Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT

)
Tushar Kanti Bera
Postdoctoral Researcher Department of Computational Science and Engineering Yonsei University, Seoul-120-749, South Korea Email: tkbera77@gmail.com Webpage: http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/seoj/bera.htm

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a tomographic imaging technique which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the electrical impedance (conductivity or resistivity) of a closed domain within a volume conductor (object under test) from the voltage-current data measured at the boundary of the domain. An EIT system consists of EIT electronic hardware for current injection and voltage measurement, EIT sensors or surface electrodes with subject or practical phantom and the PC with a computer program called image reconstruction algorithm. EIT is being researched in different areas of science and technology due to its many advantages over other computed tomographic techniques like X-Ray CT, PET, SPECT, MRI etc. Being a non-invasive, non-radiating, portable and inexpensive methodology, EIT has been extensively studied in clinical diagnosis, biomedical engineering and biotechnology. Researchers are also applying EIT in different field of science and technology like industrial engineering, chemical engineering, material engineering civil engineering and so on. The first impedance imaging system, the Impedance Camera, was constructed by Henderson and Webster to study pulmonary edema in 1978. EIT has, generally, poor signal to noise ratio, poor spatial resolution and hence it is highly sensitive to modeling parameters. Therefore, EIT has a lot of scopes to work for improving its spatial resolution and image reconstruction quality. References:
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Quality Using Block Matrix-based Multiple Regularization (BMMR) Technique in EIT: A Simulation Study, Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, vol. 2, pp. 33–47, 2011. DOI:10.5617/jeb.170 11. Tushar Kanti Bera, Samir Kumar Biswas, K. Rajan and J. Nagaraju, Improving Image Quality in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Using Projection Error Propagation-Based Regularization (PEPR) Technique: A Simulation Study, Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, vol. 2, pp. 2–12, 2011. DOI:10.5617/jeb.158 Graham BM. Enhancements in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Image Reconstruction for 3D Lung Imaging. PhD thesis, University of Ottawa, Canada. 2007. Lionheart WRB. EIT reconstruction algorithms: pitfalls, challenges and recent developments. REVIEW ARTICLE, Physiological Measurement 2004;25:125-142. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju, A MATLAB Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying The Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern, Journal of Medical Engineering, Hindawi Publishing Corporation [In Press]. Tushar Kanti Bera, Samir Kumar Biswas, K. Rajan and J. Nagaraju, Improving the Conductivity Reconstruction in Electrical Impedance Tomography with Block Matrix-based Multiple Regularization

Institute of Engineering and Technology. pp 1288-1293. Topical Review. Borcea L. [23]. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju. University of Mumbai. 45 (2012) 663–682. 1996 [20]. Volume 12. Nagaraju. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Pages 518-526. 2012. Inderscience Publishers. [Accepted]. Cheney M.18:R99–R136 [19]. [13]. PhD Thesis. IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM 2012). Measurement. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Study of Broiler Chicken Tissues Suitable for The Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT. DOI:10. 95-116.002 [14]. ISSN (Online): 1754-3924 .174 [17]. India. 2. Studying the Resistivity Imaging of Chicken Tissue Phantoms with Different Current Patterns in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nagaraju. [12]. [22]. India. 33-40. Switching of The Surface Electrodes Array in A 16-Electrode EIT System Using 8-Bit Parallel Digital Data. Samir Kumar Biswas. Dec. Volume 44. Studying the Resistivity Imaging of Practical Phantoms with Common Ground Current Injection Technique in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Electronics for Real-Time and Three-Dimensional Electrical Impedance Tomographs. pp 1346-1351. [Accepted]. Nagaraju. International Journal of Information Processing. NITK Surathkal. vol. Conference Series after technical review. Nagaraju. Measurement 45 (2012) 541–555. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju. India.measurement. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Mumbai. Tushar Kanti Bera. Nagaraju. 2011. March 2011.1016/j. K. [Accepted]. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. International Conference on Advanced Computing. A Chicken Tissue Phantom for Studying An Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) System Suitable for Clinical Imaging. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Society of Information Processing. DOI:10. Nagaraju. It will be considered for the publication in IOP Journal of Physics. Mangalore. DOI:10. [28]. [10]. [18]. International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (IJCNDS).2012. 48–63. Resistivity Imaging of A Reconfigurable Phantom With Circular Inhomogeneities in 2D-Electrical Impedance Tomography. Electrical Impedance Tomography. 2011. Mumbai. 2012.1007/978-3-642-29280-4_112011. [11].ISSN (Print): 1754-3916. Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal. Denyer CWL. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Isaacson D and Newell JC. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. India. A Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) System for Biomedical Imaging. pp. 104. Rajan and J. 2011. Elemental Resistivity Profile Analysis of EIT Images to Assess the Reconstructed Image Quality.015 [21]. Networking and Security 2011 (ADCONS’ 11).1016/j.1016/j.5617/jeb. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. pp 132-136 [27]. Extended version of the paper has been submitted (Under Review)]. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. JK Lakshmipat University. Kerala [Accepted. A Gold Sensors Array for Imaging The Real Tissue Phantom in Electrical Impedance Tomography. Nagaraju. Issue 3. ADCONS 2011. pp. Nagaraju.11.2011. India (Accepted). International Conference on Materials Science and Technology 2012 (ICMST 2012). University of Mumbai. 95-105. Jaipur. Volume 7135/2012. Surface Electrode Switching of A 16-Electrode Wireless EIT System Using RF-Based Digital Data Transmission Scheme With 8 Channel Encoder/Decoder ICs. Inverse Problems 2002. India. Nagaraju. K. A Stainless Steel Electrode Phantom to Study the Forward Problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nagaraju. Nagaraju. 28-30. IEEE World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies 2011(WICT-2011). 2011. Electrical impedance tomography. Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance. DOI:10.measurement.1007/s11220-011-0063-4 [16]. Improving the Image Reconstruction in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with Block Matrix-based Multiple Regularization (BMMR): A Practical Phantom Study. May 2009. [25]. Rajan and J. International conference on soft computing for problem solving (SocProS 2012). International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management (IJCISIM). Tushar Kanti Bera and J. IEEE World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies 2011(WICT-2011). [24]. Samir Kumar Biswas. . Nagaraju. India. Studies and Evaluation of EIT Image Reconstruction in EIDORS with Simulated Boundary Data. [In Press]. Numbers 3-4. Issue 5. Springer. Nagaraju. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. DOI: 10. [26]. Tushar Kanti Bera and J.Bangalore. India.012 [15]. SIAM Review. Studying the 2D-Image Reconstruction of Non Biological and Biological Inhomogeneities in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with EIDORS.01. Paper has been presented. Tushar Kanti Bera. Kottayam. India. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Sensors & Transducers Journal. Studying The Surface Electrode Switching of A 16-Electrode Electrical Impedance Tomography System Using 8-Bit Parallel Digital Data. Nagaraju. Vol. International Journal of Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management (IJCISIM). IISc . Image Reconstruction in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with Projection Error Propagation-based Regularization (PEPR): A Practical Phantom Study. Measurement. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 1999. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. DOI: 10.41(1):85-101. Oxford Brookes University.2010.measurement.10. India pp 1-5.(BMMR) Technique: A Practical Phantom Study.

Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Germany. Part I. Common Ground Method of Current Injection in Electrical Impedance Tomography. pp 163-169. Nagaraju. Proceeding of the International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2011 (ICBME-2011). Tushar Kanti Bera and J. pp 24-28. A FEM-Based Forward Solver for Studying the Forward Problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) with A Practical Biological Phantom. A Simple Instrumentation Calibration Technique for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Using A 16 Electrode Phantom. CCIS 269. Schlegel (Eds.2009). Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. India. pp 621-630. DOI: 10. 2011. 22nd-24th Feb’2011. India. [31]. pp. Munich.1109/IADCC. School of Mathematics.): WC 2009. Singapore. DOI: 10. Manipal.uk/eit2009/abstracts/bera.1007/978-3-642-22786-8_78 [35]. India. Samir Kumar Biswas.07. Studying The 2D Resistivity Reconstruction of Stainless Steel Electrode Phantoms Using Different Current Patterns of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Rajan and J.3643588 [34]. Nagaraju. 2011. pp 278-283.2009. Nagaraju. pp 925–929. Dössel and W. A Model Based Iterative Image Reconstruction (MoBIIR) Algorithm for Conductivity Imaging in EIT Using Simulated Boundary Data. Part II. K.2011.1109/SAS. 2011. ISBN 978-3-642-22785-8. IFMBE Proceedings 25/II. India. 202–211.5168503 [41]. 16th-19th June 2009.2010. Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Biomedical Applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT 2009).ac. Gold Electrode Sensors for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Studies.5234117 [39]. Studying the Boundary Data Profile of A Practical Phantom for Medical Electrical Impedance Tomography with Different Electrode Geometries.1063/1. August 05 . A Reconfigurable Practical Phantom for Studying the 2 D Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Using a FEM Based Forward Solver. 16th-18th Dec’2010. Nagaraju. (India). Tushar Kanti Bera and J.manchester. Nagaraju. DOI: 10. USA. 2011. 2012. 489-491. Narosa Publishing House. Biomedical Engineering.1381. Springer. 5th . USA.1109/COASE. The University of Manchester. Tushar Kanti Bera and J.1109/ICSMB. pp. DOI: 10. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Germany. A Multifrequency Constant Current Source for Medical Electrical Impedance Tomography. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Volume – 157 (CCIS-157). Optics: Phenomena. Studying the Elemental Resistivity Profile of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) Images to Assess the Reconstructed Image Quality.1007/978-3-642-03879-2_258 [38].C. India. Nagaraju. UK. [30]. ObCom 2012.1109/IMTC. Kerala. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of The Electronic Connectors of DIP Switch Based Multiplexers Suitable for Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography. CCIS 270. Proceedings of IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC2009). Narosa Publishing House. O. Punjab.4809217 . Proceeding of the International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2011 (ICBME-2011). Nagaraju. pp 58-65 [33].2009. September 7 – 12. Kharagpur. 23–25 May 2011. ICIP 2011. DOI: 10. UK. Nagaraju. 347-352. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems in Medicine and Biology 2010 (IEEE ICSMB 2010). Patiala. India. Nagaraju. pp. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Switching of A Sixteen Electrode Array for Wireless EIT System Using A RF-Based 8-Bit Digital Data Transmission Technique. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. pp 511-516. Tushar Kanti Bera and J. pp 1375 . AIP Conference Proceedings Volume 1391.maths. [32]. DOI:10. Tushar Kanti Bera and J.5735387 [37]. Devices. Proceedings of The World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering-2009. Bangalore. 6-7th March 2009. Springer. 2012. Manipal. ObCom 2012. Nagaraju. Materials. URL: http://www. August 22 to 25. Nagaraju.[29]. Biomedical Engineering. DOI: 10. Communications in Computer and Information Science. A Study of Practical Biological Phantoms with Simple Instrumentation for Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). and Characterization: Optics 2011: International Conference on Light. Bangalore.5739810 [36]. Tushar Kanti Bera.7th May 2009. Nagaraju. 2009. pp. DOI: 10.pdf [40]. IEEE Sensors Application Symposium 2011 (IEEE SAS 2011). 574–587.2009. Proceedings of The Fifth Annual IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (IEEE CASE 2009). Proceedings of IEEE International Advance Computing Conference' 2009 (IEEE IACC .