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About the SAGParam_Open Spreadsheet ...

Scope : The SAGParam_Open spreadsheet was designed to be used - in conjunction with the SAG Mill Grinding Simulators SAGSim_Open and SAGSim_Recycle - in the "tuning" of such simulators to any specific actual grinding system, via the estimation of the various Model Parameters that characterize the grindability of any given ore. In other words, the attached spreadsheets provide an effective algorithm to search for the set of parameter values that best approximate the model response to the actual experimental measurements available, based on a typical non-linear, least-squares criterion. Theoretical Framework : The reference SAG mill model is described with further details in the About ... worksheets of the SAGSim_Open or SAGSim_Recycle files. On the basis of Pilot or Industrial Scale Data, like those typically obtained from plant sampling or audit campaigns, the SAGParam_Open routine allows for the calculation of all the Model Parameters (a's, b's and dcrit's) that minimize the least-squares Objective Function :

f = S { wi [(fi - fi)/fi]2 + ui [(fiL - fiL)/fiL]2 }
i=1

n

(3)

where the fi's represent the experimental size distribution of the mill product (as % retained on screen 'i' ) and the fi's represent the model response for each corresponding fi, for a given set of model parameters. Similarly, the fiL's represent the experimental size distribution of the mill internal load and the fiL's represent the corresponding model response. The Model Parameters (a's, b's and dcrit's) that yield the minimum possible value of f are so considered to be representative of the particular ore under analysis. Also in Equation 3, the wi's and ui's represent user defined Weighting Factors - for the mill product and mill internal load, respectively - that quantify the relative quality and reliability of each particular mesh value with respect to the other screens data. Relatively high values of such weighting factors indicate more reliable measurements. At the extreme, a weighting factor equal to zero means that this particular measurement is not being included in the Objective Function. The minimization problem stated above may be readily solved with the aid of the Excel Subroutine Solver. Data Input and Program Execution : Most of the data required by the algorithm must be defined in each corresponding unprotected white background cell inside the red double-lined border - of the here attached Data_File worksheet. Gray background cells contain the results of the corresponding formulas there defined and are protected to avoid any accidental editing. The remaining information required to run the program is entered in the Control_Panel worksheet, where the user is requested to provide initial guesses of the grinding parameters listed above. To run the program, select the objective function Cell E27 in Control_Panel and then, from the Tools Menu, select Solver ..., then Min and then By Changing any combination of Cells E10:E24 (see Useful Hints below). Clicking on the Solve button will execute the desired calculations. Important Notice : Solver ... must be run every time any element of input data gets to be modified . Otherwise, the current outputs are not valid. Calculation results are summarized in the Reports worksheet. An interesting feature of this routine is that the user has the option to save for later reference every analyzed data set by copying the Data_File worksheet into as many as required Test 1, Test 2, etc. worksheets. For reprocessing these data, simply copy the information back to the Data_File and re-run the Solver routine. New Moly-Cop Tools users are invited to explore the brief comments inserted in each relevant cell, rendering the whole utilization of the worksheets self-explanatory. Eventually, the user may wish to remove the view of the comments by selecting Tools / Options / View / Comments / None.

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from one data set to another. but the values of the parameters that achieve such minimum will be less reliable in statistical terms and therefore. must be run every time any element of input data gets to be modified..like SAGParam_Open . It is not required to run the Solver search for all parameters at the same time.) or grinding conditions (mill filling. Useful Hints : The proper utilization of the parameter estimation spreadsheets . then Min and then By Changing any combination of Cells E10:G29 (see Useful Hints below). for all data sets) and set it fix at its average value and equal for all data sets. b0. Keep in mind that a larger number of adjustable parameters in the search (that is. select Solver . For reprocessing these data. select the objective function Cell E29 in Control_Panel and then. The concept behind this parameter screening process is to lump the impact of whatever Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.). When multiple experimental data sets are available (the most desirable condition) for various ore types (hard. In fact. An interesting feature of this routine is that the user has the option to save for later reference every analyzed data set by copying the Data_File worksheet into as many as required Test 1. remove the corresponding cell reference off the By Changing list of cells in Solver and that parameter value will then remain constant and equal to its original guess during the whole search. Use the green background table below the Control_Panel area to summarize the results of your search with the various available data sets. To exclude any given parameter off the search.0.. etc. New Moly-Cop Tools users are invited to explore the brief comments inserted in each relevant cell. 2. simply copy the information back to the Data_File and re-run the Solver routine. Eventually.xls.. these parameters will exhibit significant variability and covariance amongst them. this is strongly not recommended. Important Notice : Solver . b1 = 0. Clicking on the Solve button will execute the desired calculations. included in the By Changing list) will necessarily yield lower Objective Function (Cell E29) values. for the next runs of the search. Otherwise. a1and b1. proceed to allow differences in the most critical parameters in the following sequence : a0. always attempt to obtain a reasonable model fit of these data with the same average parameter values for all sets. Test 2. dcrit and b0. until the model fit is no longer judged acceptable. etc.To run the program. the user may wish to remove the view of the comments by selecting Tools / Options / View / Comments / None.0. Calculation results are summarized in the Reports worksheet. worksheets. the current outputs are not valid. Be careful to follow the instructions provided at the bottom of such table. from the Tools Menu. % solids. dcrit. There is no set of firm recommendations to obey. as the search algorithm will most likely fail to find the minimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once. rendering the whole utilization of the worksheets self-explanatory. but the following hints may help guiding the user in the search of the most representative set of grinding parameters : 1. etc. one at a time. rendering them meaningless. 3. leaving the others fix at nominal values : a2 = 3. Continue removing the remaining adjustable parameters off the By Changing list. If the model fits appear to be reasonable. soft. a1..is by far the most complex task to be undertaken with Moly-Cop Tools. If that is not acceptable.5 and b2 = 4. then you should attempt to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. Look for the one parameter that exhibit the least Coefficient of Variation (the ratio of its standard deviation to its average value. ball size.ms_office Page 2 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM .. An advisable starting run of the algorithm for each independent available data set should considered a search for parameters a0.

xls. When in doubt. there is a good chance the data contains significant experimental errors and should be discarded. these two parameters are better optimized by a very basic trial-and-error procedure. it is believed that the distribution of ball sizes in the mill only affects the parameters a0 and dcrit. 5.000 and remove it from the By Changing list. set it fix at 100. Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796. whenever the estimated value of this parameter tends to be greater than the top mesh opening. If the model fits are still not satisfactory.ore properties or process variable are being investigated into the least possible number of parameters in order to improve the statistical significance of the estimations and facilitate the derivation of valid conclusions regarding such effects. In other words. Similarly. 4. If the step above does not provide satisfactory model fits.ms_office Page 3 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM . one at a time. not via the Solver routine. Not all grinding systems require a finite value of dcrit. then you should add other parameters to the list. simply try assigning them values between 2 and 4 and observe the response of the Objective Function (Cell E29). hardness variations of the same ore source may be well described by changes in the a0 parameter only. Never run a search for a2's or b2's. For instance. as these parameters have little effect on the objective function and may just confuse the search algorithm.

ms_office Page 4 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM .xls.Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.

etc.) If the model fits appear Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.inimizing optimum when dealing with too many parameters at once.ms_office Page 5 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM . (hard. soft.xls.

ms_office Page 6 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM .ever the estimated value of this parameter tends to be greater than Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.xls.

2) 0 0.500 9500 Self Breakage 0.650 3.50 0. microns 100000 1000000 Obj.127 beta01 beta31 Default 0.) Discharge (Adj.650 1 100 alpha0 alpha1 alpha2 Dcrit Breakage Function : beta00 beta1 beta2 beta30 Grate Parameters : Inefficiency D50/DGrate m 10 0.79 % Dev.79 Adj.400 0. 0.0) % Passing 1 Feed Discharge (Exp.400 0.0) 0.650 3. Test N° Selection Function : Balls on Particles 0.) SiE*10 0. 1.600 2.00358000 0.000 (default : 1.000 Incr.Moly-Cop Tools TM SAGPARAM_OPEN : Estimation of Semiautogenous Grinding Parameters from Plant or Pilot Scale Data.00228000 0. 10 100 1000 10000 Particle Size. KWH/ton : (default value : 0. if SOLVER has not been run after the last data modification.700 3.500 25400 Rocks on Particles 0.) Load (Exp. Function Fresh Feedrate Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.050 (default : 0.000 0.650 2. 1.00 Note : Current calculations are not valid.400 0.) Load (Adj. Sp.xls. Energy.00018 0.ms_office Page 7 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM .00 Exp.500 0.

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98 2.70 5.60 0.00 100.59 1.00 100.59 0.4 Angle.18 1.907 7.61 27.52 0.57 3.69 0.47 2.5 9.36 5.82 5.91 55.82 Mill Disch. ton/m3 Feed Moisture.00 0.00 100.90 2.464 % Solids in Mill Slurry Ore Density.00 100.09 Grate Opening.21 7.24 4.46 9.51 5.69 25.049E-07 0.54 4.5 Intersticial Filling.82 0.28 0.60 5.27 6.54 0.98 5.90 2.20 83.0 Balls Filling. ton/m3 3.00 94.55 0.49 0.525 0. tons Balls Rocks Slurry 0. % 74. m3 0.13 1.00 100.47 2. mm 12.00 100.62 1.00 0.55 0.20 0.65 0.43 0.43 0.78 78.00 287368 143684 87930 62176 35921 21997 15554 10984 7978 5641 3989 2812 2003 1416 1001 714 505 357 252 178 126 89 63 45 0 4.71 3.0 Charge Volume.97 3.% 50.00 100.14 0.99 6.00 0.79 5. KWH/ton 1.00 96.30 22.19 10.00 0.81 0.42 5.48 1.05 6.63 11.81 0.05 70.08 90.7 % Open Area 15.00 94.98 20.742 0.02 22.21 2.48 2.96 0.85 26.16 13.3 7.00 0.24 0.60 14.46 5.90 3.81 31.24 Charge Weight.03 0.23 1.59 1.30 22.35 32.60 0.43 18.54 0.00 0.82 5.18 0.59 0.9 Lift 2.86 1.25 5.Moly-Cop Tools TM SAGParam_Open : SAG Model Parameter Estimator Circuit Type Remarks OPEN Design Example : SAG Pilot Testing.50 4.81 31.0 Balls Rocks Slurry Net Total % Losses Gross Total App.20 13.14 0.00 3.12 7.42 58.99 6.04 9.09 30.37 0.52 6.75 2.48 2. (°) 1.0 2.00 0.05 8.% 8.68 2.00 0.00 100.30 14.65 Obj.62 0.06 36.21 (net) in2/(ton/hr) of Rocks 3 in2/(m /hr) of Slurry 27.05 6.03 11.23 Feed Size Distributions Mill Discharge (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.70 5.51 17.49 0.18 1.51 0.98 20.00 Mill Discharge (exp) % Ret % Pass 100.06 8.78 78.00 Mill Load (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.00 Maximum Grate Transport Capacity Open # of Grate Area / Rate Const.88 6.93 0. Area.60 0.35 3.29 23.20 83.25 5.30 14. Energy.11 4.00 100.44 20.00 0. Dens. Function 2.39 2.90 3.18 0.37 0.11 1.57 3.11 13.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 -400 Opening 406400 203200 101600 76100 50800 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 0 Mid-Size Mill Feed % Ret % Pass 100.73 7.68 12.00 0.3 10. Relative Weighting Factors 1 Mill Load 1 Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.00 100.xls.86 48.92 5. ton/m3 Slurry Density.08 90.85 26.7 12.15 0.00 0.01 16.83 8.56 2.0 Power.55 3.00 Mill Load (exp) % Ret % Pass 100.63 1.09 30.31 18.00 100. in2 1/in2/min Elements Element 551 6 15.80 1.00 100.58 2.07 7.01 16.92 5.61 27.11 4.88 6.73 1.32 0.06 36.14 0.42 11.19 4. Test N° 1 Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Diameter Length Speed Charge ft ft % Critical Filling.63 1.26 1.86 48.84 0.28 0.8 75.80 5.86 42.44 80.40 79.91 55.55 3.01 61.24 4.98 63.05 6.86 42.35 3.21 0.35 1.05 0.42 5.56 2. ton/hr Sp.7 1.59 0.63 11.40 19.51 0.24 0.00 10.35 1.32 0.98 63.05 70.97 3.52 1.51 17.41 16.71 3.59 0.68 15.83 8.00 100.ms_office Page 9 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM . ton/m3 Balls Density.08 9.98 5. mm Slurry Top Size.90 27.05 6.% 5.20 0.90 1.72 38.36 Min 435.48 89.11 13.00 95.73 7.86 1.0 47.07 7.42 58.96 0.00 100.14 0.00 96.39 2. KW 5.82 0.80 5.00 3.00 i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Mesh 16" 8" 4" 3" 2" 1.46 9.98 2.40 79.23 Min Fresh Feedrate.77 0.62 1.21 7.60 14.000 'Grinding Kinetics Controlled' Specific Grate Area Demand 308.06 8.16 13.40 19.0 18.03 11.00 0.15 0.

79 0.47 2.51 17. % Ball Filling.21 7.40 79.86 1..20 83.06 36.83 8.59 1.91 55.. m3/hr Slurry.8 75.86 48.00 94.19 10.19 4.05 70.86 48.00 100.86 42. 100.91 55.35 32. 100. ft Speed.02 22.98 2.12 7.70 5.7 1.08 90.65 76085 Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.ms_office Page 10 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM . % Lift Angle.57 3.11 4.35 1.00 100. 100.00 100.08 90.81 31.68 15.98 2.xls.00 9.41 16.30 22. % Passing) i Mesh Opening Feed Mill Discharge Exp.05 6.0 8.5 12.06 36.05 8.16 13.01 61.42 58.09 30.00 94. Dens.35 1.742 0.98 63.05 70.97 3.85 26.56 2.86 42.5 50 47.7 3.82 5.42 11. ton/m3 5.00 100.11 4.27 1.27 6. (°) Grate Opening.96 0.464 Throughput.00 100.82 104624 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Adj.51 5.00 100.05 0. % Critical Charge Level.11 13.69 25.60 3783 Mill Load Exp. % Interstitial Filling.3 5.00 95.907 74.51 17.44 20.00 96.47 2. kW (net) Energy. ton/m3 % Solids (slurry) Power. microns 406400 203200 101600 76100 50800 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 100.00 100.78 78.21 7.63 11.96 0.31 18.59 1.14 0.40 79. ton/hr Water.00 100.86 1.85 26.18 1.00 100.01 16.78 78.18 1.20 13.60 3783 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 100.00 100.Moly-Cop Tools TM Test N° 1 SAG_Param SAG Model Parameter Estimator Remarks : Design Example : SAG Pilot Testing.00 96.05 6.16 13.83 8.20 83.70 5.14 0. kWh/ton 1.525 0. DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS Configuration : OPEN Diameter.97 3. m3/hr Slurry Dens.48 89.40 19.42 1.68 12.00 100.46 9.00 100.25 5.01 16.56 2.11 13.57 3.08 9.09 30.30 22.00 100.0 18. ton/hr Slurry.46 9.40 19. ft Length.81 31.72 38.44 80.90 27.98 63.63 2.25 5.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 D80. Adj.42 58.00 100.63 11. mm App.21 Particle Size Distributions (Cumm.82 104624 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16" 8" 4" 3" 2" 1.

50 0.400 0.000 0.600 2.650 alpha2 3.650 alpha2 3.ms_office Page 11 4/6/2013 / 2:18 PM .003580 alpha0 0.002280 alpha1 0.4000 0.000 Moly-Cop Tools / 138335796.000 0.xls.50 Dcrit 9500 Breakage Function beta00 beta01 beta1 beta2 beta30 beta31 Grate Parameters Inefficiency D50/DGrate m Obj.650 alpha1 0.Moly-Cop Tools TM Test N° 1 SAG_Param SAG Model Parameter Estimator SAGParam_Open MODEL PARAMETERS Selection Function Balls on Particles : Self-Breakage : alpha0 0.50 Dcrit 25400 Rocks on Particles : alpha0 0.1270 0.050 0.000180 alpha1 0.650 2. Function 0.

ton/m3 Feed Moisture.35 32.21 2.79 5.69 25.23 2 Fe i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Mesh 16" 8" 4" 3" 2" 1.907 7.36 in2/(m3/hr) of Slurry 435.Test 1 Moly-Cop Tools TM SAGParam_Open : SAG Model Parameter Circuit Type Remarks OPEN Design Example : SAG Pilot Testing.29 23. KWH/ton 1.80 1.05 6.371 3 4 6 8 10 14 20 Opening 406400 203200 101600 76100 50800 25400 19050 12700 9500 6700 4750 3350 2360 1700 1180 850 Mid-Size Mill Feed % Ret % Pass 100. % 74.0 18. Mill Dimensions and Operating Conditions Diameter Length Speed Charge ft ft % Critical Filling.48 1.68 12.73 7.00 0.0 Charge Volume. mm 12.26 0.13 1.75 2.01 61. m3 0.73 1.% 5. (°) 47.21 Maximum Grate Transport Capacity Open # of Grate Area.43 18.31 18. Energy.00 0.90 27.02 22.0 2.52 0. ton/m3 Slurry Density.44 20.90 1.5 % Solids in Mill Slurry Ore Density.00 Fresh Feedrate.58 2.742 0.68 15. tons Balls Rocks 0. ton/m3 Balls Density.7 1.% 50. mm Slurry Top Size.21 (net) Specific Grate Area Demand in /(ton/hr) of Rocks 308.06 8.36 5.5 Intersticial Filling.68 2.00 0. in2 Elements 551 6 'Grinding Kinetics Controlled' Grate Opening.41 16.99 Page 12 .42 Mill Discharge (exp) % Ret 287368 143684 87930 62176 35921 21997 15554 10984 7978 5641 3989 2812 2003 1416 1001 4.0 Balls Filling.44 80.07 7.00 3.20 13.7 12.24 Charge Weight.8 75.52 6.00 0.88 6.46 5.0 Lift Angle.05 0.04 9.00 0.00 95.7 % Open Area 15.48 89. ton/hr Sp.42 5.00 0.525 0.72 38.% 8.52 1.92 5.

55 3. Relative Weighting Factors 1 Mill Load Obj.27 6.03 11.62 0.19 4.19 10.54 4.69 0.08 9.65 11.04904E-07 Page 13 .03 0.90 3.60 Mill Disch.93 0.23 1.84 0.77 0.00 6.98 5.Test 1 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 35 48 65 100 150 200 270 400 -400 600 425 300 212 150 106 75 53 38 0 714 505 357 252 178 126 89 63 45 0 1.48 2.11 1.82 5.51 5.24 4.90 2.65 0.05 8.80 5. Function 1 2.12 7.39 2.

88 6.46 9.55 0.51 17.00 100.83 8.00 100.30 14.00 100.00 3.3 10.00 100.08 90.05 6.50 4.00 100.98 63.70 5.60 14.08 90.20 83.07 7.15 0.00 100.00 0.00 96.0 Balls Rocks Slurry Net Total % Losses Gross Total App.11 4.51 Page 14 .00 96.00 0.4 1.42 58.71 3.86 48.46 9.9 2.59 0.62 1.00 100.00 10.00 94.78 78.464 ge Weight.05 6.21 7.57 3.73 7.91 55. Dens.35 3.30 14.00 100.81 0.78 78.000 Kinetics Controlled' Grate Area Demand Min Min 27.70 5.21 7.98 20.63 1.42 5.92 5.83 8.55 0.23 Feed Size Distributions Mill Discharge (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.16 13. KW 5.86 48.97 3.63 1.57 3.3 7.00 100.61 27.05 70.62 1.00 100.11 4.91 55.60 14.97 3.0 9.25 5.00 0.71 3.47 0.Test 1 n : SAG Model Parameter Estimator Test N° 1 Power.51 17.54 0.40 79.86 Mill Discharge (exp) % Pass 100.00 100.42 58.25 5.59 0.20 83.05 70.00 100.00 100.81 0. ton/m3 3.61 27.15 0. tons Slurry 0.00 0.05 6.59 0.09 ate Transport Capacity Area / Rate Const. 1/in2/min Element 15.47 Mill Load (adj) % Ret % Pass 100.00 0.00 0.81 31.98 63.35 3.54 0.51 5.86 Mill Load (exp) % Ret % Pass 100.99 5.81 31.16 13.40 79.59 0.00 94.00 100.06 8.98 20.

00 0.Test 1 42.63 11.85 26.00 Page 15 .60 0.35 1.98 2.49 0.03 11.24 0.98 2.63 11.90 3.30 22.14 0.59 1.82 2.24 0.06 36.01 16.18 1.96 0.85 26.14 0.20 0.00 0.82 0.82 2.06 36.55 3.18 0.20 0.43 0.18 0.28 0.39 2.82 0.43 0.09 30.59 1.56 2.32 0.56 2.18 1.37 0.90 2.11 13.32 0.30 22.96 0.80 5.49 0.00 6.98 5.28 0.48 2.35 1.24 4.14 0.37 0.09 30.40 19.40 19.11 13.86 1.14 0.60 42.01 16.86 1.60 0.