in the corresponding
boundary DOF.
Two constraint modes for the left end of a beam that has
attachment points at the two ends. The figure on the left
shows the constraint mode corresponding to a unit translation.
The figure on the right corresponds to a unit rotation.
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CRAIG-BAMPTON COMPONENT MODE
SYNTHESIS
Deformations are represented in Craig-Bampton
modal basis
Transform stiffness and mass matrices to Craig-
Bampton basis
Generalized stiffness
Generalized mass
S2-8
ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODE SHAPE ORTHONORMALIZATION
Problems using raw Craig-Bampton modes
Constraint modes embed rigid body motion.
Constraint modes do not advertise the high-frequency
dynamics that they add
Constraint modes cannot be disabled in Adams
Solve a second eigenvalue problem
Eigenvalue problem yields coordinate transformation
Transformation orthonormalizes modes
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODE SHAPE ORTHONORMALIZATION
(CONT.)
Physical interpretation of orthonormalized modes
Approximate free body modes
Boundary eigenvectors
Before:
After:
Problem solved
Rigid body modes drop out
All modes have natural frequency
Disabling high-frequency boundary eigenvectors is benign
S2-10
ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KINEMATICS OF MARKERS ON FLEXIBLE
BODIES
Why are marker kinematics needed?
Joints
Generalized forces
Expressions
Position
Velocity
Orientation
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KINEMATICS OF MARKERS ON FLEXIBLE
BODIES (CONT.)
Position
Use slice of modal matrix corresponding to translations of P
Generalized coordinates
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KINEMATICS OF MARKERS ON FLEXIBLE
BODIES (CONT.)
Velocity
Differentiate position with respect to time
Simplify using the relationship
further simplify
where
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
KINEMATICS OF MARKERS ON FLEXIBLE
BODIES (CONT.)
Orientation
Use slice of modal matrix corresponding to rotations of P
Orientation of marker at P is the product of three Euler
transformation matrices
Reorientation due to deformation builds on the small rotation
assumption
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLIED FORCES
Point forces and torques
Distributed loads
Residual forces and residual vectors
Preloads
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLIED FORCES (CONT.)
Point forces and torques
Generalized forces
Generalized force on the translations
Generalized torque on the Euler angles
Generalized modal load
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Distributed loads
New Adams element, the MFORCE
FEM equation of motion
Transform to modal coordinates
Modal load
Assume that time varying load may be represented as a time
varying linear combination of static load cases
Pre-project the static load cases on the modes
In Adams, scale factors can be a function of time and state
APPLIED FORCES (CONT.)
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLIED FORCES (CONT.)
Residual forces and residual vectors
When load is projected on the modes, not all the load may
make it
The residual force
gives us an additional mode (the residual vector) which
enhances the Craig-Bampton basis.
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPLIED FORCES (CONT.)
Preloads
An Adams flexible body can contain a preload. This allows
Adams to support flexible bodies linearized in a non-linearly
deformed state.
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
Lagrange's equation
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
Mass matrix
Velocity represented as a product of a matrix and the time
derivative of the state vector
Kinetic energy
The flexible body mass matrix. We study it in block form
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
The blocks are conveniently represented as products of
inertia invariants
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
where the invariants are computed in a preprocessor
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
Gravity and stiffness
Potential energy includes stiffness effects and gravity
The stiffness matrix is very simple because it has no rigid
body contribution
Generalized forces due to gravity
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
Damping
Damping is assumed to be derivable from a quadratic form
The equation of a simple harmonic oscillator
leads to a characteristic equation
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ADM710, Section 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
which yields the eigenvalues
Critical damping occurs when the harmonic term vanishes
Modal damping in Adams is represented as a fraction of
critical damping
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
(CONT.)
Equations of motionfinal form
The final form of the equation of motion
S3-1
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 3
REPLACING RIGID BODIES (PART I)
S3-2
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S3-3
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REPLACING RIGID BODIES (PART I)
Whats in this section:
Renaming Flexible Bodies
Modeling Attributes
List Info
Nodes
Plotting
S3-4
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RENAMING FLEXIBLE BODIES
Uses the same method as rigid bodies
When you rename a flexible body:
Adams/View writes a new matrix (.mtx) file when you issue
the next simulation command or export an .adm file
The original matrix file is now redundant and since you dont
need it, you may delete it
Adams/View creates a redundant matrix file when you export
the dataset (.adm). The .adm uses this new matrix file.
Keep in mind that matrix names do not update until the next
time you solve or export a dataset
S3-5
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODELING ATTRIBUTES
Color
Use the same method as you would for rigid bodies
Doesnt affect deformation colors
Active/inactive
Use the same method as you would for rigid bodies
S3-6
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LIST INFO
Use it to view flexible body parameters
We suggest using the Verbose option because it
includes the mode enabled/disabled status
S3-7
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NODES
The following options are available for locating markers on flexible
bodies:
1. Coincident to a node
Default option
Compatible with Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
2. Offset from a node
Must first create the marker at a node, then modify it to the desired offset
distance
Adams/Flex will apply forces to the node
Compatible with Adams/Solver (C++)
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) automatically adds an interface part
3. Attached to multiple nodes
Must first create the marker attached to one node, then modify the marker to
attach it to multiple nodes
Allows the user to distribute loads to multiple nodes to avoid unrealistic stress
concentrations.
Compatible with Adams/Solver (C++) ONLY
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN) does not support this option
Note: Option 1 is the only option available before MSC.ADAMS 2003.
S3-8
ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NODES (CONT.)
Nodes are shown on mesh
You can pick nodes based on FEM ID in the modeling
environment
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NODES (CONT.)
Joints and forces may be applied at any location on a flexible
body. The applied forces or reaction forces, however, will only
be applied at node locations.
For markers that are attached to one node with no offset, the force
will be applied directly to that node.
For markers that are attached to one node with an offset, the force
will be transferred to the node and applied to the flexible body at
this nodes location. This behavior is similar to creating a massless-
rigid link between the marker (where the force is located) and the
node (where the force is being applied to the flexible body).
For markers that are attached to multiple nodes, the weighted force
is transferred to each node and then applied to the flexible body at
the node locations.
For more information, in the online help for Adams/Solver (C++),
follow the link: Statements Marker.
Measures may reference any marker on a flexible body.
You can designate any single node as a datum node for
deformation color contours.
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING
Result set components
Standard measures
User-written measures
Output requests
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
Result set components
You can plot the modal displacements and their derivatives
(Q, DQ, DDQ)
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
Standard measures
Available object characteristics:
Center of mass (CM) position
CM velocity (translational and angular)
CM acceleration (translational and angular)
Potential energy delta
Kinetic energy (total, angular, and translational)
Strain energy (due to deformation)
Momentum (translational and angular)
CM position relative to LBRF
Available results data:
Modal coordinates, velocities, and accelerations
Part displacements, velocities, and accelerations (just like
rigid bodies)
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
User-written measures
Point-to-point measures
Object measures
Markers on flexible bodies also support all standard marker
measures and additional deformation measures (relative to
LBRF).
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
Point-to-point measures
Object measures
Adams/PostProcessor dashboard
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ADM710, Section 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PLOTTING (CONT.)
Output requests
Define using type and markers
Displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force
Define using subroutine (REQSUB)
Define using function expression
You can create output requests by using markers on the
flexible body.
Limitation: Because there is no center of mass (cm) marker for
a flexible body, you cannot make a request from a cm
marker.
WS2-1
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2
PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
Problem statement
The design team is concerned about how component
flexibility may influence the system performance of a robot.
You need to modify the rigid-body model so it contains a
flexible part, and then investigate the effects of that change.
Mechanism information
The model represents a robotic welding mechanism, as
shown below:
Hand
Wrist
Forearm
Arm Level
Shoulder
Base
Figure 4. Robotic Welding Mechanism
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
The following table lists the robotic welding mechanism parts, their
associated geometry, and characteristics.
Note that the dummy parts listed in the table only exist for graphical
reasons. They could be easily deleted from the model without
affecting the functionality. Deleting these parts would decrease the
number of equations in Adams/Solver, therefore, solving more
efficiently.
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
The following table lists the robotic welding mechanism
joints, their type, and associated input motions. The motions
are applied to the joints and control the angular
displacements for the operational sequence.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
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WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Setting up the model
To set up the model:
1. Run ADAMS/View from the directory exercise_dir/mod_03_robot.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file
robot_rigid_start.cmd.
3. Adams/View displays the model named robot.
4. Set the render mode to shaded (type an uppercase S).
5. Turn off icon and grid visibility.
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Simulating the model
Before you simulate the model, set the specifications for the analysis
files that Adams/View outputs. You may want to use these files later
to compare the rigid analysis with the flexible one.
To simulate the model:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Output.
2. Set Save Files to Yes.
3. In the File Prefix text box, enter robot_rigid.
4. Close the Solver Settings dialog box.
5. Run a scripted simulation using .robot.RIGID_SCRIPT.
The script uses the following Adams/Solver commands:
SIM/STATICS
KINEMATIC/ERROR = 1e - 4
SIMULATE/KINEMATIC, DURATION=1.7, DTOUT=1.0E-02
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WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
6. Animate the results.
7. Save the simulation results as rigid.
8. To return to the model view, from the View menu, select Model.
Swapping in the flexible forearm
You now import a flexible forearm. You use the rigid-to-flex utility to
replace the rigid forearm with a flexible one.
To import the flexible forearm:
1. From the Build menu, point to Flexible Bodies, and then select Rigid
to Flex.
2. Right-click the Current Part text box, point to Part, point to Browse,
and then select the part FOREARM.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
3. Right-click the MNF File text box, point to Browse, and then select
robot_arm_easy.mnf.
4. Set Flex Body Positioning to Align Flex Body CM with CM of
Current Part.
Note: Do not select Apply or OK yet.
The dialog box should look as follows:
Flexible Body
Rigid Body
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
The model now includes the flexible forearm, as shown next:
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Establishing flex body connections
To establish connections:
1. Select the Connections tab.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and select the rows for MK13 and MK14.
3. Select Preserve location.
The dialog box should look as follows:
4. Select Apply or OK.
WS2-13
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Switching to Adams/Solver (C++)
To switch to Adams/Solver (C++):
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select
Executable.
2. Set Choice to C++.
3. Close the Solver Settings dialog box.
4. From the Tools menu, select Model Verify, and then check that
youve established the correct connections and the model is ready to
run.
5. Close the Information window.
6. Before continuing, save the model in binary format.
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ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Preparing the flexible forearm
To prepare the flexible forearm for analysis, you set parameters for
inertia, disable modes that we dont want to include in this analysis,
and set deformation display parameters.
To prepare the flexible forearm:
1. In the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, verify that Inertia modeling
is set to Partial coupling.
2. In the Mode Number text box, enter 12.
3. Select Disable .
4. In the Mode Number text box, enter 16.
5. Select Disable.
6. Clear the selection of LBRF and make node 3000 the datum node.
7. Ensure that Plot Type is set to Contour.
8. Select Apply or OK.
9. Clear the selection of the forearm.
WS2-15
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Building a measure
You build a measure of the lateral deflection of the flexible forearm.
Later, you will use the measure to see how much the forearm
deforms as the robot moves through its prescribed path.
To build a measure:
1. From the Build menu, point to Measure, point to Point-to-Point,
select New, and then use the following specifications:
Create Strip Chart: clear its selection (uncheck)
Measure Name: FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL
To Point: ARM_PIN.MK21
From Point: WRIST_PIN.MK23
Characteristic: Translational displacement
Component: Z
Represent coords in: ARM_PIN.MK21
2. Select OK.
WS2-16
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Simulating the flexible forearm
To simulate the flexible forearm:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Simulation Script, and then select
New.
2. In the Script text box, enter .robot.FLEX_SCRIPT.
3. Set Script Type to Adams/Solver Commands.
4. In the Adams/Solver Commands text area, enter:
SIM/STATICS
INTEGRATOR/SI2, GSTIFF, HMAX=1E-3
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, DURATION=1.7, DTOUT=1.0E-02
5. Select OK.
6. Set simulation settings to Save Files, and assign it the file prefix
robot_module3.
Tip: See Step 1 - Step 4 under Simulating the model.
WS2-17
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
7. Perform a simulation using FLEX_SCRIPT.
As the simulation runs, the screen updates with the robot motion. The
deformation contours represent the relative deformations for the given
animation frame.
8. To see how much the flexible forearm has deflected laterally (or end to
end), display the strip chart for the measure you created earlier in
Building a measure: from the Build menu, point to Measure, select
Display, and then double-click FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL.
9. Save the last simulation results as flex (in the Simulation Control
dialog box, select ) .
10. From the Main Toolbox, animate the model with the Loop and the
Contour Plots options selected.
WS2-18
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Inspecting the results
To inspect the results:
1. Launch Adams/PostProcessor.
2. Display a horizontal, 2-page layout ( ).
3. In the upper viewport, for the flexible run, plot the measure
FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL versus time.
4. In the lower viewport, load the animation of the analysis.
5. Choose HAND.TIP as the trace marker.
Tip: To see this marker in your model, turn on the visibility of icons.
Hand Tip
WS2-19
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
6. Animate the model.
7. Rotate the model so you can see the trace from different perspectives.
8. To see the hand tip vibrate as it momentarily comes to rest, zoom in
on the part of the trace where the plot shows the vibration at the first
dwell point.
Note: If you're having trouble seeing the trace because its obscured
by the HAND.CYLINDER geometry, you can set its transparency to 25
or remove its endcap. To remove the endcap: from the Edit menu,
point to Preferences, and then clear the selection of Graphics
Endcaps, which is located under the Geometry tab.
9. Return to Adams/View.
10. Save the model as robot.bin.
Now you've learned how to run flexible body simulations with the
integrated solver in Adams/View.
WS2-20
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Exporting the model
An easy way to export all model files in a single operation is to use a script
mode known as Write Files Only. This is a good way to archive your .adm
and .acf files for future reference. Exporting the model in this way gives
you the minimal file set required to re-run the simulation with stand-alone
Adams/Solver.
To export the model:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Executable.
2. Set Executable to Write Files Only.
3. Close the dialog box.
4. Run another scripted simulation using FLEX_SCRIPT. This will finish very
quickly because it doesnt really run a simulation: it only wrote the files.
5. Check that ADAMS/View wrote the following files to your disk:
robot_module3.acf
robot_module3.adm
robot_module3_FOREARM_flex.mtx
7. You will use these files again in Workshop 5 Using External Adams/Solver.
Exit Adams/View.
WS2-21
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Optional tasks
1. Use xdiff (or equivalent) to compare your dataset with the one in
the directory completed/robot_module3.adm. Do the differences
make sense?_______Yes _______No.
Consider discussing the differences that you cannot explain.
2. To see the effect of the MNF path by inspecting the file robot.bin:
Rename the working directory of this module: change it from
mod_03_robot to mod_03_robot_renamed.
Start Adams/View in mod_03_robot_renamed and open the
database, robot.bin.
Is the flexible body in the model? _______Yes _______No. What
prevents it from being displayed?
______________________________________________________
To fix the display problem:
Tools Command Navigator part modify flexible_body
name_and_position.
Browse for the flexible body and then fix the path for Modal Neutral File
Name.
WS2-22
ADM710, Workshop 2, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 2 PERFORMING A SIMPLE SWAP
(CONT.)
Module review
The motions in this module used STEP5 functions. This plot
shows a comparison of the rigid forearm acceleration using
STEP and STEP5 functionslist some reasons why STEP5
is preferable in this application.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
S4-1
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 4
REPLACING RIGID BODIES (PART II)
S4-2
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S4-3
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
REPLACING RIGID BODIES (PART II)
Whats in this section:
About Joints and Motions
Joint Connection Limitations
About Dummy Parts
About Forces
S4-4
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABOUT JOINTS AND MOTIONS
Using joints
After you bring a flexible body into Adams/View, you can
connect it to your rigid model using the Adams/View library
of constraints.
Joint locations
Joints attached to a flexible body must originally be located
at an existing node or marker on the flexible body.
Note: The marker defining the joint can then be offset from
this location or attached to multiple nodes by modifying it.
It is not required that the joint be located on an attachment
point in FEM. It is good modeling practice, however, to
connect joints at attachment points.
You can avoid nodal mismatch by:
Using consistent numbering
Paying attention to alignment issues
S4-5
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
JOINT CONNECTION LIMITATIONS
S4-6
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
JOINT CONNECTION LIMITATIONS (CONT.)
Workaround: Attach the joint to an intermediate dummy part
that is fixed to the flexible body at a node.
Note: The C++ options were introduced in Adams/Flex 2003.
Only the FORTRAN options were available before the 2003
release.
* Starting with the 2005 release, Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
will automatically introduce a dummy part between the joint
and the flexible body.
S4-7
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABOUT DUMMY PARTS
Dummy parts
Starting with the 2005 release, dummy parts are automatically
created for Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
Only necessary if you are using Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
2003 or a previous version of ADAMS/Flex.
Rigid parts with zero (or an insignificant amount of) mass and
inertia, and are also referred to as massless links or phantom
parts.
Not physical parts of your model.
Must be constrained in all six DOF (commonly accomplished
with a fixed joint).
Although they do not increase the DOF count of your model,
they do increase the number of system equations you are
solving. The dynamic behavior is not negatively affected by
dummy parts.
The use of some modeling elements is only possible through
the use of dummy parts.
S4-8
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABOUT DUMMY PARTS (CONT.)
Flex body connects to
dummy part through fixed joint
Motion is applied to the
WRIST_PIN dummy part
S4-9
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABOUT FORCES
S4-10
ADM710, Section 4, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABOUT FORCES (CONT.)
* The floating marker cannot be on a flexible body. The
reaction force cannot act on a flexible body.
** The joint's J marker cannot be on a flexible body.
***Starting with the 2005 release, Adams/Solver (FORTRAN)
will automatically introduce a dummy part between the force
and the flexible body.
Workaround: Attach the joint to an intermediate dummy part
that is fixed to the flexible body at a node.
Modal force (MFORCE)
Allows you to apply forces in the modal domain (covered in
Modal Applied Force and Preloaded Flexible Bodies).
WS3-1
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3
PERFORMING AN ADVANCED SWAP
WS3-2
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WS3-3
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP
Problem statement
The product engineering department is investigating ways of
reducing the cost of the robot. One designer suggested hollowing
out a portion of the forearm (a lightening hole). The FEA expert
meshed the proposed design change, and now you have to
incorporate it into your robot model. You must redefine the
properties of the current flexible body by referencing a different
MNF, and then simulate the new design.
Mechanism information
This model is the flexible robot model you completed in Workshop
2Performing a Simple Swap.
The FOREARM is modeled as flexible (robot_arm_easy.mnf) and
you must replace it with a different flexible body
(robot_arm_hard.mnf).
Input motions haven't changed.
WS3-4
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Existing flexible body
New flexible body Lightening hole
WS3-5
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Setting up the model
To set up the model:
1. Run Adams/View from the directory, exercise_dir/mod_04_robot.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file,
robot_mod4_start.cmd.
This is the model you completed in Workshop 2 Performing a Simple Swap.
Swapping flexible bodies
To swap flexible bodies:
1. From the Build menu, point to Flexible Bodies, and then select Flex to Flex.
2. Right-click the Flexible Body text box, point to Flexible_Body, point to
Browse, and then select FLEX_FOREARM.
3. Right-click the MNF File text box, point to Browse, and then select
robot_arm_hard.mnf.
WS3-6
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
4. Select 3 Point Method.
5. To make it easier to see the nodes, set the render mode to shaded.
6. Follow the instructions in the Status bar to select the following nodes in
the order listed:
Note: To select the right nodes, zoom and rotate the model as needed.
Right-click near the nodes to ensure that you are selecting the correct
node.
N325
N52
N34 N30
N10
N3
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ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
4. Select OK.
WS3-8
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Running a flexible body simulation
Before you run a simulation, prepare the flexible body by reviewing
modes and setting various simulation settings, such as:
Turning off execution graphics to prevent Adams/View from trying to
animate when it is done solving. Keep in mind that when you run
Adams/View interactively, you can turn off the execution display to
speed up your simulation.
Make sure that you are using Adams/Solver (C++).
To prepare the flexible body:
1. Briefly review the mode shapes to see the modal content that will be
used in the analysis.
(Modes 1 through 6 have been automatically disabled because they
are rigid body modes.)
2. Verify that Inertia modeling is set to the default, Partial coupling.
WS3-9
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
To prepare for simulation:
1. From the Simulate menu, select Scripted Controls.
2. From the bottom of the dialog box, select Simulation Settings.
3. Verify that Category is set to Executable.
Set Executable to External.
4. Set Category to Output.
Set Save Files to Yes.
In the File Prefix text box, enter robot_mod4.
These settings run the simulation externally.
5. To prevent Adams/View from animating while it is solving, set
Category to Display.
Set Update Graphics to Never.
To display the textual output to the Information window, set Show
Messages to Yes.
6. Select Close.
WS3-10
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
To set the variable to use Adams/Solver (C++):
To run Adams/Solver externally using Adams/Solver (C++), you must set an
environment variable on your computer.
On UNIX, do one of the following:
In the Adams Toolbar, set Solver Select to C++.
Set the following environment variable using the appropriate shell commands
for your version of UNIX: set MDI_SOLVER_SELECT to CXX.
On Windows:
1. From the Start menu, point to Settings, and then select Control Panel.
2. Double-click System.
3. Select the Advanced tab.
4. Select Environment Variables.
5. Check to see if an environment variable named MDI_SOLVER_SELECT=CXX
already exists on your computer. If it already exists, then skip Step 6.
6. In the Environment Variables dialog box, create a new user variable as follows:
Variable Name = MDI_SOLVER_SELECT
Variable Value = CXX (for Adams/Solver (C++))
WS3-11
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
To run the simulation:
1. Run a scripted simulation using FLEX_SCRIPT.
This script uses the following Adams/Solver commands:
SIM/STATICS
INTEGRATOR/SI2,GSTIFF, HMAX=1E-3
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, DURATION=1.7, DTOUT=1.0E-02
The analysis will take a while.
2. When the analysis has finished, write down the CPU time displayed at
the bottom of the Information window: Elapsed time = ____________
seconds.
After the analysis has finished, Adams/View updates the strip chart,
FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL.
WS3-12
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Inspecting the analysis results
You now inspect the analysis results and compare them with the
results from Workshop 2Performing a Simple Swap.
To inspect the analysis results:
1. Launch Adams/PostProcessor.
2. Load the animation in the viewport and animate the simulation of the
robot.
3. Select the Contour Plots tab, and verify that Contour Plot Type is set
to Deformation.
4. Right-click FLEX_FOREARM, and then select Select.
5. In the Property Editor, select the Flex Props tab and set the Datum
Node to 4001.
6. Create a new page and plot the measure FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL
versus time.
7. Import the .res file, robot_module3.res, created in Workshop 2
Performing a Simple Swap:
From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Results File.
In the File Name text box, browse for mod_03_robot/robot_module3.res.
In the Model Name text box, enter .robot.
8. Select OK.
WS3-13
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
9. Create another new page (page_3) to plot the measure again. This
allows you to compare results from several runs.
10. Verify that Surf is selected.
11. Plot these results onto page_3 so the curves are overlaid.
Simulation: robot_module3, Last_Run
Source: Result Sets
Result Set: FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL
Component: Q
12. After the curves are displayed, clear the selection of Surf so the plot
won't be overwritten later.
WS3-14
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Investigating analysis with disabled modes
Run the model again with modes disabled based on strain energy
contribution.
To disable modes:
1. Return to Adams/View.
2. From the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, select auto.
3. In the Analysis Name text box, enter .robot.Last_Run.
4. In the Energy Tolerance text box, enter 1e-3.
5. Select OK.
6. Select Modal ICs to see which modes have been disabled.
7. Review some of the modes that have been disabled. We suggest you
review modes 16 through 21.
8. Close the Flexible Body Modify dialog box.
WS3-15
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
To prepare and run the model:
1. In the Solver Settings dialog box, name the output file prefix,
robot_mod4_se_disabled.
2. Perform a simulation using FLEX_SCRIPT.
Again, the analysis will take a while. When it has finished, write down the run time:
CPU time used = ____________ seconds.
3. Save the model to a binary file.
4. Launch Adams/PostProcessor.
5. Automatically update the plots on page_2 and page_3:
From the File menu, select Replace Simulations.
Select Add Simulation.
Set Update Pages to All.
6. Look at the plot on page_2 and answer the questions:
How has disabling the modes changed the results? ____________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Based on the CPU times you recorded, was this analysis faster or slower than when the
model had all modes enabled? ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Consider the repercussions of overzealously disabling modes based on a single
simulation.
7. Exit Adams/View.
WS3-16
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
Optional tasks
1. Disable some modes that are obviously important and then run
another simulation. What effect does it have on the simulation results?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. In your directory, use xdiff (or equivalent) to difference the .adm files:
xdiff robot_module4.adm <completed>/robot_module3.adm.
What is different? Do the differences make sense?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
WS3-17
ADM710, Workshop 3, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 3 PERFORMING AN ADVANCED
SWAP (CONT.)
3. Difference the matrix files. Do the differences make sense?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
4. See if you can reduce the CPU time by finding the right
combination of enabled and disabled modes. Did the results
degrade significantly?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
S5-1
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 5
OPTIMIZING MNFS AND EXPORTING
LOADS
S5-2
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S5-3
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
OPTIMIZING MNFS AND EXPORTING LOADS
Whats in this section:
Modal Neutral Files
Introducing Adams/Flex Toolkit
MNF Browser Application
Adams/Flex Toolkit Optimization Options
Command Line Flex Toolkit
Exporting FEA Loads
FEMDATA
S5-4
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL NEUTRAL FILES
Are:
Binary files
Platform independent
Contain the following information:
Generalized mass and stiffness matrices
Nodal masses/inertias
Nodal coordinates
Inertia invariants
Eigenvalues
Mode shapes
File comments and version information
Modal loads/preloads
Attachment points
Element topology
Units
Stress/strain modes
S5-5
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
INTRODUCING ADAMS/FLEX TOOLKIT
Adams/Flex Toolkit is a tool that allows you to view
the contents of your MNF and translate your MNF
into different formats.
You can access it through:
Adams Toolbar (UNIX)
Start menu (Windows)
Adams command line
It contains the following applications:
MNF Browser
MNF MTX Translator
MSC MNF Translator
MNF MNF Optimizer
MNFLOAD
S5-6
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MNF BROWSER APPLICATION
Allows you to browse the contents of an MNF or MD DB (MD
only) and generate reports
Useful for debugging
Note: The Index textbox will become active if an MD DB has more
than one flexible body. Right-click in the box to select a flexible
body.
S5-7
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MNF MTX TRANSLATOR
Translates an MNF or MD DB (MD only) into an
ASCII matrix file, which Adams/Solver uses
Allows you to manually generate a matrix file without
having to run Adams/View
Note: We will be talking about and using matrix files directly
in the next section.
S5-8
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MNF MNF OPTIMIZER
Allows you to decrease the size of your MNF or MD
DB (MD only) by decreasing the amount/type of
information stored in it
Adams/Solver will not solve the model faster;
however, animations in Adams/View will run faster
Generates a new MNF or MD DB (MD only) using the
options that you choose
Several options are available, as shown on the
Adams/Flex Toolkit Optimization Options page
S5-9
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MNF MNF OPTIMIZER (CONT.)
S5-10
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMS/FLEX TOOLKIT OPTIMIZATION
OPTIONS
The following are the options in the MNF MNF
Optimizer:
Invariants
Units
Formatting
Precision
Stress and Strain Modes
Rigid-Only MNF
Automatic
Manual
S5-11
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
INVARIANTS
Sets which inertia invariants should be computed and
stored in the MNF
Fast Set - Corresponds to partial coupling (5 and 9 are not
computed)
Full Set - Calculates and stores all invariants
None - None of the invariants are stored in the MNF.
Adams/Solver recalculates the invariants needed each time
you write out your matrix files.
Notes:
The None option is not valid when you are using the
automatic or manual optimizing methods.
If you select Fast Set, the newly generated MNF will never
be able to recover a full set of invariants.
S5-12
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
UNITS
Adams/View and Adams/Solver use SI units as their
internal units.
Original - Preserves your current units in your MNF. If your
original units differ from SI, Adams/Flex will have to perform
unit scaling as it performs different operations. This can
degrade performance noticeably.
SI - Converts your MNF into SI units. Improves performance
if original units differ from SI.
S5-13
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FORMATTING
Platform specific
Turns off the extra coding needed to make the MNF platform
independent. Can be done if the MNF will not be transferred
to other platforms.
Standard portable
Keeps the extra code needed to make the MNF platform
independent.
S5-14
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
PRECISION
Double
This is the default option in Adams/Flex. The numerical
values stored in the MNF are in double precision.
Single
Optionally, an MNF can be generated using single-precision.
This reduces the MNF size by 50%, and speeds up any
process that requires obtaining information from the MNF.
For example, animation of flexible bodies and creating MTX
files.
S5-15
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STRESS AND STRAIN MODES
If stress (strain) recovery was requested from the finite element
program when generating the MNF, the MNF contains grid point
stresses (strains) for every mode. The collection of grid point
stresses (strains) for a given mode is referred to as a stress
(strain) mode. Typically, stress (strain) values are requested
from the finite element program for a subset of nodes in the
MNF. You can specify how the MNF stores stress (strain)
modes, particularly for nodes where stress (strain) was not
requested from the finite element program:
Sparse - The optimized MNF only stores stresses (strains)
for nodes that were retained in the optimized MNF and for
which stress (strain) values existed in the original MNF. If a
node had zero values for stresses (strains) in the original
MNF, and that node was retained in the optimized MNF, the
zeroes are written to the optimized MNF.
S5-16
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STRESS AND STRAIN MODES (CONT.)
Full - The optimized MNF stores nodal stresses and strains
for all nodes that were retained in the optimized MNF. For
nodes that did not have stress (strain) values, the optimized
MNF stores zeroes.
Remove zero entries - The MNF only stores non-zero
stresses (strains) for nodes that exist in the optimized MNF.
If you have an MNF that has several zero entries in the
stress (strain) modes, this option can significantly reduce the
size of the MNF.
S5-17
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID-ONLY MNF
Depending on the component and application, the
size of the MNF can be very large, can exceed
several gigabytes, and be difficult to manage. If you
are in the process of building your Adams/Flex body
model, you may consider treating the body as rigid
until you are confident in your model assembly
process. If temporarily using a rigid body formulation
for an Adams/Flex body makes sense, you can
drastically reduce the size of the MNF by selecting
Rigid-Only MNF.
S5-18
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RIGID-ONLY MNF (CONT.)
Rigid-Only MNF creates a reduced MNF that only
contains enough information to build a rigidized
flexible body. With this MNF, you cannot build an
Adams/Flex body with Constant, Partial, or Full
modal formulations, but it may be convenient to work
with while you are assembling and verifying your
model. When you are confident in your model, you
can easily replace the reduced MNF with the full
MNF.
S5-19
ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTOMATIC
Removes excessive nodal detail from the MNF
Note: The invariants must be stored in the MNF to use this
option.
Removing Internal Solid Element Geometry -
Removes all internal node and element graphics for
models made with solid elements
Graphical performance of Adams/View is greatly enhanced
Mesh Coarsening Algorithm:
Mesh Resolution - Combines mesh elements that are
smaller than a fraction of the total component size:
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ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
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AUTOMATIC (CONT.)
Diagonal dimension of original mesh = 1000*sqrt(2) = 1414.21 mm
Mesh coarsening resolution is set to 15% = 1414.21 * .15 = 212.13 mm
Therefore, any element whose diagonal is smaller than 212.13 mm is
combined with its neighboring element to produce a larger element.
Multiple elements are combined to satisfy this parameter. The result is a
coarser mesh.
For our example, 4 (100 mm * 100 mm) elements were combined to
produce a larger element with a diagonal of 282.84.
Original mesh Mesh coarsened 15%
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AUTOMATIC (CONT.)
Mesh Coarsening Algorithm...:
Face Smoothing - Controls the angle between adjacent
faces, below which Adams/Flex should merge faces:
Range: 0 to 45 degrees
For example:
During the coarsening algorithm, adjacent elements were
merged together if the resulting angle, phi, was less than 45
degrees
Original face Face smoothed 45 degrees
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AUTOMATIC (CONT.)
Remove Collinear Points - Controls the removal of
intermediate nodes on the straight edge of a face.
Retained Node List - Specify a list of nodes that
Adams/Flex should not remove during coarsening.
Note: Only visible nodes can be used to place markers,
joints, and so on, onto the flexible body. Therefore, make
sure to include relevant nodes.
Original mesh Mesh with colinear points Mesh without colinear points
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ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
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MANUAL
Removes excessive nodal detail from the MNF through
a user-defined sketch of the mesh
Sketch File - Contains a list of surfaces, two-dimensional lines,
and specific nodes to define the graphics of the .mnf.
Color resolution of the flexible body animation is reduced. Open
GL applies color information to each of the nodes present for
the flexible body. Then, it interpolates the colors between the
nodes. If your flexible body is only represented by a couple of
nodes, then the color resolution will be reduced.
The invariants must be stored in the MNF to use this option.
Useful option when animation speed or file size is more
important than the visual representation of the flexible body.
Note: Only visible nodes can be used to place markers, joints,
and so on, onto the flexible body. Therefore, make sure to
include relevant nodes.
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ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SKETCH FILE
2Number of total faces
4 1 11 121 111 4 total nodes defining the face. The face
connects nodes 1, 11, 121, and 111.
1 61 1 node defining this face. The face just contains node 61.
11
1
121
111
11
1
121
111
61 61
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ADM710, Section 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMAND LINE FLEX TOOLKIT
adamsmdr3 -c flextk on UNIX systems or adamsmdr3 flextk
on Windows systems.
MNFLOAD Apply a distributed load to an MNF.
MNFXFORM Translating, rotating, or mirroring an MNF or MD DB.
MNFRES Recovering nodal displacement, velocity, or acceleration
of a flexible body.
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MNFLOAD APPLICATION
Load can be applied to the flexible body using the MFORCE
statement. (We will talk about the MFORCE statement in
Contacts and Modal Forces.)
The MNFLOAD tool can only be accessed through the
command-line version of Adams/Flex Toolkit
Note: A distributed load can be added to an MNF when the FEA
package creates the original MNF. All FEA programs that support
Adams/Flex do not support this capability. Therefore, the
MNFLOAD tool was created as a workaround. Whenever possible,
you should create the distributed load within the FEA package
because it will include the residual vector. The MNFLOAD tool
cannot calculate the residual vector; therefore, a portion of the load
will not be applied to the flexible body. For more information on the
residual vector see the Applied Forces section.
mnfload existing.mnf new.mnf loadfile
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MNFXFORM
MNFs and MD DBs have data defined with respect to the FE origin.
MNFXFORM translates, rotates, or mirrors the MNF or MD DB with respect to
the FE origin.
mnfxform <option> <input_flex_file> <output_flex_file> <parameters> [-
offset d] [-id nid n1 n2 n3 ...]
<option>: -t for translation, -r for rotation, or -m for mirror.
<input_flex_file>: MNF or MD DB
<output_flex_file>: Output MNF or MD DB
<parameters>: -p px py pz Specify a point P
-r rx ry rz Specify a point R
-s sx sy sz Specify a point S
-v vx vy vz Specify a Vector V
-d dist Specify Distance dist
-a angle Specify Angle (Anti-clockwise in degrees)
[offset inc]: Optional argument to offset the interface node IDs by inc. New interface
node id will be old id plus inc.
[-id nid n1 n2 ...]: Optional argument to specify new interface node IDs. nid is the
number of new IDs will be specified, n1 n2 ... are the new IDs.
Example: mnfxform.exe -m input.mnf output.mnf -v 1 0 0 -p 0 0 0 -offset 1
This example mirrors input.mnf about yz plane and increase the ids of the interface
nodes by 1. Then the transformed flexible body is saved as output.mnf.
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MNFRES
mnfres [options] <Adams_result_file> <input_flex_file>
[options]
-t <time> output results only until specified time.
-n <name> specify flexible body when multiple exist.
-g include rigid body motion
-r also report nodal rotations. Only effective when -g is not specified
-s <file> report only on nodes listed in <file>
-L <unit> specify length unit used in the Adams model. Abbreviation is accepted.
Default value is METER.
-T <unit> specify time unit used in the Adams model. Default value is SECOND.
Abbreviation is accepted.
-i <key> report specific results. <key> values are:
d: Nodal displacements
v: Nodal velocities
a: Nodal accelerations
<Adams_result_file>: Adams result file.
<input_flex_file>: MNF or MD DB
Example: mnfres -i d -n FLEX_BODY_1 example.res foo.mnf
Output all the nodal deformation of flexible body FLEX_BODY_1, whose mnf
file is foo.mnf and the result file is example.res.
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EXPORTING FEA LOADS
Allows you to export Adams/View dynamic load information
about any rigid or flexible body in your model to a (FEA)
program
The FEA program uses the load information for a variety of
purposes, such as stress and strain analyses
You can export load information into the following formats:
ANSYS
Nastran
ABAQUS
DAC or RPC III (requires Adams/Durability)
The load files contain the following forces per node selected:
Joint reaction forces
External (applied forces)
Gravitational forces
Inertial forces
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXPORTING FEA LOADS (CONT.)
The load file contains a series of load cases (one per
output step) where the body is at an instantaneous
dynamic equilibrium
Gravitational + external forces + joint reactions = inertial
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EXPORTING FEA LOADS (CONT.)
Steps:
1. Run a simulation - You must run a simulation so that Adams/View can
determine the loads acting on the bodies in the model.
2. Identify the body - Specify which part whose load information you would like to
export:
Rigid bodies - Load information is calculated relative to the marker that you
select.
Note: This marker's location must correspond to the origin of the body in
the FEA package.
Flexible bodies - Load information is calculated relative to the LBRF.
3. Identify the load points - Adams/View will automatically select all points on the
body that have external loads applied to them.
4. Assign node ID's to load points - For a rigid body, you can assign node ID's
to the load points that correspond to the node ID's on the part in the FEA
program (optional step).
5. Specify the output times - Determine the time interval from the specified
simulation that you would like included in the load file (optional step).
To generate a complete loads history, leave the text box Output at times
blank.
For DAC and RPC III, you can enter start and end output times.
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FEMDATA
You can also set up Adams/View to produce data files of
component loads, deformations, stresses, or strains for input
to subsequent finite-element or fatigue-life analysis for use
in third-party products.
Select Settings > Solver > Output > More > Durability to
specify the type of file to produce.
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ADM710, Workshop 4, July 2008
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WORKSHOP 4
OPTIMIZING MNFS AND EXPORTING
LOADS
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Problem statement
Now that you have incorporated the hollowed flexible body into
your model, the design team has decided that they would like you
to do the following:
Send a simplified version of your flexible model to a colleague
Export the loads at each of your attachment points in Nastran format
so that your company's FEA expert can perform a stress recovery
calculation
Gathering information on the current .mnf
To gather information on your current files:
1. In Window's Explorer (or in a shell if you are using UNIX), find the
working directory exercise_dir/mod_05_robot.
2. Write down the size of the following files:
robot_arm_hard.mnf ____________________
forearm_hollow.mtx ____________________
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To inspect the contents of an .mnf using Adams/Flex Toolkit:
Because MNF files are binary, you cannot directly view their contents.
You will use Adams/Flex Toolkit to view the contents of the current
MNF.
1. Start ADAMS/Flex Toolkit:
On Windows, from the Start menu, point to Programs, point to
MSC.Software, point to Adams, point to AFlex, and then select Adams -
Flex.
On UNIX, display the Adams Toolbar, and then select the Adams - Flex
Toolkit icon .
2. In the MNF Browser tab, right-click the MNF Input File text box, and
then select Select a File.
3. Select the file exercise_dir/mod_05_robot/robot_arm_hard.mnf.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
4. Verify that the following options are selected:
MNF File Info:
Version code
Header
Content Summary
Units
Modal Properties: Eigenvalues
FEM Properties: Global Body Properties
Adams Properties: Interface Nodes
5. Leave all other options at their defaults.
6. To start the MNF browser, select .
The Adams/Flex MNF Browser appears.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
7. At the top of the window, select Content Summary. Answer the
following questions:
Are the nodal masses included in the MNF? Yes or No
Are the generalized K and M included in the MNF? Yes or No
Are the invariants included in the MNF? Yes or No
Are the nodal coordinates included in the MNF? Yes or No
Are the eigenvalues included? Yes or No
Note: The generalized K and M matrices were not included directly in this MNF
because it has already been orthonormalized. Therefore, the generalized M
matrix has become an identity matrix and the generalized K matrix has
become a matrix representing the eigenvalues of the flexible body.
8. Use the tabs along the top of the output window to familiarize yourself
with the output (version information, units, global body properties, and
so on), and then answer the following questions:
What is the mass of the new flexible part? _______________
What are the interface node numbers? ___________, ___________,
___________
9. Close the MNF Browser.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Optimizing the MNF
This flexible body model was made with solid elements (parabolic
tetrahedral elements). Therefore, you will first attempt to optimize
the MNF by removing all internal solid element geometry.
To optimize the MNF using the Automatic option:
1. In MNF MNF Optimizer tab, ensure that the MNF Input File is set
to robot_arm_hard.mnf. (If the file is not set correctly, right-click the
MNF Input File text box, and then browse for the file.)
2. Name your optimized file external_mesh.mnf, and then save it in your
current working directory:
Right-click the MNF Output File text box, and then browse for your current
working directory, exercise_dir/mod_05_robot.
After you have selected your working directory, in the File name text box,
enter external_mesh.mnf.
Select Save to close the browser and store the full name of the file in the
MNF Output File text box.
3. In the Automatic tab, ensure that Remove Internal Solid Element
Geometry is selected.
4. Ensure that the Invariants are set to Fast Set.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
5. Leave all other options at their defaults. Your dialog box should look
like the following:
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
6. Select the Begin Optimization tool .
A window appears that contains the commands issued to perform the
operation, a list of information concerning what is stored in your MNF,
and the additional properties of your new optimized MNF.
7. Review the contents of the window and answer the following
questions:
What information was stored in your MNF?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
How many nodes were in your model? ____________________________
How many modes were in your model? ___________________________
What was the number of element faces in your model? ______________
8. Press any key to close this window.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Creating a sketch file
Now you will optimize the original MNF using the manual
optimization method. This method involves representing the
MNF as an outline of specific nodes. The graphical
information for all nodes that are not specified in the sketch
file is permanently removed from the optimized MNF. The
outline will be a simple three-dimensional outline of the
robot_arm.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To create a sketch file:
1. From your current working directory, open a text editor.
2. Type the following into the text editor:
8
5 3 25 4002 16 4
8 3 25 26 12 11 22 21 10
5 10 21 4003 19 9
8 9 19 20 14 13 15 16 4
4 11 12 13 14
4 3 4 9 10
2 4002 4003
1 4001
3. Save the file as my_sketch.dat in your current working directory.
4. Close the text editor.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Performing a manual optimization
To use the sketch file to optimize the .mnf:
1. In the MNF MNF Optimizer tab, ensure that the MNF Input File is
set to robot_arm_hard.mnf. (If the file is not set correctly, right-click
the MNF Input File text box, and then browse for the file.)
2. Name your optimized file manual_opt.mnf and save it in your current
working directory:
Right-click the MNF Output File text box, and then browse for your current
working directory, exercise_dir/mod_05_robot.
After you have selected your working directory, in the File name text box,
enter manual_opt.mnf as the file name.
Select Save to close the browser and store the full name of the file in the
MNF Output File text box.
3. In the Automatic tab, make sure that the Remove Internal Solid
Element Geometry is not selected.
4. Select the Manual tab.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
5. Right-click the Apply Sketch File text box, select Select a File, and
then browse for the sketch file my_sketch.dat.
6. Ensure that the Invariants are set to Fast Set.
7. Leave all other options at their defaults.
8. Select the Begin Optimization tool .
9. Review the contents of the window that appears and answer the
following questions:
What information was stored in your .mnf?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
How many nodes were in your model? ____________________________
How many modes were in your model? ____________________________
What was the number of element faces in your model? _______________
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
10. Press any key to close the window.
11. Select Quit to exit Adams/Flex Toolkit.
Note: When you use the manual or automatic optimization methods
you selected the invariants to be computed and stored in the MNF.
Optimizing your MNF involves discarding nodal information. All of the
information, however, associated with each node is needed to
compute the invariants.
Therefore, you must store the inertia invariant information in the MNF
when you perform a manual or automatic optimization. If you try to
optimize your MNF, but do not store the invariants, the optimization
will be void and will not be completed.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Swapping in the first MNF, external_mesh.mnf
During the last two workshops, you learned how to swap in two
different MNFs to replace the robot arm in the rigid-body model.
During the last workshop, you specifically dealt with replacing the
simple robot_arm with the hollowed-out version of the robot arm. In
that workshop, you had to translate/rotate the flexible body, modify
the constraints, and fix nodal mismatch.
To swap in the optimized versions of the .mnfs, the process is
greatly simplified. The optimized version of the robot arm has the
same node numbering and locations as the original MNF. The only
difference is that most of the extraneous geometrical information is
gone. You will use the Flex to Flex option to swap in the optimized
MNFs.
Note: When optimizing an MNF, ensure that the nodes that you
are attaching features to (joints, forces, and so on) have not been
removed from the MNF. In this model, these nodes are your
attachment points.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To import the model:
1. Start Adams/View from the directory exercise_dir/mod_05_robot.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file
robot_mod_05_start.cmd.
3. This is the model you completed in Workshop 3 - Performing an
Advanced Swap.
To swap in the first MNF, external_mesh.mnf:
1. From the Build menu, point to Flexible Bodies, and then select Flex
to Flex.
2. Right-click the Flexible Body text box, point to Flexible_Body, point
to Guesses, and then select FOREARM_HOLLOW.
3. Right-click the MNF File text box, point to Browse, and then select
external_mesh.mnf.
4. Select Align Flex Body CM with CM of Current Part.
5. Select OK.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To run a simulation:
1. Change the Solver Settings:
From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select
Display.
Set the following:
Show Messages to Yes.
Update Graphics to Never.
Set Category to Output.
Save Files to Yes.
In the File Prefix text box, enter external_mesh.
Set Category to Executable.
Set Executable to External.
Set Choice to C++.
Select Close.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
2. Run a simulation using the script FLEX_SCRIPT.
3. When the simulation is finished, write down the CPU time
displayed at the bottom of the Information window: CPU time
used = __________ seconds.
4. Animate the model.
5. Do the graphics look correct? Do they look similar to the
graphics from the original model?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Swapping in the second .mnf, manual_opt.mnf
To swap in the second .mnf, manual_opt.mnf:
1. Right-click the Flexible Body text box, point to Flexible_Body, point
to Guesses, and then select FOREARM_HOLLOW.
2. Right-click the MNF File text box, point to Browse, and then select
manual_opt.
3. Select Align Flex Body CM with CM of Current Part.
4. Select OK.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To run a simulation:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Output.
2. In the File Prefix text box, enter manual_opt.
3. Run a simulation using the script FLEX_SCRIPT.
4. When the simulation is finished, write down the CPU time displayed at
the bottom of the Information window: CPU time used = __________
seconds.
5. Animate the model.
6. Do the graphics look correct? Do they look similar to the graphics from
the original model?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Comparing the MNFs
Now that you have optimized your MNF using two different
methods, and run simulations with them, you are now going to
compare these two new files with the original file.
To compare the MNFs:
Using your answers from the sections listed below, fill in Table 1:
Gathering information on the current MNF.
Performing a manual optimization.
Swapping in the first MNF, external_mesh.mnf
WorkshopOptimizing MNFs and Exporting Loads
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To compare the graphics of the .mnfs:
1. Create a new model:
From the Build menu, point to Model, and then select New.
In the dialog box that appears, select OK.
2. Import the flexible body external_mesh:
From the Build menu, point to Flexible Bodies, and then select
Adams/Flex.
Import the flexible body external_mesh.mnf.
Use default damping.
3. Using the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, animate the modes of the
flexible body.
4. Do the modes look the same as the modes for the unoptimized flexible
body robot_arm_hard.mnf?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
5. Close the Flexible Body Modify dialog box.
6. Delete this flexible body from your model.
7. Using Steps 1 through 3, perform the same operations on the flexible
body manual_opt.mnf.
8. Do the modes look the same as the modes for the unoptimized flexible
body robot_arm_hard.mnf?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
9. With the information youve gathered, answer Question 1 in Module
review.
10. From the Build menu, point to Model, and then select Delete.
11. Use the Database Navigator to delete MODEL_2.
12. From the View menu, select Model.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Exporting the FEA loads of the attachment points
Now you will focus on your second task, which is to export the
loads at the attachment points.
You will export the loads at the times when the flexible body is
undergoing large lateral deflections (times = .45, 1.3).
To export the loads at the attachment points:
1. From the File menu, select Export.
2. Set the following:
File Type to FEA Loads.
Format to NASTRAN.
In the File Name text box, enter lateral_def.lod.
Set Analysis to Last_Run.
Select Loads on a Flexible Body.
In the Flex Body Name text box, select FOREARM_HOLLOW.
Select Add Load Points to Nodes Table.
This transfers the node IDs for the locations where loads were applied to
the flexible body. For this model, these are your attachment points.
Set Output at times to .45, 1.3 with a +/- tolerance of .015.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
The dialog box should look like the following:
3. Select OK.
4. In the Question dialog box that appears, select Continue.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
To examine the loads on the flexible body:
1. In a text editor, open the file lateral_def.lod, which should be located in
your working directory.
2. Look for the following items:
6 SUBCASE statements in the CASE CONTROL DECK - Each of these
subcase statements corresponds to a time step in the model.
6 LOAD CASE statements in the BULK DATA DECK - Each of these load
cases is associated with a subcase statement. Each load case consists of a
gravity load (GRAV), a force and moment applied at each of the specified
nodes in your model (FORCE and MOMENT), and sometimes an inertial
force (RFORCE). The directions of these loads are with respect to the
LBRF.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
For example:
$
$ LOAD CASE = 2
$
GRAV,10004,,-1.0,-1.40346e+004,3.86003e+004,1.23043e+004
RFORCE,10005,,,-1.0,-7.31611e-004,1.07812e-001,1.88179e-001,2
RFORCE,10006,,,0.0,-4.33138e-001,3.74316e+000,7.02479e+000,2,+RF10006
+RF10006,-1.0
FORCE,10005,4001,,1.0,5.27564e+006,5.63896e+006,2.12884e+006
MOMENT,10006,4001,,1.0,-1.70519e+009,1.97445e+008,4.68934e+009
FORCE,10005,4002,,1.0,-1.58588e+006,-1.61227e+007,1.85232e+006
MOMENT,10006,4002,,1.0,4.75092e+008,3.06770e+007,2.22593e+008
FORCE,10005,4003,,1.0,-1.65535e+006,1.40517e+007,-2.99013e+006
MOMENT,10006,4003,,1.0,-1.37822e+005,-2.86234e+006,2.11043e+008
LOAD,2,1.0,1.0,10004,1.0,10005,1.0,10006
$
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
This file is now ready to be added to the original Nastran data deck.
Running this model in Nastran with these forces applied allows you to
perform stress recovery calculations at the times when the flex body
lateral deformations were at their peaks.
3. Exit Adams/View.
4. If time permits and Nastran and/or Adams/Durability is available,
continue with the next section.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Optional tasks
Running a Nastran analysis using your FEA loads:
If Nastran is available, follow these steps to incorporate your FEA
loads with your data deck and perform a stress recovery analysis
in Nastran.
1. Copy your file lateral_def.lod into the directory /completed/optional.
2. Open the file lateral_def.lod in a text editor.
After the line "$ B U L K D A T A D E C K E C H O" add the following
command:
OUTPUT(POST)
SET 100 = 4001,4002,4003,150,246,1223,464,417
DISP=100
SET 200 = 26,51,58,133,868
VOLUME 400 SET 200
BEGIN BULK
Save the file and close the text editor.
3. Run the file lateral_def.dat in Nastran.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
4. To view the stresses, open the file lateral_def.f06 in a text editor and scroll down
to the end. You should see the following:
All of the reaction forces should be negligible compared to your loads applied to the
model at each time step. For example, if your applied loads are in the range of 106, then
negligible reaction forces should be less than about 104.
For example, for Load Case 2, the applied forces are in the range of 106 and the applied
moments are in the range of 109. We see from the following table, that the largest
reaction force is in the range of 104, therefore the reaction forces are less than 1% of the
applied forces. Here is part of the table for Load Case 2:
F O R C E S O F S I N G L E - P O I N T C O N S T R A I N T
POINT ID. TYPE T1 T2 T3 R1 R2 R3
150 G 2.863195E+03 -6.973841E+04 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
246 G 0.0 0.0 -2.947010E+030.0 0.0 0.0
1223 G -5.078449E+03 6.746709E+04 3.213485E+03 0.0 0.0 0.0
ROBOT ARM STRESS RECOVERY USING FEA LOAD EXPORT
ADAMS SIMULATION TIME = 4.50000E-001 SUBCASE 2
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Note: A solid element node one has three translational degrees of
freedom. Therefore, the rotational forces should all be 0 for this model
since the model is defined by solid elements.
Compare the values of the stresses for each time step for the grid
points listed.
Do they agree with the physical model?
Adams/Durability indicates that the largest Von Mises stress occurs at
time .880 seconds at the node 464. Generate a new load file for this
time step and confirm that the stress at this grid point is ~7.09E4 kPa.
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WORKSHOP 4 OPTIMIZING MNFS AND
EXPORTING LOADS (CONT.)
Performing stress recovery in Adams/View:
Swap in the flexible body robot_stress.mnf found in the directory
/completed/optional. The .mnf has stress information stored in it. Run
a simulation and use Adams/Durability to view the stresses in your
model.
Module review
Which of the three MNFs (robot_arm_hard.mnf,
external_mesh.mnf, or manual_opt.mnf) would you prefer to
send to your vendor?
________________________________________________
Why?___________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
S6-1
ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 6
USING FLEXIBLE BODY
STATEMENTS
S6-2
ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S6-3
ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
USING FLEXIBLE BODY STATEMENTS
Whats in this module:
Data Transfer
Statements Used
Matrix Files
S6-4
ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DATA TRANSFER
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ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STATEMENTS USED
Statements:
FLEX_BODY - Describes a flexible body and associates it
with matrix elements.
MARKER - Defined at any nodal locations where you want to
attach modeling elements, measure deformations, and more.
MATRIX - Correspond to the matrices contained within the
matrix file.
For syntax and extended definitions, see the Adams/Flex and
the Adams/Solver (C++) online help.
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ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATRIX FILES
Matrix files
Save modal information corresponding to any node that has
a marker on it.
Used by Adams/Solver to describe the properties of a
flexible body.
Structure
The matrix file for a flexible body contains matrices (currently
between 12 and 17), which list the selected modes, selected
nodes, and invariants.
See the sample in the Adams/Flex online help.
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ADM710, Section 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MATRIX FILES (CONT.)
Generating from MNF file
To manually generate a matrix file, use the MNF2MTX
translator in Adams/Flex Toolkit. The matrix file is in
ADAMSMAT format, and you should only create it using the
translator.
Note that when using Adams/View, it automatically
translates the MNF for you (done transparently in workshops
1 through 3).
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ADM710, Workshop 5, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 5
USING EXTERNAL ADAMS/SOLVER
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER
Problem statement
The FEA group created a new representation of the flexible
body modal neutral file (MNF) that also happens to have a
different node-numbering scheme. Since your colleague has
checked out your Adams/View license and you have a
deadline, you must hand-edit the necessary files and
perform a stand-alone Adams/Solver simulation.
Mechanism information
This model is the flexible robot model you completed in
Workshop 2Performing a Simple Swap.
The FOREARM is modeled as flexible
(robot_arm_easy.mnf), and you must replace it with a
different flexible body (robot_arm.mnf).
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Inspecting the MNF
Inspect the new MNF to find its node-numbering scheme.
To inspect the MNF:
1. From the directory, exercise_dir/mod_06_robot, start Adams - Flex
Toolkit.
2. In MNF Browser, right-click the MNF Input File text box, and then
browse for robot_arm.mnf.
3. Select .
4. Look in the output window for the node numbers of the attachment
points: _________, _________.
5. Write down the units: ________, ________, ________, ________.
6. Exit Adams/Flex Toolkit.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Inspecting the Adams/Solver dataset
Inspect the Adams/Solver dataset to familiarize yourself with its
organization.
To inspect the dataset:
1. In a text editor, open the file robot_module3.adm.
2. Save it with a new name, robot_module6.adm.
3. Review the contents of the dataset and find the following statements
and character strings:
FLEX_BODY statement - What is the Adams ID for the current flexible
body? _____.
UNITS statement - Write the units: _______, _______, _______, _______.
String NODE_ID - List statement(s) where this argument is used
________________.
String FILE - List statement(s) where this argument is used
____________________.
Do the units agree with the previous page? ______ Yes ______ No.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Modifying the dataset
Update the model to incorporate the new representation of the
flexible body.
To modify the dataset:
1. Change the FLEX_BODY id to 2.
2. Change the MNF_FILE reference to robot_arm.mnf.
3. Use an exclamation mark to comment out the 12 MATRIX statements
from the DATA STRUCTURES section, as shown next:
!MATRIX/1
!, FILE = robot_module3_flex_forearm.mtx
!, NAME = GENSTIFF
...
4. Save the file.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Running an interactive simulation
To run an interactive simulation:
1. Do one of the following:
For Windows:
From the Start menu, select Run and open a command window by
typing in cmd. Change directories to your working directory,
exercise_dir/mod_06_robot.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
To select Adams/Solver (C++), type set MDI_SOLVER_SELECT = CXX.
Run an interactive simulation with stand-alone Adams/Solver (note that
within the string, adamsxx, xx indicates the version number):
adamsxx ru-s n
Note: The n means that you are not using an .acf.
For UNIX:
Open a UNIX shell and change directories to your working directory,
exercise_dir/mod_06_robot.
Using the appropriate shell commands for your version of UNIX, set the
MDI_SOLVER_SELECT environment variable to CXX. For example, for a
C shell, use
setenv MDI_SOLVER_SELECT CXX
Use the command:
adamsxx -c ru-s -n
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
2. At the prompt, enter the Adams model file name, FILE/MODEL =
robot_module6.adm, and then press Enter.
3. Notice the two types of errors, MATRIX ID and FLEX_BODY ID:
....
ERROR: The MATRIX referenced by id number does not exist.
ERROR: Value : 1
ERROR: Value number : 1
ERROR: Argument : MATRICES
ERROR: Statement : FLEX_BODY/2
ERROR: Line number : 327
ERROR: The FLEX_BODY referenced by id number does not exist.
ERROR: Value : 1
ERROR: Argument : FLEX_BODY
ERROR: Statement : MARKER/13
ERROR: Line number : 334
....
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
These errors indicate that merely changing the FLEX_BODY ID and
deleting the MATRIX statements is not enough. There are other
dependencies you will have to address.
Unlike Adams/View, Adams/Solver will not automatically generate the
matrix files (MTX) for the flexible body from the MNF file you
referenced. Instead, you will have to run the mnf2mtx translator by
hand, which you will do in the next section.
4. To stop Adams/Solver, type Stop.
Note: Leave this window open, because you will use it again later.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Generating the matrix file
Use the mnf2mtx translator, from Adams/Flex Toolkit, to
create a new MTX file representing the new flexible body.
Create the MTX file with these parameters:
Include nodes _________ and _________ (see Step 4).
Exclude the rigid-body modes (1-6).
Set the units to match the .adm file (see Step 3).
Select the option for fast translate (Fast Invar).
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
To generate the MTX file:
1. From the directory, exercise_dir/mod_06_robot, start Adams - Flex
Toolkit.
2. Select the MNFMTX Translator tab.
3. Right-click the MNF Input File text box, and then browse for:
exercise_dir/mod_06_robot/ robot_arm.mnf.
4. Right-click the Matrix Output File text box, and then browse for the
MTX file located in exercise_dir/mod_06_robot.
5. Change the name of the MTX file to be robot_module6.mtx.
Note: You browse for the existing MTX file to ensure that the path is
correct. You then rename the mtx file to create a new one.
6. Change the default units as follows:
Length: MILLIMETER
Force: MILLINEWTON
7. Change the modes/nodes as follows:
Node ID List: make sure Include is selected, and then, in the text box,
enter 2000 3000
Mode Number List: first select Exclude and then, in the text box, enter 1 2
3 4 5 6
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
8. Make sure that Fast Invar is selected.
9. Select the Begin Translation tool .
10. Follow the prompts and when the translation is done, exit Adams/Flex
Toolkit.
11. In a text editor, review the robot_module6.mtx file to see if it makes
sense. Are the units the same as in the .adm file? Are the correct
nodes and modes included? Do the node locations match the locations
of the markers that reference them (see QPs in dataset)?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Adding matrix statements to the dataset
To add matrix statements:
1. In a text editor, open data_structures.txt from the working directory.
2. Copy the 14 MATRIX statements and paste them into
robot_module6.adm within the DATA STRUCTURES section:
!------------------------------------- DATA STRUCTURES -------------------------------------!
MATRIX/1, FILE = myfile.mtx, NAME = GENSTIFF
MATRIX/2, FILE = myfile.mtx, NAME = INVAR1
--etc.---
Note: If the data_structures.txt file is not available, you can obtain this
data structure by searching for example dataset in the Adams/Flex
online help.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
3. Search and replace the string myfile.mtx with robot_module6.mtx.
4. Save the file.
5. Run another simulation (as you did earlier in the workshop) and notice
the errors:
ERROR: The FLEX_BODY referenced by id number does not exist.
ERROR: Value : 1
ERROR: Argument : FLEX_BODY
ERROR: Statement : MARKER/13
ERROR: Line number : 334
....
This error indicates that the code cant find a FLEX_BODY in the
model that has an ID of 1. This is because in Step 1 you had assigned
the FLEX_BODY an ID of 2 and there are markers that depend on the
flexible body ID. Therefore, you need to update MARKER/13 (and
others) to reference the correct FLEX_BODY ID.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Updating FLEX_BODY ID references
Change the FLEX_BODY ID for all the markers that reference it.
To update flexible body ID references:
1. In a text editor, search for MARKER/13 (or, if your text editor allows,
go directly to line 334).
2. On the marker statement, modify FLEX_BODY argument to be 2
instead of 1. This will fix the first error.
3. To fix the other errors, make a global change to update all
FLEX_BODY = <id number>.
4. Save changes and run another simulation.
5. Notice the warnings and the error:
WARNING: Matrix 'INVAR5' not found in file 'robot_module6.mtx'.
WARNING: Matrix 'INVAR9' not found in file 'robot_module6.mtx'.
ERROR: The node ID on MARKER .model.FLEX_FOREARM.MK13
is not one of the nodes selected on its parent FLEX_BODY.
---- START: ERROR ----
Attempt to read in model into AMD was unsuccessful
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Investigating the warnings and error
To investigate:
1. Think through the following:
Can you explain the two warnings?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Were the warnings there before? ___ Yes ___ No
Can you find either INVAR5 or INVAR9 in the .mtx file? ___ Yes ___ No
2. Think back through the changes you made:
How many matrices did you paste into the robot_module6.adm? ______
Is that number equal to the number of matrices declared in the MATRICES
argument of FLEX_BODY/2? Yes ____ No ____, there are _________
matrices listed.
Which particular matrices are missing? _______________, _______________
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Making final changes to the dataset
To make final changes:
1. Comment out the MATRIX/6 and MATRIX/10 lines, as shown next:
!MATRIX/6 ...
...
!MATRIX/10 ...
2. Update the MATRICES argument by appending 13 and 14, and removing
6 and 10.
MATRICES = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14
3. Change NODE_IDs for MARKER/14 and MARKER/11012 to _______,
which is the first node number you listed in Step 4 under Inspecting the
MNF.
4. Save the changes that you made to the file robot_module6.adm.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Creating and running an ACF
Create an Adams command file (ACF) that issues simulation commands
for stand-alone Adams/Solver, and then simulate using the command line.
To create and run an ACF:
1. Using a text editor, write an ACF for the simulation, named
robot_module6.acf:
robot_module6.adm
robot_module6
SIMULATE/STATICS
INTEGRATOR/SI2,GSTIFF, HMAX=1E-3
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, DURATION=1.7, DTOUT=1.0E-02
STOP
2. Simulate using the ACF file:
On Windows, use the command:
adamsxx ru-s robot_module6.acf exit
Note: exit is optional.
On UNIX use the command:
adamsxx -c ru-s i robot_module6.acf exit
3. The model solves successfully.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Importing analysis results
Because your colleague still has your Adams/View license, use
stand-alone Adams/PostProcessor for post processing your
analysis results. You import the results from Workshop 2
Performing a Simple Swap and compare them with the results of
the simulation you just performed.
To import results:
1. From the command line, start stand-alone Adams/PostProcessor in
your working directory:
On Windows, use the command:
adamsxx appt
On UNIX, use the command:
adamsxx -c appt
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
2. From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Solver Dataset.
3. In the File to Read text box, browse for robot_module6.adm.
4. In the Model to Create text box, enter robot_module6.
5. Select OK.
6. Ignore any warnings.
7. From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Analysis Files.
8. In the File Name text box, browse for robot_module6.res.
9. In the Model Name text box, browse for robot_module6.
10. Select Apply.
11. In the File Name text box, browse for robot_module3.res.
Tip: The file robot_module3.res is not in your current directory. You
will have to browse back to find the file in the directory
mod_03_robot.
12. Select OK.
If Adams/View displays an alert dialog box, dismiss it by selecting OK.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Inspecting results
You compare measure results from two analyses, import shells to
visualize the model, and then modify the visual representation
parameters of the flexible body.
To inspect results:
1. Change the pull-down menu at the top of Adams/PostProcessor to
Plotting.
2. Simultaneously plot the FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL measure for
each run:
Simulation list: robot_module6 and robot_module3
Results set: FOREARM_LATERAL_DEFL
Component: Q
Can you describe the differences in a general sense?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
3. Choose the vertical 2-view layout.
4. Right-click in the right-hand viewport, select Load Animation, and
then select robot_module6.
5. Animate the model at different viewing angles.
Do you know why certain geometries are missing?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. From the File menu, point to Import, and then select Shell.
7. Import the file with the following specifications:
File Name: cad/base.shl
Shell Name: .robot_module6.base.base_shell
Reference Marker: .robot_module6.BASE.Origin
Verify that Wireframe Only is not selected.
8. Select OK.
Now you can see the base shell geometry.
Note: If the screen hasn't updated with base shell graphics:
Right-click the viewport on the right, and then select Clear View.
Right-click the viewport again, and then select Load Animation.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
9. Import the rest of the shells using the command file,
mod_06_robot/misc/load_shells.cmd.
To modify the visual representation of the flexible body:
1. From the View menu, select Command Window.
2. In the command window, enter:
part modify flex visual flexible=.robot_module6.FLEX_FOREARM
datum=2000
3. Right-click FLEX_FOREARM, and then select Select.
4. In the Property Editor, under the Flex Props tab, set Plot Type to
Contour.
5. Set Scale to 500.
6. In the Contour Plots tab, change Contour Plot Type to
Deformation.
To view the animation and finish up:
1. Animate the model, and then save it.
2. Exit Adams/PostProcessor.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Optional tasks
1. Perform an FFT analysis on the measure that you plotted.
Examine the results. Notice that the frequency at the dwell
point wasnt captured. Modify the .acf script so the DTOUT =
1.0E-03. Replot and perform another FFT analysis on that
signal. What is the frequency of the vibration at the first
dwell point? _______________________________.
Tip: Try hanning window of .3-.4 seconds.
2. Create a measure or request between two markers on the
flexible body. Run a simulation and plot the results.
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WORKSHOP 5 USING EXTERNAL
ADAMS/SOLVER (CONT.)
Module review
Would it have been easier to work through this workshop
using Adams/View?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
List some advantages to using external Adams/Solver.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
S7-1
ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 7
CONTACTS AND MODAL FORCES
S7-2
ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S7-3
ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACTS AND MODAL FORCES
Whats in this section:
Contact with Flexible Bodies
Modal Applied Force and Preloaded Flexible Bodies
S7-4
ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT WITH FLEXIBLE BODIES
Adams 2005r2 began supporting points on flexible bodies
Point to plane
Point to curve
The point can exist on the flexible body, but the plane or curve
cannot.
Adams/Solver (C++) supports several points defined in a contact.
Adams/Solver (FORTAN) supports only one point in a contact.
For other contact pairs, you must use your own modeling tricks
or the built-in contact primitives.
Use dummy parts and the Adams/View built-in contact pairs:
Curve to plane
Curve to curve (for example, circle to circle)
Sphere to plane (see Creating the contact forces)
Solid to solid
Note: Spheres will solve faster than other solids.
Write your own user-written forces. Dont forget that the flexible
body must be the action body.
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ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
CONTACT WITH FLEXIBLE BODIES (CONT.)
Flexible body contact using modal formulation (C++ Solver only)
Flex body to solid (flex body must be the action body)
Flex body to flex body
Setup just like rigid body contact
Main Toolbox > Force Pallette > Contact
The Contact Create dialog will show the Flex Body to Solid and Flex
Body to Flex Body options.
Geometry used for contact detection is extracted from the mnf.
Additional Limitations
Only solid elements, no shell elements
No lists of flexible bodies or geometry (JGEOM)
Restitution method not supported, use IMPACT method instead
Parasolid contact library only, no support for the RAPID geometry
library
S7-6
ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL APPLIED FORCE AND PRELOADED
FLEXIBLE BODIES
In Adams/Flex you can accept exported finite
element load cases as part of your flexible body
definition and optionally apply them in Adams using
the MFORCE element
Possibilities:
Easily define distributed loads using FEM facilities and
efficiently apply them in Adams
Combine multiple load cases, scaling them with functions of
time and response
Thermal loads
Flutter analysis
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ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL APPLIED FORCE AND PRELOADED
FLEXIBLE BODIES (CONT.)
Adams/PostProcessor features:
When you define MFORCEs for your flexible bodies, you can
display the force magnitudes in Adams/PostProcessor
The force magnitudes are displayed in Cartesian coordinates
Color contour and vector plots:
Let you determine the scale of the MFORCEs
Allow you to verify that the MFORCE is set up correctly
Help you in debugging your models
Note: These options must be selected for each flexible body
in either the Modify Flexible Body dialog box in Adams/View
or in the property editor in Adams/PostProcessor.
Modal forces of the various modes are denoted by FQ. The
sum of FQ on all the modes equals the applied force.
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ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL APPLIED FORCE AND PRELOADED
FLEXIBLE BODIES (CONT.)
Additionally, Adams/Flex lets you define preloaded
flexible bodies
Possibilities:
Simplify modeling by defining flexible bodies that have a
natural deformed shape. Example: assemble valve springs
or other assemblies.
Account for stress stiffening, for example in spinning
systems or taut strings.
Linearize non-linear finite element models about a deformed
state. Example: finite element tire models.
Notes:
A preload cannot contain a global resultant force. No body
should have a tendency to accelerate itself.
A preloaded flexible body pushes or pulls on its surroundings
and recoils unless the preload is maintained.
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ADM710, Section 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL APPLIED FORCE AND PRELOADED
FLEXIBLE BODIES (CONT.)
Availability
Currently not all FEA programs that support Adams/Flex have
added support for modal loads and preloads. The following
table lists the FEA vendors and available MNF functionality.
For the most current version of this chart, see Knowledge
Base article 9474 at:
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB9474.
Workaround: Add applied loads and preloads to existing mnf
files using the MNFLOAD tool in Adams/Flex Toolkit.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6
USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE
Problem statement
For the following manufacturing material transfer device,
determine if a maximum vacuum force of 1/2 atmosphere is
adequate to move the flexible sheet.
Mechanism information
The model represents a material transfer mechanism, as
shown in Figure 5:
VACUUM
FLEX_SHEET
TABLE
Sphere (dummy part)
Figure 5. Material Transfer Mechanism
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Setting up the model
Import the model, set its viewing attributes, and then simulate it.
To set up the model:
1. Run Adams/View from the directory, exercise_dir/mod_07_contact.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file,
mod_07_start.cmd.
3. Set the view mode to isometric.
4. Set the render mode to shaded.
5. Run a scripted simulation using SIM_SCRIPT_1.
6. To better understand the mechanism, animate from different
viewpoints.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Importing the flexible body
Import the flexible body and set its color to blue.
To import the flexible body:
1. Create a flexible body (Build Flexible Bodies Adams/Flex):
Flexible Body Name: FLEX_SHEET
Modal Neutral File Name: sheet_load.mnf
Use default damping
2. Select OK.
3. Select FLEX_SHEET.
4. From the Main Toolbox, from the Color tool stack, select the tool for
the color blue .
5. Clear the selection of FLEX_SHEET.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Connecting the flexible body
The spheres act as dummy parts and are attached to ground with
fixed joints. Attach the spheres to the flexible body by modifying
the joints. Later you will use the spheres to create sphere-to-plane
contact forces.
After you connect the flexible body, perform a static equilibrium
simulation.
To connect the flexible body:
1. To see the fixed joints, turn on the icons.
Adams/View displays the icons as shown next:
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
2. Modify the five fixed joints (named using the convention FX_JOINT_#)
so the First Body is always the FLEX_SHEET.
To perform a static equilibrium simulation:
1. From the Main Toolbox, select the Simulate tool , and then select
the Static Equilibrium tool .
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Creating the vacuum force
Create a parabolic vacuum distribution using a modal force. This
modal force forms a negative pressure causing lift on
FLEX_SHEET.
To create the vacuum force:
1. From the Main Toolbox, from the Create Forces tool stack, select the
Modal Force tool .
2. Create the modal force as follows:
Force Name: .model_1.MFORCE_1
Flexible Body: .model_1.FLEX_SHEET
Reaction Part: .model_1.VACUUM
Define Using: Function
Load Case: parabolic one atu overpressure
Scale Function: -STEP5(TIME, T1-0.1, 0.0, T1+DW1-0.1, 0.5)
+STEP5(TIME, 1.55, 0.0, 1.60, 0.5)
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WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
3. Select OK.
Adams/View displays the icon for the modal force:
Modal Force Icon
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Changing render mode of VACUUM
To be able to see the contact planes, and to see the deformation of
FLEX_SHEET, make the VACUUM extrusion visible as wireframe
geometry.
To make VACUUM wireframe:
1. Right-click VACUUM, and then select Appearance.
2. Set Render to Wireframe.
3. Select OK.
Now youll have an unobstructed view of the flexible sheet when the
model is rendered shaded.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Creating the contact forces
Create sphere-to-plane contact forces between the
ellipsoids attached at the corners of the FLEX_SHEET and
the VACUUM surface planes. These forces prevent the
FLEX_SHEET from passing through the VACUUM block as
it is lifted. To transport the FLEX_SHEET, you need to
enable coulomb friction forces.
The arrows in Figure 6 show the pairing of the contact
forces between the right and the left sides.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Notice that the surfaces, denoted by the markers, are
inclined at 45 angles, as a self-centering feature of the
vacuum design.
PLANE_0
PLANE_1
ELLIPSOID_4
ELLIPSOID_3
ELLIPSOID_2
ELLIPSOID_1
Figure 6. Contact Forces
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
To create the contact forces:
1. From the Create Forces tool stack, select the Contact Force tool .
2. Create the sphere-to-plane contact forces as follows:
Tip: Select the appropriate plane markers, as shown in Figure 6.
Contact Name: .model_1.Contact_1
Contact Type: Sphere to Plane
Sphere: .model_1.PART_5.ELLIPSOID_1
Plane: .model_1.VACUUM.PLANE_1
Force Display: on
Normal Force: Impact
Stiffness: (1.0E+04(newton/mm))
Force Exponent: 1.5
Damping: (100.0(newton-sec/mm))
Penetration Depth: (0.1mm)
Friction Force: Coulomb
Coulomb Friction: On
Static Coefficient: 0.6
Dynamic Coefficient: 0.5
Stiction Transition Vel.: (100(mm/sec))
Friction Transition Vel.: (200(mm/sec))
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
3. Select OK.
You have created contact for one corner of the flexible sheet. Now you
must create similar contacts for the remaining three corners. It is
easiest to create the others by copying the one you've just created and
modifying the sphere and plane. You will use a method of copy-
rename-modify so that the same contact impact and friction
parameters are used without your having to re-type them every time.
4. Select .model_1.CONTACT_1, and from the Edit menu, select Copy.
5. From the Edit menu, select Rename.
6. Change the name of the copy to .model_1.CONTACT_2.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
7. Modify .model_1.CONTACT_2 and change its sphere from
ELLIPSOID_1 to ELLIPSOID_2.
8. Repeat Steps 4 through 7 to create the other two contacts, as shown
next:
Why do you think there is no contact at the center (ELLIPSOID_5)?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Simulating the flexible body when rigid
The sphere radii were artificially enlarged so you could
easily select them when creating the forces. Before you run
another scripted simulation, reduce the sphere radii to make
the model more realistic.
To reduce the sphere radii:
1. From the Build menu, point to Design Variable, and then
select Modify.
2. Double-click sphere_rad1.
3. In the Standard Value text box, enter (5mm).
4. Select OK.
Because the spheres are parameterized, Adams/View reduces
the radii of all the spheres.
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WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
To simulate:
1. Make the FLEX_SHEET rigid by setting Inertia modeling to Rigid
body.
2. Before simulating, save the model in its current configuration:
From the File menu, select Save Database As.
Save the database as rigid_model.
3. From the Simulate menu, point to Scripted Controls, and then
browse for .model_1.RIGID_SCRIPT.
The script uses the following Adams/Solver commands:
SIMULATE/STATIC
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, END=1.61, DTOUT=1.0E-02
MARKER/555,QP = -1675, -1290, 2200
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, END=2.6, DTOUT=1.0E-02
The MARKER command instantaneously repositions a plane marker
for contact with the table that the sheet is being dropped on.
4. In your Adams/Solver setting, change your Solver Executable to use
Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
5. Run the simulation.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Adams/Solver may issue a warning indicating that it has had difficulty
solving portions of the simulation. For example:
WARNING: The symbolic refactorization failed. The matrix is
structurally singular at time = 1.6101.
WARNING: The corrector has not converged after 3 attempts. No. of
iterations = 10.
Investigate what modeling decisions could possibly be causing trouble
for Adams/Solver. You may have seen similar warning in your own
models. Based on your experiences can you suggest alternate
modeling choices that would minimize this problem?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. Save the simulation results as rigid.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
7. Perform a looped animation and select the best answer.
When the sheet falls on the TABLE, it:
_____ Bounces high
_____ Bounces a little
_____ Doesnt bounce at all
Running a flexible body simulation
Before you run another simulation, make the FLEX_SHEET flexible,
turn deformation on, and disable unnecessary modes.
To prepare the flexible body:
1. Set Inertia modeling to Partial coupling and set Plot Type to Contour.
2. Disable the following modes: 8, 15, 19, 24, 27-28, 33-35, 40-48.
To run the simulation:
1. From the Simulate menu, point to Simulation Script, and then select
Import ACF.
2. Name the script SIM_SCRIPT_2.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
3. Import the ADAMS/Solver commands from script_commands.acf:
SIMULATE/STATIC
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, END=1.61, DTOUT=1.0E-02
MARKER/555,QP = -1675, -1290, 2200
INTE/GSTIFF,ERR=1E-3,ADAPT=1.0e-05, HINIT=1.0E-06,HMAX=1e-3
SIMULATE/TRANSIENT, END=2.6, DTOUT=1.0E-02
The MARKER command instantaneously repositions a plane marker
for contact with the table that the sheet is being dropped on.
4. Run another simulation using SIM_SCRIPT_2.
You can ignore the convergence warnings that Adams/Solver issues.
Was the parabolic vacuum force strong enough to transfer the
FLEX_SHEET to the TABLE? _______ Yes _______ No.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
5. After the simulation has completed, rename the analysis. By doing
this, you can save disk space because you are not retaining a
duplicate copy of the analysis (for example, when you save, not only
do you have the saved copy, but you also have Last_Run).
From the Edit menu, select Select List, and then select Clear All.
From the Edit menu, select Rename.
Select .model_1.Last_Run with a single click.
Select OK.
Rename the analysis Last_Run to flexible.
6. Save the database as flexible_model.
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Comparing simulation results
In Adams/PostProcessor, perform two animations using different
contour options. Notice how the sheet deforms as it is being lifted
and how much it bounces when it is dropped.
To view the MFORCE:
1. Launch Adams/PostProcessor.
2. In the upper left corner, change the pull-down menu to Animation.
3. In the dashboard, under the Animation tab, select Include Contacts.
4. In the viewport, load the animation flexible.
5. Select the Contour Plots tab.
6. Set Contour Plot Type to MFORCE FMAG.
7. Make sure that Display Legend is selected.
8. Animate the model.
A parabolic vacuum distribution defines the MFORCE. Turning the
contour plot on, allows you to view the MFORCE and ensure that it
was defined correctly.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
To compare results:
1. Reset the model.
2. Set Contour Plot Type to Deformation.
3. Zoom in on the flexible sheet such that it is centered on the screen.
4. Select the Camera tab.
5. Right-click the Follow Object text box, select Marker, and then
browse for the marker FLEX_SHEET.INT_NODE_1.
6. Select the Play tool.
7. Now compare the behavior of the sheets, rigid versus flexible. See
Step 7 and select the best answer (you may have to animate the
flexible sheet again):
When the flexible sheet falls on the TABLE, it rebounds:
_____ Less than the rigid sheet
_____ Same as the rigid sheet
_____ Higher than the rigid sheet
8. If you chose the last option, can you explain why it rebounds that way?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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ADM710, Workshop 6, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 6 USING CONTACTS AND MODAL
FORCE (CONT.)
Optional tasks
1. Plot the modal force results components.
2. Try different pressure distributions or use a smaller
magnitude (0.1 atm). Does the sheet come loose?
________________________________________________
3. Try to limit the spring-back effect by adding contact at the
center sphere, between the sheet and the vacuum.
S8-1
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 8
STRESS RECOVERY WITH
ADAMS/DURABILITY
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ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S8-3
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
STRESS RECOVERY WITH
ADAMS/DURABILITY
Whats in this section:
Introduction to Adams/Durability
Theory of Modal Stress Recovery
MSR Nastran Example
Improving Graphics Performance in Adams/PostProcessor
Using the Hot Spots Table
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ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
INTRODUCTION TO ADAMS/DURABILITY
With Adams/Durability, you can recover stresses on flexible or rigid
bodies. Recovering stresses on flexible bodies is called Modal Stress
Recovery (MSR).
Adams/Durability lets you easily interface with:
FEA programs for stress recovery
Durability test machines or experimental data using the RPC III file format
Fatigue life calculation programs using DAC file format
Adams/Durability benefits:
Shortens your development cycle, reducing costly durability testing.
Provides access to the system-level simulation capabilities of
ADAMS/View, or vertical products, such as Adams/Aircraft, Adams/Car,
Adams/Engine, and Adams/Rail.
Provides access to dynamic stress recovery methods using Nastran or
ANSYS.
Performs modal stress recovery of flexible bodies.
Provides access to component life prediction using Fatigue or FE-Fatigue.
Note: Adams/Aircraft and Adams/Rail are now products of VI-grade.
S8-5
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
Adams uses a modal synthesis method to calculate the flexibility effect
of complex machine members.
This method drastically reduces the total number of DOFs of an FE
component, while preserving its local deformations with high level of
accuracy.
Flexible structural component motion with N DOF and defined
boundaries is described by a combination of P normal modes (normal
constrained modes) and S constraint modes (static correction modes).
Flexible body motion equation with I internal DOFs and B boundary
ones (equal to S) becomes:
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ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
From a static equilibrium analysis, assuming that interior forces are set to zero,
equation above becomes:
After extraction of the constraint modes matrix and the normal modes matrix,
physical coordinates are calculated as a linear combination of the mode shapes.
S8-7
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
where:
{x} is the vector of physical displacements
{q} is the vector of modal coordinates
[]=[{}1,...,{}P+S] is the modal matrix that includes
both P normal and S constraint modes
An ortho-normalization of the reduced system is performed while
translating from each FE output file into the Adams modal neutral file
(MNF). The effect is to obtain a diagonal model and to associate
frequency content to the static correction modes as well.
Adams assembles and solves fully inertial coupled equations of motion
of the mechanical system including the flexible part(s). It also adds the
generalized modal coordinates as unknowns.
S8-8
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
Adams/Solver manages the full set of equations giving the parts rigid
body coordinates and modal coordinates as a result.
During the modal basis generation phase, the FE code can also pre-
compute additional information for lately combining the modal
coordinates to the FE stresses in Adams.
We know
and
where:
is the strain vector
is the stress vector
is a function matrix of the FE geometry relating
strains to displacements
is the stress-strain relationship
S8-9
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
Hence we have
Where:
and:
Here, is the ortho-normalized modal stress matrix that identifies the
stress component associated with each orthogonalized mode shape.
If the modal stress matrix has been computed by the FE code and
stored in the MNF for the flexible body, it is possible to perform MSR in
Adams. It is also possible to perform MSR in the FE code or in the
fatigue code, such as Fatigue, with the modal coordinates from Adams
and the modal stress matrix from the FE code's database.
S8-10
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
Likewise, for strains we have:
and
where:
is the ortho-normalized modal strain matrix identifying the
strain component associated with each orthogonalized mode
shape
Based on the theory of modal superposition
What is done for displacements:
Can be done for stresses:
Where
The are mode shapes or stresses from FEA
The q(t)s are modal responses from Adams
{ } | | { } ) ( ) ( t q t u u =
{ } | | { } ) ( ) ( t q t u =
o
o
S8-11
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
repeat for each
node or element
Stress Mode Shapes
Point A Stress Histories
Modal Deformations (Responses)
o
A
q
1
Mode 2
|
A1
* q
1
(t) + |
A2
* q
2
(t) + ... = o
A
(t)
q
2
Mode 1
|
o
@ pt A
S8-12
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
(Nastran)
THEORY OF MODAL STRESS RECOVERY
(Nastran)
SOL 111 and SOL 112
PARAM,ADMPOST=m; m=0 (default-no MSR),1(no
rigid motion), or 2 (rigid motion)
ASSIGN INPUTT2=name.mdf UNIT=ni
DLOAD=n in the appropriate subcase
Caution: In order to obtain consistent results, the
Adams results, when brought back into Nastran SOL
111 or SOL 112, MUST be restarted off the original
Nastran database that produced the original MNF which
was the basis of the Adams run.
S8-13
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSR Nastran Example
SOL 103
ADAMSMNF FLEXBODY=YES etc.
SCR=NO
Produce MNF
Run ADAMS
RESTART into SOL 111
S8-14
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSR Nastran Example (Cont.)
File Management Section (FMS)
ASSIGN PRIMARY='e1_msr.MASTER'
RESTART LOGICAL=PRIMARY version=1 keep
ASSIGN INPUTT2='e1_111_ascii.mdf' UNIT=31
ASSIGN INPUTT2='e1_x_111_ascii.mdf' UNIT=32
.
SOL 111
.
CEND
S8-15
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSR Nastran Example (Cont.)
1 Subcase
SET 10 = 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 $
MODESELECT = 10
METHOD = 1 $ <- from SOL 103 run
$
SUBCASE 1
SUPER = 1
DISP(PLOT,PRINT,PUNCH) = ALL
SET 21 = 1 THRU 9, 10, 11 $
STRESS(PLOT,PRINT,PUNCH) = 21
STRAIN(PLOT,PRINT,PUNCH) = 21
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ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSR Nastran Example (Cont.)
2
nd
and 3
rd
Subcase
SUBCASE 21
SET 11 = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
OFREQ = 11
DLOAD = 31 $ <- points to UNIT 31
$
SUBCASE 22
SET 12 = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0
OFREQ = 12
DLOAD = 32 $ <- points to UNIT 32
S8-17
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSR Nastran Example (Cont.)
Bulk
.
BEGIN BULK
.
PARAM, POST, -1
PARAM, ADMPOST, 2
.
ENDDATA
S8-18
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
IMPROVING GRAPHICS PERFORMACE IN
ADAMS/POSTPROCESSOR
You can use various techniques to configure animations of flexible bodies
for optimal performance.
File caching versus memory caching
By default, cached information necessary for animations containing flexible
bodies is maintained on disk in files with an .fcf extension.
Adams/PostProcessor can also maintain this information in physical memory,
which can result in significantly less disk input/output, higher CPU use, and,
consequently, faster performance. If you work in an environment with remote
disk servers (accessed across a network), you should see a dramatic
improvement in performance if you select to maintain the cache in memory.
Users using local disk will see improvements on a smaller scale.
The disadvantage of memory caching is the increased process size and the
risk that it will exceed your computer's physical memory. If your computer has
enough physical memory, then this approach is more efficient. If your computer
doesn't have enough physical memory, then its operating system will begin
swapping and the animation performance may be worse than when using the
.fcf file.
Adams/PostProcessors Preferences dialog box is used to modify the cache
settings for flexible bodies during animation (Edit Preferences).
S8-19
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
IMPROVING GRAPHICS PERFORMACE IN
ADAMS/POSTPROCESSOR (CONT.)
Mode filtering
By default, all enabled modes are used to generate nodal
displacements for each flexible body during animations. To increase
animation performance, Adams/PostProcessor has three filters that let
you remove graphically insignificant modes for animations. A mode that
is filtered out is excluded from the modal superposition and any
contribution to the deformation of the body is ignored.
Frequency - Excludes any mode that is activated above the specified
frequency.
Min. Displacement - Excludes any mode that does not contribute the
minimum displacement specified for at least one vertex of the flexible body.
Percentage - Determines the maximum displacement contributed by all
modes, and excludes any mode that doesn't contribute displacement of one
vertex at least as significant as a percentage of the maximum.
S8-20
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
IMPROVING GRAPHICS PERFORMACE IN
ADAMS/POSTPROCESSOR (CONT.)
Flexible body cache compression
Three levels of data compression are available for controlling
the size of a flexible body animation cache. Each level
implements a higher level of data compression applied to
nodal deformation data in the cache. Each higher level
comes with a higher risk of data loss and may lead to slightly
incorrect geometric representations. The accuracy of cached
contour plot information is maintained.
S8-21
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
IMPROVING GRAPHICS PERFORMACE IN
ADAMS/POSTPROCESSOR (CONT.)
Rendering options
The rendering method used for flexible bodies can impact animation
performance. Three rendering methods are available:
Flat - Renders flexible bodies more simply, with flat edges. Uses
face normals to produce a faceted rendition of the body. This is
the fastest of the rendering options but can produce some
incorrect light intensity for bodies with large nodal deformations.
Smooth - Renders the flexible body with smooth, rounded
edges. Uses vertex normals to produce a smooth rendition of the
body. This method is appropriate for presentations, but slows
down the animation compared to flat rendering.
Precision - Renders the highest quality image for the flexible
body. Uses vertex normals to produce a smooth rendition of the
body. We recommend that you use this option only when
producing movie files or hardcopy images for presentation
purposes.
S8-22
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
IMPROVING GRAPHICS PERFORMACE IN
ADAMS/POSTPROCESSOR (CONT.)
Nodal displacements
To represent flexibility of bodies during animations, the nodal
deformations of the bodies are displayed at each frame of
the animation. Calculation of the nodal deformations can
cause a delay in the initial display of an animation as the
results of the calculations are cached. You can avoid this
delay by choosing to display the flexible bodies in their
undeformed shapes. This is accomplished by setting the
scale of the flexible body to 0.
S8-23
ADM710, Section 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
USING THE HOT SPOTS TABLE
Identifying regions of high stress is a critical task in
component analysis and design. Several design-time
functions are now available in Adams/Durability to
interrogate a flexible body for useful stress, strain, or life
data. You can easily find all nodal locations that exceed a
prescribed stress threshold using the Hot Spots Table.
Starting with Adams v2005r2, a new Hot Spots tab is
available in the Animation dashboard when the
Adams/Durability plugin is loaded. This tab allows you to
control the definition, display, and labeling of hot-spot data.
WS7-1
ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7
SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
WS7-2
ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WS7-3
ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
Problem statement
You want to run a dynamic simulation of the vehicle to produce
loads (modal coordinates) for the flexible lower control arm in the
left, front suspension. The modal coordinates will be used for stress
calculation and are exported to Fatigue.
Importing the model into Adams
1. Run Adams/View from the directory,
exercise_dir/<mod_08_atv>.
2. From the same directory, import the model command file,
mod_08_atv.cmd. This model contains the all-terrain vehicle
standing on a four-poster rig. All parts are rigid.
Importing and replacing the flexible suspension arm
1. Zoom in on the left Lower Control Arm (LCA) in the front
suspension.
2. To replace the rigid LCA with a flexible LCA, from the Build menu,
point to Flexible Bodies, and then select Rigid To Flex.
3. In the Current Part text box, enter RB2_left_lca_59.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
4. Browse the MNF File text box for left_lca.mnf.
The flexible body defined in the MNF is already positioned
correctly.
Note: Do not select Apply or OK, because you will continue
working in this dialog box.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Establishing connections
The table in the Connections tab compares the connection
points on the flexible body with the connection points on the
rigid body. As shown in the Distance column, there is a
small offset for the four bushing connection points.
You should keep the bushings at the points where they were
originally defined in the rigid model.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
To establish connections:
1. Select the Connections tab.
2. Click on the first table row and then click Preserve location.
3. Repeat step 2 for the next three rows of the table. The table should
look as shown next:
4. Select OK.
The rigid part is now replaced by the flexible body as defined in the
MNF. The flexible body is connected to the frame, knuckle, and
damper in the same way as the rigid body.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Checking connections
To verify that the flexible LCA is correctly connected to the rest of
the model, check the graphical topology.
To check connections:
1. From the Tools menu, select Database Navigator.
2. Set the option menu at the top of the Database Navigator to Graphical
Topology.
Tip: The Graphical Topology option in the Database Navigator is a
very useful tool in Adams/View. It helps you to debug your model
without having all the geometry in the way. Here it is used to verify that
the imported flexible body is connected as expected.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
3. Select the flexible LCA: .mod_08_atv.RB2_left_lca_59_flex. The LCA
should be connected to the frame through two bushings, and to the
damper and knuckle with one bushing each, as shown next.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Animating modes
You can animate the 40 modes calculated by Nastran,
imported from the MNF. In the dynamic simulation results,
you should see 36 modal coordinates: one coordinate for
each enabled mode.
The first mode of interest is mode 7. Note that modes 1 - 6
are rigid body modes and are automatically disabled. The
first modes are very similar to the free-free modes of the
component. The high-frequency modes are usually a bit
strange looking, but useful for describing local deformations
and stress around the attachment points.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
To animate modes:
1. Right-click the flexible LCA, RB2_left_lca_59_flex, and then select
Modify.
2. Animate the modes.
The following figure shows modes 7 - 10.
3. Do not close the dialog box.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Modifying damping
The high-frequency modes are normally not very active in a
dynamic simulation. There are two strategies to avoid the
high-frequency modes:
Disable them. This may cause simulation difficulties if any of
the disabled modes are necessary to describe, for example, a
static position with local deformation around an attachment
point.
Modify damping so high-frequency modes are critically
damped. This way, the modes are enabled but don't participate
in the dynamics because of the high damping applied to them.
Here you use the method of setting critical damping on the
very high-frequency modes. A STEP function defines the
damping. The higher the frequency, the higher the damping.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
To modify damping:
1. In the Flexible Body Modify dialog box, clear the selection of default
for Damping Ratio, and then enter the following function:
STEP(FXFREQ,1000,0.005,10000,1).
The function means:
Modes with a frequency below 1000 Hz will have a damping ratio of 0.5%
Modes with a frequency above 10,000 Hz will have a damping ratio of
100%
Modes in the range 1000 10,000 Hz will be increasing with respect to their
frequency according to the STEP function
Tip: The default damping usually is not useful, especially in this case.
If using default damping here, you would get 10% damping ratio for
mode 7, which is too much, considering that the component is made of
steel.
2. Select OK.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Running a dynamic simulation
Before you run a dynamic simulation, you change your Adams/Solver
settings and then modify the Adams/Solver Dynamics parameters.
Note that the Stabilized Index-2 (SI2) formulation enables the
integrator to monitor the integration error of velocity variables, and
therefore, renders highly accurate simulations. A positive side effect
of the SI2 formulation is that the Jacobian matrix remains stable at
small step sizes, which, in turn, increases the stability and robustness
of the corrector at small step sizes. High accuracy of the inputs to the
fatigue analysis is crucial; therefore, you use the SI2 formulation
here.
To run a dynamic simulation:
1. From the Settings menu, point to Solver, and then select Executable.
2. Set Choice to C++.
3. Change the Category to Dynamics.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
4. Set Formulation to SI2.
5. Set Error to 0.01.
6. Click Close.
7. From the Simulate menu, select Interactive Controls.
8. Set End Time to 10 seconds.
9. Change Steps to Step Size.
10. Set Step Size to 0.01 seconds.
11. To avoid having the screen updated at every output time step taken by
the solver, clear the selection of Update graphics display.
12. Select Play.
Each plate that the vehicle is standing on moves in the vertical
direction to simulate the vehicle running in rough terrain. This could
also have been done by defining tire forces and a road profile.
Note that the simulation will take a few minutes.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Reviewing the results
To review the results:
1. From the Review menu, select Postprocessing.
2. Verify that the option menu in the top left corner of
Adams/PostProcessor is set to Plotting.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
3. From the dashboard (the lower section of the Adams/PostProcessor
window) select the following:
Source: Objects
Filter: force
Object: BUSHING_9. This is the bushing connecting the LCA with
the spring/damper.
Characteristic: Element_Force
Component: Mag
Add Curves
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Reviewing stress results
You can perform a modal stress recovery directly in
Adams/PostProcessor. Before you can review the stress results,
you must load Adams/Durability.
To load Adams/Durability:
1. From the Tools menu, select Plugin Manager.
2. Select to load Adams/Durability.
To review stress results:
1. Set the option menu in the top left corner of Adams/PostProcessor to
Animation.
You will be notified that the plot will be deleted. Select OK.
2. Right-click the viewport, and then select Load Animation.
3. Select the Contour Plots tab.
4. Set Contour Plot Type to Max Prin. Stress.
5. Select the Camera tab.
6. Right-click the Follow Object text box, point to Part, point to
Guesses, and then select RB1_frame_57.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
7. Select Lock Rotations.
8. Zoom in on the flexible LCA and look, for example, on the
bottom surface of the LCA.
9. Select Play.
Note: When you later export the results to Fatigue, it is actually not the
stresses as calculated in Adams that you export. It is only the modal
coordinates that are exported. The stress shapes are already calculated
and stored in the XDB file. The stress shapes in the XDB file will be
combined with the modal coordinates from Adams. Stress recovery is
performed in Patran for later use in Fatigue.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Creating a Hot Spots Table
To create a hot spots table:
Now you create a table that lists the three most critical areas of the
LCA.
1. From the Durability menu, select Hot Spots Table.
2. Fill in the bottom of the dialog box as shown next:
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
3. Select Report.
When the calculation is done, a table is displayed. The hottest spot is
located around node 2990, which is located on the bottom surface of
the LCA, close to the cross beam connection.
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Plotting Nodal Stress
Here you will generate a plot of the stress at a particular
node over time:
1. In the upper left corner of Adams/PostProcessor, use the pull-down
menu to select Plotting.
2. In Adams/Durability, from the Durability menu, select Nodal Plots.
3. Set Analysis to Last_Run.
4. Set Flexible Body to RB2_left_lca_59_flex.
5. In the Select Node List text box, enter 2990.
6. Check Maximum Principal stress.
7. Select OK to close the Compute Nodal Plot Components
A new result set named RB2_left_lca_59_STRESS will be generated
for the nodal stress component.
8. Set Source to Results Sets.
9. Set Result Set to RB2_left_lca_59_flex_STRESS.
10. Select the node_2990_MAX_PRIN component.
11. Select Add Curves.
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WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Note that the peak stress value corresponds to the Hot Spots Table
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Visualizing Hot Spots
A new Hot Spots tab is available in the Animation
dashboard beginning with Adams 2005r2:
1. Select the Animation tab.
2. In the Component text box, select RB2_left_lca_59_flex.
3. Select the Hot Spots tab.
4. Check Display Hot Spots.
5. Verify that the filter is set to Count.
6. Change the count Value to 3.
7. Enter a value for Radius.
8. Turn the Graphics Label contents to display Rank, Value and
Node ID.
9. You can now visualize the Hot Spots.
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
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ADM710, Workshop 7, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 7 SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION
(CONT.)
Exporting results to Fatigue
To export results:
1. From the Durability menu, point to FE-Fatigue, and then select
Export.
2. Browse the Flexible Body text box for RB2_left_lca_59_flex.
3. In the Job Name text box, enter mod_08_atv.
4. Select Modal Coordinates.
5. Set Analysis to Last_Run.
6. Select OK.
Adams/View exports the modal coordinates for the flexible LCA in
DAC-format (40 files with prefix mod_08_atv) suitable for import to
Fatigue. One file is produced for each modal coordinate.
Note These files will be used in an upcoming workshop.
S9-1
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 9
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
S9-2
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S9-3
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
Whats in this section:
What is Metal Fatigue?
Durability Design Process
Determining Loads
Overview of Fatigue Life Analysis
Stress Life (S-N) Approach
Strain Life (E-N) Approach
MSC.Fatigue
S9-4
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS METAL FATIGUE?
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Monotonic:
Failure when stress
exceeds UTS in a single
pass
Stress Vs Strain Plot
time
S
t
r
e
s
s
Apply cyclic load
at low stress level
Cyclic:
Failure occurs after a period of time even
though stress is low. The component seems to
get Tired, hence the name FATIGUE
S9-5
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DURABILITY DESIGN PROCESS
COMPUTER
AIDED DESIGN
Loads analysis
Loads Data
Manipulation
FE Model
Analytical
Prediction
Durability
OK?
Materials and
Manufacturing
OPTIMIZE DESIGN
SERVICE LOADS
ARCHIVE
YES
NO
Correlation
COMMIT
PRODUCTION
TOOLING
Physical
Lab. or PG
Testing
Data
collection
BUILD
PHYSICAL
PROTOTYPE
Durability
OK?
NO
YES
S9-6
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
DETERMINING LOADS
Experimental - using wheel force transducers, load cells
and strain measurements from instrumented prototype.
Semi-analytical - using wheel forces and accelerations
from prototype or from earlier model (adjusted for weight
etc.) and calculating component forces using Multi-Body
Simulation software (Adams).
Fully analytical - using Multi-Body Simulation software
(Adams), including tire models, and knowing the road
surface profile
S9-7
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
OVERVIEW OF FATIGUE LIFE ANALYSIS
Fatigue is the process where repeated variations in loading
cause failure even when the nominal stresses are below the
material yield strength.
Two main approaches
Stress Life (S-N)
Crack Initiation (E-N)
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ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Stress Life (S-N) Approach
The S-N approach uses the (assumed elastic) nominal stress
range (S) as a measure of the severity of fatigue loading
Tests at several levels of stress range characterize the S-N
Curve
Such a curve can be derived from smooth specimens for
individual components, for sub-assemblies, or for complete
structures.
S9-9
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Strain Life (E-N) Approach
Practically, crack initiation means that a crack of around 1-2
mm has developed. This is often a high proportion of the
component life.
Many automotive components are designed to survive some
significant plastic strains in use.
The E-N Method will handle these better because the S-N
method ignores plasticity.
E-N Method is not very suitable for structural joints such as
welds, spot welds etc.
S9-10
ADM710, Section 9, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MSC.Fatigue
Cycle&Damage Cycle&Damage
Materials prop Materials prop
FEA Results FEA Results
Loading info Loading info
Analysis Options Analysis Options
Stress (total) Life Stress (total) Life
Strain (initiation) Life Strain (initiation) Life
Crack Propagation Crack Propagation
Vibration Fatigue Vibration Fatigue
Spot Weld Analyzer Spot Weld Analyzer
Seam Weld Analyzer Seam Weld Analyzer
Software Strain Software Strain
Gauge Gauge
Utilities Utilities
Multi Multi- -axial Fatigue axial Fatigue
Fatigue Life Fatigue Life
1500
-1500
12 0
S
t
r
a
i
n
(
u
E
)
Time (seconds)
DISPLAY OF SIGNAL: TEST101.DAC
Strain Life
Plot
605M30
Sf': 857 b: -0.067 Ef': 0.636 c: -0.579
1E-3
1E-2
1E-1
S
t
r
a
i
n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
M
/
M
)
1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8
Life (Reversals)
1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cross Plot of Data :
S61STRAIN1KT
Life(Miles)
K
t
(
)
0
1574.7 -750.4
808.7 0
4.8548
Range
uE
X-Axis
Mean
uE
Y-Axis
Damage
Z-Axis
DAMAGE HISTOGRAM DISTRIBUTION FOR : TRACK05.DHH
Maximum height : 4.8548Z Units : %
WS8-1
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 8
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS &
FATIGUE
WS8-2
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Patran
Life/Damage
Calculation
Load histories
Component
Mode
Synthesis
System-level
Simulation
Mode shapes
Stress shapes
Nastran Fatigue Adams
Geometry
and Mesh
WS8-3
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Problem statement
Perform an integrated virtual durability process and use the
modal coordinates (response) time histories exported from
Adams in the DAC file format. The modal coordinates along
with FEA results will be used in Fatigue for Fatigue Analysis.
In this workshop, you will use
Nastran
Patran
Adams
Fatigue
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PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Run a Nastran Simulation
First step is to run Nastran to obtain the reduced flexible modes in
MNF (Modal Neutral File) format and modal stresses in XDB
(Nastran Binary attachable) format.
The provided input file (left_lca.dat) is set up for MNF generation
via the ADAMSMNF statement
ADAMSMNF FLEXBODY=YES, FLEXONLY=YES,
MINVAR=PARTIAL,PSETID=2, OUTGSTRS=YES,OUTGSTRN=NO
The output of grid point stresses are requested with the
OUTGSTRS option.
No output of strains are requested with the OUTGSTRN option.
Partial mass invariant calculation is requested with the MINVAR
option.
Note: Details of the ADAMSMNF card are covered later.
WS8-5
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Since version 2005, Nastran has supported the output of ortho-
normal modal stress or strain resulting from MNF generation in
XDB format. This data can be combined with the modal coordinate
results from Adams in a very efficient way for subsequent fatigue
evaluations in Patran and Fatigue. To take advantage of this
feature, the following statement as been added to the Nastran
input file:
PARAM POST 0
Run Nastran to obtain the reduced flexible modes in
MNF format (Modal Neutral File):
1. Locate and launch Nastran.
2. Browse to left_lca.dat from the mod_09_fatigue folder and select
Open.
3. Add any relevant runtime command, e.g. scr=yes can be used in
this case because, having chosen the XDB file to store results, you
dont need the database information for subsequent usage.
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PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Hint: Depending on your computer resources it may take 5-10
minutes to run the job. Upon successful completion of the Nastran
job, you will note at least two files will be created in the run
directory: left_lca_0.mnf and left_lca.xdb. These two files are
important in completing the rest of the tutorial.
WS8-7
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Importing the model in Patran:
1. To have Patran default to your current working directory, right-click
the Patran shortcut and edit the properties so that the start
directory will be your current working directory.
2. Launch Patran 2005 (or later) and open a New database (from the
File Menu select New).
3. In the Filename textbox, enter tutorial and Select OK.
WS8-8
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
4. From the File menu, select Import, and then specify the following:
Set Object to Model.
Set Source to Nastran Input.
Set File name to *.dat.
Browse to left_lca.dat, select it, and then select Apply to
import the model.
The Nastran Input File Import Summary dialog box displays.
5. Select OK to close the dialog box.
WS8-9
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Separating Shells from Solids:
1. From the Group menu, select Create.
2. Set Method to Property Type.
3. Set Create to Multiple Groups.
4. Select Apply.
Patran creates two new groups named Membrane and Solid.
You will reference the Membrane group later in this tutorial.
Note: Fatigue is a phenomena that normally originates on the
surface. It is, therefore, a common practice to skin any solid
model with a thin shell membrane. This allows you to obtain a
true two-dimensional stress tensor (which should always be
the case on free surfaces) and also avoids uninteresting
computation on internal nodes.
WS8-10
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Attaching Results in Patran:
1. Select Analysis toggle, and then specify the following:
Action: Access Results
Object: Attach XDB
Method: Result Entities
2. Select Select Results File.
3. In the Select File dialog box, browse to the left_lca.xdb file,
and then select OK.
4. Select Apply.
WS8-11
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
To view the results in Patran:
1. Select Results.
A list of 40 mode cases in the result selection window appears.
These represent the orthonormalized modes that were
computed by Nastran and imported into Adams using the
MNF.
2. Perform some simple plotting as follows:
Set Action to Create.
Set Object to Quick Plot.
Highlight one mode case with a frequency higher than zero (that is, a
non-rigid body mode). For example, highlight mode 7.
Select Stress Tensor as the Fringe Result.
3. Select Apply, and then view the results.
Note: The stresses you are viewing are not actual stress values
sustained by the component, but modal stress shapes. Later in this
tutorial, these stress shapes will be combined with results from
Adams to obtain actual stress values.
Note: Do not close Patran.
WS8-12
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
System-Level Simulation
Next step is to run a dynamic simulation of the vehicle to
produce loads (modal coordinates) for the flexible lower
control arm (LCA) in the left-front suspension.
In the last workshop, modal coordinates for the flexible LCA
were exported in DAC format (40 files with prefix
ATV_4poster) suitable for import to Fatigue. One file was
produced for each modal coordinate.
Note: Copy the 40 DAC files into the directory
mod_09_fatigue since we will use these files in this
workshop.
WS8-13
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Set up Stress-Life Analysis in
Fatigue:
1. From the Tools menu, select MSC.Fatigue.
2. Select Main interface.
3. Complete the dialog box as shown next,
being sure to set Analysis to S-N.
WS8-14
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
4. Enter fat_left_lca for the jobname for the fatigue jobs in
Patran. All fatigue related files will have this prefix. The
bottom section of the Fatigue dialog box contains the five
steps to complete your fatigue job:
Three inputs - Solution Parameters, Material, and Loading
Job control - Used to submit and monitor fatigue jobs
Results - Used to postprocess fatigue results
Solution Parameters
Select Solution Params and complete the dialog box as shown.
Note - The Certainty of survival is set to 99%, indicating the highest
conservatism in material properties scatter.
WS8-15
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Note - The design life is the number of
repetitions this part is expected to
withstand without failure. Fatigue will
perform an additional analysis to assess
the load scaling factor to reach a given
target life. A design life of 60000 is
derived from a simple assumption that
under the given loading condition, the
target life is around 10,000 km, and that
the 10-second repetition was performed
at an average speed of 60 km/h.
Select OK to close the Solution Parameters
dialog box.
WS8-16
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Material Info
Select Material Info.
Note - Fatigue offers a built-in library with more than 200 predefined
materials. You can select multiple materials for the same run and
access advanced material options, such as temperature dependency.
Click in the first cell of the spreadsheet (Material) and scroll
through the available material list below it. Select MANTEN_SN
(carbon wrought steel).
Select No Finish and No Treatment.
Set Region to Membrane.
Note - The region is the part of your model that will be analyzed. As
mentioned previously, you are only interested in the surface element
and you will use the previously created Membrane group as the target
region.
Keep the defaults for all remaining fields, and then select OK.
WS8-17
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Importing and Combining Modal Coordinates from
Adams
WS8-18
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Note - The Loading Information dialog box is the spreadsheet that displays the
association between modal stresses (Nastran output) and modal coordinates
(from Adams). This is the key in recreating the stress history at each node that will
be used for rainflow cycle counting (central to fatigue analysis algorithm).
Select Loading Info.
To access the modal variables, Fatigue needs to load the relative *.dac files (the
output from Adams created in Part 2 - System-Level Simulation) into the local time
database (ptime.tdb).
Select Time History Manager to open the local time database. Then,
perform the following:
Select Load files.
Select OK.
In the PTIME Load Time History dialog box, enter the following:
Source and target Filename: mod_08_atv*
Description 1: modal coordinates
Load Type: Scalar
Units: none
Select OK.
WS8-19
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
The 40 files start loading. Select More enough times to make sure all load
channels are loaded.
Select End. The PTIME dialog box shows that you have 40 .dac files.
Select exit, and then select OK to close the PTIME-Database Options dialog box.
In the Loading Information dialog box, perform the following:
Set Number of Static Load Cases to 40. Be sure to select Enter on your keyborard
after setting this value. Doing so will update the number of rows in the spreadsheet from
1 to 40.
Select Fill Down OFF and the option changes to Fill Down ON.
Select the first cell in the Load Case ID column.
Select Get/Filter Results to open the Results Filter dialog box.
To access all available results in the database in the Results Filter dialog box, select
Select All Results Cases, and then select Apply.
Select the first available results loadcase ( Mode 1) in the Select a Results
Load Case list.
Make sure the first cell in the Time History column is selected to populate column
2.
Select MOD_08_ATV_01.DAC from the Select a Time History list.
Your spreadsheet should look similar to the image shown.
Leave the remaining default values, and then select OK.
WS8-20
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Running S-N Fatigue and Factor of Safety (FOS)
Analysis
From the MSC.Fatigue Main Interface, select Job Control.
To start the analysis, select Apply.
Wait a minute or two until the fat_left_lca fatigue job has been
submitted. You can check the status by accessing Job Control
Action Monitor Job, and then periodically selecting Apply.
When completed, the status window displays the following message:
Safety factor analysis completed successfully.
WS8-21
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
Importing and Reviewing Results in Patran
Select the MSC.Fatigue tab near the bottom right corner of the
Patran window.
Select Results.
Select Apply to read in the results.
Fatigue automatically accesses the results based on the current job
name.
The results are now stored in the Patran database as the Total Life and
Factor of Safety sub cases for postprocessing.
To view a quick plot of the factor of safety in Patran, select Results
on the main Patran form (not in Fatigue).
In the results window, scroll through the list of Result Cases, and
then select Factor of Safety, fat_left.
Select Safety Factor as the fringe result, and then select Apply.
You can create a damage plot to improve the visualization of the
critical areas.
WS8-22
PAT301, Workshop 8, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FATIGUE ANALYSIS USING ADAMS & FATIGUE
To see a damage plot:
Select Total Life from the Result Cases list.
Select Damage from the Fringe Result list.
Select Apply.
Note that the highest damage occurs at three critical regions of
the LCA.
Optional Task - Importing and Reviewing Results in
Adams
From the Durability menu, point to MSC.Fatigue, and then
select Import.
Browse to the Fatigue results file (*.fef), for example,
...\fat_left_lca.fef.
Select RB2_left_lca_59_flx as the flex body, and then select
OK.
Select the Contour Plots tab.
S10-1
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 10
MNF GENERATION IN NASTRAN
S10-2
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MNF GENERATION IN NASTRAN
Whats in this section
MNF Generation in Nastran
Modal Neutral Files
Superelement Definitions
Selecting Attachment Points
What is a Spider-Web?
ADAMSMNF Case Control
Units
ADMOUT = YES
FLEXONLY = NO
Residual Vectors
Releasing DOF
Common MD DB
S10-3
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODAL NEUTRAL FILES
Are:
Binary files
Platform independent
Contain the following information:
Generalized mass and stiffness matrices
Nodal masses/inertias
Nodal coordinates
Inertia invariants
Eigenvalues
Mode shapes
File comments and version information
Modal loads/preloads
Attachment points
Element topology
Units
Stress/strain modes
S10-4
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPERELEMENT DEFINITIONS
What is a Superelement?
Physical and mathematical representation
Physical - substructure: a finite element model of a portion of a
structure
Mathematical - boundary matrices: loads, mass, damping, and
stiffness reduced from the interior points to the exterior or boundary
points
Nastran allows the use of a residual structure only or any
superelement or any part super element to be used as a
component for an Adams/Flex flexible body.
The user can define the attachment points in Nastran by either
defining the component as a superelement, in which case, the
physical external (a-set) grids become the attachment points; or
for a residual only type model, using standard Nastran ASET
Bulk entries to define the attachment points.
S10-5
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPERELEMENT DEFINITIONS
Three small examples are discussed below that are intended to
show salient features of the Nastran/Adams interface. In all, the
examples GRID_1, GRID_11, GRID_111, and GRID_121 are to
be used as the attachment points for Adams.
S10-6
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPERELEMENT DEFINITIONS
1. Flexible body component as a superelement
The SPOINT and SEQSET1 bulk entries are used to define the
component modes. These entries must specify enough degrees of
freedom or modal amplitudes to capture the shape of the
component and residual flexibility for any loading conditions.
$ The corner grids 1, 11, 111, 121 are the exterior or attachment point
grids
$
SESET,200,2,THRU,10
SESET,200,12,THRU,110
SESET,200,112,THRU,120
$
$
$ SCALAR Point and SEQSET1 to define DOFs to use for component Modes
$
SPOINT,80001,THRU,80010
SEQSET1,200,0,80001,THRU,80010
$
S10-7
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPERELEMENT DEFINITIONS
2. Flexible body component as a residual only run
This example represents a Nastran/Adams interface run with the
component modeled residual only structure. This is accomplished
by use of the ASET1 bulk entry.
$ The corner grids 1, 11, 111, 121 are the exterior or attachment point
grids
$
ASET1,123456,1,11,111,121
$
$$
$ SCALAR Point and QSET1 to define DOFs to use for component modes
$ Include enough for structure shape and capture of residual flexiblity
$
SPOINT,80001,THRU,80050
QSET1,0,80001,THRU,80050
S10-8
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPERELEMENT DEFINITIONS
3. Flexible body component as a part superelement
This example represents a Nastran/Adams interface run with the
component modeled as part super element 200 as defined by the
BEGIN BULK SUPER = 200 entry. Grids listed in this section
represent the complete component as a substructure.
$
$ The corner grids 1, 11, 111, 121 are the exterior or attachment point grids
$
GRID 1 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 11 0.0 1.0 0.0
GRID 111 1.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 121 1.0 1.0 0.0
$$
$ SENQSET to define DOFs to use for component modes - must be in main Bulk
Data Section. Include enough for structure shape and capture of residual
Flexiblity
$
SENQSET 200 50
$
BEGIN BULK SUPER = 200
$
$ This PART defines interior grids as superelement 200
$ The corner grids 1, 11, 111, 121 are the exterior or attachment point grids
S10-9
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SELECTING ATTACHMENT POINTS
Attachment points are idealized for attachment by preserving all six
DOFs.
An attachment point is equivalent to a superelement exterior grid point.
Each attachment point normally contributes six modal DOF.
A large number of attachment points can result in a large MNF.
Example: If you have 50 attachment points you would have 300 additional
modes (6 modes/attachment point) in your MNF. If you have 50,000 nodes in
your model, the resulting MNF would be approximately 720 MB.
8bytes/DOF * 6 DOFs/node * 50,000 nodes/mode * 300 modes = 720 MB
You can always apply joints and forces to any node without it having
been identified as an attachment point during the FEA.
The nodes with the greatest force interaction should be chosen as
attachment points.
S10-10
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WHAT IS A SPIDER WEB?
Elements surrounding the attachment point.
Solid elements require a spider web that connects at least three nodes of
the mesh because solid elements have no rotational DOFS.
Use spider webs to give the attachment point a full set of stiffnesses.
Think of a cylinder with the nodes on the circumference at one end all
connected to a single centerline node.
RBE3 spider-web" - The independent nodes are the circumference nodes
and are free to move elastically while the centerline dependent node is the
average of all of the motions of the circumference.
RBE2 spider-web - The independent node is the centerline node and the
dependent circumference nodes are fixed to it with the same motions.
The RBE3 retains the circumferential wave modes at the end whereas the
RBE2 will not.
RBE3 vs RBE2
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB9960&requestTimeout=2000
S10-11
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMSMNF CASE CONTROL
Starting with v2004 of Nastran, a new ADAMSMNF Case
Control command is now available for requesting the MNF file
directly in Nastran for Adams/Flex.
The Nastran/Adams integration provides an easy method to
move from a FE analysis to a system analysis study by
providing the direct generation within Nastran of the Adams
Modal Neutral File (MNF) required for the Adams/Flex solver.
The interface is initiated by the simple Nastran Case Control
command ADAMSMNF FLEXBODY=YES and the addition of a
Bulk Data entry, DTI,UNITS.
DTI,UNITS used to specify the unit system to be used by
Adams/Flex.
S10-12
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMSMNF CASE CONTROL
ADAMSMNF
Note: The underlined text indicates default values
{FLEXBODY = [NO/YES]}
Requests that the Nastran/Adams interface be run.
{FLEXONLY = [YES/NO]}
Requests data recovery be run or not run after standard DMAP
solution.
{ADMCHECK = [NO/YES]}
Requests diagnostics print
{ADMOUT = [NO/YES]}
Requests that the FLEXBODY run outputs Nastran OP2 files.
{OUTGSTR = [YES/NO]}
Controls grid point stress output to OP2 file or MNF or both.
S10-13
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMSMNF CASE CONTROL
{OUTGSTRN = [YES/NO]}
Controls grid point strain output to OP2 file or MNF or both.
{OUTSTRS = [NO/YES]}
Controls element stress output to OP2 file.
{OUTSTRN = [NO/YES]}
Controls element strain output to OP2 file.
{V1ORTHO = [-1.0/value1]}
Lower frequency bound of the Craig-Bampton modes (cycles/unit time)
value1 = User specified value of lower bound.
{V2ORTHO = [1.0e8/value2]}
Higher frequency bound of the Craig-Bampton modes (cycles/unit time)
value2 = User specified value of upper bound.
S10-14
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMSMNF CASE CONTROL
{MINVAR = [FULL/CONSTANT/PARTIAL/NONE]}
Requests the type of mass invariants to be computed.
FULL : all nine mass invariants will be calculated.
CONSTANT : mass invariants 1, 2, , 6, and 7 will be calculated.
PARTIAL : mass invariants 5 and 9 will NOT be calculated.
NONE : the ADAMSMNF module outputs ONLY modal data.
{PSETID = [NONE, setidplotel, ALL]}
Selects a set of elements (including PLOTEL) whose grids are retained
in the MNF.
Setidplotel : specified in the OUTPUT(PLOT) section of Nastran.
ALL : select all the sets defined in the OUTPUT(PLOT) section.
S10-15
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMSMNF CASE CONTROL
S10-16
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
UNITS
Units must be defined using the DTI entry when
generating the MNF file.
Adams/View and Solver require units
Example:
S10-17
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
UNITS
S10-18
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADMOUT = YES
The ADMOUT=YES option is intended for users who
plan to import ADAMS results into MSC.Fatigue.
ASSIGN OUTPUT2=name.out STATUS=UNKNOWN
UNIT=20 FORM=UNFORM.
To insure compatibility with the Adams OP2-to-MNF
translator the Nastran SYSTEM word OP2NEW is
automatically set to OP2NEW = 0.
This means that any OP2 files generated will have a pre-
MSC.Nastran 2004 format.
S10-19
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXONLY = NO
For PARAM,POST,0
Orthonormalized modes used by Adams available for
display in PATRAN and SimXpert.
Solution modes computed by Nastran available for
display in PATRAN and SimXpert.
S10-20
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESIDUAL VECTORS
Concept of Modal approach
Assume response can be represented as a linear combination of
calculated modes
{ U } = [ ] { }
Number of possible modes = number of degrees of freedom with
mass on them
Same results as direct if all modes are retained
Not practical
Defeats purpose of modal approach
S10-21
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESIDUAL VECTORS
{ U } = [ ] { } = [ ]
r
{ }
r
+ [ ]
n
{ }
n
where [ ]
r
= modes that are retained
[ ]
n
= modes not retained
[ ]
r
is usually a small subset of [ ]
Quality of modal solution depends on how well a linear
combination of [ ]
r
can represent the actual solution due to the
applied loads.
To compensate for the missing modal content the method of
Residual Vectors is recommended and is turned ON by default
for most modal solutions
S10-22
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESIDUAL VECTORS
Augment modes with static vectors obtained from static loading
The response of the neglected modes tends to be static if these
frequencies are high as compared to the excitation frequency
As (/
n
) << 1
Excellent approximation of missing modes if the above condition is
satisfied
Improves modal solutions in all cases
Recommended to be included for all response analysis using
the modal approach (the default)
Supports Superelement Analysis
Two eigenvalue tables printed
Original eigenvalue table
Second eigenvalue table with the additional eigenvalues appended
at the endone for each additional residual vector.
S10-23
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESIDUAL VECTORS
Re-orthogonalization is performed to ensure that linearly
dependent vectors are removed
Residual vectors can come from the following sources
Inertial forces due to rigid body motion
Applied loads
Structural, viscous, and inertial forces due to enforced motion
Forces at user specified discrete degrees of freedom
Discrete damping forces due to viscous elements
S10-24
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RESIDUAL VECTORS
Residual Vectors can be requested with RESVEC Case Control
command
Note: By default RESVEC is turned ON
S10-25
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RELEASING DOF
Using the RELEASE card in the Bulk Data section you can
define degrees-of-freedom for superelement exterior grid points
that are not connected to the superelement.
SEID Superelement identification number. (Integer > 0)
C Component number. (Any unique combination of Integers 1
through 6)
Gi Grid point identification numbers.
Example: The following statement will remove rotational DOF of
attachment grid point 1
$
SESET,200,2,thru,8
RELEASE,200,456,1
$
S10-26
ADM710, Section 10, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMMON MD DB
Flexible bodies can now be imported directly from an MD
Nastran database without creating an MNF.
Advantages:
Create several flexible bodies from one MD DB.
Read access time for mode data is quicker than from an MNF.
No need for MNF creation.
ADAMSMNF case control command is still required.
S11-1
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 11
MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
S11-2
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S11-3
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
Whats in this section:
First Thoughts
FE Modeling Considerations
Special Adams Modeling Considerations
Concluding Thoughts
MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
S11-4
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FIRST THOUGHTS
Do I care about flexibility?
Gauging the importance of flexibility is difficult without
actually trying to add a flexible component. Perhaps you
could build a very rough simplified version of your
component as a first iteration.
Do I create a rigid body model first?
Veteran users advise avoiding the complexity of flexible
bodies during initial modeling, but recognize that
unsupported connections (joints, forces) may result from
this practice. You may consider using a rigidized
FLEX_BODY or a simplified surrogate FLEX_BODY
instead.
S11-5
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
Can I use an existing FE model?
Yes. Although chances are that the existing model was built
for stress analysis and is, consequently, excessively
detailed for an Adams dynamics analysis. With some FEM
software you will have to make minor modifications to your
model, while others require no modifications.
What kind of elements can I use?
Since Adams does not work at the element level, element
support is not a concern. Element information is only used
for visualization purposes. In the worst case, graphics
information is missing.
S11-6
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
Must I define Craig-Bampton attachment points?
This depends on the FEM program you are using. Adams can
work with any kind of modes, including the eigenvectors of an
unconstrained body.
Which nodes should be attachment points?
In general, you should promote to attachment-point status any
node that you expect to make connections to. When this leads to
an excessive number of modes, you can consider nominating a
representative attachment point for a region of the structure and
remove neighboring attachment points. You can also consider
using only normal modes.
Do all six of the attachment point DOFs need to be included?
No, some software programs allow you to select a subset. This is
useful, for instance, if you know that you will never apply a torque
to the node.
S11-7
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
How do I apply a connection in Adams where there is no
node or where a point force would be unrealistic?
It is common practice to create a stiffening spider-web of
elements to a new or existing node for this purpose. This can be
accomplished by introducing an element spider web in the finite
element model (FEM) or by introducing a marker that is attached
to multiple nodes in your Adams model.
How many normal modes should I add?
You need to keep a sufficient number of normal modes to allow
your flexible body to have dynamic resolution in the frequency
range of interest. Also, if you plan to make attachments to nodes
that have not been promoted to Craig-Bampton attachment-point
status, you will need additional modal DOFs that you can get by
adding more normal modes.
S11-8
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
Is it appropriate to use constraints in the FEM model?
This is very rarely advisable. There is a danger of creating
artificial constraints in the flexible body.
How about units?
Adams supports a large number of units and all of these can be
used in your FEM analysis. All we require is that you properly
register the units used in the MNF.
Do I need additional information to use for validation?
As a minimum you should know the mass, center-of-mass
location, and moments of inertia of your component to compare it
with the information in Adams. You should also know the natural
frequencies of the unconstrained body. Further validation of the
right choice of modes can be achieved by extracting the natural
frequencies from the FEM program for some given set of
boundary conditions, which can be replicated in Adams.
S11-9
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
Why am I getting more modes in Adams than I
asked for in the FEA?
Suppose you had 25 attachment points in your FEM and
you asked for 10 normal modes. You would end up with
160 modes in Adams/View.
Here are the calculation details:
Constraint modes: 6 DOF x 25 attachment points = 150
modes
S11-10
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
How much data will I get from my FEM analysis?
Heres how you can approximate the size of your MNF in
bytes:
Total # of mode types is:
1 when no stress or strain
2 if stress or strain
3 if both stress and strain
All other data in the MNF file is negligible compared to
what weve calculated above.
S11-11
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FE MODELING CONSIDERATIONS (CONT.)
Can I receive wrong answers to problems by
constraining parts incorrectly to my flexible body
nodes?
Yes, you must pay close attention to how you constrain parts
to a node. Different types of elements can only support
specific types of loads. For example, you have a cantilever
beam that was created using brick elements. Brick elements
only support translational DOFs. If you used a fixed joint to
constrain a dummy part to a random node (one that was not
spider-webbed to its neighbors), then the dummy part would
be over-constrained.
Possible solutions to this problem would be: use a different
type of element, create a spider-web of elements near the
node and promote the node to an attachment point in the
FEM software, or attach this node to multiple neighbor nodes
in Adams.
The basic rule is to not do something to your model in Adams
that you would not do to your model in your FEM software.
S11-12
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SPECIAL ADAMS MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
The connection forces in my model don't have a fixed point of
application. I have something sliding or bouncing on the flexible
body. What can I do?
There are two solutions to this problem:
Create multiple nodal forces and turn them on or off as needed.
Add dummy parts along the path of the load and attach joints or
floating markers to the dummy parts. Keep in mind that the dummy
part will act like a rigid lever giving rise to torque at the dummy part
location.
Can I use markers that are located directly on the flexible bodies
in function expressions?
Yes, but when you have a large number of active modes, you may
find that performance suffers compared to using a marker on a
dummy part. This has to do with how Adams uses finite
differencing to generate a system Jacobian matrix.
S11-13
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SPECIAL ADAMS MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
(CONT.)
How do I measure deformation of a flexible marker?
Decide which node you consider the undeformed node (what you
might call a datum node). Attach a massless dummy part to this
node. Create a marker on the dummy part coincident with the other
flexible body marker, whose deformation you want to measure.
The change in distance between the rigid and flexible markers is
the deformation.
Do I need to worry about the initial values of the modal
coordinates in my model?
Occasionally, Adams will deform the flexible body as it assembles
the system (displacement/velocity ICs). This can lead to large
transients during the dynamic solution. You can prevent or lessen
this by setting modal ICs for the flexible body. Normally, there is no
need to worry about the initial values of modal coordinates.
S11-14
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SPECIAL ADAMS MODELING CONSIDERATIONS
(CONT.)
I think my model may have nonlinear behavior. Can I use a
FLEX_BODY?
Some users have successfully used flexible bodies to model large
displacements and spinning systems by breaking the body into multiple
flexible bodies.
Adams/Flex uses the principle of linear superposition to combine mode
shapes to reproduce the total deformation of the flexible body. Therefore, a
single flexible body cannot model nonlinear phenomena. However, you can
piece together several flexible bodies to represent nonlinear deformations,
as shown in this excerpt from the Adams/Flex online help.
A twist-beam suspension is an application of nonlinear deformation. An
example of a twist beam suspension modeled as an assembly of linear
flexible bodies is shown in the Flexible Vehicle Suspension section of
Appendix A.
S11-15
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
This MNF file is huge. What can I do?
Mode shape information is the bulk of the MNF content. Much of
this mode shape information concerns nodes that you don't care
about and if the inertia invariants have been pre-computed, you
can discard this information. For instance:
If your MNF uses solid elements, then you can automatically remove
interior geometry without losing any nodes on the surface.
If this is not enough, you can ask for automatic removal of surface
nodes. Visual representation will suffer, and you must be careful not to
discard any nodes you might need.
You could use single precision instead of double precision when
optimizing your MNF. Combining single precision with the removal of
interior geometry will dramatically reduce the size of your MNF.
Finally, if you don't care how your graphics look, you can replace the
geometry in the MNF with a manually generated geometry, usually a
stick figure through a subset of nodes. For example, consider the
change in size when going from 100,000 nodes to 100 nodes.
My MNF does not contain the invariants. What can I do?
The MNF2MNF optimizer can compute invariants for existing
MNFs.
S11-16
ADM710, Section 11, July 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS (CONT.)
How do I get information about the stress in my components?
You can use either of these two methods:
Export your Adams loads:
You can export the loads Adams generates and perform a static analysis in
FEM software. Currently, you can export your loads to the following FEM
packages: ANSYS, ABAQUS, and Nastran.
Stress recovery in Adams
You can include stress/strain information directly in your MNF. After running
an analysis, you can use Adams/Durability along with Adams/PostProcessor
to do the following:
Animate dynamic stress or strain on flexible bodies
Plot time histories of nodal stress or strain measures
This capability is available in the following FEM packages: Nastran,
Marc, ANSYS, ABAQUS, IDEAS, or Adams/AutoFlex during the
creation of the MNF. For current information on our FEA vendors
involvement in implementing this feature, see Knowledge Base article
9474, at: http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB9474.
S12-1
ADM710, Section 12, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 12
VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
S12-2
ADM710, Section 12, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
S12-3
ADM710, Section 12, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
Whats in this section:
Validating Your Flexible Body
S12-4
ADM710, Section 12, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
VALIDATING YOUR FLEXIBLE BODY
Consider performing a quality test by validating your
flexible body with FEA results:
Check that mass, center-of-mass location, and inertia
properties are correct.
Compare FEA modes with undamped Adams/Linear results
(free-free analysis).
Compare maximum static deflection under various end
conditions, such as pinned, cantilever, and so on.
WS9-1
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9
VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
WS9-2
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WS9-3
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
Problem statement
You've been simulating your models and have been noticing
some difficulty with convergence and behavior that doesn't
match test data or reality. You suspect that one or more of the
four MNFs provided to you is erroneous. Determine whether or
not the four MNF files are sources of error by comparing and
validating against the results from an FEA package.
FEA model description and results
Solid cylindrical rod:
Length: 600 mm
Diameter: 20 mm
Density: 2710.0 kg/m
3
(aluminum)
The rod is meshed with 144 parabolic CPENTA solid
elements.
Static deflection with a gravity load and pinned-end conditions.
WS9-4
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Notes: Gravity is -9.80665 m/s
2
in the global y direction.
Deflection is measured at mid-span (node 420) in the global y
direction.
The reaction force is the magnitude of force (at either of the
pinned ends).
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ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Figure 7 shows the results from a Nastran normal modes
analysis for the free-free structure.
Figure 7. Nastran Free-Free Modes
Rigid-body modes
First free-free mode
WS9-6
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Results table
In the directory exercise_dir/mod_09_debugging, there are
four MNF files:
rod1.mnf
rod2.mnf
rod3.mnf
rod4.mnf
For each MNF file, you will perform several tasks. Everyone
on the team completes Task 1: Estimating mass and
deflection. For Tasks 2 through 7, divide the work among the
members of your team, assigning one column of the table to
each team member. For example, one person handles all
tasks for rod1, another handles all tasks for rod2, and so on.
If you encounter problems, work them out as a team.
WS9-7
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
1. Perform all the steps in Task 1: Estimating mass and deflection and
write the answers here:
Mass __________________
Cantilever with gravity load Y1max __________________
Cantilever with applied torque Y2max __________________
Estimate of total Ymax __________________
2. Follow the directions in the following table and fill it out using Y (yes),
N (no), and entering numerical values on the lines, as needed.
WS9-8
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
Tip deflection due to combined loading: does the Adams value match Nastrans (-0.5098 mm)
within 1%?
Complete Task 7: Performing a cantilever analysis (3) and then answer:
Tip deflection due to moment: does the Adams value match Nastrans (2.877E-01 mm) within 1%?
Complete Task 6: Performing a cantilever analysis (2) and then answer:
Was static equilibrium for the cantilever analysis found without you having to alter the modal
content?
Did the flexible body model always solve without an error stating that MTX translation failed?
Tip deflection due to uniform load: does the Adams value match Nastrans (-0.2221 mm) within
1%?
Complete Task 5: Performing a cantilever analysis (1) and then answer:
Do the free-free Nastran modes generally agree with the values from an undamped Adams/Linear
analysis?
Complete Task 4: Performing a free-free analysis and then answer:
Does the mid-span global-y deflection (at node 420) agree with the Nastran results (-0.02185mm)
within 1%?
Does the global-y force in the spherical joint agree with Nastran results (2.499N)?
Can you find static equilibrium for the flexible body? (If you encountered MTX translation failure,
disable offending modes and rerun static.)
Complete Task 3: Performing a pinned-end analysis and then answer:
Is the total mass equal to the hand calculation (rounded at the second decimal place)?
Y Is the flexible body center of mass located halfway between the ends (that is, z = 300mm)?
Complete Task 2: Browsing the MNF, and then answer:
Rod4 Rod3 Rod2 Rod1
WS9-9
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
3. Now that youve completed the entire table, you should have enough
information to determine which MNF is the error-free one.
The following three modal neutral files are sources of error. Identify the
MNFs and state why you think they are in error:
rod__.mnf:
___________________________________________________________
rod__.mnf:
___________________________________________________________
rod__.mnf:
___________________________________________________________
The error-free MNF is rod__.mnf.
WS9-10
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 1: Estimating mass and deflection
Estimate the mass and total tip deflection you would expect by
using standard engineering calculations.
To perform calculations:
1. Approximate the expected mass of the rod and fill in the blanks to
complete the calculation:
Now that youve calculated the mass, continue with calculating tip
deflections.
WS9-11
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
2. Approximate the tip deflection of the rod by using two standard beam
theory calculations:
Calculation A: Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed
load
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ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Calculation B: Cantilever beam with end moment
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Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
3. Combine the deflections from calculations A and B for an estimate of
the total tip deflection.
4. Summarize all the values youve calculated by recording them in the
results table.
WS9-14
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 2: Browsing the MNF
Browse the MNF to determine total mass and the center of mass
location.
To browse the MNF:
1. Use the MNF Browser to open the MNF file.
2. Generate a report using the default settings.
3. Inspect blocks 6 and 11 of the report.
4. Go back to the results table and answer the questions for this task.
WS9-15
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 3: Performing a pinned-end analysis
You create a model in Adams that is equivalent to the Nastran
pinned-end model. You then analyze it to see how it compares to
the Nastran results.
JOINT_2
JOINT_1
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ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
To build a model and perform an analysis:
1. Start a new Adams/View session, creating a new model using the defaults.
2. To create the design points, import the file create_points.cmd.
3. Depending on the column you are working on, import the appropriate
flexible body (rod1.mnf, and so on), name it rod, and set Damping Ratio
to use default.
4. Constrain the rod to ground by creating spherical joints at POINT_1 and
POINT_2.
5. Place a marker on the rod at POINT_3.
6. Use that marker to build a measure for the global-y displacement at mid-
span.
7. Build a measure at either JOINT_1 or JOINT_2 for global-y force.
8. Change your simulation settings for Adams/Solver (FORTRAN).
9. From the Main Toolbox, run a static equilibrium simulation.
Notes: If the MTX translation fails, then disable the modes that cause the
problem and solve again.
The strip chart legends update with the static equilibrium values.
WS9-17
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
10. Record these values in the results table.
11. Save the database so you can reuse this model in Task 4: Performing
a free-free analysis.
Task 4: Performing a free-free analysis
You modify the model so it is equivalent to the Nastran free-free
model. You then analyze it with Adams/Linear to see how it
compares to the Nastran results.
To perform the analysis:
1. Delete the strip charts.
2. Turn off gravity.
3. Delete the joints (select Delete All if given the option).
The rod is now unconstrained and ready for the eigenvalue analysis.
4. Simulate using SIM_SCRIPT_1.
The SIM_SCRIPT_1 script uses the following Adams/Solver
commands:
SIMULATE/STATIC
LINEAR/EIGENSOL, NODAMPING
WS9-18
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
5. Save the eigenvalues to a file:
In the Simulation Controls dialog box, select switch to linear controls.
In the Linear Modes Controls dialog box, select Table.
At the top of the Information Window, select Save to File to save the
eigenvalues to a file.
Tip: You can also save the eigenvalues to a file by using the
Command Window. Open the Command Window and then use the
command line to list the eigenvalues by entering:
list_info eigen_values eigen_solution_name =...
(Press the Esc key to complete the command, so it finds the correct
eigensolution name). When the Information Window appears, select
Save to File to save the eigenvalues to a file.
6. Compare the Adams/Linear results with the results in Figure 7:
Nastran Free-Free Modes and answer the question in the results
table.
WS9-19
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 5: Performing a cantilever analysis (1)
Validate your Adams model by comparing its results to the
Nastran results. The following is the first of three cantilever
analyses. It is an Adams analysis of the cantilever under a
gravity-induced load; it is equivalent to the loading condition
you calculated in Calculation A: Cantilever beam with
uniformly distributed load.
You are interested in the deflection of the tip.
WS9-20
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
To perform the analysis:
1. Turn on gravity, using -9806.65 in the y direction.
2. Create a fixed joint at POINT_1.
3. Create a marker measure of global-y displacement of the tip at
POINT_2.
4. From the Main Toolbox, run a static equilibrium simulation.
Note: If the static simulation fails, review the modal content of the
flexible body; see if any modes are strange, and if so, disable them.
5. Record the value in the results table.
WS9-21
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 6: Performing a cantilever analysis (2)
It is an Adams analysis of the cantilever under an end
torque; it is equivalent to a loading condition you calculated
in Calculation B: Cantilever beam with end moment.
Again, you are interested in the deflection of the tip.
WS9-22
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
To perform the analysis:
1. Turn off the gravity.
2. From the Create Forces tool stack, select the Three-Component
Torque tool :
Construction: 2 Bod-1 Loc, Normal to Grid
Characteristic: Custom.
First Body: rod
Second body: ground
Location: POINT_2.
Set AZ Torque to 1000.
3. Perform a static equilibrium simulation.
The strip chart legend updates.
4. Record the value in the results table.
WS9-23
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Task 7: Performing a cantilever analysis (3)
It is an Adams analysis of the cantilever under a combined
loading condition; the resulting deflection is equivalent to the
Total Ymax you calculated in Step 3.
WS9-24
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
To perform the analysis:
1. Turn on the gravity and use -Y.
2. Perform a static equilibrium simulation.
The strip chart legend updates.
3. Record the value in the results table.
WS9-25
ADM710, Workshop 9, July 2009
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
WORKSHOP 9 VALIDATING AND DEBUGGING
(CONT.)
Module review
1. Is it sufficient to just compare the free-free modes? Why or why not?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Would performing only the pinned analysis have been a sufficient
validation test? Why or why not?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
3. What characteristic(s) of the results suggest when there might be a
units mistake? Do you think youll be able to identify unit mistakes in
your own models or the MNFs provided to you by others?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
A-1
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPENDIX A
EXAMPLES
A-2
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
A-3
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
EXAMPLES
Whats in this appendix:
Industrial Robot
Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker
Flexible Go-Kart
Comfort Tire Model
Satellite with Flexible Panels and Antennas
Flexible Vehicle Suspension
Shell Panels for Missile Separation
Landing Aircraft
Flexible Vehicle Frame and Chassis
Flexible Car Body in Passing Maneuver
Pothole Passing with a Truck
Rail Vehicle Comfort Calculations
A-4
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
INDUSTRIAL ROBOT
Effects of flexibility on joint forces
Rigid versus flexible graphic results
Rigid Flexible
A-5
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
INDUSTRIAL ROBOT (CONT.)
A-6
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER
Simple geometry
Structural springs including mass
Very rapid dynamics
Rigid versus flexible results
A-7
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (CONT.)
Rigid Flexible
Courtesy of ABB Research
A-8
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (CONT.)
Courtesy of ABB Research
A-9
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (CONT.)
Structural springs, including mass, become one-
dimensional FE
Where:
K = Spring stiffness
M = Spring mass
A = Area of internal spring helicoid
L = Spring length
A-10
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (CONT.)
Courtesy of ABB Research
A-11
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE GO-KART
Account for frame flexibility to accurately simulate
full-vehicle dynamics
Model data:
Weight: kart=55 Kg, driver=70 Kg
About 7000 Nastran shell elements
Dynamic data:
Initial velocity: 100 Km/h
Steering step maneuver: 30 deg at time = 1
A-12
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE GO-KART
A-13
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMFORT TIRE MODEL
Full ABAQUS nonlinear tire model translated into a flexible body
ABAQUS model
Material nonlinearities
Inflation pressure
Rim contact and friction
Road contact interaction
120,000 DOFs
Adams model
Nonlinear multiple contact impacts
3D Linearized tire forces at the hub
Nonlinear global displacements
No spinning
Speed-dependent tread forces
< 50 active DOFs for 15 contact points
A-14
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
COMFORT TIRE MODEL (CONT.)
Courtesy of Pirelli Tires
A-15
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SATELLITE WITH FLEXIBLE PANELS AND
ANTENNAS
Stabilizing the satellites orientation during
deployment of flexible solar panels
Control system equation integrated with mechanical
equations
Six flexible bodies are present in the system
Original Nastran meshes made with CQUADR and
CTRIAR element types
A-16
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SATELLITE WITH FLEXIBLE PANELS AND
ANTENNAS (CONT.)
A-17
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE VEHICLE SUSPENSION
Nonlinear deformation as an
assembly of linear flexible bodies
Courtesy of VW
A-18
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SHELL PANELS FOR MISSILE SEPARATION
Two flexible bodies are present in the system
Sudden explosion of the connecting bolts is
simulated
Contact forces on the structure supports have been
defined
Radial distance is dependent on internal pressure
distribution
A-19
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
SHELL PANELS FOR MISSILE SEPARATION
(CONT.)
Internal pressure fourbar
A-20
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LANDING AIRCRAFT
Airframe flexibility affects loading at control-surface
hinges and landing-gear points
Aeroelasticity effects could be included
A-21
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
LANDING AIRCRAFT (CONT.)
A-22
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE VEHICLE FRAME AND CHASSIS
Courtesy of Fiat Research
A-23
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE CAR BODY IN PASSING
MANEUVER
Obstacle-passing maneuver of a full-vehicle model
including a flexible body
Handling maneuvers on a vehicle with flexible
chassis
A-24
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEXIBLE CAR BODY IN PASSING
MANEUVER (CONT.)
Courtesy of Leyland Trucks
A-25
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK
Pothole-passing maneuver of a full-vehicle truck
model including a flexible frame
Rigid versus flexible frame comparison of vertical
accelerations at the drivers seat
Calculation of automatic stress distribution for the
most critical dynamic loading condition
A-26
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Courtesy of Leyland Trucks
A-27
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Model characteristics
Multibody model
Leaf springs - five-beam element per spring
Bushing mounts (cab, engine, spring-dampers) modeled,
including frequency- dependent data
Tires modeled using University of Arizona Tire Model with
Michelin data
Dampers modeled with nonlinear cubic spline characteristics
Steering system driven by simple closed-loop control
algorithm
Total of 123 DOFs
Courtesy of Leyland Trucks
A-28
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Flexible frame
About 45,000 nodes and 260,000 DOFs
About 45,000 CQUAD4 and TRIA3; about 5,000 CBAR
element used
158 originally retained modes, of which 25 normal
constrained and 133 static correction
18 modes after energy model reduction algorithm application
Simulation
1.8 s run at 50 Km/h with right-sided 75 mm pothole
385 s CPU time on 250 MHz SGI Octane 1 GB Ram
Courtesy of Leyland Trucks
A-29
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Simulation results in Adams
Vertical acceleration at drivers seat.
Different response between rigid and flexible frame
representation.
The most significant feature of the different response in
terms of acceleration plot is the vertical component shown
here.
With a rigid frame, the front wheel strike creates a shock,
which dies away progressively.
With a flexible frame, the initial shock begins to diminish, but
then increases once more as the rear wheel impact shock
propagates along the frame. The driver can feel the impact
shock when he drives the vehicle over such a disturbance.
Rigid body models fail to predict this effect.
A-30
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Single-sided 75 mm pothole: 50 km/h impact
Driver vertical acceleration
Courtesy of Leyland Trucks
A-31
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Simulation results transferred to Nastran
Once the Adams run is completed, it is possible to
automatically create a Loadcase file for Nastran which
contains a selection of time steps from the original load
history.
Equivalent static analysis with inertia-relief technique is then
submitted in Nastran.
Von Mises stress distribution after the right wheel has struck
the trailing edge of the pothole are shown.
Little stress over-estimation due to tire enveloping effect and
absence of bumpstops.
Impact occurs on the right-end side, but the highest stresses
appear on the left of the frame due to the steering linkage
forces.
A-32
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
POTHOLE PASSING WITH A TRUCK (CONT.)
Courtesy of De Dietrich
A-33
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RAIL VEHICLE COMFORT CALCULATIONS
The purpose of this work is to evaluate coach
flexibility influence on vehicle comfort
Vehicle design
ANSYS coach model
Adams/Rail vehicle model with flexible coach
A-34
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RAIL VEHICLE COMFORT CALCULATIONS
(CONT.)
Analysis on a Straight Track with Vertical,
Transversal and Cant angle excitation
Train Velocity = 38.9 m/s
Vertical Transversal Cant
A-35
ADM710, Appendix A, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
RAIL VEHICLE COMFORT CALCULATIONS
(CONT.)
ANSYS coach model
Human factor filters
Weighted Vertical Acceleration RMS Value
Flexible coach
RMS = 0.0448 m/s
2
Rigid coach
RMS = 0.0362 m/s
2
UIC 513 acceleration weighting criteria
Frequency weighting transfer functions
Vertical acceleration time history Weighting curve
Weighted vertical acceleration PSD
B-1
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPENDIX B
MAKING AN MNF USING FEM
SOFTWARE
B-2
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
B-3
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MAKING AN MNF USING FEM SOFTWARE
Whats in this appendix:
ABAQUS
ANSYS
I-DEAS
Nastran
Marc
Other MSC Products
B-4
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ABAQUS
ABAQUS by ABAQUS, Inc.
ABAQUS, Inc. sells a program for directly creating MNF files
called ABAQUS/ADAMS.
ABAQUS/ADAMS Product Description:
http://www.simulia.com/products/complementary_tools.html?
analInter?im01#adams
For more information about ABAQUS, go to:
http://www.simulia.com/
For more information, see the ABAQUS documentation in
the ABAQUS/ADAMS User's Manual and the example
ABAQUS input files in the directory
install_dir/flex/examples/ABAQUS.
For detailed information, see the Translate tab in the
Adams/Flex online help.
B-5
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSYS
ANSYS by ANSYS, Inc.
The ANSYS (5.6 and later) program has a macro
(ADAMS.mac) that will export an MNF file directly. The macro
orthonormalizes the modes. All support for the ADAMS.mac is
handled directly through ANSYS' support channels.
Macro syntax is straightforward. To give you a general idea,
the following command will export an MNF with 10 normal
modes: ADAMS,10,1
For more information about ANSYS, go to:
http://www.ansys.com/
You can find example ANSYS input files in the directory
install_dir/flex/examples/ANSYS.
For detailed information, see the Translate tab in the
Adams/Flex online help.
B-6
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
I-DEAS
I-DEAS by UGS
You can obtain an MNF of a flexible component in I-DEAS
by performing a Superelement Creation analysis of the
component's finite element (FE) model. This will directly
export an MNF from I-DEAS Master Series (MS).
For information on whats available in MS9 and MS10,
contact your UGS sales representative. Technical support
for using the program files is handled directly by UGS
support: http://support.ugs.com/.
For more information about I-DEAS, go to:
http://www.ugs.com/products/nx/ideas/
For detailed information, see the Translate tab in the
Adams/Flex online help.
B-7
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN
Nastran 69.x, 70.x, or 2001
Requires special DMAP alter and deck preparation
procedure. The deck preparation procedure is documented
in several places:
Adams/Flex online help
Within header of DMAP
README file within installation directory
DMAPs and example data deck files are shipped with
Adams (/install_dir/flex/examples/MSCNASTRAN).
B-8
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN (CONT.)
Nastran 2004
Nastran 2004 provides an improved interface for generating
MNFs. The new Nastran-Adams Interface allows you to
generate an MNF directly from Nastran without generating
an OUTPUT2 file. The Nastran-Adams Interface does not
require a DMAP alter or a translator to convert Nastran
output files to MNFs.
The advanced functionality of the Nastran-Adams Interface
is a licensed feature of Nastran. For more information,
contact your local sales representative. If you already have
the Nastran-Adams Interface license, see the Nastran Quick
Reference Guide and Reference Manual for information.
B-9
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN (CONT.)
Nastran 2004 continued
For more information about MSC.Nastran, go to:
http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/nastran.cfm?Q=396&
Z=401
For detailed information, see the Translate tab in the
Adams/Flex online help.
B-10
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MARC
You can generate MNF's using Marc 2003. This
process is divided into two steps:
1. Generate a results file (either T19 or T16) from Marc.
2. Translate the Marc results file into an MNF by using the
marctoadams executable. This executable is located in the
following directory: <Marc v2003 install dir>/bin.
Documentation on the commands that should be
used to generate an MNF file can be found in the
following documentation for Marc 2003:
Program Input Manual, Volume C, pages 3-106 and 3-107
Theory and User Information, Volume A, pages 12-29 and
12-30
B-11
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MARC (CONT.)
Marc 2004 eliminates the need for the marctoadams
translator and allows the MNF to be written directly
by Marc. It will also support modal preloads, modal
loads, and stress and strain modes.
For more information on this process, contact the
Marc technical support team:
Email: mscmarc.support@mscsoftware.com
Phone: 1-800-732-7284
You can find example files in the following KBA:
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB10640
B-12
ADM710, Appendix B, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
OTHER MSC PRODUCTS
You can also use Patran and SimDesigner (for
CATIA v5 and v5i) to create MNFs. Detailed steps on
how to generate MNFs from these products can be
found in the following KBAs:
Patran:
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB10471
Dynamic Designer (for CATIA v5 and v5i):
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
KB10434
C-1
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPENDIX C
ADAMS/VIEW COMMAND LANGUAGE
SYNTAX
C-2
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
C-3
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMS/VIEWCOMMAND LANGUAGE
SYNTAX
Whats in this appendix:
Flex Body
Establish the Selected Modes
Modifying/Disabling Modes
Visualization Attributes
Auto-generated Matrix
Flex Body Markers
C-4
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEX BODY
part create flexible_body name_and_position &
flexible_body_name = FLX_87 &
adams_id = 87 &
modal_neutral_file_name = ../my.mnf &
matrices = .m1.FLX_87_GENSTIFF, ...&
damping_ratio = (none) &
location = 10, 40, 300 &
orientation = 90d, 20d, 0d &
invariants = yes, yes, yes, yes, no, yes, yes, yes, no
C-5
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ESTABLISH THE SELECTED MODES
part create flexible_body modal_ics &
flexible_body_name = FLX_87 &
selected_modes = 7, 8, 9, ... &
initial_modal_velocities = 30, 0, ... &
<more ...>
C-6
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
MODIFYING/DISABLING MODES
part modify flexible_body modal_content &
flexible_body_name = .robot.FLEX_FOREARM &
operation = "disable" &
by = "mode_number" &
above = 11
C-7
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
VISUALIZATION ATTRIBUTES
part modify flexible_body visual_representation &
flexible_body_name = FLX_87 &
scale_factor = 2.0 &
contour_plots = yes &
vector_plots = no &
mnf_graphics = yes &
outline_graphics = no &
datum_node_for_deformation = 1024
C-8
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
AUTO-GENERATED MATRIX
data_element create matrix file &
matrix_name =.m1.FLX_87_GENSTIFF &
adams_id = 1 &
comments = &
***MATRIX AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED BY
ADAMS/VIEWDO NOT EDIT***, &
***Generalized Stiffness &
file_name = Adams_FLX_87.mtx &
name_of_matrix_in_file = GENSTIFF
Note: This matrix file dependency is not exported to
command files in Adams/View 2003 and above.
C-9
ADM710, Appendix C, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FLEX BODY MARKERS
marker create &
marker_name = .m1.FLX_87.MARKER_34 &
adams_id = 34 &
node_id = 4377 &
location = 0, 50, 0 &
orientation = 0d, 90d, 0d
D-1
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPENDIX D
ADAMS/VIBRATION FREQUENCY
DOMAIN ANALYSES
D-2
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
D-3
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMS/VIBRATION FREQUENCY DOMAIN
ANALYSES
Whats in this appendix:
Adams to Nastran for NVH
Nastran Modal Export for Frequency Domain Stress
Recovery
Frequency Response Function Plots for Stress and Strain
D-4
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ADAMS TO NASTRAN FOR NVH
Adams2Nastran Allows you to easily export the
linearized model directly from within the
Adams/Vibration environment
Export to MD Nastran
SOL 107 Direct Complex Eigenvalues
SOL 108 Direct Frequency Response
Example
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
43125311
D-5
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
NASTRAN MODAL EXPORT FOR FREQUENCY
DOMAIN STRESS RECOVERY
Modal Stress Recovery (MSR) Recovering stresses
on flexible bodies
Nastran modal export feature allows you to export
modal coordinates and further recover stresses
(and/or strains) using MD Nastran.
Example
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
43125354
D-6
ADM710, Appendix D, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTION PLOTS
FOR STRESS AND STRAIN
New Nodal Info menu item
Vibration menu > Build
MNF must contain stress and/or strain modes
Stress and strain Frequency Response Function
(FRF) at grid locations on a flexible body can be
plotted in Adams/PostProcessor
Example
http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-
43084321
E-1
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
APPENDIX E
ANSWER KEY
E-2
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
E-3
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY
Whats in this appendix:
Answer Key for Workshop 1
Answer Key for Workshop 2
Answer Key for Workshop 3
Answer Key for Workshop 4
Answer Key for Workshop 5
Answer Key for Workshop 6
Answer Key for Workshop 8
E-4
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 1
Step 4:
The frequency of system mode 8 is 256.7 Hz.
Step 7:
Mode 8 is important because it looks like a bending mode
that would cause the lever arm to buckle or break when you
are crushing a can.
Module review:
1. Both component mode 8 and system mode 8 look similar
because they are bending modes. The system mode has a
frequency that is slightly lower. Design changes that affect
this component mode would be expected to directly affect
the system mode.
E-5
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 1 (CONT.)
2. It would probably make more sense to measure the Y-torque in
the revolute joint using a moving reference frame,
FLX_LEVER.MARKER_5, on the flex-body itself. This could be
accomplished by modifying the measure to be as follows:
measure modify object &
measure_name=.cancrusher.LVR_CPLR_REV_MEA_TY &
object=.cancrusher.LVR_CPLR_REV &
characteristic = "element_torque"&
component = "y_component" &
from_first = no &
coordinate_rframe = .cancrusher.FLX_LEVER.MARKER_5
E-6
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 2
Optional tasks:
1. Yes.
2. No. The Adams/View .bin file has stored the path to the MNF
file that was there when you created it. If this path has
changed, then Adams/View wont be able to find the MNF,
and therefore, cannot display the mesh geometry or create the
.mtx files.
Module review:
STEP5 is preferable in this application because it does not
introduce instantaneous accelerations like STEP would.
Notice how STEP5 is smooth and differentiable throughout.
STEP, on the other hand, has some sharp changes in
curvature and peaks with undefined derivatives, all of which
are unrealistic.
E-7
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 3
Step 2:
The CPU time used is ~130 seconds.
Step 2:
The elapsed time is ~40 seconds.
Step 6:
Disabling the modes hasnt changed the measure results too
drastically. The oscillatory behavior has been captured and
the peaks are only slightly diminished.
The simulation is faster due to disabling modes. The run
times will improve with an energy tolerance of 1e-5. The
misc/modes_comparison.txt file shows a table of different run
times.
E-8
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 3 (CONT.)
Optional Tasks
1. In some cases, the CPU time will increase. This can be due to
disabling required modes. You may also see less deflection.
2. You should see additional markers in robot_module4.adm.
These were created when use the 3 point method to align the
flexible body.
3. There should be a number of differences, but the most
important differences are the different interface nodes and the
additional modes in robut_module4.adm.
4. The results should not degrade significantly.
E-9
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 4
Step 2:
robot_arm_hard.mnf 7011 KB
forearm_hollow.mtx 26 KB
Step 7:
Are the nodal masses included in the MNF? Yes
Are the generalized K and M included in the MNF? No
Are the invariants included in the MNF? No
Are the nodal coordinates included in the MNF? Yes
Are the eigenvalues included? Yes
Step 8:
Mass = 82.1347 kg
Interface node numbers: 4001, 4002, 4003
Step 7:
The information stored in the MNF was: nodal coordinates, element faces,
eigenvalues, mode shapes, global mass properties, nodal masses, mode
transformation, interface nodes, and inertia invariants.
There are 530 nodes in the model.
There are 42 modes in the model.
The number of element faces in the model was 1104.
E-10
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 4 (CONT.)
Step 9:
The information stored in the MNF was: nodal coordinates,
element faces, eigenvalues, mode shapes, global mass
properties, nodal masses, mode transformation, interface
nodes, and inertia invariants.
There were 19 nodes in the model.
There were 42 modes in the model.
The number of element faces in the model was 8.
Step 4:
The CPU time was approximately 25 seconds (times may
vary).
Step 6:
The graphics look very similar, if not identical to the original
flexible body model.
E-11
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 4 (CONT.)
Step 4:
The CPU time used was approximately 25 seconds (times
may vary).
Step 6:
The graphics look similar, but display more relative bending
near the middle of the robot arm. The middle of the robot
arm was blue, but now it is green. This is due to the
interpolation of the deformation colors being smeared
between the two far ends of the robot arm.
E-12
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 4 (CONT.)
Table 1:
~25 seconds ~25 seconds ~40 seconds CPU time
36 KB 36 KB 26 KB Size of MTX
69 KB 1114 KB 7011 KB Size of MNF
Yes Yes No Invariants
included?
Yes Yes Yes Nodal
coordinates
included?
No No Yes Nodal masses
included?
manual_opt.mnf external_mesh.
mnf
robot_arm_hard.
mnf
Table 1. Comparison of MNFs
E-13
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 4 (CONT.)
Step 4:
Yes, the modes look the same.
Step 8:
The modes do not look the same. They appear very
different. For example, the first bending mode (Mode 7)
causes the robot arm to appear to be not bending at all.
Module review:
external_mesh.mnf
This MNF has the best graphical resolution of the mode
shapes, and is a lot smaller than the original MNF (16% of
the original size). Therefore, no important graphical
information is lost, but the file is small enough to be easily
sent to a vendor.
E-14
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 5
Step 4:
The node numbers of the attachment points are 2000 and
3000.
Step 5:
The units are: kg, m, s, and N.
Step 3:
The ADAMS ID for the current flexible body is 1.
The units are: mN, kg, mm, sec.
NODE_ID is used for markers on flexible body.
FILE is used in matrix and FLEX_BODY MNF argument.
No, the units do not agree.
Generating the matrix file:
Include nodes 2000 and 3000.
E-15
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 5 (CONT.)
Step 11:
All should be Yes.
Investigating the warnings and error:
1. Think through the following:
We used Fast Invar to skip INVAR5 and 9, but the MATRIX
statements we pasted into the adm still have references to these
matrices, which arent really there.
No.
No.
2. Think back through the changes you made:
14
No, there are 12
INVAR5 and INVAR9
Step 3:
Change NODE_ID for MARKER/11012 to 2000.
E-16
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 5 (CONT.)
Inspecting results:
2. The amplitudes of vibration are smaller for module6. In this case,
its probably due to the use of linear tetrahedron, rather than
parabolic, elements.
5. Because shells aren't contained in the .adm file.
Optional Tasks
1. 50 Hz.
Module review
1. Yes, it would have been easier to use Adams/View because most
of the information covered in this workshop is done behind the
scenes in Adams/View.
2. Some of the advantages of using external Adams/Solver are:
No need to check out an Adams/View license.
Greater control over making quick and subtle changes.
Useful when you want to run in batch mode.
E-17
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 6
Step 8:
Because the vacuum structure is unable to support a load at
that location.
Step 7:
When the sheet falls on the TABLE, it bounces a little.
Step 4:
Yes
Step 7:
When the sheet falls on the TABLE, it rebounds higher than
the rigid sheet.
Step 8:
Reason: The vacuum force has drawn the sheet inward,
deforming it and storing potential energy like a spring. When
the vacuum force is removed, the sheet springs back,
ejecting itself from the vacuum surfaces.
E-18
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9
For table in Step 1:
E-19
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
For the table in Step 2:
Y Y Y N Do the free-free Nastran modes generally agree with the values from an undamped
Adams/Linear analysis?
Complete Task 4: Performing a free-free analysis and then answer:
Y
-0.02182
Y
-0.02184
Y
-0.02185
N
-2.185E-05
Does the mid-span global-y deflection (at node 420) agree with Nastran results (-0.02185mm)
within 1%?
Y
2.499
Y
2.499
Y
2.499
N
0.002499
Does the global-y force in the spherical joint agree with Nastran results (2.499N)?
Y Y Y Y Can you find static equilibrium for the flexible body? (If you encountered MTX translation
failure, disable offending modes and rerun static.)
Complete Task 3: Performing a pinned-end analysis and then answer:
Y Y Y N Is the total mass equal to the hand calculation (rounded at the second decimal place)?
Y Y Y Y Is the flexible body center of mass located halfway between the ends (that is, z = 300mm)?
Complete Task 2: Browsing the MNF, and then answer:
Rod4 Rod3 Rod2 Rod1
E-20
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
For the table in Step 2:
N
-0.003950
N
-0.4341
Y
-0.5098
N
-0.2879
Tip deflection due to combined loading: does the Adams value match Nastrans (-0.5098
mm) within 1%?
Complete Task 7: Performing a cantilever analysis (3) and then answer:
N
0.0000
N
-0.2575
Y
-0.2877
Y
-0.2877
Tip deflection due to moment: does the Adams value match Nastrans (2.877E-01 mm)
within 1%?
Complete Task 6: Performing a cantilever analysis (2) and then answer:
N Y Y Y Was static equilibrium for the cantilever analysis found without you having to alter the
modal content?
Y Y Y Y Did the flexible body model always solve without an error stating that MTX translation
failed?
N
-0.003950
N
-0.1766
Y
-0.2221
N
-2.221E-04
Tip deflection due to uniform load: does the Adams value match Nastrans (-0.2221 mm)
within 1%?
Complete Task 5: Performing a cantilever analysis (1) and then answer:
Rod4 Rod3 Rod2 Rod1
E-21
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
For Step 3:
The following three modal neutral files are sources of error. Identify
the MNFs and state why you think they are in error:
rod1.mnf: The wrong units were used (misleading DTI entry).
rod3.mnf: No attachment points were used, cant capture end-
condition behavior of cantilever.
rod4.mnf: Rotational DOF exists at attachment point.
The error-free MNF is rod2.mnf.
For Calculation A: Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed
load:
1. Approximate the expected mass of the rod and fill in the blanks to
complete the calculation:
MASS = VOLUME * DENSITY
MASS = 0.5108 kg
E-22
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
2. Approximate the tip deflection of the rod by using two
standard beam theory calculations:
W = m*g = (0.5108kg) * (9.80665m/s2) = 5 N (rounded off)
Y
1
max = range of -0.2083 to -0.2087 mm
E-23
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
For Calculation B: Cantilever beam with end moment:
Assumption: cantilever attachment with a 1000 N-mm applied
torque at the free end.
Y
2
max = -0.2778 mm
Combine the deflections from calculations A and B for an
estimate of the total tip deflection.
Total Ymax = Y
1
max + Y
2
max
= (-0.2083 mm) + (-0.2778 mm)
Total Ymax = range of -0.4861 to -0.4865 mm
Step 1:
No, the free-free modes did not capture the MNFs that had
problems with attachment points.
E-24
ADM710, Section E, July 2008
Copyright 2008 MSC.Software Corporation
ANSWER KEY FOR WORKSHOP 9 (CONT.)
Step 2:
No, the pinned analysis only pointed out the MNF with unit
problems. The other three MNFs results were almost
identical.
Step 3:
The first clue that a unit mistake had occurred was during
the verification of the mass. This clearly showed that the
units were not correct for rod1.mnf because the mass was
incorrect.