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Meaning and Definition of Leadership
Leadership is the factor that helps individuals and groups to achieve the goal. It is the process of influencing and supporting employees or others to work enthusiastically toward achieving the objectives. “Leadership is a process of influencing people to direct their efforts towards the attainment of some particular goal or goals.” According to Harry Truman, “Leadership is the ability to get other people to do what they don’t want to do and like it.” According to Chester Barnard, “Leadership is the ability of a superior to influence the behavior of his subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action.” According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.” According to George R. Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives.” Thus, leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or group for goal achievement in a given situation.
Characteristics of Leadership
An analysis of the above definitions of leadership reveals that it has the following characteristics: i) Leadership is a Process of Influence: Leadership is a process whose important ingredient is the influence exercised by the leader on group members. A person is said to have an influence over others when they are willing to carry out his wishes and accept his advice, guidance and direction. Successful leaders are able to influence the behavior, attitudes and beliefs of their followers. ii) Leadership is Related to a Situation: When we talk of leadership, it is always related to a particular situation, at a given point of time and under a specific set of circumstances. That means leadership styles will be different under different circumstances. iii) Leadership is the Function of Stimulation: Leadership is the function of motivating people to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives. Leaders are considered successful when they are able to subordinate the individual interests of the employees to the general interests of the organization. iv) Leadership Gives an Experience of Helping Attain the Common Objectives: Under successful leadership, every person in the organization feels that his operation, however minor it may be, is vital to the attainment of organizational objectives. It happens when the manager feels the importance of individuals gives them recognition and tells them about the importance of activities performed by them. v) Employees Must be Satisfied with the Type of Leadership Provided: Only short-term productivity of employees can be increased by pressure and punishment. This approach is not in the long-term interests of the organization. Force generates counter-force which results in a decreased long-term productivity. Longterm interests of the organization are best served when managers allow subordinates to influence their behavior, particularly when subordinates are knowledgeable and competent. The above characteristics of leadership functions hold good in any organization whether it be a political, religious, business or any other organization.
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Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior)
Nature of Leadership
i) Performance: The performance of a leader directly influences the leader also. If he asks his employees to come on time, he himself has to reach the workplace on time. The workers follow his behavior and functions automatically. The leader's performance itself guides and motivates the employees. Communication: Leadership starts with communication either by deeds or words. The followers can develop themselves by observing and accepting the work or verbal communication of a leader. Although work communication is more effective, verbal communication is also influential. Formal and informal communication, written and oral communication and personal and impersonal communications have their respective influences. So, a leader must use the communication appropriate to a particular situation.
iii) Influence: A leader must have the capacity to influence others. Without influencing others, a leader cannot function at all. He influences others morally and socially by using strong communication. The outcome of a communication is influence. iv) Power Base: The influence depends on the power base enjoyed by the leaders. There are five bases of power, viz. coercion, reward, legitimate, expert and reference. When a person threatens others to work it is coercion. But, coercive power has no permanent influence. It gives rise to negative feelings, and hostility is developed between the leader and his followers. Reward power as against coercive power impels to motivate and award employees who have done some commendable tasks. Legitimate power is derived from the position. Since the leader is a manager, he can influence the employees. His position has the power. Expert power is possessed by expert and technically qualified persons. The knowledge, skill and behavioral command are the given power base to influence others. Referent power is possessed by a person because of his exceptional qualities. v) Interaction: The relationship between two persons is essentially desired in the management. In public and politics, leadership does not require a relationship. It is merely the interaction between two parties. Without interaction, no one is a leader or a follower. vi) Acceptance: The power base and interaction are accepted by followers. If the influence is not recognized and not accepted by the follower, leadership does not take place in an organization. The behavior of the follower is changed and developed by the acceptance of the power of leadership. vii) Followers: Leadership has followers. The link between a leader and his followers is communication. Influencing others is leadership. So, there must be others who are being influenced to attain the objectives of the organization. Followers are the end-users of the leadership through interaction and communication. viii) Situation: Leadership is visible in a situation. In routine and regular functions, leadership is not required. In some situations and specific environment leadership is a must to guide the people to attain certain objectives. New ideas and motivational attitudes are developed by the leaders who inspire people to solve their problems. In a particular situation, people or workers may face certain acute problems and are unable to find a solution. ix) Attributes: Leadership is the attribute of a leader. The qualities of a leader are specific. The main quality of a leader is to influence others. In a situation, a leader can influence others. But the qualities needed for influencing others are personality, skills and charismatic influence. Leadership has its own personality.
Importance/ Function of Leadership
The significance of leadership in management will be clear if we study the functions which are performed by a leader. The functions are as follows: 1) Determination of Goals: A leader performs the creative function of laying down goals and policies for the group he is leading. He also acts as a guide in interpreting the goals and policies. 2) Organization of Activities: A good leader divides organization activities among the employees in a systematic manner. The relationships between them are clearly laid down. This reduces the chances of conflict between them. 3) Achieving Coordination: A leader integrates the goals of the individuals with the organizational goals and creates a community of interests. He keeps himself informed about the working of the group. He shares information with pthe group for the coordination of its efforts. 4) Representation of Workers: A leader is a representative of his group. He takes initiative in all matters of interest to the group. He also attempts to fulfil the psychological needs of his followers. 5) Providing Guidance: A leader guides the subordinates towards the achievement of organizational objectives. He is available for advice whenever a subordinate faces any problem.
. Economic and Social Changes: In the face of rapid technological. economic and social changes. but not all of it. For example. He maintains voluntary cooperation and discipline among followers. Moreover. age and assimilation of experience which. Dynamic leadership is the corner-stone of organizational change. Further. directing and controlling. it may develop certain imbalances. People forming an organization are members of several organizations. 2) 3) 4) Definition Authority Structure 5) Function Process of influencing behavior of individual or group regardless of reason. a manager is more than a leader Process of managing group (organized) for specific reason. Only an effective leadership can steer the organization through such situations. staffing. organizing. Formal and informal leaders can coexist in an organization. For example. causes changes in members’ nature and level of needs and motives. in the event of a fall in demand. 2) Technological. The leader shapes the thinking and attitudes of the group. This explains the existence of informal groups within the framework of a formal organization. 8) Facilitating Change: Leadership is the mechanism to convince workers about the need for change. Thus. Leadership operates in both organized and unorganized groups. There is no concept of informal manager. and problems of command. or take up production of alternative goods and services. coordination and control work at all levels.Leadership (Chapter 2. thus adding to complexity of the organization structure. Thus. manager can be a weak leader and still be an acceptable manager. Leadership is only a part of the manager’s jobs. especially if he happens to be managing people who have strong inner achievement drives.131 6) Inspiration of Employees: A good leader inspires the subordinates for better performance. Manager performs all five functions of management – planning. These extraorganizational activities influence human behavior at work and changes in these activities necessitate changes in work settings. Numerous extraneous activities and affiliations take up the bulk of his time and satiate his needs. introducing unique experience and personality in the organization. Human membership in an organization involves only a part of the individual. Difference between Management and Leadership Basis 1) Scope Management Management is a wider term. Leadership functions come under directing through which behavior is directed to get maximum use of subordinate’s ability. An effective leader is able to overcome resistance to change on the part of workers and thus facilitates change. Need for Leadership 1) Imperfect Organization Structure: It is not possible for any organization structure to provide for all kinds of relationships. the organization is required to effect suitable changes in its operations and style. A leader exercises his influence over the followers through the use of informal authority or power. If these changes come into conflict with the desired behavior in an organization. leadership is a part of management. He develops good human relations and facilitates interactions among the members of the group. This implies that a strong leader can be a weak manager because he is weak in planning or some other managerial duty. 3) Internal Imbalance Inspired by Growth: As an organization grows in size and complexity. All these changes demand adaptation on the part of the organization which is accomplished with the aid of people in leadership roles. there is individual change and development stemming from maturity. A manager makes use of formal (or official) authority to direct the subordinates. Reverse to this.4) B . 7) Building Employees’ Morale: Good leadership is indispensable for high employee morale. Motivation is necessary for getting the desired work from the subordinates. 4) Nature of Human Memberships: The significance of leadership also stems from the nature of human membership in organizational settings. it may discontinue production of certain goods and services. Management operates in a formal structure of organization. there arises an urgent need to make some change within the organization itself. there is turnover and replacement. in turn. The leader motivates the employees by providing them economic and non-economic rewards. Leadership Leadership is a part of management and not all of it. increase in organizational activities may lead to increase in the levels of management. Only an effective leadership can enable it to meet the challenges posed by environmental factors.
2) Leader: There must be an honest understanding of who you are. To be successful.132 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Components of Leadership 1) Follower: Different people require different styles of leadership. Examples of forces are leader relationship with his seniors. that they are worthy of being followed. cool and calculated reaction to undesirable situations and obstacles and normal acceptance of success as well as failure. leader have to convince his followers. possess positive attitude. For Example: Leader may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior. personal backgrounds and personalities differ widely. what you know. Even though. Informal leaders possess strong self-motivation. For Example: A new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee.B . He must give credit to subordinates when their efforts are successful. has formal job description. Also. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader. Situation Follower Leader Communication 3) Communication: He leads through two-way communication. What and how he communicates either builds or harms the relationship between leader and his employees. iii) Emotional Maturity: Emotional stability and maturity is a major ingredient for effective leadership. Formal leader has official responsibility towards organizational goals. the skill of his people. Problem Solving Skills: An effective leader has developed the patience and ability to look at the problem from various angles and get down to the cause of the problem and he tries to solve the problem from its roots rather than the symptoms of the problem. calm. motivates others and puts effort to drive organizational goals. It pertains to good adjustment to life. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature. desires and behavior of his subordinates and show respect for such desires. Various forces will affect these factors. then they will be uninspired. Informal leaders are best candidates for future formal leaders. . A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. Quality of a Successful Leader/ Skills of a Successful Leader Leadership is an intangible quality and its effectiveness can best be judged by the behavior and attitudes of followers. emotions. note that it is the followers. For instance. directors are formal leaders in a typical organization. not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. the informal leaders within his organization. some of the factors such as education and socio-economic status are poor indicators of judgments of successful leaders. and what you can do. Formal leader is officially bind to drive members towards organizational goal and is responsible for results or outcome of efforts at the end. 4) Situation: All are different. Leader must know his people. too harsh or too weak. but if the confrontation is too late or too early. They are also called Natural leaders. Informal leader do not have official commitment towards group’s goal or organization goal and may not be directly responsible for final results and may not be accountable for it. Managers. when he set the example that communicates to his people that would not ask them to perform anything. and motivation. such as needs. then the results may prove ineffective. some behavioral characteristics may be common to most of the successful and effective leaders. What they do in one situation will not always work in another. Informal and Formal Leaders Formal Leader: Formal leader is a member of organization who has given authority by virtue of his position to influence other members of organization to achieve organizational goals. iv) Ability to Understand Human Behavior: A leader must understand the needs. Some of these characteristics are: i) ii) Ability to Inspire Others: This ability may be due to an internal "charisma" that is an inborn trait and may not be a learnable factor. Much of it is nonverbal. Informal Leader: An informal leader has no formal organizational authority to influence others but possesses special skills and talent to influence and lead other members of organization. Informal leader might not have formal job description to lead and motivate others and job description might be limited to certain task. However. They must use their judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. and how Leader Company is organized. He is emotionally supportive and is careful enough to avoid ego threatening behavior.
. hospitals. analyzes accurately. and training/developing. Sound physique includes physical stamina. handling day-to-day operational crises deciding what to do. providing group support. walking around inspecting the work. He must be willing to tolerate frustration and defeat and learn from these failures. and controlling. He should have a high degree of imagination. Briefly summarized. assigning tasks. coaching.133 v) Willingness to Take Risks: Routine work.4) B . giving credit where due. staffing. conveying the results of meetings. clarifying roles. ix) Foresight and Vision: He should have the capability to look forward and anticipate the events. moral courage. Its observed behaviors include setting goals and objectives. and walking work group members through a task. nervous energy. Successful leaders always charter the unknown. Mental ability to think precisely. inspecting work. resolving conflict between work group members. and manufacturing plants. orienting employees. interprets clearly and concisely are necessary to consider the problems in the right perspective. giving positive feedback. defining tasks needed to accomplish goals. providing routine instructions. developing new procedures. viii) Sound Physique: Sound physical and mental health is essential to bear the burden of leadership. insurance companies. government agencies. a leader must take full blame and responsibility and not shift blame on others. a railroad. reviewing applications. monitoring performance data. Its observed behaviors include answering procedural questions. Should these risks result in failure. giving or receiving routine information over the phone. mentoring. Activities of Successful and Effective Leaders/Managers Fred (Luthans) and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive study to answer three major questions: 1) What do managers do? 2) What do successful managers do? and 3) What do effective managers do? Answers to these questions can provide insights and specific descriptions of the daily activities of successful (those promoted relatively rapidly in their organizations) and effective (those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high-performing units) managers or leaders. asking for input. defining problems. reading reports. What Do Managers Do? The so-called “Real Managers Study” first used trained observers to freely observe and record for one varied hour per day over a two-week period the behaviors and activities of 44 managers from all levels and types of Midwest organizations. developing job descriptions. no matter how well-done. routine financial reporting and bookkeeping.Leadership (Chapter 2. these activities are as follows: i) Communication: This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork. ii) Traditional Management: This activity consists of planning. never makes a leader. x) Responsibility: A leader should be a responsible person and must be willing to assume responsibility for the consequences. iii) Human Resource Management: This activity contains the most behavioral categories. writing reports/memos/letters. They must accept and seek new challenges. listening to suggestions. financial institutions. appealing to higher authorities or third parties to resolve a dispute. the disciplining/punishing category was subsequently dropped from the analysis. breadth and determination. motivating/reinforcing. and general desk work. goals and objectives by hard work and self-sacrifice. receiving and disseminating requested information. arranging for training. However. vi) Dedication to Organizational Goals: A leader must demonstrate his dedication and commitment to the organization's mission. conveying appreciation. disciplining/punishing. decision making. vii) Intelligence: A successful leader must have above average knowledge and intelligence. mental vigor and important leadership qualities. managing conflict. The observed behaviors for this activity include allocating formal rewards. He must make sure that his followers fully understand the organizational objectives and are equally dedicated and willing to work for these objectives. the risks must be calculated ones and outcomes of actions be reasonably predicted. interviewing applicants. Because it was not generally permitted to be observed. scheduling employees. and doing preventive maintenance. even though they may be operative factors. a newspaper office. processing mail. These included retail stores. filling in where needed. corporate headquarters.
and managing conflict. although being successful as opposed to effective may seem less desirable to the organization. discussing rumors. Consequently. and the grapevine.B . suppliers.134 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) iv) Networking: This activity consists of socializing/politicking and interacting with outsiders. networking seems to be the key to success (as defined by rapid promotion). and vendors. It should be noted that many managers aspire to success rather than being effective. training/developing. Networking (19%) Traditional Management (32%) conducted. staffing. from an individual manager’s perspective.” which then floats to the top. and interacting with outsiders than did their less-successful counterparts. dealing with customers. job satisfaction questionnaire. attending external meetings. It was found that communication and human resource management activities made by . Overall. but for the large sample of managers. Thus. leaving behind the “dreck. informal joking around. the importance of networking in real manager’s success was very apparent. Obviously. Bedeian and Armenakis note what they call the “cesspool syndrome. for a sample of the managers. politicking. using speed of promotion as the measure of success. activities. management activities made the least relative contribution. One reason is that personal pride and mobility is at stake. it was found that successful managers spend relatively more time and effort socializing. To overcome as many of the obstacles and disagreements as possible. Success was defined in terms of the speed of promotion within an organization. complaining. a manager at the fourth level of management who had been with the organization for five years would be rated more successful than a manager at the third level who had been at that level for 25 years. What Do Effective Managers Do? Although the operational measure of success used in the study was empirical and direct. and doing/attending community service events.” in which organizations in decline lose their best employees first. Perhaps equally important. In all Of the four major it was clear that human resource Human Resources (20%) Routine Communication (29%) Figure: Relative Distribution of Managers Activities What does this mean? It means that in this study of real managers. This multiple-measures index was employed in the study to answer the most important question of what effective managers do. for the managers in this study. this was an objective and useful measure. of even greater interest is determining what successful and effective leaders/managers do. the successful managers did not give relatively as much time or attention to the traditional management activities of planning. requiring their satisfaction and commitment. In other words. and ii) Getting the job done through people. To answer the question of what successful managers do. the definition and measurement of effectiveness offers little agreement on criteria or measures. In particular. and organizational commitment questionnaire were used. there are some potential problems with such a measure of success. The observed behaviors associated with this activity include non-work-related chitchat. decision making. and putting others down. importantly. several types of analyses were these analyses. and controlling or to the human resource management activities of motivating/reinforcing. the study used a combined effectiveness index that represented the two major—and generally agreed upon—criteria of both leadership theory/research and practice: i) Getting the job done through high quantity and quality standards of performance. it may be part of an effective career strategy. networking made the biggest relative contribution to manager success and. hearsay. a standardized organizational effectiveness questionnaire that measures the unit’s quality and quantity of performance. griping. What does Successful Managers Do? Important though it is to get an empirical answer to the basic question of what leaders/managers do. only networking had a statistically significant relationship with success. politicking and gamesmanship. A success index on the sample in the study was calculated by dividing the managers’ levels in their respective organizations by their tenure (length of service) there.
He consults and seeks advice.6 An individual is a leader in the true sense if he is accepted as a leader by the group and there is communication between the leader and the followers. made by far the least relative contribution. He solves problems. In other words. He depends on his confidence and goodwill. it is essential that a person to be an effective manager must also be an effective leader. Leadership is a part of management. He believes in “We” and “You”. was that the least relative contribution to the managers’ measured effectiveness came from the networking activity. been exceedingly poor managers. Leadership is something a person does.Leadership (Chapter 2. He makes the following distinctions between the two terms as given in Exhibit Manager vs. be calm in times of uproar. Once the overall vision is defined and the goals are understood—the goals need to be broken down into sub-goals for each section and each level of the group. Leader 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The Boss (Manager) He drives and orders. The reverse is also possible. Many organizations today employ the balanced scorecard as an effective tool to cascade top level goals. Effective leaders are known for their capability to articulate the organization’s vision and goals in a manner which is understood by the followers. human resource management activities had a strong relationship to effectiveness (second only to human-oriented communication activities) but had the weakest relative relationship to success. they did almost the opposite). This is also the first step towards effective leadership. it should not be confused with a mere activity. Networking activity had by far the strongest relative relationship to success. the successful managers in this study did not perform the same activities as the effective managers (in fact. It is the process of stimulating members of the group towards a particular I direction. He depends on his authority. He engenders fear. However. but not all of it. A person lacking in one of these factors cannot be called a leader as he cannot lead the people. The fact that he can get others to follow him is no guarantee that he is going in the right direction. Manager Leadership is the ability to enthuse the followers towards a definite goal. Cornerstones of Effective Leaders The seven cornerstones of effective leadership: 1) Goals and Vision: Leadership consists of three pillars—leaders. the team’s ability to deliver increases if they feel empowered to act. He fixes blames and finds faults. Earl P.4) B . of course. if effectiveness is defined as the perceived quantity and quality of the performance of a manager’s unit and his or her work group members’ satisfaction and commitment. On the other hand. . many outstanding loaders have. usually. Aggressiveness and constant interaction with others do not necessarily develop leadership. These contrasting profiles may have significant implications for understanding the performance problems facing today’s organizations. 2) Empowerment: The team is an extension of the leadership. Another interesting finding from this part of the study alluded to earlier. but the weakest to effectiveness. He makes the work a game. Leadership exists when both these factors are present in a particular situation. and especially the networking activities. especially if he happens to manage people who have strong inner achievement drives. to hesitate and to delay decisions. All work performed by a leader may not be management work. He inspires enthusiasm. A manager is required to plan and organize. With clearly understood goals and an overall vision to work for. This. followers and goals. This explains why although a good manager must be an effective leader. in fact. An effective leader knows how to enable and empower the team so that the team can work independently. is in stark contrast to the results of the successful manager analysis.135 far the largest relative contribution to the managers’ effectiveness and that the traditional management activities. Strong is of the opinion that leadership in business is not synonym of the boss. But. but all we ask of a leader is that he gets others to follow. That means a strong leader can be a weak manager because he is weak in planning or some other managerial duty. In other words. then the biggest relative contribution to leadership effectiveness comes from the human-oriented activities—communication and human resource management. leadership action has to stay in the background keeping pressures off the group. He knows all the answers He makes the work drudgery He believes in “I” The Leader He coaches and advises. Leaders vs. A manager can be a weak leader and still be an acceptable manager. for example. because sometimes. to keep quiet so that others may talk.
3) Styles based on the assumptions about people made by the leader. This is how to differentiate between a ‘good’ and a ‘great’ leader. It is important to understand that though the style of leadership varies across individuals. rather he understood that each of his chosen team had specific roles to play and could leverage their strengths. Any project manager you talk to will assert that requirements need to be defined well before the project is taken to execution.136 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) A good way of ensuring this is to make sure that individual goals are understood and reviewed periodically— the “why” and the “when” of each goal should be understood. 3) Prioritization: Many times people encounter the common excuse that ‘we do not have time’. it is inspiring to think about all the great achievers in history had actually the same number of hours per day that you have. capable of taking the organization to greater heights when the leader will not be around. flexibility and versatility will be the key critical success factors. 5) Learning and Flexibility: While most people in the corporate world talk about rigor. focus on what we want to achieve. one good way of addressing this would be to define stretch goals. The effective leader spends time and energy in building up leaders to carry on. it is called ‘managing by outcomes’. In this context it is important to see that a priority is defined and followed. This emphasis on ‘rigor’ enervates the older corporations.B . trying new things and finally. the world will not stand still in the meantime! 6) Complementating Team: Each of the followers had very different characters and different approaches to achieving the same goals however. pushing the team to do the same. the humility to explore our self. The most important things to do are those that have the maximum impact in achieving the goals. 2) Styles based on the relative emphasis placed on the task to be performed versus that placed on people. creating space for newer and more flexible ones to fill in the gap. In today’s dynamic change-driven world. 7) Building Leadership: The lasting contribution of an effective leader is to build a team of good leaders. This is not to assert that process maturity and rigor are not important rather. Today’s effective leader has to follow the same principles to define the vision for the group and then build a team whose collective strength can address the primary goals of the organization. 4) Likert’s four styles. 4) Push for Excellence: An effective leader always pushes a bit harder to explore the boundaries of what is deemed possible. Leadership styles are the pattern of behavior. it requires an appreciation of the very diversity they operate in. In this context. The effective leader does not play safe but is always looking for new ways to do old things. This push is to explore what lies beyond the obvious. A simple way to manage time properly would be to first spend a few days in documenting all the communication flows. which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers (subordinates) in the organizational context. Following this method for a few weeks will help the leader in setting up a process to identify the most important activities for him. with one unifying message and belief in their faith they were able to lay the basic foundation of what today is the world’s largest religion. In the corporate environment. The effective leader of today focuses on ‘flexibility’ instead. Spend as much time as required in defining and explaining the goals and then be available for broad directions and advice without defining the steps—in management terms. think about and act upon and finally how many of these actually lead to a positive outcome of goals. and 5) Entrepreneurial leadership styles. Conclusion Effective commonsense leadership is exactly what it reads — a common sense approach to leading people. An effective leader knows that by continuing to do what has been done so far. Defining and rewarding stretch goals is a good way of finding and rewarding excellence within the team. Leadership style is divided into five types: 1) Styles based on the amount of authority retained by the leader. . Any major project takes years to execute and unfortunately. This push for excellence enables the effective leader to build the next set of leaders—a group of people who are willing to push the boundaries and explore horizons. flexibility should be the main focus. and finally. Leadership Styles and Their Application Leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior. Jesus did not select a set of people who behaved like him. the “how” should be left to individual enterprise. we continue to achieve whatever we have achieved so far. The desire of a truly great leader is to build other leaders who will outperform him/her. In today’s global corporate world. a willingness to learn. many corporations lose out in the long run because they define ‘rigor’ as one of the most important cornerstones of the organization. the basic principles remain the same.
His decisions are not unilateral like that of the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. The autocratic management has been successful because it provides strong motivation to the manger. this style is quite common and has often succeeded. When his motivational style is positive he is often called a benevolent autocrat. who makes the subordinates feel that they are participating in decision-making process even though he has already taken the decision. Unlike an autocratic manager who controls through the authority he possesses. A B B E A C D B D C (a) Autocratic D (b) Participative Types of Leadership Styles (A is the Leader) (c) Free Rein E A C Autocratic leadership may be negative because followers are uninformed. In industry. under this style. they look for social and egoistic satisfaction from their jobs. Styles in this approach are classified depending on how much authority is retained by the leader versus how much is delegated to the subordinate employees.Leadership (Chapter 2. He makes it clear that praise or blame is a matter for the group and participates in the group as a member. ii) Participative or Democratic Leader: A democratic leader is one who gives instructions only after consulting the group. The benevolent autocrat is effective in getting high productivity in many situations and he can develop effective human relationships. all decision-making power is centralized in the leader as shown in figure below . Thus. Such a leader may be called strict autocrat who relies on negative influences and gives orders. it is less likely to be effective because: a) The coming generation is less amenable to rigid direction and control b) The standard of living of people is rising c) There is now social awareness among the people. b) It improves the attitude of employees’ towards their jobs and the organization. He determines policies for the group without consulting them. He gives personal praise or criticism to each member on his own initiative and remains aloof from the group for the major part of the time. a participative manager exercises control mostly by using forces within the group. Leadership can be positive also because the leader may use his power to disperse rewards to his group. which the subordinates must accept. sharing of power by allowing the group to make decisions and to let decisions emerge from the group. Different types of Leadership styles are: i) Autocratic leadership ii) Participative leadership iii) Free rein leadership i) Autocratic or Authoritarian Leader: The autocratic leader gives orders. There is another type of autocratic leader. Participative manager decentralizes managerial authority.137 1) Styles Based on Authority Retained: This is the classical approach to classifying the leadership styles and is useful even today. which must be obeyed by the subordinates. Leader adopting this style stresses his prerogative to decide and order a subordinates’ obligation to do what they are told to carry out. and does not give detailed information about future plans. He sees to it that policies are worked out in group discussions and with the acceptance of the group. known as manipulative autocrat. In future. but simply tells the group what immediate steps they must take. It permits quick decision-making as only one person decides for the whole group. insecure and afraid of leader’s authority. It has also been successful in such situations where subordinates are reluctant to take initiative. .4) B . Some of the advantages of participative leadership are: a) It increases the acceptance of management’s ideas. He does not give subordinates the freedom to influence his behavior. Participative leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown in figure above.
handing over the authority and letting the group to operate entirely on its own. He depends largely upon the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. He is represented by the chairman of the board who does not manage. Free rein leadership ignores the manager’s contribution approximately in the same way as the autocratic leadership ignores that of the group. e) It increases the morale of the employees. four combinations are possible as shown in figure below: i) High-Task and Low-Relationship: A high-task and low-relationship leader emphasizes showing employees how to get the tasks accomplished and spends minimum time giving psychological support. iii) Establishing well-defined patterns of organization. A more critical look at this style would suggest that it works best in situations where people need an active and involved leader. channels of communication and ways of task accomplishment. A leader who places greater emphasis on task performance tends to exhibit the following behaviors: i) Organizing and defining the roles of the group members. 2) Styles Based on Task Versus People Emphasis: Another standard way of classifying leadership styles is based on the relative concern the leader places on the task to be performed vis-à-vis. The leader exists as a contact person with outsiders to bring for his group the information and resources it needs to accomplish its job. ii) . Group members work themselves and provide their own motivation. This mode of direction can produce good and quick results if the subordinates are highly educated and brilliant people who have a sincere desire to go ahead and perform their responsibilities. A leader who places greater emphasis on people tries to gain their relationships by exhibiting such behaviors as: i) Establishing channels of communication ii) Extending psychological support to them iii) Developing mutual trust iv) Developing empathy for them. Quick decisions can not be taken. The high-task and high-relationship style is considered generally useful because it results in high productivity and personal satisfaction. The leader simply takes the expedient route of focusing on work rather than people. This style may be effective where the employees are inexperienced with the work to be performed. A high-task and low-relationship leader is not necessarily rude or discourteous. iii) Free Rein or Laissez Faire Leader: A free rein leader does not lead. but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown in figure above. the people performing the task. ii) Explaining what activities each has to do and when. It fails to give the group the advantages of leader’s inspired motivation. When employees are lacking in self-confidence and technical skill. b) Sometimes participation equivalent to the passing the back to subordinates by the leader. gives all responsibility and most of the work entrusted to him to the group which he is supposed to lead. where and how tasks are to be accomplished. d) It leads to reduction in the number of complaints and grievances. limiting his authority to maintain the contact of the group with persons outside the group. The leader completely handle over his leadership position.B . This style has following limitations as: a) Participation may be interpreted as a sign of inefficiency on the part of the leader. c) Participative leadership is time consuming. Seasonal employees may be unfamiliar with the task and these require direct guidance on performing the work properly.138 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) c) It increases the cooperation between management and employees. This is also known as permissive style of leadership. High-Task and High Relationship: This leader spends considerable time showing people how to get the work accomplished and providing them psychological support. the high-task and high relationship style is particularly effective. but leaves all responsibility for most of the work to his subordinates. where there is least intervention by the leader. The free rein leader avoids power. Depending on task emphasis or people emphasis. The high-task and low-relationship style may also be well suited to situations where seasonal help is involved. Subordinates may view the leader as incompetent to handle crisis independently.
ii) iii) Consultative: Here the leader uses rewards. some involvement is sought from employees and as in the benevolent authoritarian style. though major decisions are made by the people at the top of the hierarchy. The most notable features of this style are: i) Impatience and rudeness towards employees because the entrepreneur is always busy. v) A strong dislike for bureaucratic rules and regulations. The high-relationship and low-task style is suitable for such situations. 5) Entrepreneurship Leadership Style: An entrepreneur is a person who coverts an innovative idea into business.4) People Emphasis High Low B . iii) A charismatic personality that inspires others to want to do business with him or her despite the impatience. There is a tendency among a number of individuals to belong to more than workgroup in order to promote intergroup links and understanding. 3) Styles Based on Assumptions about People: Depending on what assumptions a leader makes about his or her followers. and the decisions are generally made at the top of the organization. communication is downward. iv) A much stronger interest in dealing with customers than employees. therefore. communication is two-way although upward. When subordinates are highly skilled and psychologically mature. Subordinates and superiors are psychologically close. ii) Benevolent authoritative. . communication is cautious and limited.139 High-Relationship and Low-Task (Supporting Style) High-Task and High-Relationship (Participative Style) iii) High-Relationship and Low-Task: A leader using the high-relationship and low-task style gives employees much encouragement and support but a minimum of guidance about the task accomplishment. and iv) Participative. Theory Y leaders are participative. and group decision-making is widespread in the organization. the leader uses sanctions. This two-way classification is based on McGregor's famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions about people. Low-Task and Low-Relationship (Free-Rein Style) High-Task and Low-Relationship (Autocratic Style) iv) Low-Relationship and Low-Task: A leader using Low High this style is neither here nor there. encouragement and praise. superiors and subordinates are psychologically distant. this style can be effective. subordinates are involved in decision-making in a limited way. free to run their own show. Likert develops four styles of leadership to capture the management culture of an organization: i) Exploitative authoritative. Benevolent Authoritarian: Here the leader uses rewards to encourage performance. 4) Likert's Four Styles: Developing on the notion that leadership style consists of two extreme positions—autocratic and democratic. iv) Participative: The leader disperses economic rewards and makes full use of group participation and involvement in setting performance standards and improving methods and procedures. and there is some delegation in decision making. Subordinates are given Four Key Leader Behaviors considerable latitude in performing their work. upward communication is permitted but to the extent the boss wants. i) Exploitative Authoritative: As an exploitative authoritarian. iii) Consultative.Leadership (Chapter 2. The word entrepreneur is generally associated with small-scale industry. vi) Anxiety to consolidate business gains as quickly as possible. They are. ii) A heavy task orientation combined with a very direct-approach to giving instructions to employees. many entrepreneurs use a similar leadership style. It is essentially Task Emphasis a free-rein style. An entrepreneurship leadership style is based on both their personality characteristics and the circumstances of operating a business. They are also given very little psychological support. In some situations employees need more psychological support rather than technical instructions. They distrust people and believe in close supervision and tight-control over the subordinates. In the meantime it may be stated that Theory X leaders are autocratic. they trust subordinates and allow them to participate in decision-making. subservience to boss is widespread. two styles may be distinguished.
The trait theory holds the view that successful leader possess these basic qualities and these are inherited rather than acquired. He is always aware of the duties and obligations associated with the position he holds. They are emotionally mature and have balanced temperaments avoiding menacing extremes so that they may not become thoughtless victims of the circumstances. So he should imaginatively visualize tends and devise his polices and programmes with foresight based on logical programmes. He has confidence in himself whenever he initiates any course of action. but we will classify our discussion into three categories: 1) Trait. He always tries to develop social understanding with other people. They have the inner urge to keep accomplishing something. self-confidence. persistence. viii) Self-Confidence: A good leader has conceptual clarity about the things he is going to do. Ralph Stogdill reported on the basis of at least fifteen studies that leaders possess intelligence. iii) Inner Motivation Drive: Leaders have relatively intense achievement type motivational drives. Some of the important traits of an effective leader are discussed below: i) Intelligence: This trait seems to hold up better than any other. Self-confidence is essential to motivate the followers and boost up their morale. health and appearance of an individual are important for leadership to some extent. Stogdill’s Trait Factors In the late 1940s. Traits Approach It is a traditional approach to the theory of leadership. He is not critical of others. Leaders generally have some what higher level of intelligence than the average of their followers. 2) Behavioral. fairplay. knowing how to get things done. They possess the ability to think scientifically. These special qualities of head and heart generally include mental capacities and morale qualities. To initiate suitable activities at proper time is the habit of a leader.140 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Theories/Approaches of Leadership There are several approaches to the study of leadership. ii) Physical Features: Physical characteristics and level of maturity determine personality of an individual. which is an important factor in determining success of leadership. initiative. physique. vi) Acceptance of Responsibility: A reliable leader is one who is prepared to shoulder the responsibility for the consequences of any steps he contemplates or takes. iv) Maturity: Leaders generally have broad interests and activities. insight. dependability in exercising responsibilities.B . alertness. justice and integrity of character are expected of any good leader. He also found traits such as sociability. which makes the leader more identified with the group. cooperativeness. vii) Open-mind and Adaptability: A leader is ready to absorb and adopt new ideas and views of others as may be demanded by the situation. Flexibility is another name for open-mindedness. Honesty. x) Fairness of Objectivity: A good leader is fair and objective in dealing with subordinates. popularity. activity and social participation and socioeconomic status. He approaches various problems in terms of people involved more than in terms of technical aspects involved. They also have high frustration tolerance v) Vision and Foresight: A leader cannot maintain his influence unless he exhibits his trait of looking forward well in advice and imagination for handling his followers. analyze accurately and interpret clearly and precisely the problems before them in terms of different aspects and perspectives. He is constantly busy in achieving the voluntary cooperation of the followers. Height. a successful leader possesses the human relations attitude. it is thought that a leader has specific trait of mind and intelligence. ix) Human Relations Attitude: A good leader is considerate of the followers as his success as a leader largely depends on the cooperation of the people. He works hard more for the satisfaction of inner drives than for extrinsic material rewards. adaptability and verbal facility in ten leadership studies. He is prepared to accommodate others’ viewpoints and modify his decision. if need be. . came the popular belief that “Leaders are Born and not Made”. Thus. scholarship. The study of the lives of successful leaders reveals that they possessed many of these traits. Persons who are leaders are presumed to display better judgment and engage themselves in social activities. Out of this approach. weight. According to this theory. He must be free from bias and prejudice while becoming emotionally involved with the followers. and 3) Situational theories.
vi) Management ability—team builder.141 Ghiselli’s Personal Traits Edwin Ghiselli has conducted extensive research on the relationship between personality and motivational traits and leadership effectiveness. iii) Job achievement orientation. Other variables like the situation. iii) Need for a lot of money. the problem with Ghiselli’s research is that several of the traits are interdependent and there is no indication of how much of any trait a person should have to be an effective leader.4) B . many tall people have neither the inclination nor the capabilities to be leaders. although taller people may generally be more successful as leaders. the organization and the characteristics of followers will equally determine the effectiveness of leaders. Thus. or styles. 2) Job-centered: A job-centered orientation is one in which the leader emphasizes getting the job done by planning. The behavioral theorists contend that a leader’s style is oriented toward either an employee-centered or a jobcentered emphasis. many short people have risen to positions of leadership. iv) Need for job security. no consistent pattern has emerged. Again. v) Self-confidence.Leadership (Chapter 2. the task. organizing. Behavioral Theories Because of the widespread inconsistencies of trait studies of leadership effectiveness. i) Affinity for working class. 1) Very Important i) Decisiveness. Some of the limitations of the theory are the following: i) The list of personality traits of successful leaders is too long and there seems to be no finality about it. certain traits. This assumption is not acceptable to the contemporary thinkers on the subject. ii) How much of which trait a successful leader must have is not clear. Although hundreds of traits have been identified. . v) It is well known that people who fail as leaders and people who never achieve positions of leadership often possess some of the same traits as successful leaders. research continued and focused on the behavioral patterns. The executives defined this trait in 147 different ways. and exercising close management control. particularly psychological. ii) Drive and initiative. 3) Almost no Importance. of leaders with respect to their interaction with group members. evaluating performance. leadership effectiveness does not depend upon the personality of the leader alone. i) Masculinity versus femininity. vi) There is little consensus on the meaning of words used to label traits. a trait associated with effective leadership. making decisions. iii) The theory assumes that a leader is born and not trained. 1) Employee-centered: In the employee-centered orientation. Furthermore. iv) Contrary to what the theory assumes. Criticism of the Trait Theory The trait approach to leadership has been severely criticized by many. cannot be quantified. the leader emphasizes developing friendly. 2) Moderately Important. Even after similar definitions had been combined. His findings suggest that the following personality traits range from being very important to unimportant in relation to leadership success. v) Personal maturity. open relationships with employees and is very sensitive to their personal and social needs. delegating. ii) Intellectual capacity. for example. 25 different definitions remained. At the same time. In a study of extensive leadership qualities a researcher demonstrated the magnitude of this problem when he asked 75 top executives to define the term "dependability". iv) Self-actualization feelings.
High ‘Human Relations’ ‘Democratic’ Consideration Behavior ‘Laissez Faire Low ‘Autocratic’ Low Initiating Structure Behavior High Leader Behaviors and Popularized Leadership Styles . explains to the group reasons for personal decisions when necessary. Laissez-Faire: Leader at the other end of the continuum is the laissez-faire leader. i) Initiating structure.B . who has little or no self-confidence in his or her leadership ability. low on both. 1) Leader Continuum: Early research by Lewin. 2) Ohio State University Studies: These well publicized studies were started shortly after World War II. iv) Benevolent Autocrat: Robert McMurry described the benevolent autocrat as a leader who listens carefully to followers. procedures and rules. It results in a continuous flow of new ideas and positive changes. an individual who has little trust in group members. Lippitt. or high on one and low on the other as seen in the quadrants shown in figure below. respect. as illustrated in figure below. The main objective of the studies was to identify the major dimensions of leadership and to investigate the effect of leader behavior on employee performance and satisfaction. iii) Encourages and involves the employees in setting and Exercises close supervision. ii) Consideration refers to leader behavior that can be characterized by friendliness. He argues that the democratic leadership style is too slow and unworkable in our fast moving business world. openness. and improved quality and quantity of work. ii) iii) Democratic: The democratic leader decision making with the group members. which refers to leader behavior that defines and organizes the group tasks. Several research efforts have focused on these two extremes and in-between levels of leadership behavior. Relies on work standards. the leader could be high on both. The main point in the study is that both consideration and initiating structure are not seen as being placed on a continuum. That's. Employees are seen as a implementing goals. supportiveness. rather than a leader necessarily being low on one dimension when high on the other. prestigious. and issues orders to be fulfilled with no questions asked.142 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Employee-Centered Leader Job-Centered Leader i) Treats subordinates as human beings. two leadership dimensions were identified. ii) Shows concern for the well-being of employees. believes that money is the only reward that will motivate workers. tool in the production process. Emphasizes technical aspect of job. and White suggested a continuum theory of leadership that identified three basic styles of leadership. and respected and therefore able to move faster and more effectively in a firm. trust and concern for the welfare of the employees. but always makes his or her own personal decision. gives the impression of being democratic. assigns the tasks to employees and supervises their activities. sets no goal for the group. and objectively communicates criticism and praise to subordinates. and minimizes communication and group interaction. The research suggested that the democratic leadership style is most effective and productive. A benevolent autocrat is powerful. a sense of group responsibility. From a list of leader behaviors in a wide variety of situations. Autocrat Democratic Laissez-faire Benevolent autocrat Leader Continuum i) Autocrat: At one end of the spectrum is the autocrat.
e) The 9. 5 scale point indicates that adequate performance is possible through balancing the work requirements with maintaining morale of people at satisfactory level. Here we have 81 possible positions on the grid reflecting as many leadership styles.4) B . work load. responsibility and conductibility based on trust rather than on force and satisfying inter-personal relations. friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. 9 style reflects a minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people.R. 9 8 Concern for People 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Low 1. performance and satisfaction tended to be high. No. but the focus usually centres around five basic styles. 9 scale point indicates the thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships which leads to a comfortable. ii) Concern for People: Concern for people includes degree of personal commitment towards goal achievement. 9 Managerial Style (Team): 9. The 1. 5 Managerial Style (Middle Road): 5. The horizontal axis represents concern for production and the vertical axis indicates concern for people. processes. ii) Initiating structure was positively related to employee performance but was also associated with such negative consequences as absenteeism and grievances. c) The 1. but it was negatively or neutrally related to performance.9 represents the maximum concern in ascending order. Mouton of USA. 1 Autocratic/Task Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. 9 Team Management Work accomplishment is from committed people. b) The 1. Blake and Jane S. maintaining the self esteem of workers. But in some cases. 1 Impoverished Management exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. The 9. Each axis is expressed as a nine point scale of concern. 9. such as products. 1. Figure below shows the degree of concern for production and for people and possible interactions (combinations) between them. 1 Managerial Style (Impoverished): 1. high productivity was accompanied by absenteeism and grievances. 5 Middle of Road Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. quality of staff service. efficiency and quantity of production. 9. 9 Managerial Style (Country Club): 1. . iii) When both consideration and structure were high. 3) Managerial Grid: The concept of managerial grid was created by R. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 High Concern for Production Managerial Grid d) The 5.143 The findings of the Ohio State studies can be summarized as follows: i) Consideration was positively related to low absenteeism and grievance. 9 scale point indicates that work accomplishment from committed people and interdependence through a common stake in organization leads to relationship of trust and respect. They emphasized that leadership style consists of facts of both task oriented and relation oriented behavior in varying degrees. They have used two phrases: i) Concern for Production: Concern for production means the attitude of the superiors towards a variety of factors concerning production. 1 scale point indicates efficiency results from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. 1 leader is mainly concerned with production and little concern for people. 5. interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. 9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organization atmosphere and work temp. a) The 9.Leadership (Chapter 2. The leader wants to meet production schedule and get the task done at all cost. 1 Managerial Style (Task): 9. procedures.1 in each case represents the minimum concern and No. 1 scale point indicates that exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization relationship.
1 Little concern for either production or people 1. To that extent. 1. the theory does not explain leadership phenomenon fully. The grid helps the manager to identify his own leadership style. the emphasis is on the behavior of leaders and their followers and the type of situation. the followers and the situation.B . Leadership process is thus a function of the leader.9 Lowest concern for production highest for people 9. In other words. and where and how the tasks are to be accomplished. He recognizes the needs of the situation and then acts accordingly. This theory suffers from two basic limitations: 1) A particular behavior may be functional at a point of time but it may be dysfunctional at another point of time. . when to do it. Thus. psychological “strokes. In other words. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory Behavioral theory of leadership has some important implications for managers.144 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Managerial grid approach is attractive. 1) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership (Life Cycle Theory): Paul Hersey and Kenneth C Blanchard have developed a leadership theory and an accompanying training program that are taught in many major corporations through out the country.” and facilitating behavior. These factors have not been given adequate consideration. leader is a means of achieving the goals of the group and the members. a person becomes a leader not only because of his personal attributes. Their basic thesis is that the most effective leadership style should vary with the “maturity level” of the subordinates. They identify the two major dimensions of leader concern as task behavior and relationship behavior. Researchers who have taken behavioral theory for analyzing leadership behavior (known as leadership style) have prescribed various leadership styles which may be applied in managing the people in organizations. 2) Effectiveness of leadership behavior depends on various factors which are not in the leader but external to him like nature of followers (subordinates) and the situations under which the leader’s behavior takes place. Task behavior is the extent to which leaders engage in one way communication with subordinates by explaining what each follower is to do. Situational Approach This theory advocates that leadership is strongly affected by the situation from which a leader emerges and in which he works. the time element will be a decider of the effectiveness of the behavior and not the behavior itself. in which leaders engage in two way communication with subordinates by providing socio emotional support. It serves as a useful framework for the leaders to understand behavior and reactions of people at work. The focus in the situational approach to leadership is on observed behavior and not on any hypothetical inborn or acquired ability or potential for leadership. we will examine some of the most popular situational theories that attempt to fulfill this goal. It can best be explained in terms of the interaction between the leader. instructive and has a common sense appeal. nature of subordinates and nature of task.1 Highest concern for production lowest for people 5. but also because of various situational factors and the interaction between the leader and the group members. it is impossible to calculate 81 combinations to determine leadership behavior. Relationship behavior refers to the manner. managerial grid fails to take cognizance of environmental factors. Further. It is based on the assumptions that there exists an interaction between a group and its leader and that people tend to follow the person (known as leader) who is capable of fulfilling their aspirations. They can shape their behavior which appears to be functional and discard the behavior which appears to be dysfunctional.5 Comfortable concern for both production and people 9. Thus. 9 Highest concern for both production and people Style of Leader The impoverished type The country-club type The autocrat type The middle-of-the-road type The team type Effectiveness Worst leadership style People-oriented style Production-oriented style Maintain present balance style Peak of leadership style Difference between Trait and Behavior Theories Theories Trait theories Leader behavior theories Emphasis Study personal characteristics Study how a leader behaves End Result Separate leaders from non-leaders Follower’s performance and satisfaction. those being led and the nature of situation in which they operate. However.
Leadership (Chapter 2. the manager will continue to be supportive and considerate in order to strengthen the subordinates' resolve for greater responsibility. Fiedler developed a contingency model of leadership assuming that the effectiveness of the leadership is based on his ability to act in terms of situational requirements. To approach his study.145 Maturity level in Hersey and Blanchard’s leadership theory refers to the following: i) The need for achievement. 2) Fiedler’s Contingency Model: Taking the cue from the situational approach of leadership that any one of the single style cannot be considered suitable for all situations and for all kinds of subordinates. Task-directed style is primarily concerned towards achieving task performed. when subordinates first enter the organization a high task orientation by the manager is most appropriate. close direction might be resented). or motivation level of subordinates—that is. task-oriented management remains essential. In the initial phase. iii) Education and/or experience of subordinates with respect to the job. However. the degree to which the situation provides the leader with influence over his group members. the manager may choose to initiate employeeoriented behaviors. (HIGH) High Relationship and Low Task Relationship Behavior Style of Leader High Task and High Relationship S3 S4 S2 S1 Low Relationship and Low Task High Task and Low Relationship (LOW) Mature HIGH M4 Task Behavior Maturity of Follower(s) MODERATE M3 M2 LOW M1 (HIGH) Immature Situational Leader Model In the Second phase. Thus. In the third phase (here it is the “participating” or “supporting” style). However. This style is called the “directing” or “telling” approach of leadership.’ . as subordinates are not yet willing or able to accept full responsibility. At this stage a non-directive manager causes anxiety and confusion among new employees however. Subordinates must be instructed in their tasks and familiarized with the organization’s rules and procedures. the subordinates’ ability and achievement motivation are increased and subordinates actively begin to seek greater responsibility. Fiedler feels that ‘the group performance will be contingent upon the appropriate matching of leadership style and the degree of favorableness of the group situation for the leader. This style is called “selling” or “coaching” approach to leadership. their desire and capacity to set high but attainable goals. Here the manager can reduce the amount of support and encouragement as subordinates are on there own and no longer need or expect a directive relationship with their manager. that is. The manager will no longer need to be directive (indeed. Delegating is the style which the manager follows in the final stage. the manager’s trust in and support of subordinates can increase as the manager becomes familiar with subordinates and desires to encourage further efforts on their part. Fiedler postulated two major styles of leadership: human relations or lenient style and task-directed or hard-nosed style. as subordinates begin to learn their tasks. ii) Subordinates’ willingness and ability to accept more responsibility. Human relations style is oriented primarily towards achieving good interpersonal relations and towards achieving a position of personal prominence.4) B . a participatory employee relationship approach would also be inappropriate at this stage because subordinates cannot yet be regarded as colleagues.
reward and legitimate power. ii) Task structure is the degree to which the job tasks are structured. assembly line jobs are more structured than managerial occupations.B . the degree of confidence in subordinates’ abilities to handle authority and responsible tasks. a leader has a continuum of styles from which to choose for maximizing organizational productivity. (2) the follower. and (3) the situation. Style leadership Task directed O Human Relations Very (–) Unfavorable Unfavorable O Favorable (+) Very favorable Favorableness of the Situation Fiedler Model of Leadership Situations are favorable if all the three dimensions are high. the situation is very unfavorable to the leader. personal attitudes regarding delegation of authority and responsibility. iii) Position power refers to the power and influence that go with the job. For example. and if a great deal of authority is formally attributed to the leader’s position. fire and maintain discipline. if the task is very structured.146 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Favorableness of situation has been defined as the degree to which a given situation has enables the leader to exert influence over a group. Manager Manager Manager permits Manager presents defines limits. makes decisions Continuum of Leadership Behavior Forces in the leader encompass a manager’s value system. Based on the prevalence and interaction of these forces. . if the leader is generally accepted followers. is situation the very favorable. Fiedler identifies the relationship between leadership style and favorableness of situations as shown in figure above. and to the leader’s congeniality. presents subordinates to tentative decision ask group to function within limits subject to change problem. defined by superior suggestion. If the opposite exists. gets make decision. A manager has more position power if the manager is able to hire. and inclination toward a more autocratic or democratic leadership style. Position power is analogous to coercive. personal feelings of insecurity in certain crises or no routine situations. Autocratic Boss-Centered Leadership Use of authority by the manager Area of freedom for subordinates Free-rein SubordinateCentered Leadership Manager makes decision and announces it Manager “sells” decision Manager presents ideas and invites questions. 3) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Situational Continuum: Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt theorized that the most effective leadership style is contingent on what they called “forces” in (1) the leader. He has identified three critical dimensions of favorableness of situations: i) Leader member relations refer to the degree that others trust and respect the leader.
outgoing personality. That is. and depending on the inter-relationships of the three forces described above. . “Leaders are made”. ii) Vision: This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. been directed at identifying those behaviors that differentiate charismatic leaders from their non-charismatic counterparts. strong verbal skills. however. the managers may do better by adopting management practices including leadership which match with the situational variables. acts as a motivating force. hence. it necessities the executive training and development programmes for the development of future Leaders. demands from higher management levels. The theory appears to be good on the surface but becomes quite complex in practice because of the presence of numerous contingent factors. Studies on charismatic leadership have. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and. Those conditions are extremes in organizational performance. the type of organizational structure–centralized versus decentralized. attribution theory says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. a high-high leadership style tends to be perceived as best. This theory. should not be taken as the final word in leadership. the high-high leader (high on both initiating structure and consideration) has been found to be consistent with attributions of what makes a good leader. Using the attribution framework. deals with people trying to make sense out of causeeffect relationships. the systems and contingency approach has become the way of thinking in management. Therefore. Figure above graphically depicts the leadership continuum. from boss centered to subordinate-centered. people are prone to make leadership attributions to explain the performance. Forces in the situation are identified as time pressures and deadlines. this approach does not belief that leaders are born but asserts. the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader. and the specific knowledge and experience for solving specific problems. At the organizational level. managers can overcome this problem by diagnosing these factors suitably. Most Recent Approaches to Leadership 1) Attribution Theory of Leadership: Attribution theory. the degree of understanding and identification with the company goals. aggressiveness. and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision. the willingness and readiness to accept additional responsibility. regardless of the situation. When something happens.Leadership (Chapter 2.4) B . This is not necessarily provided by the theory but experience has its role. 2) Charismatic Leadership Theory: Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of attribution theory. the attribution framework accounts for the conditions under which people use leadership to explain organizational outcomes. and industriousness. Evaluation of Situational Theory Situational theory has wide implications for managers in the sense that it offers clues why a manager who is successful in one situation.147 Forces in the subordinate refer to their need for freedom versus careful direction and control. Thus. However. It says that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. understanding. and leadership is no exception. for the most part. iv) Strong Convictions about the Vision: Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed. iii) Ability to Clear the Vision: They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. In fact. Thus. revealing the various styles or approaches a leader can adopt. The greater the disparity between this idealized goal and the status quo. researchers have found that people characterize leaders as having such traits as intelligence. and willing to take on high personal risk. In the context of leadership. fails when there is change in the situation. the synergistic cooperation and effectiveness of the work group. Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders i) Self-Confidence: They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. When an organization has either extremely negative or extremely positive performance. and the degree of interest in and expectation of sharing in organizational problem solving and decision making. Similarly. incur high costs. they want to attribute it to something.
arouse. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations. vii) Environment Sensitivity: These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change. Characteristics of Transformational Leader i) ii) Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission. these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. uses symbols to focus efforts. When successful. and expresses important purposes in simple ways. iii) Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence. gains respect and trust. . and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals. vi) Perceived as being a Change Agent: Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.148 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) v) Behavior that is out of the Ordinary: Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel. promises rewards for good performance. They pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of individual followers. they change followers’ awareness of issues by helping them look at old problems in new ways. iv) Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention. and advises. and they are able to excite. and careful problem solving. Characteristics of Transactional Leader i) ii) Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort. takes corrective action. rationality. 3) Transactional versus Transformational Leadership: Transactional leaders. and who is capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers. avoids making decisions. and counter to norms. these kinds of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. iv) Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities. coaches. treats each employee individually. unconventional. instills pride. But there is another type of leader who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization.B . recognizes accomplishments. iii) Management by Exception (Passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met. These are transformational leaders. Management by Exception (Active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards.
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