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A2-306

CIGRE 2006

SYMPATHETIC INTERACTION BETWEEN STEP-UP TRANSFORMERS UP 13.2/400 kV OF MACAGUA HYDROELECTRIC COMPLEX FROM CVG EDELCA A. VILLA CVG Electrificacin del Caron, C.A. (CVG EDELCA) (Venezuela)

SUMMARY This work show the analysis of sympathetic interaction phenomena between step-up transformers up 13.2/400 kV for Power House # 2 of Macagua Hydroelectric Complex from CVG EDELCA. When these equipments are energizing from a 400 kV field with others transformers from Power House # 2 connected to the system, the activation of the differential protection, produce the trip out of service of these transformers. The analysis was focused to determine through ATP simulations the transformers inrush currents magnitude by energizing, the harmonic spectrum and the effect from the use of preinsertion resistors by the 400 kV circuit breakers to reduce the magnitude and time to decay. The results show that the sympathetic interaction between step-up transformers has an influence in the magnitude, duration and harmonic spectrum of the inrush currents, furthermore the use of preinsertion resistor affects the initial magnitude and duration of these currents, but it has a less impact on the harmonic spectrum. Finally, to avoid the activation of the differential protection, it was necessary to adjust the detection band of second harmonic magnitude and increase the blocking time of the protection, while is attenuating the inrush current.

KEYWORDS Transformer Differential Protection Inrush Current ATP TACS.

avilla@edelca.com.ve

INTRODUCTION The 400 kV System Guri Macagua II Guayana B of CVG EDELCA, has associated the higher part of the region load (Steel industries, Aluminum, etc). At Guayana B substation arriving five (5) transmissions lines from Guri and Macagua II as show in Figure #1, to keep the electric service continuity in case of contingencies that involve some lines out of services.

Figure #1. 400 kV Transmission System Guri- Figure #2. Power House #2 and substation Macagua II Guayana B. Macagua II up 400 kV layouts. The Macagua Hydroelectric Complex has three (3) power houses, which the power generating by each house are grouped in six (6) units of 60 MW, twelve (12) units of 198 MW and two (2) units of 86 MW respectively for a total installed power of 2908 MW. The power house # 1 & 3 step up the voltage up 115 kV and the power house # 2 step up the voltage from 13.2 to 400 kV and is interconnect to the field or Macagua II substation through six (6) transmission lines of 2 kms length, as show in Figure #2. On the days 15th and 24th of April 1997, the 13.2/400 kV step-up transformers of Power House # 2 from Macagua Hydroelectric Complex, trip out of service due the activation of differential protection, when is energize the equipment from 400 kV field (Macagua II substation) with others step-up transformers of Power House # 2 connected to the system. The event report for the associated differential protection from the step-up transformer showed activation by inrush currents. 2. THE INRUSH CURRENT TRANSFORMERS AND SYMPATHETIC INTERACTION BETWEEN

In the transformer energizing a transient inrush current appears that is produce by equipment core saturation and it has for characteristic to be unidirectional, with higher magnitude and it decay after some period of time until the value of magnetizing current due the normal operation conditions. Usually, the transformer inrush currents are calculating as the transformers are connecting to a system without other transformers on service, but in the practice these equipment are energizing in series or parallel with others transformers that are on services and this condition can cause a transient interaction or a sympathetic interaction between the energizing transformer and the other transformers on service, which change the magnitude and duration of the inrush currents. A similar situation can arise in system with higher series resistances, like some with longer transmission lines [1]. The inrush current can be affected by different factors like as followings: - The voltage wave point where is energizing the transformers. - The total system impedance through is flowing the inrush current.

- The saturation or maximum magnetic flux densities of ferromagnetic material from transformer core. - The residual flux into the transformer core and its polarities respect to the first half cycle of alternative flux in steady state. - The saturation level reach by other transformers connected to the system. As mentioned before, whatever the condition that impose an instantaneous change on the induction fluxes of power transformers can produce an abnormal flux of higher magnetizing currents and this can cause a tendency of operation of the differential protection, that to be avoided request to insensibility the same during the period of inrush current duration, but keeping the protection, the capability of distinguish between the short circuit wave current and the inrush current. The inrush currents are characterized by having higher harmonic components that are not present in short circuit current and whose amplitude in fundamental percent is shown in Table # I [2]. TABLE # I Harmonic amplitude in percentage of inrush current fundamental Harmonic Component 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. OBJETIVE Determine through ATP simulations, the inrush currents magnitude by energizing of step-up transformers up 13.2/400 kV of Power House # 2 from Macagua Hydroelectric Complex of CVG EDELCA, the harmonic spectrum and the effect of using pre-insertion resistors by the 400 kV circuit breakers to reduce the magnitude and time to decay. 4. THE MODEL USED IN SIMULATIONS As next, is a description of the use models to represent the different equipments associated to a 400 kV Macagua II substation, a generator circuit breakers and the step-up transformers of power house # 2 [3]. In Figure # 3 is shown the complete layout of these models when a step-up transformer is energized. Amplitude (% of Fundamental) 63.0 26.8 5.1 4.1 3.7 2.4

Figure #3. Complete layout of the models used in Figure #4. The step-up transformers core voltage simulations. versus current characteristic.

4.1 Thevenin Equivalent of 400 kV Macagua II The associated system to Macagua II substation was considered through a Thevenin equivalent saw from a 400 kV busbar, which comprise an ideal voltage source with constant frequency (60 Hz) connected behind a mutually couple resistive and inductive circuit. 4.2 The 400 kV circuit breakers These equipments are represented like one ideal phase circuit breakers and when it has pre-insertion resistors, a time of half cycle (8.33 ms) was used like insertion time. 4.3 The 13.2/400 kV step-up transformers These equipments are three phases shell type, in star and delta connection for high and low voltages sides. These units have a 400 kV high voltage winding and two 13.2 kV low voltage winding with a 500/250/250 MVA nominal power, FOA cooling system and short circuit impedances for a 60 Hz operating frequency of 13.8% for HV/LVY and HV/LVX and 23.36% between LVY/LVX. The tap changer is located in series with the high voltage winding; it has five (5) different positions to regulate without load in a range of 5% from 400/3 kV. These step-up transformer were represented by a mutually coupled resistive inductive (RL) circuit, whose parameters for self (Zs) and mutual (Zm) impedances were calculated from the measuring impedances of short circuit equipment test and the core voltage versus current characteristic as show in Figure # 4, was obtained from the not load transformer test. The cables connection to the generators, was considered through a capacitance by phase of 0.25 F. 4.4 The differential protection These protection equipments have a different logical circuit of control that evaluated the input and output currents in the protected zone and its activation are produced when a difference between these currents exist or by its higher level of harmonics content [4]. The principle of operation consist, in calculus of the current difference (Id) between the measuring of primary and secondary circuits, furthermore, the average current (Ip) to determine the current difference percent of the average current (%Id/Ip), in the case that overcome the adjust value (%K), is generated the trip order for the circuit breakers. Additionally, the second harmonic component on the current difference (Id) is calculated to avoid that during the transformer energizing, an erratic activation is produced, due the inrush currents unbalance [5]. The adjustment using by the differential protection to avoid the above mentioning are the followings: 1) The second harmonic magnitude has to be less to an adjustable value between at 8 to 20% of the fundamental inrush current magnitude. 2) The time during the second harmonic component are present and has to be less to an adjustable time between at 1 to 99 s to allow the inrush current attenuation. The operation scheme used for this protection to calculate the second harmonic content was simulated through the program for Transient Analysis of Control Systems (TACS) and its equivalent block diagram as show in Figure #5.

Figure #5. Block diagram used to calculate the second harmonic content by differential protection.

5. SIMULATION OF 13.2/400 KV STEP-UP TRANSFORMER ENERGIZING This consists in simulate the step-up transformer energizing by a high voltage terminal (400 kV) in the followings conditions or cases: 1) Without others step-up transformers connected to a 400 kV busbar. 2) With 1 to 5 step-up transformers not loaded connected to a 400 kV busbar. 3) With 1 step-up transformer connected to a 400 kV busbar and two generators on service, given 100 MVA by each one with 95% lagging power factor. 4) Without other step-up transformer connected to a 400 kV busbar and line circuit breakers with preinsertion resistors values of 0.1 to 3 k. 5) With 2 step-up transformers not loaded connected to a 400 kV busbar and line circuit breakers with pre-insertion resistors values of 0.1 to 3 k. In all above cases, the three phases circuit breakers were closed simultaneously and to reach the maximum inrush current at the step-up transformer phase A, the close was done when the phase A voltage goes through zero. 5.1 Result analysis The energizing of a step-up transformer without another step-up transformer at 400 kV busbar (case 1), give an inrush current of 1.97 p.u. or 2,011 Amperes peak at the high voltage side, as show in Figure #6 and whose time to decay (t = L/R), depend of the magnetizing inductance and the total resistance (systems plus step-up transformer) relationship as indicate in zone 1 and 2 respectively. The decrease of core saturation, increase the core inductance and produce an increase of the inrush current decay time, as show in zone 2. In Figure #6a, can be seen the distortion D in the phases inrush current wave, due the step-up transformer core circulating currents.

Figure #6. Step-up transformer phases inrush Figure #6a. Step-up transformer phases inrush current enlargement. current. In Figure #7 is shown the second harmonic magnitude contained by phases from the step-up transformer inrush current and the average value (to facilitate the next analysis), expressed in percentage of fundamental. In this Figure, can be appreciate, that the second harmonic in phase C and Average, decay more slowing and decrease until 20% of its magnitude in approximately a time of 4s.

Figure # 7. Second harmonic magnitude contained by phases from step-up transformer inrush current and the average value, expressed in percentage of fundamental. In Figure # 8 & 8a shown the inrush currents by the step-up transformer and the system, where it can see that the step-up transformer # 2 saturate as result of step-up transformer # 1 energizing and produced a sympathetic current with opposite polarity to the step-up transformer # 1 current. The magnitudes of these currents will be the same after a time, and the resultant dc component, that is flowing in the ring made by the step-up transformers, causing that the cores remain saturates and increasing the inrush current decay time; it depend of the inductances and resistances closed in the ring and whose decay time is larger that the given by the system and the step-up transformers.

Figure #8. Inrush currents see by step-up transformer Figure #8a. Enlargement of inrush currents see by step-up transformer and the system. and the system. In Figure #9 is shown the decay time increase from the second harmonic current for the study cases with 1 to 5 not loaded step-up transformers connected to the same 400 kV busbar and whose time are between a 9 to 22 s to decay until a 20% magnitude. In case that the step-up transformers connected to the busbar has being feeder with the generators, the decay time is reduced from 9 to 7 s as can be appreciate during one step-up

transformer energizing with another step-up transformer connected to the same busbar and 2 generators on service (case 3).

FIGURE # 9. The step-up transformer second harmonic inrush current content with another step-up transformer in busbar, cases without load and with generators in service. In Figure #10 & 11 show the decrease of the first inrush current peak by using different pre-insertion resistor values (0.1 to 3 k) and where it can see that the higher reduction is get with 1 k resistor by the cases without and with step-up transformers connected to a 400 kV busbar (cases 4 & 5). This reduction was higher than the 50% of inrush current magnitude getting by cases of circuit breakers without pre-insertion resistors.

Figure #10. First peak inrush current magnitude vs. Figure #11. First peak inrush current magnitude vs. pre-insertion resistor values by circuit breaker for pre-insertion resistor values by circuit breaker for cases without step-up transformer in a 400 kV busbar. cases with 2 step-up transformers in a 400 kV busbar.

In Figure #12 show the second harmonic decay time for cases without and with step-up transformers connected to the same 400 kV busbar and circuit breakers without and with pre-insertion resistor (1 k), where it can be see that the decaying time is keeping constant (cases 4 & 5). The above indicated that the delayed action in the activation of differential protection avoided an erratic performance by inrush currents.

Figure # 12. Step-up transformer second harmonic inrush current content, cases without and with 1 k preinsertion resistor and with and without another step-up transformers in a 400 kV busbar. 6. CONCLUSIONS These can be summarized as next: - The sympathetic interaction among the step-up transformer influences the magnitude, duration and harmonic content of inrush currents. - The use of pre-insertion resistors affects the initial magnitude and duration of inrush currents but has a less impact over the harmonic spectrum. - Finally, to avoid the differential protection activation it was necessary to adjust the detection band of the second harmonic magnitude and increase the protection blocking time while the inrush currents is attenuating. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] H.S. Bronzeado, P.B. Brogan, R. Yacamini, Harmonic Analysis of Transient Currents during Sympathetic Interaction (IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, Vol.11, No.4, November 1996) [2] C. Russell Mason, El Arte y la Ciencia de la Proteccin por Relevadores (Compaa Editorial Continental, S.A. Mxico, 1978) [3] Working Group 33.02 (Internal Overvoltages), Guidelines for Representation of Network Elements When Calculating Transients (CIGRE, 1990) [4] J. Raull, Diseo de Subestaciones Elctricas (McGraw-Hill de Mxico S.A., 1987) [5] Three Phase Differential Protection for Transformers (GEC Alsthom, T&D, 1993)

[6] Alternative Transients Program (Rule Book, LEUVEN EMTP Center, 1992) 8