INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT Robot becomes widely used in industrial due to their characteristics. Robot able to work

in 24 hours continuously without feeling tired unlike human that confine to certain time. The cost to setup the robot nowadays becomes more affordable and their long term prospect is bright judging from their capacity to perform. But in reality, there is no robot where able to function perfectly and still making error. A better controller needed here, to allow the robot performs efficiently and make less error. So, this project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that follows a specific path. This project uses a microcontroller of 8051 family for its operation. A pair of photo sensors comprising IR transmitter and photo diode is interfaced to the controller to detect the specified path for its movement. Line follower robot is a useful robot that is used in ware houses, industries, and stores, where it follows a dedicated path. This proposed system of a line following robot fulfills the desired functionality and demonstrates the working of it. It uses a pair of photo sensors, comprising of one IR transmitter and a photo diode in each. It guides the robot to follow a specified path by giving appropriate signal to the microcontroller. Two DC motors are used interfaced to the microcontroller through a motor driver IC. Input signals given to the microcontroller from the sensors and then the controller takes the appropriate action according to the program written in it and drives motors as desired.


OBJECTIVE The objectives of this project are: 1. Scalability must be a primary concern in the design 2. To make the device automatically tracking the particular path. 3. To design prototype of the robot that can follow the line. 4. To develop a robot that moves through a dark line on light back ground.

Second is difficulty to read with the numbers and long equations. it must be carefully when getting the information to ensure that information is true. any information can be obtained. its help to understand more compare to books. It is cannot be used as reference. But books also have it weakness. Other sources should be used. it is hard to understand everything. Gain information for related book Books are the first source to refer to do some research. it is difficult to understand some of it sentence or word from book because book is written by someone with a different level of knowledge and background education. graphs and tables that help collaborates about the topic. Just a click. world without boundary is very synonym with millennium era. Three methods are used in doing a research about this project. Just to do is searching. So to depend on books alone is not enough. Information and data can be transfer so fast. It is:- i. Some of information in internet is untrue information. So.0 RESEARCH OF THE PROJECT First of all. All this information is important for the next step that will be taken to precede this project. there some of websites are come out with a video or animation to help explaining the related topic. But internet also has it fuzzy side. Books can give an accurate output and the right information when looking at the title. In internet. Search from internet Nowadays. some research about the robot available today and how it work is been study. Information about robotics technology also can be found easily in internet. ii. everything in books seems hard to understand. The terminology is always advance and sophisticated. It is difficult to fully understand what the authors try to explains. Anything can be found in internet as long as it knows how to find it. It is not difficult to find a correct title needed. plus with static feature. Internet made everything in this world seem very small. Some of books are equipped with features.3. With this features. . First.

4. teaching engineer. PIC 16F877A microcontroller is selected as a controller of robot. It can be done early before refer to other source but it always the best ways if meeting with expertise after refer to other source. 5.0 SCOPE OF PROJECT The scopes of work are listed as below:1. an expertise would explain what topic that need more understand and which topics are not related with the project. 4. Robot design and construction. 5.0 METHODOLOGY Line Follower Robot is based on hardware and software configuration.iii. Software development and System demonstration. In university.1 Materials Resistor Quantity 1 1 3 6 3 References R1 R2 Value 220 Ω 10 kΩ 4. expertise is a lecturer. Expertise also can help to overcome the problem of understanding books and compromise any information from internet. Discuss with expertise Discussion with expertise about the topic is the best way to gain information about the robot. 2. Obstacle detecting sensors to avoid physical obstacles and continue on the line. tutor and technician that expert related with the project field for examples to understand of robotic system.7 kΩ 330 Ω 10 kΩ (Trimmer) . With this step. 3.

Capacitor 2 2 2 C1 .Green LED UI U2 7805 (Voltage Regulator) PIC16F877A L293D (Motor Driver) LM324 (Comparator) . C4 C5 . C6 0.1mm) DC Adapter 12V 1A USB IC SP PIC Programmer Infrared Transmitter Infrared Receiver D1 LED1 IN4007 (Diode) LED.3 µF 30 pF 100 µF (25 V) Integrated Circuit 1 1 1 1 Diode 1 1 3 Sensor 3 3 Miscellaneous 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 J1 X1 J5 SW1 SW-SPST Push Button Crystal 20 MHz 10 ways Straight Box Header Straight Turn 40 pin Terminal Block 2 pin IC Socket 14 pin IC Socket 16 pin IC Socket 40 pin ZIF Socket 40 pin 10mm PCB Stand DC Plug/jack (2. C2 C3 .

2 Hardware Development Figure 1: Block diagram Figure 2: Infrared Circuit .5.

Figure 3: Motor Circuit Figure 4: Power Supply and main PIC .

PIC microcontrollers (PIC16F877A) PIC microcontrollers (Programmable Interface Controllers) are electronic circuits that can be programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. An infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide. The infrared phototransistor acts as a transistor with the base voltage determined by the amount of light hitting the transistor.1. It can be programmed to be timers or to control a production line and much more. Each pin on it has specific function. It also has calculation function. which emits near-infrared energy at about 880nm. . 2.000 times. Note that the sensors cannot directly send a signal to the microcontroller as the signal voltage generated by them is too low and even when sensors are on white surface signal generated by them will interpreted low by the microcontroller. Many programming language are supported by this PIC such as C language.LED receiver are above a particular threshold then an amplified signal is generated by the amplifier (LM324). Greater amount of IR light cause greater currents to flow through the collector-emitter leads. IR receiver and IR transmitter Transmitter and receiver are commonly used in engineering projects for remote control of objects. PIC Microcontrollers are relatively cheap and can be bought as pre-built circuits or as kits that can be assembled by the user. memory and controlled by program. This PIC microcontroller also can be programmed and erased up to 10. 3. In particularly. in Robotic system uses transmitter and receiver.Hence it acts as a variable current source. High-Tech C and Pic Basic. Op-Amplifier (LM324) If the rays received by the IR.

If the signal received by the H-bridge is high it will rotate the motor or else it won’t do so. Here we are using L293D which can be used to control two motors. . MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows®. MPLAB MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free. is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC® and dsPIC® microcontrollers. 5.4. Note that microcontroller only sends a signal to a switch which gives the voltage required by the motor to rotate. 3H-Bridge (L293D) The microcontroller sends a signal to the H-bride that acts as a switch.2.1 Software Development Figure5: Flowchart Software 1.

Proteus 7. if attached to the PC. and printed circuit board (PCB) design. Proteus Software Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation. This is the perfect tool for engineers to test their microcontroller designs before constructing a physical prototype in real time.0 is a Virtual System Modelling (VSM) that combines circuit simulation. 2. and upgrading from the free software simulator to hardware debug and programming tools is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tool. This program allows users to interact with the design using on-screen indicators and/or LED and LCD displays and. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools.0 EXPECTED RESULTS 1) The robot follows a line as demonstrated. switches and buttons.MPLAB IDE also serves as a single. 6. Moving between tools is a snap. . 2) It effectively overcomes problems such as “barren land syndrome” and line breaks. animated components and microprocessor models to co-simulate the complete microcontroller based designs. 3) The hardware and software works as designed. schematic capture. It is developed by Labcenter Electronics.

7.0 Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 W W W W W W W W W W W W W W Elements Briefing on topic of the project GANTT CHART Forming a group members Proposal Computer sketching and designing the circuit using software Testing the functionality of the circuits Designing the hardware prototype Collecting data and testing the hardware prototype Project report Presentation and submit the full report .

ac.kmitl.0 REFERENCES 1.th/~kswichit/LFrobot/LFrobot.com/node/31206 . MUKUND22R.htm 2.8. Plermjaniinchuay. Automated Line Following Robot: http://letsmakerobots. Line Follower Robot: http://chaokhun.

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