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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Function: The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system

. However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. Glands located in many regions of the body release into the bloodstream specific chemical messengers called hormones The body contain two types of gland: Exocrine glands-secrete their products into ducts or directly onto epithelial surface. Examples:sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas. Endocrine glands -secrete their products directly into the blood Action and Source of Selected Hormone Anterior pituitary 1. Growth hormone (GH) or Somatotropin -stimulate protein synthesis, increase lipolysis and the decrease use of the glucose for ATP production, promoting hyperglycemia (diabetogenic effect) -stimulate the growth of bone,muscle and other organ by increasing protein synthesis. It resist protein breakdown during period of food deprivation and favors fat breakdown. -Considered a diabetogenic hormone. It promote insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue. Therefore, plasma glucose level increase with concomitant increase in insulin levels. Usually insulin promote lipogenesis. However, GH antagonist this and cause lipolysis to occur. This cause to increase free fatty acid with the formation of ketoacidosis. -however in healthy individuals, there is coordinated activity between GH and Insulin. Therefore, the diabetogenic activity of GH is balance by the effect of insulin. 2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) -stimulate and synthesis of adrenal cortical hormone. Its primary action is to promote and maintain normal growth and development of the adrenal cortex. 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormones -stimulate and synthesis of thyroid hormones 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) -stimulate the normal growth cycle of the ovarian follicle in females. -stimulate the seminiferous tubules to produce spermatozoa. 5. Luteinizing hormone (LH) -stimulate the development of corpus luteum; secretion of progesterone. -stimulate secretion of testosterone. Posterior pituitary 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

-increase water reabsorption 2. Oxytocin -stimulate contraction of pregnant uterus, milk ejection Adrenal gland Adrenal cortex 1. Minarelocorticosteroids, mainly aldosterone -regulate blood volume and blood level of K and Na 2. Glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol -help regulate blood nutrients level in the body, aid protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolismto help body meet stress condition. -cortisol: increase breakdown of CHON and fats that can be used as energy; reduce anti-inflammatory and immune response -catecholamine; flight or fight hormone 3. Androgen -stimulate the development of male sexual characteristic. -influence female sex drive. Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine and Norepinephrine -release in response to stimulation by sympathetic nervous system Thyroid gland Thyroid (follicular cell) triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxin (T4) -increase metabolic rate, body growth and development and the activity of the nervous system thyroid C cells calcitonin -lower blood calcium level Parathyroid gland Parathyroid hormone -regulate serum calcium. It bind to renal tubules cell, which increase active vitamin D formation. -decrease blood calcium level stimulate an increase PTH secretion. For example if too little Ca is consumed in the diet or if the person suffer from prolong lack of vitamin d blood Ca level decrease that cause increase PTH and increase the rate of bone resorption and blood Ca level will maintain within range but prolong resorption of bone may result in reduce bone density. Pancreas Pancreatic islet cells Insulin -lower blood glucose by facillitating glucose transport across cell membrane

Glucagon -increase blood glucose concentration by stimulating glucogenolysis and glycogenesis. Somatostatin -delays intestinal absorption of glucose Gastrointestinal tract Gastrin -stimulate release of hydrochloric acid Cholecystokinin -stimulate release of pancreatic secretion Secretin -stimulate release of pancreatic enzyme, gallbladder contraction Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D -stimulate Ca absorption from the intestine Renin -activates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Erythropoietin -Increase RBC production Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) -produce natrriuresis Ovaries estrogen -affect development of female sex organ and secondary sex characteristics Progesterone -influence menstrual cycle; stimulate of growth of uterine wall; maintain pregnancy Testes Androgen, mainly testosterone -affect development of male sex organ and secondary sex characteristics; aid in sperm production Placenta Human chorionic gonadotropin -maintains pregnancy Adipose cell Leptin

-decrease appetite and food intake, increase sympathetic activity and metabolic rate, decrease insulin secretion to reduce fat storage. Resistin -suppresses insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake by adipose cells.