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Exp. No.

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Et G

Line 1 Infinite Bus Line 2


Data fro the system in per unit on a base of 2220MVA, 24kV is as follows. 4 generators characterized by classical model: Xd = 0.3 p.u., H=3.5MW-s/MVA. Transformer Xt = 0.15 p.u. Line 1 XL1 = 0.5 p.u. Line 2 XL2 = 0.93 p.u. Plant operating condition: P = 0.9 p.u. pf = 0.9 lagging Et = 1.0 p.u.

A 3phase to ground fault occurs at the end of line 2 near HT bus occurring at t=0sec. The fault is cleared at 0.07sec by simultaneous opening of the two circuit breakers at both the ends fo line2. Calculate the initial condition necessary for the classical model of the machine for the above prefault operating condition, determine the critical clearing angle and time for the fault.

Exp. No.: Page No.: Date: SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS - SINGLE MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM Aim: To determine the small signal stability for the single machine infinite bus system for a three phase to ground fault taking place in the system. THEORY: Power system stability is the property of the system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. The disturbance can be an intended, such as an operator action, or a fault due to natural causes or maloperation of the protection system. Power system instability manifests as loss of synchronism between rotating inertias connected to the system and / or unacceptably low voltage. Both situations, if countermeasures are not active, can lead to total system black out or total voltage collapse. The former involves dynamics of generator rotor angles under input-output power balance. The collapse of voltage can occur without accompanying loss of synchronism. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN STABILITY STUDIES: 1. Only synchronous frequency currents and voltages are considered in the machine and the network. Direct current offsets and harmonics are neglected. 2. Symmetrical components are used in the representation of unbalanced faults. 3. Generator voltages are unaffected by machine speed variations. MODELING FOR SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY: The electrical power output of the generator in p.u. is Pe = (EEB / X)sin d Where X is the total reactance between E and EB If speed is expressed in p.u. the air-gap torque is equal to air-gap power. Hence Te = P = (EEB /X ) sin d Line arising about an initial operating condition at d = d0 DTe = {(d/d)(Te)}Dd = (EEB /X ) cosd0(Dd) i.e., DTe = Ks Dd where, Ks = (EEB /X ) cosd0 is called synchronizing torque co-efficient. The state equation are written as d(Dwt)/dt = [1/2h](Tm Te KD Dwr) dd / dt = w0 Dwr Linearising the above equations we get (d2Dd/dt2) (1/w0) = (1/2H)[DTm KsDd (KD/w0) dDd/dt]

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Exp. No.: Page No.: Date: clear all clc % INPUT DATAS pc=input('Enter the power in p.u. for plant operting conditions: '); pf=input('Enter the value of power factor: '); f=input('Enter the value of frequency: '); x1=input('Enter the reactance of line 1: '); x2=input('Enter the reactance of line 2: '); xtr=input('Enter the reactance of transformer: '); xd=input('Enter the reactance of generator: '); et=input('Enter the terminal voltage: '); h=input('Enter the value of inertia constant in seconds: '); p2max=0; %calculations % COMPUTATION OF INITIAL CONDITIONS input('\n'); qc=tan(acos(pc)); s=complex(pc,qc); s=s^-1; % STATOR CURRENT input('\n'); It=s/et % VOLTAGE BEHIND TRANSIENT REACTANCE input('\n'); Etx = et+xd*It Etxangle=input('Enter the angle of transient reactance: '); % VOLTAGE OF THE INFINITE BUS input('\n'); x3=(x1*x2)/(x1+x2); Eb=et-(x3+xtr)*It Ebangle=input('Enter the angle of infinite bus: '); % ANGULAR SEPARATION BETWEEN Etx AND Eb input('\n'); angle=Etxangle-Ebangle % INFINITE BUS AS REFERENCE input('\n'); Eb2=real(It); Eb2angle=angle; et=et; etangle=Ebangle; % CRITICAL CLEARING ANGLE input('\n'); p3max=(Eb*Etx)/(xd+xtr+x1); p3max=real(p3max); delmax=180-asin(0.9/p3max); criticalangle=(pf*(delmax-angle)+p3max*(cos(delmax))-p2max*cos(angle)); criticalangle=criticalangle/(p3max-p2max) % CRITICAL CLEARING TIME input('\n'); tcr=sqrt((2*h*(criticalangle-angle)/(3.141*f*pf)))

Exp. No.: Date: Enter the power in p.u. for plant operting conditions: 0.9 Enter the value of power factor: 0.9 Enter the value of frequency: 60 Enter the reactance of line 1: 0.5 Enter the reactance of line 2: 0.93 Enter the reactance of transformer: 0.15 Enter the reactance of generator: 0.3 Enter the terminal voltage: 1.0 Enter the value of inertia constant in seconds: 3.5 It Etx = = 0.8616 - 0.4637i 1.2585 - 0.1391i 90

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Enter the angle of transient reactance: Eb = 0.5906 + 0.2203i

Enter the angle of infinite bus: Angle = criticalangle Tcr = 42.3170 =


1.4949e+002 +2.2042e-001i

2.1031 + 0.0022i

Exp. No.: Date: Taking Laplace transform of the above equation.

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S2Dd(s) sDd0 0 + KD/2H [sDd(s) Dd0] + (Ks / 2H)w0 Dd(s) = (w0 / 2H)GTm(s) [S2+ KDs/2H+ (Ks / 2H)w0]Dd(s) = (s+(KD/2H) Dd0 + (w0 / 2H)GTm(s) zero input response or force response is obtained by setting DTm = (s) = 0 Dd(s0 = [(s+2zwn)Dd0]/(s2+2zwns+wn2) Dw(s) = sD d(s) = [-wn2Dd0]/ (s2+2zwns+wn2) Where z = KD / (2Hwn) is the damping ratio Wn = sqrt(Ks.0 / 2H) rad /s is the undamped natural frequency. The characteristic equation is s2+2zwns+wn2 = 0 S1 = -zwn + jwd S2 = -zwn jwd

The roots of the characteristic equation

Where wd is the damped frequency of oscillation is Taking inverse Laplace transform of equation we get Where q = cos-1 z The response time constraint t = (1/zwn) = 2H / (pf0KD) ALGORITHM:

Wd = wn.sqrt(1-2) Dd(t0) = (Dd0/sqrt(1-2) e-zwnt sin(wdt)

1. Initialize the content of memory and screen display. 2. Get the required input datas from the programmer. 3. Compute the initial conditions such as capacitive reactance and S. 4. Compute stator current. 5. Compute the voltage of transient reactance. 6. analyze the voltage of the infinite bus. 7. calculate the critical clearing angle by finding the angle between Etx and Eb. 8. find the critical clearing time. 9. print the result. 10. stop the execution. RESULT: Thus with the help of the MATLAB program the required information regarding small signal stability for single machine infinite bus system is estimated.