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WORKSHOP GUIDE

CHOO'ING A BRUSH While a eeaeonedfiniaher can apply a atain or topcoat ekillfully with vir' tually any bruah, moat peopleare better off buyinqa qood-quality tool. Thebruah ahowncut away at riqht may coot more than a lower quality model,but it includeacerLain featurea that willenaureconaiatently 4ood reaulto. Thereare two kindaof bruaheaon the market: natural- and aynthetic' brietle ty pee. Natural - briatle brueheeare made from boar, aable, camel,ox or badqer hair, tsoarbriatle ("Chinahog") bruaheeare ideal for applyinqvarnieh.)ther natural-briatle bruaheaare beat auited to lacauer and ahellac, Theyare a po6r choice,however, for opreadin4 water- baeed fi nishee becauaethey may cauae the finiah to foam up. gynth dtic-fil a ment bruahea a re made of nylon or polyeeter, or both. Theaebruaheeare your beat bet for applying water- baaed prod ucta. Durableand flexible, they can alao be uaed with varniahand penetratin4 oil etains.

ANATOMY OF A PAINTBRUSH
Handle Can be made of plaatic or hardwood;balanced and deoi4nedfor comforb Retaining pin Nailor rivet.that binde ferrule to handle Reaervoir A apace that holda finiahaa it ia beinq opread on by briatleo Ferrule A riqid, corroeionreaiatant metal band that holda brietlea and epoxyplug

Divider Taperedplu7 that eeparatee bdatlea_ into qroupo, forminq a reaervoir

Epoxyplug Bonda ferrule-end of brietlee


together with epoxyqlue

Bristles
Natural bristlea or aynthetic filamente; tipe can be cut flat or tapered to a chiael tip

ANDSYNTHETIC BRISTTE TIPS NATURAL


Tipped )traiqht-cut tipo recommendedfor water-baged finiahea Tapered Tipehonedto a fine point; ideal for oil-baaedproducto Itkevarnish Flagged 1plit enda hold more finiah and epread it more omoothlythan tipped or tapered Lipe

CHISEL-TIP BRISTTES

T I P SO NB R U S H SELECTION . Pay a littlemore to geta superiorquality will b r u s ha ; b e t t eb r rush yourresults. improve . Avoid with hollow bristles. brushes solid bristles h,o l l o w ones do Unlike slh a p e n o ts p r i n g back totheir origina whenbent. . Fora good-quality, all-purpose brush, with long choose a chisel tip model forthin waterspringy bristles-soft based finishes andstifffor heawproducts lacquer bodied suchasshellac, a n dv a r n i s h . o lf youwanta brush withf lagged brischeck forbranch-like split ends, tletips, . l f y o ua r el o o k i n f g o ra t a p e r e d bristle b r u s hm , ake sure t h a tt h e b r i s t r ea sr et h i c k ea r t t h ef e r r u l e e n dt h a na t t h et i o . . B u yb r u s h ets good h a th a v e spring. S q u e e zte h e b r i s t l ew s i t hy o u rh a n d a n db e n d them; t h e ys h o u l d feel f u l l a n ds p r i n g back t o t h e i ro r i g i n a lp o s i t i o n s . . Confirm thatthe bristles aredifhand f e r e nlte n g t hb sy r u n n i ny go u r fromthe down onesideof the bristles ferrule to thetip; the shorter bristles
shnrrldsnrino rrn

r Make aref irmly sure thatthe bristles setin the ferrule, which should be fastened securely to the handle.

THEARTOFWOODWORKING

WOOD FINISHING

THE ART OF WOODWORKING

WOOD FINISHING

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA PRESS ST.REMY MONTREAL. NEWYORK

THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRES/DENT PierreLdveilld PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Laberge Art Directors Normand Boudreault,Solange Designer Luc Germain Research Editor Iim McRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackon Writers TamsinM. Douglas,Andrew lones ContributingWriter LauraTringali Bourgeois, Contr ibuting I llustrators Michel Blais,Jean-Pierre RonaldDurepos,Serge Guibord, Perrault, RobertPaquet, facques Th6rien,focelynVeillette James Administrator NatalieWatanabe Production Manager MichelleTurbide System Coordinator fean-LucRoy Photographer RobertChartier Index ChristineM. Iacobs Proofreader Iudith Yelon Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiary of THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY Editor Series Series Art Director SeniorEditors

THECONSUTTANTS
Michael Dresdner is a former contributing magazine. He cureditor to Fine Woodworking "Just rently writes the Finishing"column for AmericanWoodworker magazine. Frank'sCabinet Frank Klausz ownsand operates He contributes Shopin Pluckemin,New Jersey. to Fine Woodworkingmagazine and hasmade videotapes including one with TauntonPress, on wood finishing. Paul McGoldrick ownsand operates Pianoforte Inc.,a pianorestoration company in Montreal, He is responsible for the maintenance Quebec. and concertpreparationof the pianosusedby the Montreal SymphonyOrchestraand the National Arts CenterOrchestrain Ottawa,Ontario. cabinetGiles Miller-Mead hastaught advanced rnakingat Montrealtechnical schools for more A nativeofNew Zealand, he previthan 10years. ouslyworkedasa restorer of antiquefurniture. JosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Mechanixmagazine. A former Shopand Tools he hasworked as Editor of PopularMechanics, home improvementcontractor a cabinetmaker, and carpenter. Wood Finishing p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9912-6 rsBN 0-8094-e9 r3-4 (lib) l. Wood Finishing. I. Time- Life Books. II. Series TT325.W661992 684.1'043-dc20 92-32892 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, please call I-800-621-7026, or write: Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O. Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326t-2068 @ 1992 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storage and retrievaldevices without prior or systems, written permissionfrom the publisher,except may be quoted for reviews. that briefpassages First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneously in Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President Publisher ManagingEditor Directorof EditorialResources MaryN. Davis RobertH. Smith ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough

Associate Publisher TrevorLunn MarketingDirector ReginaHall Editorial Director Donia Ann Steele Editor Bob Doyle Consulting Production Manager MarleneZack

CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 12 SAFETY

20 22 24 30 35 43 50 51 54 56 57 59 60 64 68 75 76 80 82 84 86 91 93 97 I02 I04

PREPARINGTHE SURFACE Toolsand accessories Planing Scraping Sanding Repairing surface damage Raising the grain Filling the grain CHANGING THE COLOR Toolsand accessories Bleaching The varieties of wood stains Dve stains Pigmentstains wood Staining Pickling a wood surface Chemical stains Fuming

IIO II2 113 118 122 126 I28 I29 130

DECORAIIVEFINISHES Toolsand accessories Stenciling Graining Marbling FINISHING TOUCHES Toolsand accessories Preparingto rub out the finish Rubbingout a finish

136 CLEANING AND STORAGE

140 GrossARY
I42 INDEX
I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PROTECTIVEFINISHES Toolsand accessories Choosinga protectivefinish Finishingby hand Settingup your sprayequipment Working with sprayequipment Anatomy of a sprayroom Identifting and avoiding sprayproblems 106 Frenchpolishing

INTRODUCTION

PaulMcGoldrickdescribes

FINISHING APIANO
y career pianos in restoring began like a lot of opportunities in life-by chance. When I was231 had a cabinetmaking shopin Montrdal;next door wasa

Parisian cabinetmaker, Gilles was a cabinetmaker oftheoldtradition Jean Jozon. Jean andI spent many hours in hisatelier leaming about different finishing methods-techniques thathaven't changed for generations. I laterfollowed him to Paris andspent holiday restoring aworking there antiques. Through mutual friends I metapiano technician named Gilles Losier, andI began finishing workonpianos doing hewas restoring. In hisyouth, had Gilles a foreman whocould select thewood for apiano case, install thesoundboard, string thepiano, cutthekeys, andassemble andregulate themechanism. Hecould even sitdown and playa tune. Sadly, craftsmen withthatrange of expertise in thepiano have trade all butvanished. pianos presents Restoring many challenges: Theinstrument mustnot onlylook great; it must also wellmechanically. sound superb andrespond Theinstrument shown in thephotograph isa7-foot grand piano Chickering andSons builtin Boston in 1875. I counted 10different woods in itsmaking, used although theentire surface isveneered with Brazilian rosewood. My firsttask involved fillingthegrainof thewoodwith a darkpaste filler.I then applied a coat ofsanding sealer, andnextsprayed Tokeep oneight coats oflacquer. thefinalfinish thinandto level anydepressions pores caused bythelarge oftherosewoodveneer, I cutevery second lacquer coating with 220-grit sandpaper. TheIegs demanded special attention. Theywere made fromlarge blocks of poplar woodsoI hadto create myownstain, in justenough yellow blending andredto simulate rosewood's hue. I sketched in gain lines distinctive using acombination of feathersandbrushes, with thetop of thepianostanding nearby asa guide. Thegrain patterns in rosewood cangetquite wild,soyoucantake artistic liberties in tryingto it aslongas yourespect simulate a fewrules, such as keeping thegrain lines running parallel. Thefinalcoat paper. of finish was sanded with220-grit 400-grit andthen All that remained at thetimethisphotowas taken was to rub thefinishto a softgloss with 0000 steel wool,buffwitha cotton clothandapply acarnauba-based wax.

PaulMcGoldrick and restores finishes pianosin hisshopin Montrdal,Qudbec.

INTRODUCTION

Thomas Mosertalksabout

LINSEED OIL
y introduction to the craftof buildingfurniturewaswith l9th-Century American I u'ouldbuy a chest of drawers antiques andremnants of antiques. withoutdrawers, for example, andthatwouldleadme to figuringout how drawers Because with olderpieces, I wasattracted to buttermilk weremade. of my fascination paint,early polish. varnishes andFrench my interest wasdrawnto theausterely elegant furnituremadeby the Gradually their favorite finishes-boiled linseed oil. I experimented and Shakers andoneof wax with my way applying the oil and then paste to create a clear came up own of finishlikethe oneused in the photograph. Madeof cherry, it is what on thepiece "Bob It's for although I callthe Cratchet desk." a desk an accountant or schoolteacher, just lectern It has it can aswellbeused asa or telephone table. a drawer anda removableoencilrack. Linseed to finishwoodfor centuries. Unless it is applied with oil hasbeenused it penetrates thewood ratherthancreating a membrane a shellac or varnish base, that I feelenhances the wood'sgrainand color,and overit. It is this penetration patina, of a natural which is caused by exposure to accelerates the development I feel, is far richerandmorehonest sunlight andair.Thecolorthat is created, than Youalso anypigmentthat comes out of a can.Youjust haveto be a little patient. polished piece. In manyshops, have to besure to startwith a well-prepared, a finish flaws. I believe that a piece shouldbevirtuallydefect-free before serves to conceal youbeginto applya finish. Therearethreemajorrisksassociated with boiledlinseed oil. Thefirst involves Leftin a folded rag,linseed oil cancombust spontaneously, becoming almost safety. no protection for wood against waterandother explosive. Second, the finishaffords waxovertheoil asa sealant. Third,Iinkindsof stains. Thisiswhyweapplya paste penetration waylacquers seed oildoesnot sealwood against moisture thesame and with theseasons morethanpaintvarnishes do.Oiledoieces tendto shrinkandswell pieies do.Soin designing furniture, thisexpansion hasto belaken edor lacquered into account. Theprincipal oil is itsrepairability. Scratches, burns advantage of a finishlikelinseed with theoil. In a shorttime,thecolorwill come andchipscanbesanded andpolished But if a membrane finish-especially backandyou won't even know it wasaffected. oneapplied overa stain-is chipped, scratched or burned,moreoftenthannot it has to be entirely refinished.

Thomas Moser andco-founder of Thomas ispresident Moser in Auburn, Maine. Cabinetmakers, headquartered

INTRODUCTION

Prew Savoy on

THE, ETHIC CRAFT


hepiece I amworking onin thephotograph isaSheraton-sryle, two-drawer work table, typical l9th-CenturyAmerican of early furniture building. Knowing how to apply theappropriate finish takes agood appreciation of furniture style. You have to approximate possible-in theoriginal as closely as color as wellasin topcoat composition. Thebest way to getontotherighttrack isto study furniture styles asthoryoucan. oughly as Talk to people pieces-museum experienced withperiod curators, serious collectors andrestoration or conservation craftsmen. They areusually very willingto share technical information. Alsotry to see asmany original examples as possible. Forthispiece, I selected natural andchemical dyes to make thecolor appropriate to itshistory. Thetable ismade of cherry withafigured veneer applied to thedrawer (anatural fronts. Twodifferent combinations were used: logwood extract dye) and (achemical potassium dichromate mordant) ontheveneer; andlyeandwalnut crystalson thecherry. Forthetopcoat, I padded a 3-pound-cut orange shellac onthewood. I likeusing apadmade upof awoolinterior andalinenexterior, butother finishers prefer polishing cloths-perhaps good-quality because linenishardto find.Thetechnique is polishing, called French butthetermcan bemisleading. There are several ways to apply polish, pumice a French some using andoil to fill thepores of thewoodcompletely, providing a mirror-like finish. Thatisnotalways pieces. appropriate for allAmerican I trace myinterest in finefurniture back to mychildhood andmyparents whowere collectors themselves. AsanadultI spent twosummers workins withaboat builder. andmuchlaterstudied with George Frank in China. When I iarted collecting fine I couldn't furniture, afford thepieces I liked, soI learned to buildreplicas instead. I believe thatcabinetmakers should consider themselves ascaretakers of a sort. building something thatwillbepassed down fromgeneration to generation. You need to develop whatI calla"craftethic." You have to love whatyoudo,notfor theresult or for awage, for thesake butsimply of finding wayof doingeach thefinest step.

PrewSavoy specializes in furniturefinishingand restoration. He alsoteaches wood finishingat the OldeMill Cabinet Shoppe inYork,Pennsylvania.

SAFETY
canbea dangerous business f, inishing I' if vou are not well informedand properlyprepared. Fromwood fillersto waxes, polyurethane varnishes andtung products frequently oil, finishing depend on toxic organicsolvents to do their work.Without thepropersafety gear and precautions, short-term exposure to these solvents can resultin irritation to the skin,eyes andthroat,aswellasdizziness, headache, nauseaand shortness of poses breath.Longer-term exposure morepotential risks; may someeffects not be apparent until you haveused the years. for monthsor even substances In additionto thehealth risks, most of these solvents areflammable. Some oil-derived oroducts likelinseed oil can combust sDontaneouslv at room temperature iithe vapors aresufficiently concentrated. Whenvaporized in a small enoughconcentration of air, a small quantityoflacquer thinnercancause a life-threatening explosion. All thisis not to suggest that working with finishing products hasto be dangerous-only that it canbe if you takea cavalier attitudetowards therisks. If you spray finishes, consider buyinga spray booth (page.13) or constructing a spray roomofyour own(page 102).Asmost of the harm from organicsolvents comes from inhalation, weara dual-cartridge

Safety gogglea Uae wheneprayin4 a finieh; theae ventedgo7glee pre-fumeafrom vent finiahinq irritating the eyeo

Dual-caftridge reapirator Uae whenoprayin4 a finiah or workingwith chemicale; rnterchanqeable filtere and cartridqee ?rotect aqainet epecific hazarda, Cartridgea purify air contaminated with toxins ao they are inhaled,then expel them throu4h exhalationvalve; ftlter preventoinhalationof duat

Neoprene rubber glovea Uaeto protect the akin whenoprayin1 or mixinq cauatic finiahinq producta; o n ug -fitti nq a urqeon'e gloveoare auitable for moat other finiehin4 taeke

\)

Claaa ABC flre ertinguiaher For puttin4 out a small frre in the ehop

Rubberapron Frovideeprotection whenworkinqwiLh a wood bleachor chemicaletain

9teel waate dispoaal container For temporary aafe diapooalof aolvent-eoaked raqa;dampenra7a with water firat

t2

SAFETY

(page ifyou respirator 14), particularly or willbe exposed to fumes arespraying eye for morethan an hour.To Drevent goggles, unddonrubinjury wear saiery or bergloves whenworkingwith caustic products. toxicfinishing possible, choose a product Whenever that combines thefinishyou wantwith low volatility and toxicity (page19). andusea Workwith thewindows oDen theair to keep certified spark-prooffan moving. Thiswill helpprevent thefumes in your work area from reaching a toxic level. If you experience or flammable fatigue, headache, blurred drowsiness, numbness, irritationof vision,weakness, ofbreath theeyes, skinor throat,shortness of coordination whilefinishing, or a loss the work stopimmediately and leave Afterareauntil the symptoms clear. wards, ventilate theworkarea thorougfrly product. andusea different finishing

SPRAYING SAFELY

SAFETY TIPS
. D o n o t e a t ,d r i n ko r s m o k e products. w h e nu s i n g finishing . Keep products finishing away f r o mc h i l d r e n . r A v o i de x p o s u r e to organic tr solvents i f y o u a r e p r e g n a no breast-feed i ng. o I n s t a l la t l e a s to n e s m o k e detector o n t h e c e i l i n go f y o u r p o t e n t i af li r e h a z a r d s ; s h o pa b o v e k e e pa f u l l y c h a r g e d A B Cf i r e extinguishe nr earby. . Neves r tore s o l v e n to sr chemic a l si n u n m a r k e d containers. Chemica slo l u t i o ns sh o u l d always b e s t o r e di n d a r k g l a s sj a r s t o shield t h e mf r o m I i g h t ,w h i c h m a yc h a n g e t h e i rc o m p o s i t i o n . r Do notflushusedsolvents down the drain. Consult Pages the Yellow t o f i n d o u t w h oh a n d l e c shemical disposa in l y o u ra r e a o , rcheck w i t h y o u rl o c a lf i r e d e p a r t m e n t .

Using a spray booth p so t e n t i a l tl o y x i co r f l a m m a b lv S p r a y i na gn yf i n i s h i n g materia l r o d u c ep ea p o r s o, r b o t h .E v e n t h e f u m e sr e s u l t i nfg r o ms p r a y i nw g ater-base ds i n s re w i t hl o w e r organic s o l v e nc tounts ye n t i l a t e d . c a nb e h a z a r d o u us nless t h e ya r ep r o p e r lv A spray b o o t hm a k e s s p r a y i nc gl e a n e a r n ds a f e r r , educing health h a z a r db sy c o n t a i n i ntg heoverspra ay n df u m e s t , h e nf i l t e r i n g a n de x h a u s t i n th g e m .T h e r e a r ed i f f e r e nm t odels d e s i g n e fd o r d i f f e r e ns t p r a y i na g p p l i c a t i o nT sh . e yr a n g e in e odels s i z ef r o mc o m p l e t e rooms to portablm l i k et h e o n es h o w n a b o v ew , h i c hm a y b e y o u rb e s tb e t i f s p a c ei s a p r i o r i t y i n y o u rw o r k s h o p o r i f y o u o n l ys p r a y small pieces of furniture. B e c a u so e f t h e t o x i ca n d v o l a t i l e products ,l l s p r a y nature o f m o s tf i n i s h i n g a (0 booths m u s tm e e tO c c u p a t i o nS aa l fety a n dH e a l t h Associatio nS H A ) g u i d e l i n e s Insome s t a t e ss , p r a y i nig s i l l e g ailn u r b a n yu i l t areas unlesy s o uh a v e a p r o p e r lb sprayroom(page102).

SAFETY

A RESPIRATOR USING
thecartridges lnstalling ee spirator I W e aa r d u a l - c a r t r i drg Institute of bythe National approved (NIOSH) Safety andHealth Occupational youspray lacquers orvarnishes whenever er g a n is co l v e n t s , t h a tc o n t a i v n o l a t i lo youmixchemical stains or work orwhen (lf youhave you a beard, withammonia. To install mask or hood). need a fullface of respirator thecartridges onthemodel valves onto the inlet screw them shown, (/eff). in pairs, Always buycartridges theyhave track of thehours andkeep used. been 'l

.) lnstalling filters with filters in conjunction L Use dust if youaresanding respirator cartridges fg ino ra p p l y i n e a t ew dood chemicat l lry la a ss h e l l a c ,cquer i s h r nm g ateria sl u sch Choose theapprostains. or nonwater-based priate fit then filter forthetask at hand, (rrghf). Snap the retainer a filterintoeach thecartrrdge. retainer onto

t4

SAFETY

Testing therespirator
Place t h er e s p i r a t o r nyour face, wtththe top strapover the crown of your h e a dP . u l lo n t h e s i d e s t r a p us n t i lt h e facepiec oe f t h e r e s p i r a t ofri t s s n u g l y . T e s tt h e d e v i c e b y b l o c k i nt g h eo u t l e t valve w i t hy o u rh a n da n de x h a l i ng ge n t l y (above). There shouldbe no air leakage around . t h e r ea r e a n y the facepiece lf gapsa , dlusthe straps fora tighter
fii l f n p r p s s arrJ r' r r n ihp f:ecnipnp i vp r s vl v. a c p

llllillltlll lll lllj]ll1 tl]l tlll ljlJ lil llu tlll ull ljllllllttii llillllJ
1HO?TI?
Storing reegirator cartridges Even waler vaVor can deVlete Lhe purifyinq chemicals in reepira- ,/. Lor car._.,.;,
tridqee. \; t-'.....*._-* To extend their life, et ore lhe

4ffi
S E ;r. -.r

.I

according to themanufacturer's instructions, or replace therespirator.

carlrid,qee in a d,ry, airliqhl -\ environmenN, suchas a plastric freezer baq.Kecord trhe amounN of Nime the cartridgeehavebeenusedand replace them afLereiqhthoursof uoeor ae eoona6 you can emell the finiehinq producL throuqhIhem.

SAFETY

()RCHEMICAL SPILL SOLVENT CLEANING UPA TOXIC


rags Disposing ofsoiled andwindows, open all doors lmmediately of heat andturn anysources extinguish Wearing a rubber sources. offallelectrical gloves, heavy rubber rubber boots, apron, goggles soak up anda respirator, safety towels; then or paper thespillwithrags i n a m e t ac l a nd o u b l e - l i n e d olace them garbage plastic bags. Add withheavy-duty prevent spontawater to amount of a small You canalso spread neous combustion. to allow the solvent rags outside and the of them. Clean before disposing evaporate solwiththeappropriate upanyresidue l f t he i n t h e c h a r t b e l o w . v e n tl i s t e d poisoproduct or f lammable is extremely gallon hasbeen one nous andmore than callthe leave work area and the spilled, of the Otherwise, dispose firedepartment. the environmental rags following soiled tnyour community. in effect regulations

s-s

A SPILL FOR SOLVENT THERIGHT


PRODUCT SPILLED Minera s lp i r i t s Turpenti ne remover Paint Denatured alcohol alcohol Methyl Acetone th Lacque rinner paint or latex Water-based stain stain 0il-based Urethane or polyurethane Varn ish Lacquer llac Sh e Linsee od il Tung oiI wood bleach acidortwo-part Oxalic Lye REQUIRED SOLVENT andwater Household detergent detergent andwater Household thinner, spirits or paint andwater; or mtneral Household detergent water detergent and thenhousehold None None None None detergent andwater Household paint andwater deiergent or thinner, thenhousehold Mineral spirits andwater detergent thenhousehold or paint thinner, Mineral spirits paint andwater household detergent thinner, then Mineral spirits or th Lacque ri n n e r (ethyl alcohol alcohol) or methyl Denatured alcohol detergent andwater thinner, thenhousehold Mineral spirits or paint detergent andwater thenhousehold or paint thinner, Mineral spirits soda Water andbaking parts in equal mixed Water andvinegar,

16

SAFETY

BEING PREPARED F()R A CHEMICAL FIRE


Using a fireextinguisher T oc o n t r o al s m a l lc , ontaine f id r e ,u s e a dry-chemic f ia re l extinguish re ar ted yourself ABC. Position safely away from t h ef i r ew i t hy o u rb a c k t o t h en e a r e s t e x i t .H o l d i n gt h ee x t i n g iu s h eu r pright p ,u l lt h el o c k p i no u t l urface o n a l e v es (inseta ) ,n da i mt h en o z o f t h eh a n d l e zleat the base of theflames. Squeeze the handle levers together and spray in a quick, side-to-side motion(right) u n t i lt h e f i r e i s e x t i n g u i s h e l fd th .e flames leave spread, thearea rmmediately andcallthefiredepartment. Dispose of burned waste followrng theadvice of thef iredeoartment. Have theextins r r i s . h p rr p c h : r o o d

Checking a smoke detector A smoke detector is an essential safety feature in a finishing shop. Test thedevice press once every month. First, thetest button. Then, blow outa lit match below a vent, letting smoke enter it, or hold a flame it (left). below Replace thebattery if thealarm does notsound for both t e s t s - o ri f i t e m i t s a c h i r p i ns go u n d , indicating thebattery isworn.

T7

SAFETY

DECIPHERING THELABEL INFORMATI()N

lnhalation warnin4 lndtcaLee 1,ha1, Lheprodhaz' uc1;te exLremely ardousdurinqprolonged e x p o e u r ec ; autione aqainef inLenLional
ah"ae nf lhe nrn,'lttrl

Directione for uee Detailed inel;ruct,ione on how Lo uee Lhe product, tncludin4 puiace preparat ion, mirinq 9"16quant triee. appltc2Ti611 niquee and clean-up

9afety precautiona lneLruct;tone for eafe handltn7 and etora7e ofthe product, incl ud inq praper venLilaLron and warntnq e,7ne of prol6n4ederpofumea eure 1;.o

Emergency/Firat aid proceduree 'gpectfiee immedtaLe acLion Lo be Laken in an emerqency involvinq ekin or eye conLacL,inhalation or inqeel,ion

Prod u ct identification The Lype of product and the brand name 7iven by 1,hemanufact.urer to idenLtfy Lhe producL

VOC(Volatile Organic Compound)rating


A meaEureof Lhe amounL of volaLtleorqantc compounda in Lhe producL, in percenl,, grame per liter or pounde per qallon

Warning lndicaLes wheLher Lhe


nrn)t rrf ia rnrrnaitte

flammable or Loxtc

Vapor preooure
lndicaLee Lhe force exerted by evaporaLed vapo16 on the aLmoephere dtrectly above Lhe ltqutd, meaeured in milltmel;ereof mercury. The qreater Lhe vapor preeeure, Lhe more volattle Lhe producL

Product i ncom patibility A ltat of frntehtnqproducto l;hat; are chemtcallytncom' pattble wt1;h the product

Aative ingredients Indtcatea the common and/or chemtcal namee and proporl,rone of bol,h volatrle in4redienLetn 1,he and non-volaLtle product, euch ae reetne, eolvenLs.driers and flatLenere: aleo tndtcaLea wheLher Lhe eolvenLis aenattiveto liqht and phoLochemically reacLtve,whtch can crealie atrbarne polluLante

lt abel R e a d i na gp r o d u c T h el a b e o l na containe orf f i n i s hi s m o r e t h a nj u s ta t r a d e m a r k he a n da s e to f i n s t r u c t i o n lst.i s b o t ht h e k e yt o c o m p a r i ntg p r o d u c ta sn da g u i d e t ht h o s e finish's c h a r a c t e r i s tw i cis of other


' " Y i i ' "

t i n n ss n e c i f i e n dn t h e l a h e t l o s e t r r nt h e n r o n e v r entilation ye o u r s ew l f i t ht h ef i r s ta i d a n dw o r k i n c g o n d i t i o na sn , df a m i l i a r i z instruction in s t h ee v e no t f anaccident. s . : f p l v n t h p s h n n T h e r ^ o m n n s i t el : h e l t n r r s i n oi h p c , r r h c , l : n . p yu m Some states a l l o wt h e u s eo f T r a d e SecreR t e g i s t rn h e r sf o r a n r o d r r c st i n p r e d i e ntto s n r o t e cn t a t e n t ec dh e m i c a l so us h o u l d look f o rw h e n shown above i n c l u d ets h e f e a t u r ey { ^ . , ^ f ^ ^ r ^ . , ; ^ ; + . -, ^ + , ^ ^ \ / ^ ^ - - + e h n n q r n o : f i n i c . .h. i. n gn f ,u, L .- L .b yd L i l 1 5 .v v u drf o r m u l a sl.f y o uf i n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o o n nthe label t o ov a g u e , -u , ) u L i l d ) L U T L T Lr r .r n p r e s s u ra en df l a m m a b i l i t R f) romthe i n g ,v a p o r ro t h e c h a r to n r e q u e sa t l V l a t e r iS a la f e t yD a t aS h e e t( l v l S D S y .e f e t n : o p l Q i n d p i p r m r n pt h p l n v i r - r l v n f : n r n d r r r ^ t ':s r ^ t i v pi n o r c d i m a n u f a c t u rie fr o n ei s a v a i l a b l e A.n M S D S w i l le x p l i c i t l y p r o d u c tts sa z a r d o u in sgrslignla t s w e l la s p r e c a u e n t sa n dc o m p a r t e h e mw i t ht h o s e of other similar o d e t a rt l h e p r o d u c t 'h precau- tions f o r s a f eh a n d l i na gn d u s e . h e l py o uc h o o s e t h e l e a s t o x i cf i n i s h . Follow t h es a f e t y

1B

SAFETY

CHOOSING A SAFE FINISH


yte a r s . Finishin as cg h e m i s th ry change rd a d i c a liln yr e c e n Themost signif icant advance hasbeen thedevelopment of w a t e r - b a sfe in di s h eis n resoons to eb o t h risks t h eh e a l t h posed b ys o l v e n a ts n dc l e a n - alie r gislatit oh na tl i m i t s the percentage of V0Cs, or volatile organic compounds, in solvent-based f inishes. Most of these regulations areprimarily intended forf urnituremakers whousemore thanonegallon predict of finishperday,yet industry experts thatbythe m i d - 1 9 9 0V s, OC-compli ni ts h e fa in w si l lb et h er u l e rather thantheexception foreveryone in the United States. Inhalatio is nt h e m o s t c o m m ow n ay t h a ts o l v e n t as re absorbed intothebloodstream, buttoxins canalso be ingested fromfoodandbeverages leftin theshop. Others canbe absorbe dd i r e c t lty h r o u gth h es k i no r e v e n b ys w a l l o w i n g v a p o ris ns a l i v a . poisonous ln theirmost form, solvents cancause damage nervous to thecentral system andrespiratory tract. Methylene chloride fo , re x a m p l e i s,s u s p e c t e od fbeing a carcinogen, glycol while some ethers have linked been to birthdefects. Keep i n m i n d ,h o w e v etrh , a tt h e h e a l t h h a z a r do sf a n y f i n i s h i np gr o d u c dte p e n o d n a n u m b eo rf f a c t o r s M . ost p r o d u c to sn t h e m a r k ea t r ea c t u a l l b yenign w h e nu s e d only o no c c a s i oa nn , dc o u l d only b ec o n s i d e r p eo di s o n o u s if swallowe dd irectly S .ome c a ne v e n b em a d e nont o x i cs ; h e l l aic s c o m m o nu ly sed a sa n i n g r e d i e in nt confectioners'glaze. t ,e a w a r e When choosin agf i n i s h i np gr o d u c b ofthe combinatio a n dc o n c e n t r a t io ofn o r g a n is co l v e n t is n its p,a r t i c u l a r ly y o ui n t e n d makeup if t o u s et h es u b s t a n c e periods for extended of time;prolonged exposure maybe hazardou Ts h.ec h a r b t elow lists t h es o l v e n c ts ontaine in d sn de v a l u a t e a v a r i e to yf f i n i s h i np g r o d u c ta se r e l a t i v e th product toxicity of each one.Always choose thesafest for t h ej o ba t h a n d .

Toxtc sotvENTs
FINISHING PRODUCT ( en dl i q u i d ) Woof di l l e r p a s ta anilinw e ,i p i n g glazS t a i n(s N , G Rg , e la n d pigments) ingstains; color (white Shellacs andorange) (spray Lacquers andbrush, sanding sealers) Lacque rinner th h Rubbin o g i l s( D a n i s o i l ,a n t i q uo ei l ) Drying oils(boiled linseed oil,polymerized tung oil) (tung Varnishes oilvarnish, spar varnish, varnish stain) (poly Polyurethanes varnish, urethane starns) Lacquer/varnish removers (paste Waxes wax, furniture wax) SOLVENT Petroleum naphtha*, mineral spirits*, acetone**, methyl ethyl ketone**, methyl isopropanol**, isobutyl ketone*** glycol Ethanol*, mineral spirits*, toluene***, xylene***, methanol***, ethers*** Ethanol*, methanol*** Acetone**, glycol methyl ethyl ketone**, isopropanol**, methanol***, xylene***, ethers*** glycol Acetone**, methyl ketone**, isopropanol**, ethyl ethers***, toluene*** VM&P naphtha*, turpentine**, toluene*** Mineral spirits*, turpentine** Minera s lp i r i t s V * ,M & P naphtha* Minera sl o i r i t st *o . luene*** Acetone**, xylene***, methanol***, methyl isobutyl ketone***, toluene*** Petroleum naphtha*, turpentine** * product Safest ** Mildly product hazardous *** Product to beavoided if possible

I9

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'i

PREIARINGTHESre
ld-timewoodfinishers smoothed however, whichcanscratch ened edge, wood with sharkskin and rush. thewoodasbadly ascoarse sandpaper. filled its poreswith plaster of Parisand Sanding with successively finergrits pulverized brick, coloredit with matepreparation. completes thesurface For rials such as iron filings and walnut hand-sanding a fairlysmooth surface, a shells. and finishedit with secret progression grit,followed comtypical is 150 Modern binationsof oils and beeswax. by220 and then 280 grit.(lfyoudidnot finishingtechniques aremundaneby smooth thewood withacabinet scraper, comparison, but theobjectis thesame: youmightneed to startwith 80or 120 to bring out the beautyof the wood. grit.)Never gritor skipanintermediate youwill leave Whetherthis means a glassy film on the scratches in thewood that surface of thewood or a finishthat softAmongits manyuses, thehandscraper thefinish will magnifr. With anorbital ly glowsfrom within depends on the gritsequence; plan canhelpclearawaydriedadhesive sander, use thesame wood needs gluing typeofprotection the and after up a carcase or drawer. on hand-sanding with thefinalgrit to Because the effectyou wish to achieve. remove anywhorls. Afterfinalsanding, "raise taste is involved, right answer finishing you maywish to thereis no single to every the grain"andthen resand, to remove question. But all professional-quality finishes pop up throughthe haveonething the whiskery fibersthat might otherwise in common:painstaking preparation, surface which readies finishon thefirsthumid day. Thisstepis essential whenapplywood finishing the to accept the materials. ing anymaterialwith a water,ratherthan solvent, base. preparation Theamountof time you spend on surface and Whetheror not you fill the poresof the wood is againa the toolsyou usedepend in'largepart on your'workhabits matterof taste. Ifyou like a natural-looking finishthat allows "read your and wood. Surfaces speckled with dried glueobviously you to thewood grain,"do not usefiller.Close-grained requiremore work to smooth.Loose knots,splitsand other species suchaspine and cherrydo not requirefilling in any defects needrepairprior to finishing;sodoeseverydent and case, but ifyou wanta glassy finishon anopen-grained species, chisel nick.Thewood probably hasjointer andplanermarks, suchasoakor mahogany, you mustfill the wood. which you can removewith shallowcutsusinga smoothing A washcoatmaybe appliedto the wood beforeor after plane. Theplane mustbeproperly adjusted andsharp, soit cuts staining-or not at all ifyou areapplying a penetrating oil finwoodfibersratherthantearing themandroughening thesurish.A washcoatcanbe nothingmorethan a half-and-half face. Ifthe woodhasan irregularpattern,soyou cannotavoid solutionof your final finishandthesolvent recommended by (for lacquer, tearingthe grain asit changes direction,substitute a cabinet its manufacturer usesanding sealer). Thepoint of (Forultiscraper-athin, flat piece of steelwitha burrededge. usinga washcoatis to prevent thewoodfrom uneven or excesmatesmoothnes wood,use of straight-grained boththesmooth- siveabsorptionof finishingmaterials. When appliedbefore ing planeandcabinetscraper.) Cabinetscrapers takepractice the final finish,thewashcoatkeeps thewood from drinking up to sharpen and use, but oncemastered theycansubstantially the finish,thereby reducing the numberof coatsrequiredto reduce your sanding time. Beware of an improperlysharp- build up theproperthickness.

Despite a modern blade adjustment mechanism that enables thetoolto slice offpaperplaneretains qualityof a traditional thin shavings, thissmoothing thehandcrafted handtool.Producing smooth surfaces is a crucial stepin finishingfurniture.

2I

TOOLS AND ACCESSORIES


Honing guide and anglejig For honinqplane holda bladee.Device bladeat appropnaLe anqlefor honinqa bevel;rotatinq the wheelon Lop of the ji4 eete angleo bef,ween 15o and 35o 9moothing plane For smooLhinq woodaurfacee with the grain, ueuallyprior to scrapin4and oandinq. Blade muELbe aharpened and properly adjuated before uee

Grinding jig For holdin4planebladea in aliqnmentwith grindin4 wheel durinq aharpeninq Tri-burniaher Uaedto form amall burr, or hook,on cuLtrn4edqeoof ecraperafter honin4; combtnes round,trianqular and oval burnisherain one tool

File alamp HoldE file perpend icul ar to cutting edqeof ocraper durtnqeharpeninq of ocraper, enau rinq atra i7ht and square eaqe

Mill baetard file For equartnqcuttin4 ed4eo of ecraperoprior Lo honin7 and burniehinq them

Block plane For omoothin4end 4rain and chamfered aur-facea; ueuallyueed with onehand

Combination aharpeningatone For eharpentn4 planebladea. Coaraeside removeemetal quickly;fine atde createg emoof,hed4e.Lubricated wtth water or orldepending on the type of stone

Hand ecrapere Kecta ngula r acraper amootha flaL aurfacea:curvedmoaele workwellon contouredeurfacea,moldinqa and epindlee

Abraaive pade An alternattveto eandpaperfor smoothinqwoodaur-facee and abradinq inf,ermediate finieh coata by hand; abraaiveparticlee of aluminumoxtde and etliconcarbtdeare bondedto evnLheLicfiber pade. Laat lonqerthan sandpaper; can be waehedand reused

Cabinet scraper For amooLhinqwood aur-facea, typically afLer planing;wellauited far levelinq knote and cuLtingawaydried qlue.Elade ocrapea a paper-Lhin ehavtng from aurface:has twin handleafor 4reater convenience and control than hand acraper

PREPARING THE SURFACE

Eelt eander Towereander ueed to remove atock and eliminateflawa from wood aurfacea. and for amoothinq.Iandinq in qrite belta available from coarae to fine

Random-orbit sander Fowersander uaedfor fine amooLhinq and removinq awirlmarka left by belt or orbital aander; ideal for contouredaurfacea

5t'eel wool 9pectally made woodworkinq eteel woolia oil-freeand featurea lonqeretrande than etandard varietiea: leeo likelyto

Cont'ouredeanding bloak Holda aandpaperfor amoothinqcurvedand irreqularly ahaped eurfacea by hand: featurea a narrowardefor reachin7 into nqht epota

Orbital palm eander Fowereander for omoothinq aurfaceethat are difficult to reach with 6rqer 9anaer

FIat aanding block Holds aandpaoerto smooth flat aurfacea by hand

Alcohol lamp and burn-in knife Uaedto apply ehellacatick to damagedareag on woodaurfacea; flame from lamp heato knife, which rn Lurn melLE ahellac, drippin4it. onto aurface

Grinder tharpenin4 wheel Ganbe uaedto regrind bevelaon planebladee

ZJ

PLANING
thebest wayto smooth a f hoosing \-r woodsurface is a matter of indipreference. vidual There are noordained steps or prescribed rules. woodSome plane workers andthensand; others plane andscrape before sanding. Whichever sequence you decide to follow, theobject isto produce a surface thatisassmooth asglass andjustasflat. Thissection of thebookexplains the plane useof a smoothing to beginthe process of preparing a woodsurface to accept a finish. A well-sharpened in a properblade ly adjusted plane canshear offfineshavingsof wood.Youcanmakeall the adjustments with only a screwdriver, despite theplane's apparently compli(below). cated design Plane blades require regular sharpening. Although youcanhonea blade byhand(page 26),a grinder isthebest per- square toolto bringacutting edge to peak its end(page 25,step 1).Fora formance. Fora nicked blade or anold newblade or onethathas haditsbevel out-of-square oneyouwishto salvage, wornaway, hone anewbevel onthecut(step ting edge 2). Tomaintain a keen edge, honetheblade frequently on a (step sharpening stone 3). Before using a plane, set thedepth of cut to remove only a thin shaving on each stroke. Because anexcessive depth mayproduce gouges setting in thework piece, youshould testyoursetting first on a scrap board. Forbestresults on a large surface usea longplane; a short onewill bemorelikelvto followexist ingcontours. Set aplane on itsbottom when storPlaningtheedges of a workpiece with a ingthetooltoprevent theironfromgetsmoothingplane-also knownasedge tingnicked byother tools. Occasionally jointing-is usually plandonebefore rub a thin film of light machine oil on ing thefaces.Thisallowsyou to remove theblade to prevent rust.Onceayear, any blemishes or depending ontheamount of use, take from thefacesleft by thejaws of a clampor a vise. thetoolapart for a general cleaning.

ANATOMY OF A SMOOTHING PTANE


Cap iron aarew Adjuete offaet diatance between cutting edqe of blade and end of cap iron; to avoid blade chatter, 'la inch io ideal 6ap Leveraap acrew )ecures levercap, cap iron and blade to fro4 Levercap Allowaquick removalof cap iron and blade

Late ra I a dj uati ng lever Centera the blade in the mouth of the plane by aettin7 the lateral, or aide-to-aide, poaition of the blade

Cap lock Holda lever cap in place

BIade Alao knownaa olane iron. lnstalled beveldown on fro4; for beat reeulta, ahould barely probrudefrom mouth

Frog 9upporbe blade

Frog adjuetin7 earew Turnedto alide frog back and forth; poeitioned to eet cuttinq edge of blade about 1/az inch from front edae of mouth

24

PREPARING THE SURFACE

SHARPENING A PLANE BTADE WITH A MACHINE


theend oftheblade 1 Squaring whether I Use a trvsouare to check the l f. i t cuttine gdge o f t h eb l a d e i ss q u a r e is not, square it ona grinder witha rough properly positioned wheel. With theguard a n dt h eb l a d e c l e ao r f t h ew h e e s l ,w i t c h onthemachine. Holding theblade between finger andthumb of your right theindex hand, setit bevel uponthegrinder's tool it toward rest andadvance thewheel until yourindex finger contacts thetoolrest (right). Slide the blade side-to-side across pressing thewheel, lightly while keeping your finger onthetoolrest. The tip of the perpendicu la blade s h o u ls dt a y to tr he wheel throughout theoperation. Dipthe in water it blade occasionally to prevent fromoverheating. for Check theblade regurany. square

r) Creating a hollow-ground bevel Z . S h a r p e n ia np gl a n e involves blade three steps: creating a bevel ontheblade's cutting edge, honing another bevel on partof thef irstone-called a microbevel-thenremoving theburr thatresults process. fromthehoning Tocreate the f irstbevel, clamp theblade topface up jigsetto create grinding in a commercial a 30" bevel. Run thecutting edge across would thewheel asyou forsquaring the blade th ; ej i gw i l lk e e p t h eb l a d e square to the wheel(left).Check the cutting periodically grinding edge andstop when (lnsef). thebevel forms Asa ruleof thumb, thebevel iscorrect when most of thesparks showering trom fr a l lo n t h et o p t h eg r i n d e face of theblade, rather than it. below

25

PREPARING THE SURFACE

themicrobevel Q Honing r-,f Place a combination sharpening stone fineside uDona work surface. Nail cleats to thetable against thestone to keep it frommoving. One of thecleats should be thesame height asthestone and4 to 5 you inches Iong; thiswillallow to use the full length of theabrasive surface. Clamp theblade in a commercial angle-setting honinguide w i t ht h eb e v et lo u c h i n g the stone. Saturate thestone withthe appropriate Iubricant-either water or a light oil-untilit pools onthesurface. guide, Then, holding thehoning slide the blade back a n df o r t h f r o me n dt o e n d (lefil, along thestone applying moderate pressure (insef). untila microbevel forms Continue until a burr-athinridge of metal-forms onthef latface o f t h eb l a d eT . h e nl a pt h e b u r r a sy o uw o u l d when s h a r p e n ia ng planeby hand(sfep below).

SHARPENING A PTANE BTADE BYHAND


[apping thebun guide Clamp theblade in a commercial (step above) andgrind a 30" bevel using thecoarse side Then of thestone. reoositiontheblade in theguide andturnthe stone over to hone the microbevel. To remove the burrfromthe blade-a process woodworkers call"lapping" the burr-remove the blade fromthe honing guide andsaturate thestone once again. Holding theblade flush onthestone, bevpatiern el side up,move it in a circular on the stone(righilunlilthe flat sideof the cutting is smooth edge to thetouch. A fewstrokes iceto eliminate should suff Test theburr. thesharpness of thecuttingedge on a piece of paper; a sharp blade willslice from a sliver theedse.

26

PREPARING THE SURFACE

Assessing a plane blade's cutting edge Nomatter how wellit is adjusted, a dullor poorly sharpjobof smoothing plane ened blade willdoa poor thewood surfaces of your furniture. Moreover, itscondition willonly deteriorate if youpersist in using it, losing its beveled going cutting edge andpossibly even out-of-square, as (far/eft). in the blade shown Such a blade would need to besquared andsharpened ona grinder. A well-sharp(near ened blade left)hasa vrsible bevel andmicrobevel, making iI a razor-sharp cutting implement. Thisblade needs only anoccasional honing ona sharpening stone.

ADJUSTING A PTANE

Levercap ecrew Froq eetecrew

Positioning thecutting edge I Loosen the lever cap screw and remove the bladeassembly-including the lever c a p ,c a p i r o na n d b l a d e - f r o mt h e p l a n eT . h e nl o o s e t nh e c a p i r o ns c r e w a n ds l i d e t h e c a pi r o n o n t h e f a c eo f t h e b l a d e to leave a g a po f a b o u t% o i n c h b e t w e et n h e e n do f t h e c a p i r o na n dt h e c u t t i n g e d g eo f t h e blade. Tighten t h e c a p i r o ns c r e w . N e x t ,p l a c e the blade

'l

assembly in position onthefrog. Thegapbetween thefront edge of theblade andthefront of themouth should beabout t/rcinch.lf not,loosen 1Zturn, bothfrogsetscrews about thenturnthefrogadjusting screw witha screwdriver to set gap(above). theproper Lock the blade assembly in position.

27

PREPARING THE SURFACE

r) Centering theblade and Z- setting thedepth of cut e ss h o w n Holdin tg h ep l a n a s,h i f t h e lateral adjusting lever to one side orthe in the thecutting edge other to center mouth. Tosetthecutting depth, turn adjustment knob so thedepth-of-cut rhzinch of the thatnomore thanaboul protrudes from themouth. cutting edge Check thedepth of culby eye(right), then confirm t h es e t t i nb gym a k i na g testcutona scrap board. The shavings bepaper-thin; thefiner thecut, should t h em o r e transpare tn ht es h a v i n g s . if necessary. Adjust thecutting depth,

WITH HAND PLANES SMO()THING


plane a smoothing Using surface w i t hs m o o t he , ven Guide a h a n dp l a n e along a wood Always against strokes. cut with the grainof the wood;planing r a t h et rh a ns h a v i n g it offcleant h e g r a i nw i l l t e a rt h e w o o d , lightl y . l f y o uc a n n o d t e t e r m i nte h e o r i e n t a t i oo nf t h e g r a i n , p a r a l l e l ta on e d g e lyslide theplane i n o n ed i r e c t i o n th , en r e p e a itn t h e o p p o s i t d eirection T . h ec u t t i n g edge w i l lc h a t t e r o r c a t c ho n t h e w o o d fibers w h e ni t i s c u t t i n g a g a i n stth e g r a i n .l f t h e g r a i no r i e n t a t i oc nh a n g eo sn t h e s u r f a c e s,w i t c h . osmooth o f y o u rs t r o k e to follow t h eg r a i n T a thedirection surface s u c ha s a t a b l e t o pm , ove t h e p l a n eb a c ka n d f o r t h passes overlap, as shown using a series of straight thatslightly pulling inthediagram When at right. theplane back after e a c hf o r w a r d s t r o k et,i l t t h e t o o lt o o n es i d et o l i f t t h e c u t t i n g e d g ec l e a r of thesurface.

2B

THE SURFACE PREPARING

Smoothing a face face Secure theworkpiece upona work surface 0.n c ey o uh a v e o r i e n t etd he grain, plane with thewood line upyour s h o u l da en r dh i pw i t h t h et o o t lohelp y o um a i n t a ifn u l lc o n t r o ol f t h ec u t . withboth hands as Gripping theplane push thetool along thesurface shown, fromyourbody. Apply f irmand away pd r e s s ud re sustaine uring t h es t r o k e , pressing down onthefront of theplane at thestart of thepass. Once theplane iscompletely onthesurface, even out thepressure to thepressure, shifting
t h e r e a rn f t h e n l a n ea i t h e e n d o f t h e

Examine asyou work stroke. theshavings if you want and adjust thecufting depth a planing finer cut.Keep until thesurface becomes shiny and smooth to thetouch.

endgrain Smoothing to smooth t h e e n d so f U s ea b l o c kp l a n e T.h e r e a r et w ow a y s of plana workpiece g i n g e n d g r a i n ,b o t h i n v o l v i n t wosteps c a l c u l a t etd o avoid t e a r o ua t t theedges. F o re i t h e r m e t h o ds , ecure t h ew o r k p i e c e , egin a stroke e n d u p . I n o n em e t h o db o f t h e b o a r dg , uiding the a t o n ee d g e plane u n t i l t h eb l a d e along t h es u r f a c e is abouthalfway across the end (left). sr o mt h e o p p o s i t e R e p e atth e p r o c e s f e d g e .I n t h e s e c o n d m e t h o ds , t a r tb y cutting a c h a m f ea r t o n ee d g e ofthe boardh , olding the plane at an angle to flatten the Then make corner(inset). end, a pass a c r o st sh e e n t i r e b e g i n n i ntg hestroke at the o t h e re d g e .

29

SCRAPING
woodsurfaces is an interQ craping planing and mediate step between rJ remove A sharp scraper can sanding. high spots,tearoutand glue lines, andclean up marks smooth a surface, plane. inexpensive, The tool is leftby a simple to sharpeasy to use andrelatively types arethe en.Tho commonly used blade of steelhandscraper-asingle a mountscraper, blade andthecabinet ed in a metal or wood body that Thisimplement resembles a spokeshave. handles for two-handfeatures winged edpushing or pulling. from thin aremade Scraper blades to ofspringsteel andsharpened sheets Theyareavailable forma cutting edge. on in different thicknesses, depending theworkyouwantthemto perform. for heavy cuts; are suitable Thickscrapers for finerwork. areused light scrapers hasa blade, thescraper Unlikea plane flare thelength of hook-a small along (inset, page 32).The thecuttingedge thescraper hook's cutting action allows in anydirection, or pushed to bepulled andtightspots reach corners soyoucan inaccessible to a plane. dullquickA scraper's cuiting edges which regular sharpening, ly andrequire filing,honing andburnishing. involves shavings signal Thesize of thescraper's the thedullertheblade, its condition: thetool theshavings, untilfinally smaller produces onlysawdust. need to befiled Mostnewscrapers use. It may helpto apply smooth before oil onthecutting edge alittlelubricating before burnishing, butbe ofthescraper with theoil: If it gets on your careful it could endupstaining hands orbench theworkpiece. thecutting Apartfrommaintaining in mindthatthe keep edges of ascraper, wellonlyifyouholdit toolwill perform andpush atanangle to thewoodsurface afairamount of or pull itwhileapplying Ifyou pressure edge. close to ttrecutting perpendicular holdthescraper almost pressure, healy to thesurface andapply wood, but remove thetoolwill quickly gouge, the it mayalso dentor scratch the Heldat moreof anangle, surface. removes less wood, butproduces scraper method of findasmoother surface. One is to holdthetool ing theright angle parallel to theworksurface;begin almost gradually raising theangle scrapingwhile intothewood. untilit bites of theblade

a scraper Properly sharpened, produce will finer andshorter shavings thana plane.

SHARPENING A SCRAPER
square theedges 1 Filing hook on a I Tofileofftheexisting with scraper, clamp thetoolin a vise facing a onelong edge up.Holding filefirmly withboth sharp millbastard passes hands asshown, make several theedge of the back andforthalong ng moderate downward scraper, exerti pressure and untilthebundisappears filings, theedges areflat.Toremove periodically tapthefileona firmsurTurn thescraoer face or use a filecard. for the andrepeat the process over other edge.

30

PREPARING THE SURFACE

fiu |ltfilr ililllttljJ llillliltl]J fill ltJ illllllt lll tlll lll filt l]ll
5HO7Tt?
Uoinga file clamp Deeiqned Noholda file perpendicular to the edge of a ocraVer, a fileclamp makesit, eaeytro remove hooks and fileoLraight edqee on Ihe trool.To use the fileclamp, secure the ocra?er in a vieealong wilh a woodblockon one eideto keep it,riqid.lneerL I h e f i l ei n t h e c l a m p and fixit inplace uoinqlhe Lhumbscrewe on Iop of the
i m p le me n t . 7 oE i Lo i n L he c la m p

on lhe edgeof the ecraVer and file lhe ocraVer'e ed4eunlil it, feelesharp, takinqcarenot Io cuXyouroelf when NeeLinq.

r) Honing theedges L Secure a combination sharpening stone fineside upto a work surface with cleats andlubricate it asyouwould when (page honing a plane blade 26) Holding thescraper flatagainst thestone, rubthe face onthestone witha circular motion (left).Apply pressure moderate andconproduced tinue until anyroughness byfilingdisappears. Turn thescraper over and repeat fortheother face. Tocomplete the honing, hold thescraper edge down and slide it back andforth diagonally across thestone until theedge issmooth with sharp corners. Repeat fortheother edge.

PREPARING THE SURFACE

to start a hook theedges Q Burnishing r.,l Place f laton a work thescraoer withtheedge surface to besharpened extending offthetable. Holding a burnisher at a slight angle to thescraper, passes make several back andforth (left), along the edge applying strong pressure downward to start turning over theedge into a hook. Burnish the edge the same way; turn other cutting thescraper over andburnish theedges face. ontheother

Completing thehook
Secure the scraper edgeup in a vise

perpendicular Hold theburnisher almost in to theedge andrunit along theedge onedirection until theedge swells slightly,turning outward on oneside(right). presForbest results, moderate apply s u r eT . hen hold t h eb u r n i s hs eo rt h a t sa t a 1 0 ' t o 1 5 ' a n g l e t h eh a n d lie above the edge of thescraper andcontinue b u r n i s h iu nn g t itl h ee d g e turns over. Repeat theprocess to form a hook (inset), ontheother side of theedge this your timeholding thehandle with other greater youapply, hand. The thepressure
iho hioopr thp hnnk

Turn thescraper over andburnish theopposiie edsp Tpsi thp .r ritino pdooc nn a nipnp

of scrap wood, burnishing them again, if necessary, untilyouhave youneed thehook for t h ej o ba t h a n d .

PREPARING THE SURFACE

flll llllllllllllllllrulll1 ilillllllllllllt llllull illllllllllllllt lllt


1HO?TI?
Using a variable burnisher l,oldinq a oldtnq aO burnieher u r n t e na aL et rt the riqht. angle for turnin4overa hookon a ocraVer ie no eaoylaok. Oneanswer jiq Ihal ie a commercial control provideo Vrecioe of the burniohing anqle. Theactual burnisher ie a carbiderod mounled wilhinLhe body; a knob o n N h e N oa pd j u o t o N h e anqle of Nhe rod belween Oo and 15o.Io use Nhe L ne a burnieher, u r n t ? n e r? oecure , e c u r eT the ,ne ecraVer S c r a ? e rt in na v viee t 6 ea and na

: f i I i t e b l a d ei n t h e b u r n i s h e r ' e eloN: r u n n i n qt h e b u r n i e h e r back and f or\h alon4 the blade wilh moderale downward ?re6ourecreaLeea hook of NheapVropriaLean4le.

SMO()THING A SURFACE WITH A HAND SCRAPER


Using a hand scraper Secure thestock to a work surface. Standing at one endof theworkpiece, curlyour fingers around thefront of the scraper andpress ontheback withyour thumbs to make thetoolbow slightly outward. Tiltthescraper forward about 20'fromthevertical andscrape the in thedirection surface thatthebowis (left). facing lf thecutting edge does properly, notbiteintothewood adjust theangle of thetoolslightly. Work at ,pplying a s l i g ha t ngle t o t h eg r a i na pressure moderate andmaking long, fluid, overlapping strokes. At theend of each stroke, lift thescraper offthe surface before stopping. You canalso pullwiththescraper, butbesure to you. flexthe bow toward

PREPARING THE SURFACE

SCRAPER SMOOTHING WITHA CABINET

theblade 1 Adjusting in thescraper edge I lnstall withthehooked theblade t/zz protruding facing forward and inchfromthesole of the Lock in place byturning thetwothumbscraper. theblade (abovd. fhen clockwise screws onthefrontof thescraper p r e sses th w at b o wi t s l i g h t lb yyt u r n i n t gh et h u m b s c r e scr:ner attheback 6f lls against thecenter of theblade

r) Using thescraper Then, standing at one endof the Z Secure theworkpiece. hands withthe firmly withboth stock andholding thescraper presfromyou,push thetoolwithmoderate hook facing away (abovd. lift At theendof each stroke, sure along thesurface io thescraper offthesurface andturnthetoolupside-down theblade from clogging. dislodge theshavings andprevent

llll fifi llll r]l] llrl llll ilIl l]l] llll llll llll llrl llll lllllll ltlj ull lllr
Tt? 1HO?
Uoingold oara?erblades to cut half-blind dovetaile more Youcan aet eorne mileage ou| of an old ocra?erby uoin7it lhe eaw Nocomplele cuNemadeto fashion half-blind dovelails. Tlace in the lhe blade kerl and tap il with unLil it, a hammer reaches the shoulder lineof the ioinLThie willmakeiN eaeier Lo finieh Nhecut with a chisel,

SANDING
in smoothQ andingis the final stage piece ing a of furniture and is also J indispensable in eliminating anyblemishes left by planes and scrapers. Both leave marks ridges toolssometimes and Theycanalsocomon wood surfaces. press wood fibersandclose theporesin wood, inhibiting its the capacity to propfinish. erly accept a Sanding asthe final pores, stepopensclosed allowingthe finish to penetrate the surface. A wide varietyof naturaland manmadesandpaper abrasives areavailable for thewoodworker, from naturalmaterials suchasflint, garnetand emeryto artificialoneslike aluminumoxideand Formostapplications, you siliconcarbide. need a sandpaperwith hard,sharp-edged particles ttratarenot easily dislodged from their paperbacking. siliconcarGarnet, bideand aluminumoxidearethe abrasives that bestsatisfy these criteria. A typical sandingsequence begins paper, with a 120or 150-grit depending on whetheror not you useda scraper (page Youmayfirst needan 8O-grit 30). abrasive to eliminatedefects or irregularities from a surface. Continue sanding witha220-gritpaper, movingto increas-

ingly finer abrasives to remove the scratches leftby thepreceding operation. Fora surface thatis to receive a glossy finish, youwill need to use apaper atleast asfineas320grit.Howhighup thegrit scale youclimbdepends on the product finishing youintendto apply youwishto achieve. Keep andtheeffect polishing in mind,however, that a surwith anultra-fine face to a highgloss paper maykeep astain frompenetrating evenly. Refer to thecharton page 37for

Combining theconvenience of a powertoolwith thefine touchof handsandinga palm sander readies a cabinet for a finish.

informationon the differentsandpaper grades andgritsandwhento usethem. Apart from selecting theappropriate grit, you alsoneedto choose between paper. open-andclosed-coat Theabraparticles papers sive on closed-coat cover almost the entire surfaceof the backing, and arebestsuitedto sanding hardwoods.Open-coatpapershave particles, morewidelydispersed covering only 40o/o to 700/o of the backing. These areyour bestbet for softwoods proneto clogging because theyareless by moreresinous wood. pages, fu shown on thefollowing sanding canbe equallywell accomplished by hand or with power tools.Although you handsanding is laborious, it allows greater controloverthe process, especiallywhenworkingon contoured surfaces or in corners andtight spots. you Whichever methodyou select, judge whether is smooth can thesurface enough by pulling a pieceof fine nylon fabricoverthewood;the clothwill snag on roughspots. Thenexamine thewood undera beamoflight played across the surface at a low.angle. The^lightwill expose anyremalnmg lmperfecuons.

SANDING FLAT SURFACES


Using a belt sander Clamp theworkpiece down andinstall griton a sanding beltof theappropriate your Holding beltsander. thetoolabove it on thestock withbothhands, switch andgently lower it flatonto thesurface. Guide thesander fromoneendof the workoiece to theother in smooth and passes straight overlapping thatfollow (/efil.Keep thegrain of thewood the f lat sander andmoving at alltimes until is uniformly Avoid thesurface smooth. leaving while it is thetoolononespot quickrunning; it cancutinto thesurface ly,leaving a gouge. Clean upthesand(page ingparticles 42)before repeating withafiner-gritbelt.

35

PREPARING THE SURFACE

Hand sanding Attach a piece of sandpaper of the appro' priate g r i tt o a s a n d i n g blockG . r i pt h e b l o c kf i r m l ya n d s a n dt h e s u r f a c e with s t r a i g h to , verlapping b, ack-and-forth pressure moderate s t r o k e sa , pplying a n dw o r k i n g w i t ht h e g r a i n o f t h ew o o d (above, left), Keepthe blockf lat on the yh e n surface a t a l l t i m e s ,p a r t i c u l a r l w you reach an end or edge. To smooth a s m a l lo r r e s t r i c t es du r f a c es , u c ha s t h e areas b e t w e etn h e s o i n d l eo sf a chair a s s h o w nu , s ea c o m m e r c i a sl anding
^+l^t, >LtL^ /^^^,,^ lauuvc, -:^L+l r tBr tL,t.

lttl llllilllllilillll]ll l]lt illlll[l]ll lllllltllllilllilit illt ruilfl


Tt? 1HO?
Shop-made oandingblock CUIa woodblockthalyou can qrip comfortably. OnIhe top face of the block, cuLlwo narrowqrooveo, then cuI two wedqeehaped woodobripo Nh aI fit, in Lheqroovee enuqly. To gluea fel| eveneandinq provide ?reooure, or cork pad t o NheboLbom lace of the block. T ou s e t h e b l o c k , w r a a?p i e c e of eandVaVer aroundit,,inoertNheendeinNo lhe qroovee, then tap in the wedgeo in Vlace. to holdNheVaVer

PREPARING THE SURFACE

ABRASIVE GRADES ANDGRITS


SANDPAPER Grade Medium F in e Very fine Extra fine Grit 8 0 , 1 0 0 ,1 2 0 1 5 0 ,1 8 0 220,240 280,320 360,400 S u p efri n e STEEL W(lOL Medium Fine Extra fine S u p efri n e 1 00 000 0000
Lightremoval of particles and raised fibers; smoothing of shallow depressions and scratches Smoothing before applying a clearf inish Smoothing between coatsof finish;lightcleaning and deglossing of a finishor polish Polishing; waxing

Uses Initial smoothing; removing shallow depressions


and scratches Intermed iatesmooth ing Finalsmoothing before applying a f inish Removing dust particles and air bubbles between finishcoats Finas l anding before f i n a lc o a to f f i n i s h ; initial sanding for highgloss finish Rubbing downthe final coatof highgloss finish

Choosing sandpaper grits Therange of sandpaper in the chart at leftwillserve foralmost any f i ni s h i n gj o b .W h e n b u y i ns ga n p da per, conside i trsc o m p o s i t i o An lu .paper minum oxide works best with a belt sander. Choose silicon carbide p a p eirn g r i t s a b o v2 e 2 0f o rf i n i s h s a n d i nw gi t ha no r b i t a sla n d e r .

6 0 0 ,1 2 0 0

llu ljlJ lllllll tllillt t]l] lllllllt tllllljlltlll} ljlt fllt llllillt l]ll
1HO?TI?
Makinga aandpaperauttingboard To cul sheeleof oandpaper quickly and accuraLely, ueea ohop-made cuttinq board.Screwa hacksaw bladeto a piece of plywood with a washerundereach endto raiseit eliqhNly off the Vlywood.To cuTa sand?a?er sheet in half, ,./ .. elideiI under
the blade. Holdin4 one end down,Near

1,r)r \

li.i'; ;: \ 'i' rino


d , " c

o t .-s4

.','*^*

ki**"*":

\ the other part,of the eheetoff. Fora quarEer sheel, marka lineparallel NoNheblade Nhat,is one-quarLer ofLhewidlhof a
eheeX f r o m t h e l e e l h . T h e n a l i g nl h e e n d ol f,he eheet wilh lhe line and lear.

37

PREPARING THE SURFACE

SANDING CURVED SURFACES


Using a random-orbit sander With itscompact andpliable sanding pad, therandom-orbit is ideal sander forsanding contours such asa cabriole leg(left). Clamp down theworkpiece a n df a s t e n a s a n d i nd gi s k to pad. thesander's With thetoolclear of thestock, switch it onandlower thepad onto thesurface. Applying pressure, moderate work along the length of theworkpiece in back-andp a s s eu sn t rtl h es u r f a cie forth s smooth R . epositio ne p i e c e in th theclamp as necessary to smooth
^:i^^^-+ ^,,"+-^^^ duldutrrrL)ur iduc).

Hand sanding Smoothing contoured surfaces using only sandpaper risks creating blemishes onthewood orf lattening outthecurves pressure. pad withexcessive For a shop-made sanding that canfollow contours without oversanding, wrap a sheet of sandpaper around a thick sponge thatyoucancomfortably grip. Hold thepaper around thesponge andsand along the length of thesurface withf irmpressure.

Using a s a n d i nb gl o c k en d a t t a c h Secure t h e w o r k p i e ca a piece of sandpape to r a commercia c lo n t o u s r anding block. O n t h e t y p es h o w n , t h e e n d so f t h e p a p e r a r ep i n c h e d t o g e t h ea r n d h e l di n a s l o to n t h e n a r r o w s i d eo f t h e b l o c k .F o rm o s tc o n t o u r s , s a n dw i t h t h e c i r c u l a s r i d eo f t h e b l o c ka g a i n stth e w o o d ( a b o v e )F . o rc r e v i c e s a n d o t h e rt i g h t s p o t s ,w r a pa s h e e t of sandpape arr o u n d the block, h o l di t i n p l a c e a n ds a n d w i t ht h e n a r r o w side.

PREPARING THE SURFACE

BLOCK CONTOURED SANDING oI Smoothing thecontours of a piece its molding evenly without damaging is a diff icult task withonly contours sanding sandpaper or a conventional youcanusea short However, block. your sample of themolding to shape ownsanding block thatcorresponds to the surface of the workexactly piece. requires Fashioning theblock body filler or modeling rubber, used to make a mold of theorofile. To prepare nailtogether themold, wider a small box slightly longer and than thesample molding andabout r/qinchdeeper part thanthethickest folof themolding. Prepare thefiller lowing themanufacturer's instrucfill about half thebox with tions, then it. Lay a single ihickness of plastic wraD While thefiller over thebox. themolding samis stillsoft,press pleinto it firmly thebox andclamp Letthefiller hardagainst thefiller. remove en,ihencarefully themoldingsample fromthebox. Saw off theends of thebox. Totransform theboxintoa sandingblock, stretch a piece of sandpaper abrasive sideup across the molded side of thebox. Use the thepaper molding sample to press filler, then against the hardened of staole theends to the sides thebox. Touse theblock, clamp theworkoiece down andslide theblock back (/eff). themolding andforthalong

?o

PREPARING THE SURFACE

grooves Smoothing and turnings grooves pieces Tosand narrow in turned such aschair spindles, usecommercial abrasive cord. Cuta piece of cordlong enough to extend a fewinches on each it around side andwrap the groove. Pull one endand repeatedly half then theother to sand (above, left). Work fromthe thecircumference of thegroove

opposite side to smooth theother half. Tosand turnings or grooves, larger useabrasive tape(above, right), which is wider thanabrasive cord buthandled identically. Smooth intricate pads. turnings andmoldings using steel wool orabrasive

r]ll ilI1 illlltl lltl illl fill tlll lll} ull i]Il ult llll ilIl il1j ilu tjll fit1
?HO?TI?
Shop-made abraaive tape 1andingbelNe are an excellenl oource of abraeive Lapeo. The belbe readily Nearin parallel ebripe, makinq iL eaeyto obtaina lenqthof abrasive of Yhewidthyou need.)ince uoinqabraoive Napeinvolvee crooo-qrain oandinq, uoeonly slrios from fine-aritbells. Coalrser abrasivis may leave ecrabchee and makeabraded area6?roneNoabeorbinq more slain Nhan surroundina areao.

PREPARING THE SURFACE

IN TIGHT SANDING SP()TS

r[ Iltl fiIl llll llll ijll ltlillr illlllr rllt iltr inl lllilI] illl lllt lll]
1HO?TI?
.$o. Findingflawo O o m e b t e m i e ho en er h e \2" eurtaceof a Viece of furni' Lure may noNbe aVVarent, to ./, ,; LheLouch or underordinary liqht,butbecom e o bvioue t in a floodof light.To check your workafLereandinq a workclean off the eandinq piece, VarLiclee (paqe 42),then aim a beamfrom aflaehlight aNIhe griqhl eurface, bouncing il otr LhewoodaNan oblique angle. directeunliqht worko equally well. Clooely examine Nhe euryour headup and downolowly f ace,bobbinq from Io benefiL every anqle. Take nole of any flawoyou miesedearlier.

panel's Smoothing a raised edges jobs Some sanding callfora certain degree of improvisation. For example, to smooth the beveled edges of a (above) panel raised without rounding thesquare edges of theframe, use a piece of sandpaper folded inthirds to about thewidthof the beveled section. Hold thepaper in a U shape andplace one finger it; the behind paper your folded cannot slipagainst finger. Sand theedges, applying even pressure parallel andworking to the grarn, wood

PREPARING THE SURFACE

CLEANING SANDING PARTICLES

Removing sanding from dust a wood surface particles Clean offwood surfaces after every stage of sanding before moving gritabrasive onto a f iner or applying . emov a f i n i s hR a e sm u c h dust and gritaspossible witha vacuum cleaner, (above, ragor bench brush /eff). Then wipe t h es u r f a cc el e a n w i t ha t a c k yourhand clolh(above, nghf). Sweep across thesurface to check forany particles. remaining Wipe again with thetack cloth if necessarv.

ilIl llu illI llrilll llrllr1 tlll fill lllt ltfl fiIl llll illt ltlj llll lltl lI]
Tt? 9HO7
Makingataak aloth Makea tack clothNomatchthe tiniehinq you inhend to producL uee.Fora water-based finieh, oimVly damVen a cleanViece of cheeeecloth wilh waten Fora eo l v en I - b a eed f i n i s hd , amp en trhecloth wiNh mineral spiiits, then workina fewdropsof varnioh.?queeze Ihe cloLh re?eatedlyunbil iNbegino Io feelobicky. Add varnish whenit,loeesits Nacky feel.)tore a tack cloth in a plaelic bagwith a labelidentityingit as eilher waNeror solvent-based,

DAMAGE SURFACE REPAIRING


canshow on a woodsurface Tl laws In fact, a .F through almost anyfinish. maymagnify finishlikelacquer clear youapplya finBefore imperfections. youneed to of furniture, ishto a piece damage. find and mendanysurface to Mostdefects stickout,but youneed theless obvious blemfindandeliminate ahandacross ishes as well.Tiy running for them. Youcan thewoodandfeeling light withlowangle also wash thesurface (page 4) andlookfor them. to a repairand Thebestapproach required depend on the thematerials repair A suitable nature of thedamage. isto lift it with for a dent, for example, (page4).However, if thewood steam ratherthansimply fibers aresevered will not work;a wood crushed, steam Forsmall remedy. fillermaybe thebest prowaxor shellac stick can blemishes, Both are invisible fix. a virtually duce colors to match variety of in.a available many wooospecres. Youcanbuy special burn-inkits Thetypishellac sticks. for applying package knife includes a burn-in cal blade; gentlybent, stainless steel with a lampfor heating theknife; an alcohol a felt for soaking anda special solution repair with the surthatlevels the block rounding surface. are best conMostlarger blemishes Although many withwoodfiller. cealed PATCHING C(lMP(lUNDS W(l(lD
TYPE Wood filler CHARACTERISTICS or water-based; depending Solventontype,canbetintedwithstainor purchased pre-tinted in Waxandresin-based; available quickly a variety of colors. Sets available andresin-based; Shellacquickly in a variety of colors. Sets surface to forma hard mixed withbinder, Sawdust glue orshellac; canbe such ashide tinted withstain USES gouges, Filling large holes, cracks anddents G(lMPATIBILITIES withmost finishes; Compatible or afterstain apply before

you cantint filler tfpes arepre-colored, yourselffor a perfectmatch.Testthe filler on a scrapof the targetwood beforecommittingyourselfto a parwhere ticularformulation.In situations the a filler is inappropriate-because areais too largeor the filler damaged would be conspicuous-youcanmend the defectwith a shop-madepatch fashionedfrom a wood scrapof the (page 47). samespecies

patching Mostmodern compounds comto bechemically areformulated patible with avariety of finishes, but in contain cases where thetwo products thesame solvent, thefinishcandissolve to help thefiller.Use thechartbelow compound. choose theappropriate whether lifting a Forall your fixes, lightlysand the dentor fillinga gouge, it with youare done to level repair once thesurrounding surface.

oneof thebest shellac stickremains A traditional in wood. minordamage methods of repairing lamp,a Heated by thellamefrom an alcohol a small bit of theshellac burn-in knifemelts whichfills theholelevelwith thesurface. sticl<,

Wax stick stick Shellac

with be incompatible small holes, scratches May Filling after f inishing lacquer; apply andcracks withalcoholor May be incompatible dents Fillingscratches, finishes; apply before lacquer-based andgouges finishing or after Filling nanow cracks, gaps andsmall holes withmost finishes Comoatible

Shop-made filler

43

PREPARING THE SURFACE

LIFTING DENTS

Repairing a dented surface One wayto fix a dentin wood is to swell crushed wood fibers to their originalshaoe. Turn a household iron to its highest setting andallow it to heat uo.Meanwhile. soak a clean cloth in water, foldit over a fewtimes and place it onthedent. Press thetip of theiron against thecloth over thedent (above), holding it in place untilthe cloth steams. Thesteam willswell the wood f ibers, lifting outthedent. Add water to thecloth asnecessary and avoid leaving theiron onthecloth for toolong, which may scorch thewood.

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll'fiI tl|l lll lllt flll lll] illlillt llllllt


Tt? 9HO7
Gluingan edgeeplinter back A emalleplinteron the edqeof a workcan be qluedin Vlace, ao lonqao Viece iNie eLillafLached. in a Clamo trheetrock vieeand equeeze oomeqlueinto lhe qap beiween Nheeolinterand Lhewood. Then into place eplinler and secure preeeNhe it wibhmaekinq tape.)nce the qlueio dry,remove lhe IaVe and sandthe repair fluehwilh adjacenteurtacee.

PREPARING THE SURFACE

FILLING SMALT NICKS ANDNAILHOLES


A p p l y i nw go o d filler C h o o sa e f i l l e rt h a t i s c o m p a t i b lw ei t h t h e i n g r e d i e na ts n dc o l o r o f t h ef i n i s h y o uw i l l b e a p p l y i n g U , s ea p u t t yk n i f e t o w o r kt h e f i l l e ri n t ot h e h o l ea n do v e r (left), f ill it slightly thenscrape off the e x c e sts l e v e li t w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g o surface. Avoid spreading filler ontoundamagedareas, whereit maycauseuneven c o l o r i nig f a s t a i ni s a p p l i e d .

gun Melting shellac stick witha soldering Select a shellac stick of theappropriate color andseta solderinggunon Low. Holding thestick over thehole, meltit with thetip of thegun(above, lefil.Drip enough of theproduct to fillthe h o l eW . hilt eh ef i l l e i rss t i l l s o f u t ,s e a knife o ra w o o d chisel to press it evenly into thedamaged area. Work carefully to avoid marring thesurrounding area withtheknife orchisel

blade A .llow t h ef i l l e t ro c o o lT . ol e v e r ith t lh ef i l l e w t h es u r rounding surface, soak thebottom of a feltblock witha small amoun otf c o m m e r c l ie av l elin sg o l u t i oa nn dl i g h t l r yu bt h e (above, block back andforth across therepau nghf). Theslowacting solvent in thesolution dissolves excess filler without harming thewood.

PREPARING THE SURFACE

Applying shellac stick with a burn-in knife Light andhold thealcohol torch the knife forseveral burn-in over thewick With seconds. theshellac stick over press thedamaged area, the knife against thestick sothatenough filler (above) melts anddrrps into thehole Reheat theknife asnecessary until i sf i l l e d U . se to t h eh o l e t h ek n i f e F.i n i s t h s p r e atd h ef i l l e r evenly he r e p a iw r i t hl e v e l i n sg o l u t i oa nn da
n a o e 1' . fpli hlnnk ( v6 t ) t Pv bv

iiti iltllrilll lll1 illr r]ll lrlllli illl rll} ll11 lll1 ilI] iltrxl llll filt
5HO7Tt?
Ueinga gluegun to apply shellacstick A qluequn offeroa oimple alternalive lo a burn-in knife or solderina aunfor repairinq damaqe with a ehellac stick. Ueea oharpknifeNo whiltlea ehellac elick oo "' that, iNfit 6 in Nhebarrelof y o u r4 l u e -.'. 4 u n . I om e l L l h e filler, ae pullLheLriqqer /. y o u w o u l d Na oV V l y qlue, Ihen dripLhemelLed ehellac filler eNick onto Nhe damaqed area.TressNhe inboNheholewiLha knifeor woodchiee|and level iNas shownon ?aqe45-uoinq a felN block and levelinq eolulion.

/' ' / / // / /

46

PREPARING THE SURFACE

PATCHING A LARGER HOIE


and outlining thepatch 1 Making I Aneffective wayto mend a larger hole ona wood surface is to cuta patch a n da m a t c h i nm g o r t i so ev e t r h eh o l e , glue . sing then t h ep a t c h i n p l a c eU a cut-off scrap fromtheworkpiece, or a piece ofvenee w r i t hs i m i l ag rr a i n and color, cut a patch thatis slightly larger than thehole. Give thepatch a diamond shape, less conspicuous thana square patch or rectangular after thefinish is applied. Use a wood chisel to bevel the edges of the bottom faceof the patch, thensand both faces. Place thepatch over thehole, aligning itsgrain withthe grain, surface andmark itsoutline with a sharppencil(righil.

r) Chiseling themortise L Secure theworkpiece witha clamp if necessary. Select a wood chisel slightly narrower thanthesides of themortise to cutalong theoutline. Tiltthetool withits bevel facing upto produce anangle corresponding to thatontheedges of the patch. Remove theremaining waste from theoutline withthechisel bevel facing (left). down Periodically test-fit thepatch in themortise until themortise isslightly shallower than theoatch isthick.

47

PREPARING THE SURFACE

down thepatch Q Gluing gluein themortise r-,1Spread some in place. Lay a piece andsetthepatch over thepatch, thenposiof waxpaper paper block o nt o p .( T h e t i o na w o o d w i l lk e e p f r o ma d h e r i n tg o t h ep a t c h where lf thepatch is located theblock.) youcannot it directly, seta board clamp t h ee n d s to atop t h eb l o c k a n dc l a m p pressure onthepatch focus theclamping (left). quickly Work to prevent the patch m rom f r o ma b s o r b i n go i s t u rfe swelling. t h eg l u e and

PATCHING A DAMAGED CORNER


area Preparing thedamaged repaired I A damage cd o r n eirs b e s t s f t h eb r e a k w i t ha p a t c hl.f t h ee d g e o usea wood chisel areragged or sharp, o,v a l - s h a pm ed ortise t o c u ta s h a l l o w w i t hs m o o t e h d g ea s r o u n td h ed a m a g e . Hold t h ec h i s ew l i t ht h eb e v efla c i n g ofthe down a n dw o r k w i t ht h es r a i n wood(right). 'l

48

PRE,PARING THE SURFACE

r) Installing thepatch L Cutapatch thatroughly fitsthe mortise, then shape it with sandpaper ora chisel untilit fitsperfectly. Spread g l u ei n t h e m o r t i s a some e n ds e t thepatch in position, aligning itsgrain withthatoftheworkpiece. Use maski n gt a p e to keep t h ep a t c h in place while theglue dries. Tolevel thepatch withthesurrounding pare surfaces, (above). away theexcess withthechisel ,e e p i n Cut w i t ht h eg r a i nk g ec h i s e l th bevel sideuo.

illr ult lltl |ltll]l lltllllllllillt illlfiij tlll llilljl] lltljljtjll ]jll
1HO?TI?
Filling a damagedaorner An alternalive Nopatchin7 a aamaqed corner is lo reconslrucL it wilh woodfiller. Secure Nhe workpiece\ in a vise.Makea form

Nokeep Nhe fillerfrom ea4giiq bytaVinq,

lntn ?tece ol meLal or or a tonque \\ VlaeLic, 'depreooor \ \ to thi sideof the slock.lf you uoea tonqe..de?reooor, a etrip of waxVapei place underneath Lo keep Nhe filler from bondinq to the stick.Apply the fillerwiLh a ?uLIyknife, then LaVe a eecoid form Lo the ilp\r,fra"".

l\ 6ffl\ ,*./*-\

THE GRAIN RAISING


Wetting thesurface phase Every of working withwood-from j o i n t i na gn ds a w i nb go a r d ts oplaning andscraping them-compresses the fibers onthesurface. Exoosure to water causes thefibers to stand up,rougheningthesurface. lf youintend to usea water-based finish, wetthesurface to raise thegrain before applying thefinishing solution. Spray water onthesurface(left), thenwipe offtheexcess with a clean cloth. Allow thesurface to dry, withvery thenlightly scuff thewood fine(220-griI) Avoid sandpaper. overgrain, which might fresh sanding, expose making it necessary to repeat theprocess. Raising thegrain has other benefits, such aslifting shallow dents, exposing defects a n dh e l p i na gf i n i s h adhere.

j-tl iltillt i]l] lllt illt ult ilt] iltl uu ilu l]ll illJ ilu ]lil uu ull llt
Tt? 5HO?
Coloringgrain filler qrainlillercan Untrinted becoloredf,o malchor conlrast with Ihe slain onYourworkoiece.For a waier-b usean aseAfiller, oil-free in liquid or ?owpiqmenL derform,suchas universallinlinqor dry earLh colors.TinL an .'. ,.:. . -.# oilbasedfiller wiNh an oil-based s \\\-..' - -:-: piqmenl, euchas arf,ieI'soil or japancoloro,To the filler, prepare pourit.inho a diehandadd a emall amounN of the colorin7 aqent, MlixtheIwo inqredienle wibha putty knife. Contrinue addinqcolorinqaqenL unbil NhefillerNakee on the d,eeired color. Teet, the filler illo your workViece. on a 6cra?boardbetore aVVlying Add more it. coloring aqenN Nodarken Nhe mixlure: add fillerNoliqhlen

s0

FILLINGTHE GRAIN
grainis theeasiest washcoat(pnge 53), and finallyapplyf, illingthervood t rvay to achieve a highgloss, mirror- inga fillerwitha conl.rasting color'. likefinishon open-grained like species Fillercomes in sereral colors; choose ash, oakandmahogany. Grainfiller, also a shade slightly deeper thanthervood knorvn asporefilleror paste woodfiller, job,howevis not arppropriate for every woodhasno need er.A closed-srain for filler,andiome woodrvorkers avoid fillersaltoeether in favorof a morenatttrat looK.
t t I

soit willmatch astheivood darkens r,vith age. Youcanalso buyuntinted fillerand colorit yourselfinthe shop (pnge 50). Before committing yourself to a particularsequence oLcolor, applythe filler to pieces of scrapwood both before andafterstaining, andchoose thebest
con-lDlltaIlon.

Ifyou decide to fill thegrainofyour wood, youshould understand thevariregarding ousoptions ivhen to apply the filierandexactly whattypeto use. Filler is usually applied before stain;if you choose to stainbefore filling you must becareful not to damage thestain when removinsthe excess filler.Yetanother alternatirie isto apply thestainandfiller together wood,although on therarv the resultis oftena flat, monochromatic appearance. To bring out the character of .t species likenrahogany, tly stainirrg thewood,thensealing with a thestain

Applying n .filler to ttrtoperr-grttitted species like onk doesrtnre tlmrr sitnplylill tlrc woodpores.ht corttrast with the rnturttl sttrface on the riglrt, theJiller added to the sartrple on the leJiltasaccerrtrtsted tlrc wood's grairrpntterrt.

Forbestresults, makesurethat the workpiece is clean and dust-free. Then prepirethe fillerfollowing the manufacturer's directions; it shouldhave the consistency of thickcream. Because erainfiller canabsorb a lot of finish,ali,ays applya washcoatto a filled surface beforestaininsor finishing it. Thewash coat, consiiting of the finishyou plan to r-rse dilutedby the appropriate thinner,creates a barrier betleenthe fillerandthe finish. With sorne species likemahogany, a wash coat is advisable filling,to prevent before the fillerfrom developing unsightly white spots monthsafterit is applied. several

APPLYING A FILLER
I W i t ht h e w o r k p i e cfe a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ep , o u rs o m eo f t h e f i l l e r i n t oa c o n t a i n eA r .p p l y t h ef i l l e r with ( l e f t )o r a b r a s i v e pads. a paintbrush U s i n gb a c k - a n d - f o r t h o v.e r l a p p i n g strokes, cover the surface completely w r t ht h e f i l l e r w , o r k i nf gi r s tw i t ht h e grain, thenacross it. Examine the workniece r r n d ed r i r e c tl i p h tt o c o n f i r m thatthe surface is covered thoroughly. A p p l ym o r ef i l l e r ,i f n e c e s s a r y .

onthefiller 1l Brushins -

5l

PREPARING THE SURFACE

otfexcess filler O Wiping I Once thefillerbegins to dry,losing itsshine andturning hazy, wipe it with folded intoa a piece of clean burlap padtighil. Starting at oneendof the workpiece, work witha circular motion pores to pack thefillerintothewood andremove theexcess.

up Q Cleaning r.J Ona detailed workoiece such asa panel, raised remove excess fillerfrom hard-to-reach spots witha sharpened tongue depressor wrapped in a clean (lefl. Dab piece of burlap the pointed endintocorners andalong edges to remove filler. Allow excess thefiller to dry,thensmooth thesurface with220to 320-grit sandpaper. lf a second coat is required, apply it thesame way.

52

PREPARING THE SURFACE

APPLYING A WASH C()AT

Brushins onthewash coat 1 t I Prepare a 50/50 solution of thefinishyouintend withthe to use, diluted hlont appropria th te inneB r .r u s a gh e grain wood to apply a light, even coat of thesolution to thesurface bbove),

r) Rubbing inthewash coat L tJse lint-free a clean. cloth to work thewash coatintothe pores (lefil. Allow of thewood thewash coat to dry, thensmooth thesurface withextra finesandoaoer.

t",^t* ! ':1".e-

n*Eq;

\*_.-

CFIANGNGTHE COLOR
notallwoodcries Of course, out to bechanged; some species are best dense richness of thepigment-tintleft aunatureL lt ishardto imagine edvarieties, in thematerials used improving on therichpatterns of coloring woodafford a great degree rosewoo{ Macassar ebony or Grpaof latitude. Sains allowyou to make thianelmburl,justas it seems futile whitewoods colorful,light woods to alter theshocking intensity of purdar( plain woods fancy andsteaked pleheart, padauk or Osage orange. woods uniform. Butformost woodworkers, opporThroughout thelonghistory of tunitiesto workwith perfect specihave furnituremaking, stains been mens arerare. Thetypicalproject called uponto fool the eye. They involves making do with whatever have helped common woods take materials areavailable andaffordon theappearance of moredesiryou to dramatically Staining allows alterthe able. Stainshelp to makethis feasible. able ones, adding colorandfigure outwardappearance of wood.Thismaple Ebony-costlyanddifficultto piano bench where it was lacking. They have also wasebonized, or coloredblacl<" wor( butsnikinglybeautifirl---offen produced colors andpatterns that with multipleapplications of tintedlacquer. aprime example ofthespecial effecs nature never imagined. possible. thatstaining makes Even inlaying mahogany Onetrick involved surfaces with pat- when thewoodis available, thesmall treediameter makes it ternsof whiteholly.Thechallenge wasto darken the sur- impossible to obtain wideboards andthenatural instability of rounding woodwithoutdiscoloring theinlay, andthesolution thewoodvirtuallyassures piece thata good-sized of ebony layin awash permanganate of potassium or dichromate. The will crack sooner or later. Fortunately, a widely used staining "ebonizing" wash reacted with thehightannincontent in themahogany, technique called gives theappearance ofebony to bringing outrichreds andbrowns, but it leftthetannin-free more stable andaffordable woods likemahogany andmaple. hollyunchanged. Perhaps moreimportant thanmere fakery istheabilityof Modernstains fall into two broadcategories: those con- stains to create newwoods byadding unlikely colors to familtaining dyes andthose with pigments. Dyes imparttranslu- iar materials. But not all staining is soblatantly A obvious. palette cent colorto wood, altering nature's whileleaving the more subtle, butequallyvaluable isto addto furuse of stain intricate grainpatterns visible. Pigment stains contain opaque niturethatmostelusive of traits:age. Morethanone"antique" colorants thatclingto thesurface Pigments of thewood. can has come to market with adroitly mixtures applied of waxand beused to addpatterns andcontrast to thewoodgrain, or to rottenstone, or even shopdustandjapancolors, hidingthe bringdefinition andhighlights to corners andcarvings. factthatthepiece onlyrecently leftitsmakerthands.
rom the deep, clearandbright tonesof dye-tinted stains to the

A colonial redanilinedyestainenlivens a palepiece of oak. Whether it colors thewood or merely covers the surface fibers with a layerofpigments, stainingcanchange the lookof a workpiece moreradically thananyotherstepin thefinishingprocess.

55

TOOLSANDACCESSORIES
of stains, I longwith an assortment A pigmentsand dyes,there are a numberof implements andaccessories that everyfinisherneeds. A sampling of the mostusefulitemsis featured below. Changing thecolorofwood involves as much art as science, but in some precise instances measuring is helpful. For example, if you areattempting to job, it helps matchan earlierstaining proportions to know the exact in which the original ingredientswere mixed

together. graduated Use cylinders and cups to measure out liquids accurately, and a scale for determining precise weights of powders, crystals andother drycomponents. Brushes, sponges, rags andpadapplicators ofvarying sizes are themost common tools for applyingstainsand bleaches. Brushes are categorized bythe you nature of theirbristles. Thebrush projectwill choose for a particular depend on thesubstances youneed to

apply. Solvent-based stains should be spread on with natural-fiber brushes; usesynthetic brushes to apply waterproducts. based An oil-based product, such asa pigmented wiping stain, can beapplied witheither type of brush. All oftheproducts presented in this chapter aretoxicto varying degrees. 'v\hether mixingor applying a stain or bleach, wear safety goggles, neoprene rubbergloves and a dual-cartridge respirator.

ANII{VEI{TORY OFSTAINING IMPTEMENTS

Pad applicator For applyin4atains evenly on wideeurfacee; type ahownfeatureo rectan4ular pad with thouaanda of ehorEfilaments and a foam backinq Foam brush For applyinq ataina without bruah marka; type ohownaynthetic and diapoaable

For applyinqstaino and bleachea. Synthetic bruahea made from nylon or polyeeter are more durablethan naturaFbrbtb brushea

9ponge For applyin4 bleachea and chemical staina f-----"1

\ L=;---'
\-==;'

1
Weighing acale For preciae meagurement of powdere and cryatala in ataina and bleachee

Graduated aylindere For preciae meaourement of liquid inqrediente in atains and bleachea

High-volume, low-preaaure (HVLP) apray unit For aprayinq on etaine; featurea a turbine whichblowa a oteady etream of air throu7h a epray qun, forcin7 the atain through the 7un'a nozzleas a fine vapor

Glaee jars jara uaedfor mixing Clear ataine and bleachea; brownjare uaed for atorinq aolutionsaince they blockout aome of the li4ht

56

BLEACHING
arehishlvreactive chemiT) leaches I) calsthat brea'k down the natural woodcolorants in wood.For years, workershaveusedbleachto lishten Theeffeitcan the coloroftheir stock. Mahogany tumsa toneof pale bestartling. rosewhen bleached; walnut becomes in color. creamy Bleaching has other applications, however, that go beyondsimplywashing out color.The process canbe the firststepin preparing a piece for a specific stain,suchasa blond finishfor it is alsoused a dark mahogany; to ready is oakfor liming.In addition, bleaching an effective way to suppress the color variations between the sanwood and Naturalcherrv hearftvood ofa species like poplarand makethem more uniform.It alsorids woodof waterandruststains. Therearethreecommontypesof woodbleach. Oxalic acid.soldin licuid "deck is yourbest form as brightener," from wood. choice for removing stains will do an excelSodiumhypochlorite lent job of removingan anilinedye Thisproductis stainfrom a workpiece. But available asliquid laundrybleach. wood the most effective all-purpose lightener is two-partA/B woodbleach. involves Usingthis varietyof bleach resultcombining lyeandperoxide;the ing effect is stronger thanthat of either inqredient on its own.
Nat.uralwalnut

Woodbleach canaffect yourtoolsas drastically asthe wood.Usea synthetic brushor sponge to applybleach; a natural-bristle brushwill eventually disintegrate in thesolution. Mix andstore in glass bleach containers;the chemicals mayreact with metal.Bleaching leaves residues on woodthatcanbecome hazardous airborne irritants whenthesurface is sanded. Thethreemaintvoes of canall be washed bleach away bf rinsing thewoodwith water. Bleach ifhandled canbe dangerous improperly, sofollowthemanufacturNever mix bleach with er'sinstructions. anotherchemical, and always work with a fresh batch.

i;

, .,j,iii::; , ',1''r''

i,,t;,,: "

Bleached cherry

walnut Dleached

57

CHANGING THE COLOR

BLEACHING WO()D

F
Applying thebleach C l e at n h ew o r k p i e o cf e any d i r to ro i l , thenready thetwo-part bleach bypouringa quantity of each solution into sepglass arate Donotmixthetwo bowls. parts togethe tr h;e y w i l lb ea p p l i eid n separate steps. Spread a generous but even coat of Part A onthewood surface witha paintbrush ora rag. Lettheproductdo itswork forabout 5 minutes, then apply PadB thesame way. Lettheworkpiece sitforat least 4 hours, thenrinse thesurface withwater ortheneutralizer supplied with thebleach. Allow theworkpiece to dryovernight before applying a stain orfinish. Two-part bleach is usuallystrong enough sothatoneapplication issuff icient; however, to lighten the wood further, repeat the process.

ljll lll1 lllt illl lltfur][ lllt ll11 tltl utl lltt]i} l]tl l]ll t]ll llit illl
Tt? 3HO7
Lighteningwood wit"h6rain filler Io liqhLen woodwilhout bleachinq it,,usean oil-baeed qrain fillermixed wiNh some whitepigmenN. FireIapply a washcoaLto the workpiece(page53),Lhen a balch of ?re?are filler (paqe51), addinq enouqh -f
w h i t ej a p a n o r /f

o t h e ro i l - b a s e d

o i a m e n l sl o o b l a i n T , h e shade

you wanl,.You can apply Ihe mixture ao you would any grain filler.IheVroceoo willaccenluate Lhegrainof o?en-?ore epecieo likeoak,aeh,mahogany and elm.

5B

THE VARIETIES OF WOOD STAINS


was key once to thecabinetQ taining subtle artof forgery. fumed l) maker's with naturaldyes, chemical mordants andsecret recipes, cabinetmakers could imitate thelookof prized, woods, exotic or givenewly built chairs, chests and cabinets thepatina thatantiques acquire withthepassage of time. Today, camouflaging andenhancing wood with stainsare still important aspects ofwoodworking. Whether astain penetrates anddyes thefibers ofthewood, or merely covers thesurface with a thin layer noother ofpigments, step in thefinprocess ishing brings about such a radicalchange. Staining canhighlight grain patterns, mask homely surfaces, addcolor or imparta uniform hueto different piece woods withina single of furniture. All stains consist of a coloring agent mixed in aliquid.Thetwobasic types of coloring agents aredyes andpigments. Dyestains workmuchlikethecoloring agents used oncloth. Dissolved in water, penetrate oil or alcohol, they thesurface andbondto thewoodfibers. Pigment stains finely ground powcontain colored ders suspended in aliquidsuch linseed as oil.They workmore likevery thinpaints. When applied to wood, theliquiddries, binding thepigment to thesurface. Dyes forstaining wood are most compowders, monlysoldasaniline which mustbemixed with a liquidbefore use (page 68).Theirintense colors canbe proportions combined in varying to provideavirtualrainbow of hues andtones. Pigment stains are available in thesame yetcome widerange in readyof colors, to-use liquid,gelor glaze form.Pigments canalso in concentrated bepurchased formasearth pigments orjapan colors; theconcentrate is added to a ready-touse stain for enhanced effects. Bothdyes andpigments canbemixed with lacquer, varnish, waxor shellac to provide colored finishes. Whenchoosing a stain, remember thatmostdyestains arebrilliantand transparent, butgenerally notas lightfast, or impervious to fading, aspigment stains. Dyestains are excellent for highgrain. lighting Pigment stains areopaque andtendto cloud thegrain. newSome er liquid stains contain bothdyes and pigments, providing propertheuseful tiesof bothqpesof coloring agents with added ease of application. Themostdesirable liquidbase for a stain depends youareseekontheeffect ing.Thedeeper penetrates thevehicle the wood,the darker andricherthe resulting penetrates color. Because water deepest, water-soluble stains aregenerallythebest choice for hardwoods. One drawback however, of water, is that it raises necessitating thegrain, further sanding of thesurface.

Availablein easy-to-apply liquid gel the stain shown in use below form, pigments contains that will imparta dark brown mahogany tone.

59

DYESTAINS
fromplants, insects andanif-\ erived I-/ mals, thewooddyes usedin the 18th Centuryranged from concoctionswith exotic names suchasdragon's blood, verdigris, madder rootand cochineal to moreearthy tints extractedfrom tea,urine,vinegar andwalnut husks. A hundred years later, thefirst anilinedyewasextracted from coaltar. Today, suchdyes aretheindustrystandard,usuallymixedwith oneof three solvents: watet oil or alcohol. Dyes not yet combined with a solvent arealso powder available in either or liquidform. Premixed stains aremoreconvenient to gives you use, but mixingthemyourself moreflexibilitywhenyouneed to produce a particular A fourthtype effect. knownasnon-grainof dyeproduct, (NGR)stain, raising is onlyavailable in liquidform.Thedyes in NGRstains are dissolved in ananhydrous, or waterless, hydrocarbons, solution of organic such aspetroleum. Whichever typeof dye stainyou apply, thefactor thatwill determinetheeventual colorof thewoodis theamount not of dyein thesolution, theamount of solution applied. Water*oluble sainsare agood droice for emphasizing thegrainofhardwoods. Althougha water-based stainwill raise prefer thegrain, manywoodworkers to takecareofthat stepbefore applying astan (page thereby 50.), saving a sandingstep thatmightaffect thefinalcolor of thewood.

Mahogany

Mahogany

60

CHANGING THE COLOR

Alcohol-soluble dyes,alsocalled "spirit stains," do not raise thegrainas muchaswater-based stains andthey produce somewhat brighter hues. Oil-soluble dyes are transparent and also non-grain-raising. Thedrying times of these stains will vary, depending on thesolvent used. Mineral soirit-based generally stains have a slow drying time, whilestains containing toluene or xylene dryconsiderably faster. Thetrade-offis thattoluene andxylene aremoretoxic

thanmineral spirits. Another potential problem with oil-based stains is their tendenry to bleed through a protective finish. Although thisshould onlyoccur if thestain is stillwetwhen thetopcoat isapplied, it isa good practice nonetheless to use afinish withadifferent solvent thanyourstain. Forbest results, NGRstains should besprayed onwood. Ifyou use abrush, youwill need to adda retarder to the solution to extend itsdrying time.

Choosing theright stainfor a project caninvolve experimentation. Frompages 60 to 63 is a series of photosthat illustratethe effects offive differentdyestains on some of themostpopularhardwood species. The samples on the far left are unstained, followedby pieces cut from the sameboard,eachone coloredby a differentdyestain.For further inforl mation on the characteristics and uses of stains,refer to the chart provided on page 70.

61

CHANGINGTHE COLOR

Liqht yellowmaple

,i&

i:n. :i' Cherry fruitwood Golden

Cherry Natural

62

CHANGING THE COLOR

Oak Colonial dark red

Oak Hone5fione amber

Oak Ebonyblack

PIGMENTSTAINS
thatcanbereduced I ny substance a pigment l1' to a powder can become Minerals, thatwill impartcolorto wood. metallic andmanyother ores, oxides earthcompounds naturally occurring canall begroundinto veryfinepartiin a solcles. Once theyaresuspended pollmrethane ventsuch asoil, varnish, powders or water, these become spreadpigment Because able stains. theparticles ratherthandissolved aresuspended, pigment in thesolution, stains dryto a
thin, paint-like coatingon the surface of the wood. Whereas dyestains colorwoodfibers the grain, pigand tend to accentuate ment stainsare opaqueand hide the wood patterns.As a result,pigment grainstains areoftenusedfor glazing, that ing and otherfinishingtechniques for the lackof distinct grain compensate Datterns in certainvarieties of wood. These in detailin Decoraaredescribed (page110). tive Finishes

pigments synToday, areproduced added thetically, with binders anddriers to helpthemadhere to thewoodasthe in dries. Pigment stains come solvent liquidandgelforms. Themost different popular arepigmentandbest-known finThese ready-to-use edwiping stains. ground products a finely ishing contain pigment in linseed oil,which suspended agent. doubles assolvent andbinding Wpingstains are slow-drying, allowing plenty of timeto spread themonor wipe

Walnut Antique white wipingetain

Walnut Cherry wipinq atain

Mahoqany liqht wipinqetain

64

CHANGING THE COLOR

off any excess. Either sprayedon or with a ragor a brush,theyare applied particularlyusefulwhen the wood surface is madeuo of heartwood andcontrasting sapwood. Otherpopularpigmentstains include japancolors, glazing gel stains and stains. lapancolorsoffer a morevibrant range of hues thanwipingstains, but theyneed to be thinnedbeforeuse.Theycanbe usedto tint otherstains whenyou are trying to matchan existingsurface.

The main sellingpoint of glazing stains is that theyareheavier andthicker than wiping stains-and thus useful for concealing grain.Gelstains, meanwhile,are easy to applyand they set quickly,reducing drips on verticalsurfaces. Referto the chart on page70 for more informationon these and other pigment stains. Pigments arealsoavailable in powdered or concentrated form.Earthpigments, like siennas, umbers andochres,

areminedfrom theearthandorocessed in deoxygenated conditions athighheat to bringout theirbrightcolors. Different pigmentstains canbemixedtogether or with powdered or concentrated varieties to produce uniquecolors proandtones, videdthesolvents arecompatiblel an oilbased staincannotbe mixed with a water-based stain, for example. Pages 64to 67 illustrate the effects of variouspigmentstains on fivedifferent types ofhardwoods.

Maple Goldenoak wipinqoLain

Mahoqany dark wipinqetain

65

CHANGING THE COLOR

Eirah FlakewhtLe japan color

Van Dykebrown glaztnqot;ain

Kaw umber qlazingstain

Durnt umber otatn 4laztnq

CHANGING THE COLOR

Eirah yellow Chrome japan color

Eirah Fermanentblue japan color

Eirch Euiletinred JaPancotor

Oak
van Dykebrown

gel eLain

Eurnt eienna 7el etain

STAININGWOOD
awater-based stain. Otherwise, oodworkers arequite naturally applying fibers, requirwill lift thewood whena carefully thestain disappointed remove thestain. thatmay andapparently uniform coating ingsanding applied produces uneven of stain of furresults on a piece difniture.Unfortunately, partsof thesame ferent beexpected boardcannot liquid evenly. to absorb exposed endgrain Unless for example, it issealed, -':-' will usually take in more ,. "::.''t'': .. t,- . .,. ofastainthanfacesor 1 .edges, nraking theends Asshown appear darker. 69,sealing end on page out A test striptakes theguesswork grainis simplya matterof brushing on illustrates Thissample before you stain. of staining. theappropriate sealer thefficx on wtstained oakof one, you There are other preparations coats of stain(ntoving Whilea grain twoandthree should make at thisstage. or fillercanbe applied eitherbefore fi'omlefttoright).Thebottomhalf to show how ofthestripis topcoated after staining,you need to raisethe a clear thestainlooks under grain of the wood (page 50) before finish.

W W

n u

Many stainscan be bought premixed and readyto use.However, you may if you enjoyexperimenting, alsopreferto custom mix your colors.As shown in the photoat left,a teststrip canhelp you produce the right of ingrecombination dientsand determine the numberof applications you will need to make. Frompaintbrushes to padappliand rags guns, cators andspray in applying stains therearealternatives aswell.\{hichevermethodyou choose, goggles andrubbergloves. wearsafety alsoto don a dualIt is a goodpractice respirator to filter out toxic cartridge fumes produced a s a s t a i ne v a p o rales(page19).

A STAIN PREPARING

^)f

Mixing theingredients withdyes or pigments When working stick in powder form,usea wooden withthe of the powder to mixsome solvent in a glass containappropriate Apply thestain to a sample er (left). you that willbecolstripof thewood to dry. Todarken oring, Allow thestrip t h ec o l o o r f t h es t a i na , d da s m a l l To of powder to thesolution. amount more lighten mixin a little thestain, Make another test strip, adjustsolvent. youare until ingthecolor of thestain satisf iedwiththe results.

68

CHANGINGTHE COLOR

THE W()RKPIECE READYING

S e a l i ne g n dg r a i n o apply a U s ea r a go r p a i n t b r u sth sealet r o t h e e n d g r a i no f y o u rw o r k p i e c eM . ake certain t h a tt h e p r o d u c t y o uu s ef o rt h i st a s ki s c o m p a t i b lw er t h y o uw i l l b e u s i n g t h e s t a i na n df i n i s h onshellac forwateror oilSpread stains o r f i n i s h e sf;o r a l c o h o l based p r o d u c t s ,e a l e n dg r a i n w i t ha n based A slopo i l - b a s ew do o d conditione rv . oid p i n gt h es e a l eo of r n t ot h e f a c eo r e d g e t h ew o r k p i e c e th ; i s c o ul d a f f e c t h e even nessof the stai n.

i;il il$ llj lt iljijliiiilllili,ii,i tlj:ruu ruitjir* tll lliir]ii

1Ho?TtP
?reparing a nat'ural walnut, stain To make,,broue d,e noix,', z .* -.;[3*'-

-un' ;" -,-.^,s"'t+r-\

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naluralwalnuN dyeeNain Vopular qreen in the 1BOOz, collecL eeveral / walnula,lellinq huaks f r o mf a l l e n i . Lhem d r ya n d t u r n b l a c k . ) o a k | h e i ' ' huske for a fewdayein a larqenon- i -_ ' stick steel pot '' mixNure for several ' " : - :Then simmer Nhe i hourson a eLove, addinq oneIable- ! . I , qallon eVoon of lyefor every of the i. ,,. . , lhe solulion in clear mixture. SotrIle g l a s sl a r e a n d l e a v e lhem in briqht \= d a r k e n ef u r e u n l i o , hu l nlil lhe mixf,ure an oldcloth N h e rS . LrainLhe dyeLhrouqh L h e h r s k e ,A p p l i e d , and re-bottle it, diecardinq w i l h a b r u s h , " b r o u ed e n o t x "V r o d u c e e a ranqe o f r i c h b r o w nl o n e s o n w o o d . filled wilh waler,

69

CHANGING THE COLOR

A GALLERY OF STAINS
TYPE DYESTAINS Water-based starn S p i r is t tain 0ilstain Powdered uble ; water-sol Penetrating; notvery lightfast; transparent; grain; good brilliant; tends forhardto raise woods; compatible withanyfinish quickly, Penetrating; notlightfast; dries lapandstreak buttends to leave marks Penetrating; transparent; does not grain; obscure slow-drying; bleeds; needs good sealer coatof shellac; forsoftwoods grain; Does notraise transparent and good lightfast; forveneers Penetrates open-grained wood; moderately lightfast; transparent; easy to apply; colors canbemixed; does notraise or obscure grain; good bleeds; needs wash coat; for softwoods grain. Raise Addto water, strain. gun. Apply withbrush, ragorspray Mixwithalcohol andstrain. Brush orwipe on.Best forsmall areas. petroDissolve in mineral or spirit leum distillate andsirain. Apply withnylon-bristle brush andwipe off excess, Thin to desired consistency. gun.lf applying Apply withspray witha brush or rag,useretarder. Apply withbrush or rag. Wipe off excess afterdesired coloris ach ieved. AVAILABLE FORM ANDUSES CHARACTERISTICS PREPARATION AND APPLICATION

Powdered uble ; alcohol-sol Powdered; oil-soluble

NGR stain

Liquid d;i s s o l v e in d methanol andpetroleum distillate solution Liquid d ;i s s o l v e in d mineral spirits

Penetrating oil stain

Varnish stain

Liquid d;i s s o l v e in d varn lsn

Highly transparent; lightfast; non-penetrating; Apply witha ragandwipeoff, or gun. adds filler, color andgloss in oneoperation; usea spray good grades for lower of lumber

PIGMENT STAINS W i p i ns gt a i n Liquid s;u s p e n d ie nd oil andmineral spirits Powder; soluble in any liqu id Liquid; concenirated in varn ish Liquid nd s;u s p e n d ie petroleum-based gel Liquid s;u s p e n die nd varn ish Liquid s;u s p e n die nd an acrylic andwater base gun. Lightfast; willnotbleed; non-penetrating; Apply withbrush, rag orspray grain opaque; tends to hide Wipe off excess after desired color is achieved. Easy lightfast; hides to use; opaque; grain; good grain forwood withindistinct protective ortinting finish Excellent fortinting varnish, lacquer stain, grain Easy to use; hides M i xw i t ho i lo rv a r n i s A h .p p l y gun. withbrush, ragor spray Apply withsynthetic brush. Apply withrag; wipeoff excess after desired color is achieved.

pigment Earth

lanan

nnlnr

Gelsiain Glazing stain

Water-based stain

Excellent forfiguring, shading, or conecting Apply withbrush or rag; allow grain; sapstreaks; hides wears off;needs a to set.Wipe offwithgrain if hard finish coat desired. grain. Non-penetrating; lightfast; brilliant; colors Raise Apply withbrush, gun. canbe mixed together; non-toxic and ragor spray non-f lammable

70

CHANGING THE COLOR

APPLYING A STAIN

WooD
STAIN

Yr''

. \

,-=--\ ---\'

./r-Y
Brushing onstain paintbrush Dipa clean intothestain, coating about half thebristle lengh. Tominimize lapmarks, flood thesurface withstain andbrush along the grain wood i n l i g h te , ven strokes (above). Once thesurface is completely covered, wipe it witha clean, dry,lintfreeclothto even outthe color and soak u p e x c e sls i q u i dF . o ru n i f o r m coverage withan alcohol-based stain, wipe thesurface assoon as possible after brushing it on.

lll1 rlll illt l|ll illll| lllt ill fill tlll lll] lllllllt lll filt iltilIl filj
?HO?TI?
Controlling the flow of et ain AlLhouqh floodinq on stain ie Nhe recommended pracNice when working on a horizonlal sur'face, doin4the samewhenNhewood is verNical willresultin drippinq, and make a meooof your projecLOneanswerie lo rig up a cleanmetalcan lo regulate t h e f l o wo f l i q u i df r o m y o u r b r u s h . TunchNwoholeeon oppooite

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2?' [t:,"ni|il",xy ;:::(,* :w


drawthe bristlee'acroee Nhe | -$::;

e,que,ezinq anyexceoe y1ire, liquidbackintrolhe can.

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7I

CHANGING THE COLOR

WooP
STAIN

Wiping onthestain Fold a c l e a nd , r y ,l i n t - f r ece loth i n t oa pad andsoak it withstain, squeezing out notdrip. theexcess untilthepaddoes Wipe thestain onthesurface, working (/eft). parallel to thegrain Ruboffthe witha clean excess cloth.

Using a pad applicator F i l lt h ew e l l o f a p a da p p l i c a t o r half fullof stain tray andpullthe pad loading it with over theroller, t h el i q u i d D . raw t h ea p p l i c a t o r along t h ew o r k p i e c fo el l o w i n g (below), thegrain wetting thesurfaceliberally. Use a clean cloth to wipe away theexcess.

72

CHANGING THE COLOR

WooD
STAIN

-=/'/

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J--

'/' -

--\=*7

lllllllr lll ull llu llrl lrJ lI]Illj llljlllllllllltl lltI lll1 ljlli]ll lll
Tt? 9HO7
Gettin7 stain into tight, epote Keep a selectrion of smallbrushes on handlo strain moldinqo, corner6, carvingo and lrim that a clotrh or a laraerbrushcannol reach. For brushes trhalare smaller than lhoee foundin mosl hardwareslores, try an art :.'... \

Dipping a small workpiece To color a workpiece that is too s m a lflo rb r u s h i n og rw i p i n g d,i pi t right intoa container filled withthe stain(abovd. Holdthe piece over thecanto lettheexcess liquid run hold off,Then thepiece bythecorners wipe and i t w i t ha c l e a n cloth.

ouVVly ohop.

73

CHANGING THE COLOR

Spraying a stain gunfollowing Prepare thespray the manufacturer's instructions. Tostain a piece of f urniture like theoneshown h above ,o l d t h eg u na b o u 6 t to 1O inches from withthenozzle thesurface perpendicular to thewood. Starting at thetopof thepiece, squeeze thetrigger to apply thestain, moving thegunfrom side to side in overlapping sweeps until youreach thebottom. Formore information o na d l u s t i n a g n du s i n g spray equipmen rt e ,f et ro p a g e 93.Before yto u rl o c a l sprayin ags t a i nc , ontac a u t h o r i t it eo se n s u rte h a ty o u r spray area satisfies local safety regulations (page 102).

lllllllllll lll llllllfi lil lji lll lil i]lJ llllllllilIl IIlilllilllllil
1HO?TI?
Supports for drying
AfEer st aininqa workpiece,

let it dry evenly and blemish-free on a beI


nf ahnn-ma)P Cttl lnttr Gttn2-inrhnnrla

equare woodblocks and drive a smallnailIhrouqh the middle of eachone. Arranqe trheblocks on a level surtacewith the nail t i V ep o i n t i n q u Vs o l h a l they willeupporL the workniPaP ea: ila rnrncra

PICKLINGAWOODSURFACE
ickling, or liming,refers to anyone of a number of antiquingtechniques intended to impartan aged and weathered look to lisht-colored wood. Traditionally, woodriorkers havepickled furniturewith suchchemicals as nitric acid,lye andlime.Asshown below, however, you canachieve comparable results by applying a coatof whitepaint, pigmented whiteshellac or whiteglaze to The trick is to wipe off the workpiece. thebulkof thestain, leaving traces in moldings andcorners. Once thepickled stainisdry it should with a light topcoat. be sealed Youcan pickleeitherbareor stained wood suriaces, but ifyou have used a water-based dyeon the wood,you will alsoneedto seal it prior to applying a latexpaintor glaze. Pickling canbe attempted with anyspecies, worksbest but the process with oakor oine.

A pickled finishcangivea newly mlde chairthetime-worn appearance of a vintage antique.

APPLYING A PICKLED FINISH

il,)

'l Applying thewhite stain paint I Use white a rag to spread orstain onthesurfaces. While i s s t i l lw e t ,w i p e t h ep a i n t o f f t h e b u l ko f i t w i t ha glaze rag, leaving burlap a whitish onflatsurfaces andstreaks (above). in crevices of white andcarvings Letthestain dry. l f t h ee f f e c its t o op r o n o u n c e ad b,r a dte h es u r f a cw eith youobtain youwant. 220-grit sandpaper until thelook

11 "Aging" thesurface Z to give thewood an antique appearance, usea ragto ruba mixture of rottenstone andpaste waxover thesurface (abovd. Wipe offtheexcess witha burlap rag, taking care to leave residue some in thecrevices andcarvinqs.

CHEMICALSTAINS
p efore the advent ofsynthetic dyes, I) stainine woodwasan art form ihat rivaled aljhemy. With natural dyes derivedfrom plantsand insects, and mordantsextracted from tin, chemical iron,aluminum andchrome, staining knowledge required ofbotanyandchemistrv aswell asexoerience with wood. Appliedby thimselves, naturaldyes producepleasant shades of red and brown on manyspecies of wood.Tea, for example, is usedoccasionally on antiquereproductions to producea warm golden hue.But in combination naturaldyes with chemical mordants, ofsuperb, brilcanbringout a rainbow liantcolors. Thephotos andoppobelow siteillustrate theeffects ofa fewselected dyesand mordants on four popular The species is indicated in hardwoods. bold tlpe with the dyeor mordantlisteddirectlybelow Formoreinformation on a full range of mordants andnaturreferto the charton page 78. al dyes, The term mordantcomes from the "to French verbmordre, meaning bite." Mordants do two thingsfor naturaldyes: Theychange thecolorofa dyethrough a chemical reaction with either thedyeor the wood.They alsohelp a dyepenetratewoodandbind with thefibers. Somenaturaldyesareavailable as powdered mustbe extracts, but others extracted from naturaloroducts in the powcomein crystal, shop.Mordants der or liquid form.Whenpreparing a

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ToLaaatum dichromate and tannic acid

Logwood and copper aulfate

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Fotaeeium perma nqa nate

Cherry Drazilwood andalum


paLaooium dichromaLe

76

CHANGINGTHE COLOR

chemical stain, mix a 15percent solution of thedryingredients anddistilled water. It is better to make theconcentrationtoo weak thantoo strong; it is easier to darken thewoodthanto lightenit. Allow each coatto dry completely before applying thenext;colorcanbe misleading whenthestainis wet. Some naturaldyes cancause allergic reactions, butmostare relativelybenign. Manychemical mordants, however, are caustic andsometimes toxic. Prepare and

applythese products carefully, wearing goggles, safety neoprene gloves anda rubber apron. A dual-cartridge respirator is a mustfor a mixtureproducing toxicfumes. Do not spread a chemical stainonbleached woodor youriskcreatingpoisonous chlorine gas. Toavoid splashes whendilutinga mordant, add thechemicalto thewater, alittleatatime. Thereareno hardandfastrulesfor applyrng chemical stains. Typically, the dyesolution isspread onthewood, then

themordant is added whilethe dyeis stillwet.Thesolutions should bemixed separately and appliedwhen cool. Experimentation is the key to good results; keep arecord ofyourrecipes and thecolors theyproduce. Chemical staining is becoming a dyingart.Manyproducts canbefound onlyatphotography andchemical supply houses. But if youareafterstriking and uniqueeffects, they canbe well worththetrouble of seeking themout.

Oak Fotaaaium Permanqanate

Mahogany Lo7woodand potaaoium dichromate

Mahogany 9umac and copper aulfate

Mahogany Loqwood and alum

77

CHANGING THE COLOR

DYES ANDNATURAL MORDANTS CHEMICAI


MORDANT Alum Ammonia sulfate Copper (blue vitriol) Fenous sulfate
fnnnnorasl

FORM AND CHARACTERISTICS mineral salts; non-toxic White solution; highly toxic 28%liquid highly toxic Blue copper crystals; highly toxic; lroncrystals; reacts withtannin in wood crystals; toxic Calcium oxide mildly toxic Potash crystals;

PRODUCED COIORS Purplish anddark crimson tones (For yellow withlogwood dye; light Dark violet browns fuming) dye withbrazilwood browns (For gray preserving tones with wood) Dark andolive logwood dye gray ebony-like black withlogwood to bluish tones; Steel oyeor alum ascherry limed finish on hardwoods such Antique withvinegar must be neutralized andwalnut; withalum andfustic A range of greens dyes wellwithaniline Deep reds to richbrowns; combines (For tannin content a Turns wood withhigh ebonizing) purplish brown withvinegar must beneutralized Darkens cheny andoak; pinkwithalizarin; combines redwithbrazilwood dye; Light dyes wellwithmany in wood Boosts tannin content

Hydrated lime (quicklime) Potassium carbonate

toxic; chrome crystals; extremely Potassium dichromate Orange reacts tannin conient to high potash crystals; mildly toxic Violet Potassium permanganare White lyepowder; toxic hydroxide Sodium Stannous chloride T a n n ia cc i d moderately toxic White tin crystals; powder fromhemlock Yellow extracted toxic andoak; mildly FORM AND ORIGIN dyeor theactive coloring A synthetic root agent of madder An ancient organic dyefrom the borage family tree froma Central American Seeds of species A popular dyefromseveral trees American redwood South Dried tropical insects of the heartwood of An extract acacia tree theAsian palm fromthefruitof the rattan A resin of fromthe heartwood Anextract tree mulbeny theAmerican fromIndian A dyeextracted plants indigo American Anextract fromCentral hardwoods campeche Extracted fromthe roots of plant madder theEurasian

DYE I{ATURAL Alizarin Alkanet root Annato Brazilwood Coch ineal Cutch Dragon's blood Fustic lnd igo Logwood Madder root

PRODUCED COLIIRS "Turkish yellow andbrown, red"; crimson, orange, onthemordant depending (For polishing) a range of reds Gray tones withalum; French withlinseed oil withchrome, tin or alum; oakbrown andgolds 0ranges withlye depending onthemordant reds, browns, andpurples, Vibrant withalum Many shades of redmixed frombeige to chocolate lightfast shades of brown, Various lightfast reds Bright, yellows to greenish-yellows on itsown; Orange-yellow w i t ha l u m yellow-white hydroxide withsodium Deep blue; grays, depending blacks, blues andpurples, Lightfast browns, onthemordant depending onthemordant browns andyellows, Reds, blues,

78

CHANGINGTHE COLOR

APPLYING A CHEMICAL STAIN

Mixing t h ei n g r e d i e n t s gn a t u r ad I n p r e p a r i na l y es o l u t i o o nr a y,o uw i l lg e n e r a l lb ye c h e m i c am l ordant f o l l o w i ntg h ed i r e c t i o n ss u p p l i ew d ith t h e c o l o r i na gg e n t B . u ti t i s i m p o r t a n t


to hc vprv nrp.isp in nnmhininothpcp

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5HO7Tt?
A chemical stain for ebonizing yourownsf,ain Tomake for lurninga woodblack, oubmerqe a ef,eel woolpad and a few ruoty nailsin a larqe
q l a o oj a r f i l l e dw i b hc i d e r v i n e g a r . LeI lhe mixttre sif,, uncovered, u n t i l i N t u r n e c l o u d ya n d q r a y :L h i e e h o u l dL a k e aboul a week. T h e nE L r a i n l h e s o l u t i o nN h r o u g h a i.,
r^.offee filt.er
al ain annnne

ingredients M . e a s u ro eu t t h e d r y i n g r e dients w i t ha s c a l e a n ds e tt h e ma s i d e i n a d i s h .l f y o u r recipe f o rb o i l i n g calls


nr r v hrn oU r r. \ / n | a 2n trc^ ^ r,^+|r^ r^ r ut L u vr ve ui L _yvu uor I UJC d nCLLIC LU

heat u p t h e l r q u i dF . i l l am e a s u r i n g y o un e e d , c u p w i t ht h e v o l u m e of water
Arr rL^ i. h n r r r i t i n i n : o l z c . : ^ -. n . ,p, n ., n uu L|u T--' b,--) ldr

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dryingredients o thewater slowly (ahnve) stirrinp thc snlution w i t ha r issolves. w o o ds t i c ku n t i lt h e p o w d e d y o u r Apply t h e r n i x t u rt e o workpiece w i t ha s y n t h e t i s c p o n g ef,o l l o w i n g the p r o c e d u rfe o rw i p i n g o n a s t a i nw i t h a cloth (page 72).

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aarteral

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coals of iNon the wood, letrtinq eachapplication dry before ?rtttnq on Lhe nexN. Af|er the l a e l c o a L ,b r u s h o r s o m el i q u i d a, m m o n i a or flood Lhe sufiace w i t h w a L e rt o n e u f , r a l i z e t h e a c i d ,i n t h e v i n e q a r . T h e ns a n d N h ew o o d .

":,.!*fi.lrya:,1u

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FUMING
, . - , . r ' rl ' ^ . h ' , . ' . r . " j S t i C S Oli.l11l1Olr! lrr LrrL \rl(lr(r\r\r

{.,..-.r lviththe to react niais itstendenq, to a piece of tirnninin lvood.Exposed liquidrvill furniture, thisrvater-soluble gir,ing it theclassic bok thervood, darken aumoIn oakandcherry, of anantique. rangof hues niarvillbringoLrt a vatrietv to dark brorvtr. ing from light hone,v of exposure, on thean-u'rturt Depending spccies t h e c h e n r i c .rrv l i l lt t r r r r : o t t t c ahrostblack.

You cirn firme wood rvith regular by either Ammonia canbe applied aulrollia, but aqueous theliqLrid or bysuf- household or brushing sponging pirr,avai Iablefr"omchenrical sr"r vaporinside ar.r.l.r-u'u-r in ammonia thelr,ood ftising lvorks in ir28 perceut scllution, option, plyhor-rses tent.Thissecoud a shop-built are quickl1,. Bothproducts adr,antages. rulrchr.nore fuming, hasdefinite called theeyes, skinirnd andharmftrlto e\.elt- caustic colors exposed surf,lces Theprocess concentrtrted amtlorespilatory s,vstem; And ly rvithoutlap marksor streaks. If caue\ren be fhtalif inhaled. theivood niaftrmes penetrate although thefhmes rveirr rubrvood possible, fi.rme outdoors; liquid than brushed-on more deeply a dual-carsafety goggles arnd bergloves, fuming doesnot raisethe ammonia, thervood. tridgerespirator. no liquidcontacts grain, since

Nat,ural maho1any

NaLural walnuL

NaLural oak

Fumed maho1any

Fumed walnut

Fumedoak

CHANGING THE COLOR

EXPOSING FURNITURE TOAMM()NIA FUMES

Using a fuming tent Build a wood frame thatis a littlelarger your than workpiece. Use triangular bracketsto reinforce thecorners anda bar clamp to hold thecorners square asyou (above). nailtheframe together Remove anymetal hardware fromyour workpiece beforp e l a c i n ig t i n t h ef r a m eo ; therw i s et,h ea m m o n w i ai l lt a r n i sth h em e t al.Tocomplete thetent,drape a black plastic tarpover theframe. Use duct tape to seal anyopenings in thetarpand gather it tightly around theframe, leaving f l a po p e nF one . i l ls e v e r a d li s h ew s ith ammonia and setthecontainers inthetent (right). Seal thef lapandletthefumes work for about 24 hours, checking on periodically theworkpiece andtopping upthedishes withfresh ammonia. Remove youwant, thepiece when it has thecolor k e e p i ni g nmind t h a ti t w i l ld a r k ea nl i t tle more after it is exposed to theair.

81

PROTECTT\tr FINSHES
microscope, wood loolslikeabundle of straws-wood absorbs finishat differaresatisfied with theshape thatremains, entrates. Applying a uniformcoating afinishisbuilt up layer bylayer. Simply of a finishoftenresults in whatappears put, finishing is theprocess of spreadto beuneven coverage. Thereason is ing a fluid overwoodto dry in thin that endgrainabsorbs morefinish, sheets. Andwhileit is a slower andless leaving its surface lookingbare, while dramatic stage of aproject, ttreendresult the adjacent faces and edges appear is equally importantin producing a adequately covered. Thesolution is to piece beautiful of furniture. floodon a coatof finishandallowdifPerhaps themostimpressive aspect ferent amounts to betaken in by the of a finishis theamount of protection endandflatgrainareas. Thewoodwill it will provide. Mostcommercial finish- A varnishtopcoat bringsout theluster thenbe properlycovered whenyou esare nothicker thanthepage of aboo( of an oak table.Finishinga pieceby wipeoffthe excess. yettheymust guard thewood onwhich handdemands Loadingthebrush care. Over time,finishers grown musthave theyrestfromdirt, moisture andeven with toomuchfinish,particularly impatient with thethin coats thatwipmild abrasion. whencoatingverticalsurfaces, can ing produces, andbrushes were introTheearliest probclear finishes were resultin driDsand runs. duced to theprocess. you Brushes enable ablyapplied in thesimplest way-wiped to getintothemostinaccessible of carvon with whatever wasat hand.A true oil finishconsists of ings andcrevices, to apply finishquickly in thicker coats and, nothing more thannatural drying oilsflooded ontothewood. notincidentally, to keep yourhands clean. Today, with thevarTheexcess is thenwipedoff,leaving a thin film to dry.One iousbristle types andbrush configurations available, there is or twocoats seal thesurface andsubsequent layers can bebuilt a brush for virtually every variety product. of finishing up to almost anythickness or sheen. Even today, theterm Application times were further reduced starting in the1920s "hand-rubbed finish" conjures upanimage ofluster andqual- withthedevelopment of thespray gun.Spraying isby farthe ity.Shellac, anaturally resin, occurring can behandled in much quickest way to apply a finish, blanketing thewoodin a cloud thesame wayasoil. Oneor twocoats seal thewood, butyou of finely atomized fluid.Buttechnology comes with itsdrawcan keep adding coats to develop glosysurhce thedeep, known backs. guns Spray can bewasteful, for asubstantial portionof polish(page asFrench 106). generally thatcloud misses itsmark.Oneof thegoals of finMosttopcoats canbeapplied by hand, andwiping ranks ishing equipment designers is to create a newgeneration of asoneofthebestandeasiest ways to ensure thin, even cov- spray guns thatpreserve theirtraditional speed ofoperation erage of a woodsurface. Because of its structure-under a whilecurbing wastefulness.
nlike a cabinetmaking projectin whichwoodis cut away until you

Spraying makes quickworkoffinishingintricateturnings. like lacQuick-dryingfinishes querandshellac areideal for thistechnique.

AND ACCESSORIE,S TOOLS


sf a , \ s i v i t h r l l t h e o t h e rs t a g e o l1 finishing project, the.rpplication rvill be helpedalongby a few stage Ifyou have the accessories. specialized to applya little patience and energy elbowgrease, thereareir wideassortfor padsandbrushes mentof cloths, andpads can a surface. Cloths cor,ering in theshopfrom andprepared be made or linen;you canalsofashold sheets (pnge 92). ion your own foam brv,sh styles, sizes Brushes comein different and priceranges. Shouldyou opt for foam variety, a highover the thebristle is a good,long-term qualitybrLrsh investment. It will outlast a cheaper it will rnore importantly, brush, but, produce finish. also a better Therearre two principaltypesof spraysystems on the market.Until available fealecently, theonlysystem hooked up to a tured a col.npressor more guu.Today, the compact spray (HVLP)syshigh-r,olurne, low-pressure With moreprevalent. temisbecorring waste, less the less overspray andhence to operate HVLP is moreeconomical andeasier on theenr,ironment. you need With both spray systems, them to cor-rttrin thefumes andexhaust The commercial spraybootl-r safeiy. shorvn at right is a goodalternative, provided issmallenough theworkpiece to fit inside thebooth.
Commeraial spray booth For eprayin4 amall work' piecee. Made of aheeL meral. Featurea filtero Lhat collect overopray and an exploeton-proof fan and chimneyLhat exhauaL fumee ouLeide Lhe workehop

B4

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

High-volume, Iow-p reeaure epray 6y6tem Featureean electric turbine that euppliee a qreat deal of air at. low preggureto spray of 7un;ailowehiqhpercentaqe ftniehto contacL workpiece Vieaoeity cup Helpoin mixinqfintehLo for proper coneteLency eprayinq.Cup ie drpped rnto fintehand filled with liquid;Lhetime iL takee cup Lo empty throu1h holein bottom ehould correepondt.o elapoed Ltmeapeciftedby manufacturer

Foam brush An rnexpenaive optton for applyinq finteheawithouLleavinq atreaka or otray briatleo on aurface; ideal for contoured eurfaceaand tiqht. 6pot6

Y-\ ----===i--Z---r.-

-=<-,

Conventional epray eyetem ouppileeatream of pree' Compreeoor aurtzed air throu4hhoeeto oprayqun. Atrre7ulatorcontrols volume and preaaure of ar; requlator includeefilter that rernoveg mora|.ure and other tmpurittee

-Nat.uralor oynthet.ic brretleafor applyinga ftniah: spreadaa thicker, more even c'oat than foam bruah

?pray gun and cup Cupaerveeaa ftnish reservoir; euction feeda finish Lhrough metal tube to qun, where compressed air atom' izeathe liquidinto a mtet whentn4qer io pulled

8s

CHOOSING A PROTECTIVE FINISH


finishyouchoose for T h. protective I a project hasa lot to do with your personal youwishto taste andtheeffect Theprincipal feature achieve. ofa productliketungoil,for example, isitscapacity to penetrate giving wood, thesurface awarmglowandaccentuating thegrain andits pattern. A varnish or polyureprovides thane topcoat a higher degree of protection by dryingto a plasticJike film;however, itwill also maskthe surface details to some degree. Manyprotective finishes, including polyurethane varnish, andlacquer, are nowavailable in two formulations: sol- preparing andapplying a water-based vent-andwater-based. Years ago, sol- finish maydifferfrom themethods used products vent-based monopolized the for is solvent-based counterpart. Always marketplace, but recent environmental refer to themanufacturer's instructions concerns have spurred thedevelopment for mixingandapplying a topcoat. of water-based finishes. Solvent-based Whichever finishyouselect, applyfinishes aregenerally flammable; water- ing it entails morethanslopping on a products based arenot. Anothersell- fewcoasoftheproduct andlettingthem ingpointof water-based finishes isthat dry.Thewoodsurface hasto beproptheydo not release toxicsolvents into erlyprepared: Ifyouwantto fill thegrain the atmosphere whentheyare (page except 50)of an open-pore species like sprayed, andthuscomplywith increas- oalg youwill need to dosobefore applyinglystringent air qualitystandards in ingthefinish.Before applyngalacquer states likeCalifornia. Theprocedures for topcoat to anopen-pore woodsurface, a sealer coatmaybe in order.Finally, youwill need to bleach or stain thepiece ahead of timeif changing its color(page 54)ispartofyourgame plan. preparing Before your tools and opening up your container of finish, makesurethat anyfiller,washcoator stainis completely dry.Asa finalpreparation,gooverthewoodsurfaces with a tackclothto besuretheyarefreeof particles sanding anddust.' Theprocedures for applying a topcoatdepend on the productyou are usingandthe application methodyou have selected. Pages 87to 90detailthe for applying steps awiderange of products byhando5where appropriate, with thehelpof spray equipment.

Easyto apply,a coatof polymerized tungoil is wipedonto thesurface of this protectingthe wood cherrytoy chest, andgiving it a warm luster.

86

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

DRYING OILS
Drying oils, such aslinseed, tungandwalnut oil,area group of natural finishesthat cure to form a relatively hard filmona wood surface. Tungoil, also known asChina wood oil,isone of the mostpopular drying oil f inishes. Extracted fromthe nut of thetung tree, theoil is available in pure, modified andpolymerized form. pure Because it contains noadditives, tungoil is a good choice forfinishing children's toys andeating utensils such as lf youareplanning salad bowls. to useit, check thelabel to pure. make sure thatthecontents are100percent Themain benefit of modif iedtungoilsisthatthey contain chemical quickly . olymerized additive th sa ta l l o w them t o d r ym o r e P tungoil undergoes a special heat it dries faster treatment; still andproduces a glossier sheen. Drying oils arereactive f inishes, meaning thatthey dryand harden when exoosed to air-evenin a sealed container. youstore When a drying oil,use a containerthat is assmall e r e d u cte a sp o s s i btl o h ev o l u mo ef a i rt o w h i c h t h eo i l i s A couple exposed. of other suggestions arediscussed in the Shoo Tiobelow. APPLICATION SEOUENCE 1.Wipe theoilonthesurface witha cloth; it should be applied straight fromthecontainer. (typically 2. Lettheoil soak intothewood for 15 minutes), thenusea clean cloth to wipe offtheexcess. 3. Letthesurface dry,usually overnight. paper 4. Sand thesurface with400-grit andremove particles. sanding 5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 as many times as necesyouwant. sary to achieve thefinish Depending on yield thewood, five coats of oil willtypically a semigloss sheen. 6. Letthesurface cure forat least a week before rubbing outthefinish(page 126).

lllllllllll llfl lllltll] fill fill illilrit tjll illt llllfitl i]ll illt lllt illl
9HO7Tt?
?reventing reaat ive finisheo from drying out, Io expooe a reactivelinieh I o a e l i I I l ea i r a s V o o o i ble,pour iL intro a collapeible VlaeLic conlainerlike Nhoee ueedfor pholographicchemicale (far ri7ht),Collapoe the folds of NheconLainer to expel a l lN h e a i r , I h e nc a Vi t Li4htly (near riqht). lf you
are keeoinaa reactive finieh in a 7 l a o oc o n L a i n e r d , rop enouqh

small sLones inlo Nhe or marblee liquid Io raiseillo lhe level of the brim,trhen ocrew onlhe caV,Whichever oloraqe methodyou choooe, fix a labello NheconNainer identifvin a lh e co nlenNs.

87

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

VARNISH
protective Varnish is a highly durable coatingforwood, more resistant to heat and alcohol damage thanproducts like shellac you andlacquer. Whether arebrushing it onor using spray equipment, it isalso relatively easy to apply. lf youarebrushing, tryto work witha white wall ora window in back of theworkpiece. Thereflected yousee light willhelp if youare skipping anarea or if youarepicking updust. Varnishes were once made withnatural resins and oils like linseed oil. These materials have since been supplanted bysynthetic resins, buttheoldsystem of classifying varnish based ontheorooortion of oil-toresin stillprevails. Accordingly, varnishes aredesignated aseither shoft, medium or long oil.Long-oil varnish isslow drying, producing a softandelastic coating. Short-oil varn ishis hard, andglossygood forwithstanding abrasion. Mediumo i lv a r n i so hr o v i d e finish as t h a tf a l l s between thetwoin gloss anddurability. (BRUSHING) APPLICATI()N SEOUENCE 1. Dilute thevarnish andspread a thincoat onthesurface witha highquality bristle brush; work firstagainst thegrain, then withit. 2. Letthesurface dry, typically for 12 to 24 hours. 3. Sand thesurface witha self-lubricating 240-or 280-griI sandpaper. 4. Repeat 1 to 3, using steps a stronger dilution of varnish andsanding the (280gritsandpaper witha f iner surface to 320-grit). 5. Brush onan undiluted coat of varnish. 6. Letthesurface dryandsand with400-grit sandpaper. 7. Repeat steps 5 and6 twoorthree times. 8. Letthesurface cure for 24to72 hours before rubbing outthefinish. (SPRAYING) APPLICATI(1N SESUENCE (page 1. Dilute thevarnish to theproper viscosity 96) gunat lowpressure 2. Setthespray to minimize overspray andpooling. 3. Spray a thincoat onthesurface. 4. Letthesurface dry, thensand with320-grit sandpaper. 5. Repeat steps 3 and4 twoorthree times. 6. Letthesurface for 24 Io 72 hours cure rubbine before outthefinish.

POTYURETHANE
Polyurethane is a transparent, varnish-like finish thatis durable, abrasion-resistant andeasy to apply. Formulated quickly withsynthetic resin, it dries more thanvarnish, youhave making it an ideal choice when limited timefor polyurethane thef inishing work. Like varnish, canbe brushed orsprayed onfurniture. Polyurethanes in a variety areavailable of lusters, rangingfromflatto glossy. Because theydo notrelease toxic polyinto solvents theatmosphere while drying, water-based urethanes aresafer fortheenvironment than their solventbased counterparts. lf youplan to spray a water-based polyurethane, your besure spray equipment isscrupulously product. clean; oilwillcontaminate thewater-based (BRUSHING) APPLICATI()N SEOUENCE l. Apply a thinandeven coat witha paint brush or pad applicator, always brushing withthegrain. 2. Letthesurface dryforabout 2 hours. 3. Sand thesurface witha 320-to 400-grit sandpaper. 4. Repeat steps 1 to 3, abrading thesurface witha finer gritsandpaper. giving 5. Apply a final coat, thesurface 18 to 24 hours to drybefore rubbing outthefinish. (SPRAY]NG) APPTICATION SEOUENCE 1. Spray theworkpiece asyou would forvarnish, allowing 30 to 60 minutes forthecoat to dry. 2. Sand thesurface witha 320-to 400-grit sandpaper. progressively 3. Apply twomore coats, using finergrit sandpaper to abrade thesurface after each application. 4. Waitat least 18 to 24 hours rubbing before out t h ef i n i s h .

BB

PROTECTIVEFINISHES

SHELLAC
produced Shellac is a natural f inish from thesecretions of thelacinsect, which is indigenous to Indochina andIndia. The bugs feed ontreesapandexpel a resin thatforms a protective shell around their bodies. Eventually thismaterial builds up andisdeposited ontree twigs andbranches;it isthenharvested andprocessed. In itscommercial forms, shellac is available both asa liouid andin f lakes. Liquid shellac is ready foruse, butthe f lakes must bemixed f irstwithdenatured alcohol. In some regard, however, theflakes arethemore form convenient youcanprepare of theproduct since only asmuch of thesolution asyouneed for project. a particular Both types of shellacareavailable in a variety of shades, ranging fromdarkbrown andorange to blond andwhite. Shellac isalso classif iedaccording to its "pound cut,"which refers to the amount inthesolvent. of resin A 1-poundcutshellac, forinstance, has onepound gallon of resin foreach of solvent. grades, Shellac comes in different depending onwhere and when theproductwasharvested. Coarse shellac has bitsof twigs andbugs; thesuper-refined pure variety isvirtually liquid. provides While shellac a durable finishthatprotects wood fromhumidity andabrasion, it does notstand upwell to water, alcohol or heat. Like other solvent-release finishes, shellac forms a milky cloud ona surface-called blushing-if it issprayed in high humidity or withexcessive moisture in thesolvent. Keep thesolvent in a sealed container. (BRUSHING) APPLICATION SEOUENCE 1. Either buyor prepare a 1-or 2-pound-cut withwhich shellac to apply two (page wash orthree coats to thesurface 53i.Brush thefinish onquickly andevenly withasfewstrokes aspossible, working withthegrain only. Avoid overlapping thebrushstrokes. 2. Letthesurface dry, typically forat least 2 hours. 3. Sand thesurface witha self-lubricating 360-or400-grit sandpaper. Remove particles. sanding 4. Brush onanother coat, using a 3-pound-cut shellac, thensand. 5. Apply three or more coats witha 5-pound-cut shellac, sanding before each application. 6. Allow 24 to 72 hours of drying timebefore rubbing outthef inish. (SPRAYII{G) APPTICATION SESUENCE 1. Prepare a solution withtheproper consistency forspraying following the manufacturer's instructions; a 1-or 2-pound-cut shellac istypical. lf yoyoumay liquid areusing shellac, have it. to dilute gunfora light 2. Adjust thespray coat to keep drips andruns to a minimum. 3. Spray ontwoor three wash coats. 4. Letthesurface dryforabout 30 minutes, thensand it wiiha selfparticles. lubricating 360-or 400-grit sandpaper. Remove sanding 5. Spray onthree orfouradditional coats using a more concentrated solution andsanding between applications. 6. Letthefinish dryfor48 to 72 hours before rubbing out.

A viscosity cupis used to testtheconsistency of afinishfor spraying. Proper dilution of the thatit coats a workpiece finishwill ensure uniformly andwith a minimumof dripping.

89

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

LACOUER
(BRUSHING) APPTICATION SEOUENCE Lacquer hasbeen used asa protective finish forwood furniture in theFarEast years, for more 2000 than butit didnot 1. Dilute sealer according to themanufacturer's instructions and thesanding in West become oooular the until the paper. apply it to theworkpiece. Letdryandsand with320-grit 17thCentury. Thefirstlacquers used witha retarding 2. Dilute the lacquer solvent asspecified bythemanufacturer. during C h i n a 'C shou dynast w ye r e (The retarder keeps fromhardening thelacquer tooquickly.) derived fromnatural resins; today's theworkpiece withthefinish using a soft,long-bristled brush. Work 3. Coat products are formulated synthetically. al a 45 angle to thesurface andbrush withthegrain. Donotoverlap Lacquer canbe brushed onto a surbrushstrokes. face, butbesure to use a brush with 4. Letthelacquer dry(typically 2 hours), thensand witha self-lubrrcating bristles setin rubber, otherwise thesolparticles. 360-to 400-grit sandpaper. Remove sanding vent in thefinish may cause thetool to 5. Repeat steps 2 to 4, using a slightly more concentrated lacquer solution. shed. Therapid drying timeof lacquer also makes it well-suited forspraying. 6. Apply twoorthree additional coats. Avoid brushing at least undiluted youshould A lacquer topcoat hardens to a clear lacquer addat least onthesurface; a small amount of reiarder to thelacouer. and d u r a b lfe i n i s hl.t i s a g o o d choice for furniture may that be exposed to 7. Letthefinish dryforat least 24 hours before rubbing it out. water or highheat. (SPRAYING) APPLICATI(lN SEOUENCE polyurethanes Unlike andvarnishes, 1. Dilute thesanding sealer according to themanufacturer's instructions and which formseparate layers witheach paper. it to theworkpiece. apply Letdryandsand with32O-grit new coating e,a c h application f lacquer previous dissolves the coats to 2. Prepare lacquer withthesolvent a diluted solution recommended bythe i l m .F i n i s h eu rsually c r e a ta es i n g l fe manufacturer it onto andspray thesurface. Make sure thelacquer has the proper forspraying; usea viscosity cup (page consistency 90. tryto limitthemselves to fourcoats generally lacquer. But of these are in 3. Letthefinish dryforabout an hour. addition to oneortwocoats of sanding paper. 4. Sand witha self-lubricating 320-grit s e a l eT r .h e t h i c k ea r lacque f irn i s h is (This 5. Repeat steps 2 and3, sanding thesurface lightly. step is optional.) builtup,thegreater theriskof crack6. Spray onat least 3 more coats, diluting each application withonly a small i n g .H o w e v e ,tainin mirror-like orb ag paper. amount of retarder andsanding thesurface witha 360-grit lacouer finish likerosewood onsoecies oroakmay involve sometimes asmany 7. Letthef inish rubbing drycompletely before out. Finishers in ancient as10 aoolications. were known China to apply more than piece 3 0 0c o a t s o na s i n g l e offurniture. To prevent cracking, they would carefully abrade thesurface after each new applicatio hn a dd r i e d a n dt h e y kept each coat asthinaspossible. Lacquer isavailable in a range of sheens from f latto glossy. There aredifferent tintsto choose fromaswell, and formulation a clear thatheightens the grain and color without altering thehue.

90

FINISHING BYHAND
r"fi- hereareessentially threemethods

()RPADDING WIPING ONA FINISH

3- of applying protective finishes by hand:wipingthe finishing material on with a clothor sponge, padding it on or using a brush. Themethod youchoose should depend on thetypeoffinishyou areapplying. Wiping, for example, isthe bestwayto applya dryingoil. Varnish, polyuretl-rane, shellac and lacquer are better applied with a brush. Sornefinishingproducts, called padding finishes, aremade to bepadded onto a surface; theyprovide something approaching the lusterof French polished woodwith consideror laccuered ablyless effort.However, because these finishes do not readily build up into a thick coating, theystill requirea fair amountof time and work to apply. As a result, they are most often usedto touchup damaged finishes. As finishes for newlybuilt ftrrniture, theyarebest suited to ornamental details, turnings or smalluieces like the tableshown below Toreduce the amountof time Using a clothor sponge required to build up a padding finish, W e ta c l e a n c l o t ho r a s p o n g w e i t ht h e f i n i s h a n dw i p ea t h i n c o a to f t h e l i q u i d firstapply a sealer coat ofvarnish, shel- ontothe surface(above). Makesureyou cover the wood surfaces completely. Let lacor laccuer. t h ef i n i s h soak i n t ot h ew o o d f o rs e v e r a m l inutes t, h e nu s ea n o t h ec rl e a n c l o t ht o
w i p ea w a y theexcess C . heck ss t r u c t i o n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri 'n fs ordrying times, t h e na p p l y subsequen co t ats t h es a m e way.

\\

,r
Working witha pad U s ea p i e c e o f l i n e na n d s o m ew o o lt o make g a da s y o uw o u l d a finishinp for (page106). Poura liIpolishing French t l e o f t h ef i n i s h o n t h e p a d .t h e nt a p i t a g a i n stth e p a l mo f y o u rh a n dt o g e t t h e p a du n i f o r m ld ya m p . Wipe thepad along f o l l o w i ntg t h es u r f a c e h ed i r e c t i o n yourstrokes of the grain (left).Overlap u n t i ly o u h a v e coveret dh e e n t i r e work^ ^-^^+h nipep a d t h o c r r r 'fu: u euo h u 'n ,v r r^ o^ ) d )llluutll,
V,vuu

g l o s ss yh e e n C . o n s utlh t em a n u f a c t u r er's instructions fordrying times, then appls yubseque cn ota t sP . addin fg inishes usually require several applications.

91

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

Brushing ona finish S e tt h ew o r k p i e c se l i g h t la yb o v y eo u r work thewood surface soyoucancover r i g h t o t h eb o t t o m withou stl o p p i n g finish a shop-made o nt h et a b l e F . or prop onwood blocks stand, thecorners withsmall nails them. lf driven through youareusing a bristle brush, dipabout i nt h e one-thir od f t h eb r i s t l e length finish a n db r u s a h l o nt g h eg r a i n leaving behind t h i n ,e v e n c o a t sR . esis tt he to spread thef inish thickly temptation .o w i l lr u n , sag o r p o o lT o r t h el i q u i d onthe avoid airbubbles andlapmarks surface, use asfewbrushstrokes as poset r a y s i b l eU . se t w e e z etro s r e m o vs it has bristles from thef inish before a w i l lc u t c h a n cte odry. A foam brush down ontheproblem of lapmarks.

illt lll llrl llllllll lllll]ll lllt lllJ illjllllllllllllllllllllllllllllrlll


1HO?TI?
Afoam brush your Youcan make o w nd i e V o e a b l e foam brushes to suit anyjob at, hand. Ueeecrap wood for Nhe handle and a Viece of polyure'

Ihane foam for lhe aoolicalor.

foam at Youcan buy polyurethane f a b r i ca n d u p h o l o t e r o . utthe y h o p oC you need,lhen told if,overone foamto Nhe eize a n d s l a o l ei Ni n o l a c e U e n do f L h eh a n d l e . ee to NrimLhefoam to the riahl orofile eciseors for your workpiece.

SETTINGUP YOURSPRAY EQTJIPMENT


ith a bit of practice, spraying is a highly efficient method of applying professional-looking finishes. (HVLP) High-volume, low-pressure systems offerthebesttransfer efficiency-that is, they land a high percentageofthe sprayon the workpiece and waste lessasoverspray. Since they use low-pressure air to create a mist of finish, HVLP systems also createless "bounce back"than conventional systems.Bounce backoftenoccurs when spraying is donein an enclosed space: The overspray rebounds towardthe gun ind'settles spray on othersurfaces. The keyto successful spraying is to keepyour equipment properlyadjusted.With both HVLP and conventional systems the adjustments aremadewith theactual solution youwill beusing, so you will needto start the process by preparinga batchof finish (page 96).

AI{ATOMY OF AI{HVIP SPRAY SYSTEM


Spray gun and aup Finiahflowa from cup to qun whereair turno liquid into a miet, directin4 it at the workpiece; cup unacrewafrom 7un Air hose Connectaepray qun to turbine;atoree in turbine whennot in uae

Turbine Featureaa 7-amp motor that poweraa fan diecharqin4[owpreaeu re air throu4hthe air hoae;Lurbineia liqhtwei7htand compact compared to the compreaaoraused on conventional ayatemo

ANATOMY OF A CONVENTIONAL SPRAY SYSTEM


Air preaeure gauge Tocompreeaor

z--'-

Air re1ulator )eta volume of air pumped to gun


F\

m
fl

Fluid cup and lid aaaembly Fluidcup holdafinish: uouallyone quart or leao;acrewe on to epray qun in front of trigqer. Compreaeed air atreaming throu4h gun createa a vacuumthat eiphonofiniahfrom cup upto 1un.Lidaeaembly clampeto cup

ffi
IJ

Hoee Hiqh-preaaure air from comPre69or, otroraqe tank and air re4ulator paeeeethrou4h hoee to epray qun

ll t,l

ti

ffi
93

5pray gun Atomizea finieh into a opray; featuree fluid adjuetment acrewfor oetting flow volume and apreader adjuotment valvefor regulatinq epray patrtern

FINISHES PROTECTIVE

ANHVLP SYSTEM ADJUSTING


pattern thespray 1 Adjusting it I Fillthecuowithfinish andscrew gun.For shown, themodel to thespray onat theturbine, then turnthesystem a vereither adjust theaircapto produce pattern. or circular spray tical, horizontal use thevertical setAsa ruleof thumb, horizontal topsandother tingto spray setting to andthe horizontal surfaces, patvertical surfaces. Thecircular spray twoandcan ternis wider thantheother Test all be used on anytypeof surface. patterns wood before turnthree onscrap to theworkpiece. ingyour attention

r) Adjusting theflow L to setthevolume of finish to be sprayed from thegun, turntheflow knob. Holding thegunnozadjustment froma testsurface, zleabout 8 inches pullthetrigger thespray. The to start finish should cover thesurface evenly without dripping or pooling. lf thecoatingistoothin,increase theflowbyturnif the ing counterclockwise; theknob decrease thef low f inish drips or pools, in theopposite byturning the knob Tochange of thespray direction. thesize pattern, either increase ordecrease the distance between thegunandthesurface. Thismay throw offtheflowadjustment, however. Moving theguncloser may require a decrease to thesurface you flow; as draw the in the similarly, gunaway youmayhave increase to thef low.

94

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

ADIUSTING A CONVENTIONAT SPRAY SYSTEM

'l Setting theairpressure I Attach theairIine from thecompressor to theairinlet on theregulator. Then install thehose, connecting one end to the a i ro u t l eo t nt h er e g u l a t a on r dt h eo t h e t ro t h ea i r i n l e t on thegun. Toadjust theairpressure onthemodel shown, take

gunandturnonthecompressor, thefluidcupoffthespray allowing thetankto pressurize. Open theoutlet valve onthe pressure gauge to the level specified bythe manufacturer (above), typically about 50 psi,

FINISHES PROTECTIVE

r) Adjusting pattern and flow thespray finish and c u pw i t h L r , l t h ef l u i d gun. Adjust thespray it to thespray attach pattern in the andtheflowof thefinish f o ra n H V L P same way t h a ty o uw o u l d (page thefluidadjustsystem 94).Turn to increase ment screw counterclockwise i te . to t h ef l o wa n dc l o c k w i s ed e c r e a s valve to set thespreader adjustment Use (right), pattern turnthesizeof thespray a largto produce ingit counterclockwise direction er pattern andin theopposite of thespray. to narrow thescope

9 p readeradjueLmentvalve

Flutd adjuetment
6CTEW

t-

A FINISH PREPARING
ofa finish Adjusting theconsistency do t h e A finish m a yn e e d t o b et h i n n e t proper it canbesprayed. consistency before of a f inishTodetermine theconsistency t, i n gp r o d u cd i pa v i s c o s ic ty u pi n t o the long it fluid, liftit outand timehow then (left). lf the forthecupto empty takes specif iedbythe timeexceeds theinterval t h ef i n i s h with the manufactur de i lru , te Test as appropriate solvent. thesolution many times asnecessary, butmake sure consistency. thatyougetit to theproper filling cup, strain thefinBefore thefluid filter to remove impuriishthrough a paint clog thespray ties thatmight otherwise system ormar thefinish.

SOLVENT

96

WORKINGWITH SPRAY EQUIPMENT


andthat of your D othyourownsafery D neighbors should be a majorconcernassociated with spraying a finish. Do not fail to put on the appropriate gear for thetask:safety goggles, rubber gloves, a rubberapronand a dual-cartridgerespirator. If you cansmellthe finishing product through yourrespirajob. tor, it is not doinga goodenough Adjust thedevice to fit properly on your face, change thefiltersor replace therespirator. Refer to the chapter on safety (pnge 12)formoreinformation on protecting yourself. Whether youareusing wateror solvent-based products, you mustsetup your spray area and exhaust the fumes yougenerate in a manner thatcomplies withfederal, state andmunicipalrequirements. Pages 102 and103 show a typical spray room with someof the elements that may be necessary. However, it is essential to check your localregulationsbefore outfitting yourspray room. \Ahileyouareactually spraying, hold your arm straight out in front ofvour body.Whenever possible, keep the gun asnearly perpendicular to thewoodsurface asyoucan. Asillustrated in thediagrambelow, a surface is covered with a series of back-and-forth strokes that overlap each otherandtheedges ofthe wood.Before actually spraying the finishon a piece offtrrniture, practice a little on somecardboard wood or scrao untilyouhave refined yourtechnique.

The ideal distancebetweert a spray gun nozzleand the stu'face to be sprayedis about B inches.Youcnrr LLse your outstretched fingers to quicklygnugethe distance.

SPRAY IA NF GI N IS H
Applying a full andeven coat T h ed i a g r a m a t l e f ti l l u s t r a t e ass p r a y i n g s e q u e n cfe o r a p p l y i nc gl e a r finishes T .h e k e yi s t o s t a r ta t o n ec o r n e a r n d m a k ea pg a s s ets s e r i eo s f s t r a i g ho t ,v e r l a p p i n hat w e n dt h e i rw a yt o t h e o p p o s i t e corner. T h r sf i r s ts e r i e s h o u l dr u n a c r o s s the g r a i no f t h e w o o d . T h e nm a k e another parallel series of passes, thistimeworking to the grain. As youwork, release the triggereach timeyoupass off theedge of the w o o dT . oe n s u r e aneven c o a t ,h o l dt h e g u np e r p e n d i c u t la or t h es u r f a c e and k e e pi t m o v i n g at alltimes.

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

A SPRAY ROOM DOTLY Towheel a workpiece in andoutof yourspray room, andto move it around without having to sethands o n t h ed r y i n g w o o du , se t h es h o p built dolly shown at right andbelow, T h ed i m e n s i o in ns t h ei l l u s t r a t i o n willyield a dolly thatis large enough projects. for most furniture plywood C u ta p i e c e of %-inch forthebase, thenscrew thecorner blocks in place. Screw a caster onto each corner block. Tosetupthe f o rt h e p i e c e dolly t o b es p r a y e d , drive nails througt hh e c e n t e r s of fourwood blocks. Position the blocks onthebase withthenail tios

pointing up sothey willsupport the corners of theworkpiece. T ou s e t h e d o l l ys , e tt h ep i e c e onthenails. Toavoid touching the

your workpiece after spraying it, use footto move thedolly. Youcanalso attach a towrope to the base and useit to pullthedolly along.

9B

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

Spraying theflatsurfaces (aboTofinish a piece of furniture, start withtheoutside surfaces, edge closest to youandwork toward theopposite edge firstspraying thetopandthenthesides. In preparation for ve,left).Forthe sides, setthe air capto the horizontal your thejob,setthe piece prop- spray pattern position slightly above work surface, andwork withthegunperpendicular p i n gi t u p o nw o o d (above, b l o c kw s i t hn a i l s d r i v et n h r o u gth hem a s to thesurface right). To ensure even coverage, hold your shown overleaf. Forthetop,besure to adjust theaircapto armoutstraight to maintain a uniform distance between (page pattern positron the vertical spray 94) andusea spray thegunandthewood. Always work in straight lines; circular pattern thatworks firstacross patterns thegrain andthenwith it. spraying willleave theedges witha thinner coating Holding thegunat a slight angle to thesurface, start at the thanthecenter.

Spraying theinside surfaces T oc o v etrh e i n s i d e ofa piece offurniture, start w i t ht h e l e a sc t onspicuous F.o r surface t h ec a b i n est h o w n f, irst spray t h eu n d e r s i d oe f t h et o p ,b e g i n n i n ga t t h e b a c ka n dm o v i n t go w a r d t h eo p e n i na g t t h e f r o n t .B ec a r e f u l notto aimthespray at yourself. Spray t h ec o r n e r s , es i d e st.h e b a c k th and finally t h eb o t t o m o f t h ec a b i n e t ,

99

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

A TURNTABTE FOR SPRAYING Tospray of a piece of allthesurfaces f u r n i t u rw t a v i ntg o move e i t h o uh your equipment, use theshop-made Thedevice turntable shown at right. consists of twopieces of plywood w i t ha " L a z y S u s a nb " e a r i nfg asin between. Thesetup allows tened at a piece of furniture to berotated anyspeed asit is being sprayed. To make theturntable, cuttwo pieces plywood of 3/q-inch slightly larger thanthewidth of thepiece Setthe of furniture to befinished. base on a work surface andcenter thebearing ontopof it. Onthebase, mark hole theaccess andthefour holes in theinner ring of the screw hole bearing. Bore theaccess through thebase anddrillfourpilotholes, thenaitach the bearing to the base withscrews. Tofasten theturntable piece, setthe base ontopof it with between the bearing sandwiched of wood. Aligning the thetwopieces rotate edges of the pieces, slowly hole in it thebase until theaccess lines upwithoneof thefourscrew holes in theouter ringof thebearing. Screw thebearing to theturntable piece andrepeat the process at the holes. other three T ou s e t h et u r n t a b l e cu , tf o u r nails s m a lw l ood b l o c ka s n dd r i v e through them. Settheworkpiece on t h et i p so f t h en a i l st,h e ns l o w l y rotate theturntable withonehand while operatin th ges p r a g y u nw i t h the other(right,bottom).

Deartn4 acceaa hole

Turntable ptece

100

FINISHES PROTECTIVE

surfaces Spraying contoured contoured surfaces, When spraying, treat spindles andlegs, asif they such aschair were four-sided objects. Holding thegun at a slight angle to thewood, spray each side i nt u r n .

THE SPRAY EOUIPMENT CLEANING


gun Cleaning thespray and fluid cup your in good To keep spray equipment w o r k i no gr d e rc ,l e a n t h eg u na n df l u i d cupafter each use. For the HVLP system shown u,n s c r etw h ec u pf r o m t h eg u n andpour any f inish leftin thecupinto a containe fo r rs t o r a go er d i s p o s a T l. hen pour a small amount of theappropriate intothecupandreattach it to the solvent gun. Spray thesolvent intoanempty can. Repeat asmany times asnecessary until thesolvent comes outclean. Wioe the o u t s i do ef t h ec u pa n dg u n , t h e np u l l thesuction fromthegun. tubeassembly Remov tg s te h ea i rc a pb y u n s c r e w i i n retaining ring from thegun; soak thetwo pieces briefly in solvent. Clean thef luid nozzle, suction tubeassembly andaircap witha softbrush dampened withsolvent (/efil.Reassemble thegunandscrew the fl u i d c u ot o i t .

Fluid nozzle 9uction tube aeaembly

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r01

ANATOMY OF A SPRAY ROOM

Air filtere Kemove hazardouoparLiclee from air: madeof non-combuattbte maLertal. At leaat. four 20" x 20" filLeraarrayed edge-Lo-edge requtredto provideadequaLe pratecLian; needto be cleanedand replacedre4ularly

Tube-axialfan ExhauaLa atr from room Lo the outdoora;rnountedon exteriar wall. Featurea expl aoion-proof motor and epark-reeieLant profrom induatrial peller;available ouppliero. Moveolarqe volumee of air efficientlyuoinga mtnimal
a h^t rn t nf pl prr rir i+r'

Automatic aprinkler eystem Water eprinklere acttvated by emoke or heaLfrom a ftre

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Fire ertinguiaher thould be mountedin a convenienL locationy l

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Airflow meter Aleo known aa manometer.Vtaual readout indtcateeair velocityLhrou7h Lhe fan; whenvelocttydrope belowa cerLatnlevel, ftltera ahouldbe replaced Workpieae thould be poeitioned betweenepray 1un and fan; no large objecLe ahouldtmpede airflow betweenworkpiece and fan

Light owitch -proof, MuoLbe exploaton or incapable of produc' inq eparkoLhat could i4nil;evaporo

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Waete can For temporary otora7e of combuetible wa6te;madeof eteel with tight-fitttn4 ltd

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

Light fixture Featureetncandeacent bulbin a eealed4laee 7lobethat prevenLe vaporein room from ignittn7 Wall Can be made of concrete, aheet metal or fire-rated drywallcovered wtth aheet metal

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with of thehazards associated T) ecause D s p r a y i nf , ep r a c t i c e is gi n i s h e s th strictlycontrolled by law.Youcannot, for example, setup a furniture spraying facilityin your garage without adequately guarding fire and enviagainst ronmental contamination. generates Spraying toxicand flammablevapors, solvents and particles, makingthe air in the immediate area harmfulto breathe andpotentially explomustbe filteredout sive. Toxicvapors before theair canbeexhausted; andthe sDrav area mustbecontained in theevent products oi fir.. Althoughwater-based poseless than solventof a fire hazard finishes, making thema safer alterbased produce native for thefinisher, bothtypes whensprayed. harmfulvapors If you want to sprayfurniture,you havetwo ootions: Youcanusea commercial booth (pageB4) or you can room.Thelatteralternabuild a spray howevtive is a complex undertaking, er.According to one of the regulatory agencies, the NationalFireProtection (NFPA), roommust Association a spray be fully enclosed and feature a powerventilation ooerated svstem.

Theillustration at leftshows some of theelements thatmightbe incorporated in a typicalspray room.A powerful electricfan pulls air from the room whichremove through a paneloffilters, toxicsubstances before theair isexhausted.Thewallsareconstructed in sucha wayasto prevent thespread offire.The electrical system is explosion-proof: the switches, outlets and fixtures willnot levcreate a sparkor produce a voltage el that couldcause an exolosion. Beiore designing a spiay room,there important preliminary areseveral steps. your local,state First,consult and federalinspection authorities to makecerwith thefire, tainyourdesign complies electrical, buildingand environmental in effect in your community. codes For example, your spray room will haveto meetNFPA andOccupational and Safety (OSHA)safety HealthAdministration guidelines. Alsocheck with your home insurance Youmaydiscover carrier. that roomvoids operating a spray yourinsurpolicy. Ifyou stillsee fit to proceed, ance consult a ventilation engineer who can giveyou expertguidance on properly situating anddesigning your system.

SPRAY ROOM SAFETY TIPS


. Consult thef iredeoartment aswell aspertinent local, state and federal authorities before choosing a sitefor your airexhaust outlet. Depending on youlive, levels thearea in which of certaincontaminants may berestricted by specific regulations. In general, locate passersby, an outlet to avoid exposing children andpets to theexhaust. . Keep floor thewalls, andother surfaces of your spray room scrupulously clean to prevent toxic orf lammable substances from accumu lating. . Always protective gear wear safety pants, when spraying: long a longgoggles, sleeved shirt, safety rubber gloves a,r u b b e a rp r o n a n da d u a l carlrid,ao rpsniratnr
anra

Air regulator

Air compreaeor
?reaat trizea air fnr

eyetem.Located ouLaide a \ tr ' r A A m ' a i e h' nae t n t n q - - 'r t- r1 'n rr 'Athrouqh wallconnectatt Lo inaideraom air requlaLor

o C h e cw k i t hy o u r l o c aa l uthorities about noise regulations; theventilation . Replace airf ilters regularly, asindicatin your room may meter. system spray create ed bytheairflow noise levels thataredeemed excessive o Dispose forresidential areas. of used airfilters according to local fireregulations. . Donotwear gear clothing orsafety products spraying outside ofthespray . Store finishing used during safely room; store these items in a metal locker. (page 136).

103

IDENTIFYINGAND AVOIDINGSPRAY PROBLEMS


oodspraying technique alone does I guarantee not first-rate results. \J Otherfactors, including thecharacteristicsof thespray room,theequipment or even theweather canalsoinfluence the qualityof thefinish. A clean, workarea isessendust-free is regulartial.Oneanswer to vacuum ly. If youspray you frequently, should partofyourworkconsider setting aside shopfor drying.To prevent anydust fromsettling on a newly finished workpiece, provideyourself with several makeshift These dustcovers. canbe nothingmorethanpieces of plywood youfinsittingatoptall supports. When Fisheye ishspraying place apiece of furniture, it under a dustcover to catch anydust that mightotherwise fall on theworkpiece. Humidityandwarmtemperatures havoc leaving canwreak on finishes, with a milkylookor causing lacshellac querto dry poorly. Keeping theroom at the right temperature-roughly 72o-isnot quiteasdifficultascontrollinghumidity. It isbest to doyoursprayingon a dry day. Even with optimum conditions and proper technique, will arise from snags timeto time.If there is a problem with thespraying yourownsystem, consult proer'smanual. Mostmanufacturers videdetailed guides troubleshooting for their equipment. Thefollowing chart details some ofthemostcommon sprayingproblems, theircauses andways to prevent themfromoccurring.

Crazing

104

PROTECTIVEFINISHES

Run

Pinholes

DEFECT Crazing

DESCRIPTION AND CAUSE Finecracks caused by solvent or material incompatibility. grid-like Subtle, cracks in the finishcaused by a rapid shift in temperature. lf the workpiece is exposed to warm temperatures andthensuddenly brought intoa coldroom, thef inish will contract at a different rate thanthewood. Milky-white clouds in thefinishusually occurring whena finishis sprayed on a humid day. "orange peel"texture, A rough, the result of holding guntoo close the spray or too far fromthe surface, pressure using too littlethinner or setting thewrong for the material being applied. A large dripthat runsdown a vertical surface after too muchfinishhasbeen in onespot. sprayed Similar to a run,butcovers alarger area.

PREVENTION yourthinner Make sure andfinishing materials are compatible, according to the manufacturer's soecif ications. Keep the finished workpiece in a temperaturecontrol ledenvironment.

Checking

Blushing

Spray on drydays; keepthe temperature constant. A retarder added to the finishing material on humid days will allow thefinishto drymore slowly andcounteract the problem of thetop layer drying tooquickly. Holdthegunat the proper distance fromthework surface-about 8 inches-andadjust the air pressure forthefinish thatyouarespraying; check the material viscosity. quickly. Move thegunevenly andmore Reduce the material feedadjustment andensure thatthefinishis thinned to the proper consistency. Holdthegunat the correct angle andkeepit moving pace. at an even Reduce the material feedadjustment andcheck thatthefinish isthinned to spray consistency. Holdtheguncloser to thesurface or reduce the air pressure. Wipe theworkpiece with naphtha anddiluted ammoniabefore finishing. Avoid touching the workpiece if youhave comeintocontact withsilicone or wax. Adda moisture retarder to the finishing material; it will slowdown the drying time,allowing thefinishto flowover the holes. Reduce the air pressure andmake youareusing sure the proper spraying technique.

peel Orange

Run

Sag

0verspray Fisheye

Material that driesbefore it reaches the workpiece because it is being fromtoo far away. sprayed Small, circular, occasionally iridescent shapes caused bycontamination fromsilicone or waxfrom blades or tools. Small holes caused by spraying at too higha velocity or by spraying too close to the worksurface.

Pinholes

105

FRENCH POLISHING
polishing isatrmef, rench I' honored method of finpadding ishing thatinvolves on shellac with a cloth. The result is a lustrous. almost finishtypthree-dimensional icalof fineantique furniture. Thelookdoes notcome easily, however. polishFrench ingtakes timeto master and a lot of elbow grease. Forcommercial woodworking shops, thelabor andtime requirements generally ruleoutthistype of finishfor mostjobs;it is mucheasierto relyonlacquers andmodern spray equipment. Still,for anamateur woodworker,Frenchpolishingcan be a rewarding way-somepurists would argue way-to finishaspetheverybest cialproject. Although thefinishdoes notstand upto water, alcohol or heat, it isrelatively easy to repair once thepiece is completed. Thematerials required for French (pieces polishing woolandlinenrags are of old sweaters and shirtsor a wellAfter thetopof thistablewas polished, French thelegs were givena similarlookby brushing on three coats of shellac and thenwipingon afourth coatwith a pad.

washed will work fine),shellac bedsheet flakes, denatured mineraloil, alcohol, pumice and polishing compound. ((6s1"-1ls is measured Shellac by the numberof poundsof shellac flakes disin eachgallonofalcohol.So,a solved 5-poundcut refers to 5 pounds ofshelIacdissolved in a gallonof alcohol.For Frenchpolishing,we a 2Vzto a 3lzpoundcut,although you will, of course, be dealingin quantitiessmallerthan a gallon. Theprocess consists ofseveral steos that aredoneto the followingscheduie: On the first day,a coatof oil is applied to thewood andthe excess is wipedoff.

Then thepores arefilledwith pumice. On the second day,additional coats of shellac arepadded on to buildup thebodyof thefinish. Onthethirdday, the oil film is removed with a clean cloth. Thisis thetimeto examine the surface under a lightandbuildup the you notice bodywhere dull spots or open 8ram. Ifyou cannot afford thetimerequired for aFrench polish, there are substitutes padding called lacquers thatprovide a similar lookwithoutthesame levelof effort.Padding lacquers arefrequently used to reDair oldfinishes, but canalso beapplied to newwood.

(|NTHE PADDING SHELLAC


a pad 1 Making piece I Take a of wool roughly 3 inches square andfoldthecorners toward the center, stretching thewool witheach padintoan fold.Then squeeze thewool ovalandadda fewdroos of 2Vzto 3t/zpound-cut shellac. Disperse theshellac throughout thewool bycrumpling thepad your place in hand, it in themiddle then of a single thickness of coarse linen. Add several drops of alcohol Io the pad(right).

106

PROTECTIVE FINISHES

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Making a pumiaediapeneer jome finiehero u6ea oalt shaker to oprinkle on pumioe for Frenchpoliehing (page1OB, otep 3),Ycjucan also fashion a moretraditionaldisoenser. ?oura smallamount, of pumice into a piece of linen. FolAthe linenoverand lie the too wilh a emallpiece of etrrinq io form a ball.To useLhediopeneer, ehake the baq,oprinklinq a smallamount, of oumice Nhrouqh LhecloLhand onNo the wood.

r') Preparing thepad polishing L torFrench Gather thelinen around theballof wool andtwist thelinen until thepadis held (above, firmlyin place ieff).Then tap thepadagainst thepalm of yourhand to spread outtheshellac andalcohol (above, andforma flat surface right). lf thepadistoowet,squeeze outthe (When excess liquid. notin use, thepad should bestored moist in anairtight container to prevent it fromstiffening.)

r07

FINISHES PROTECTIVE,

thepores Q Filling r-,, Apply a sealer coat of shellac witha brush andallow it to (This procedure dry. canbedone before making thepad.) Then pumice ontheworkpiece and shake a small amount on sprinkle your tightly between fingers andthumb thepad. Grip thepad intothewood withanyof thestrokes andwork the pumice most shown in thediagram below; choose theone thatproves Keep while it is onthesurface to comfortable. thepadmoving prevent from Ieaving thealcohol onthepad a mark onthewood

(above). Payparticular attention to the edges so as notto leave t h e mu n t o u c h e A d. tfirstt ,h ep u m i c e w i l ls o u n d s c r a t c ha ysy o u r u b .T h em o r e thepores f i l l ,t h e l e s s s c r a t c hty hepumice will pumice s o u n dC . o n t i n ute o p a d ,o c c a s i o n a s l lp y r i n k l i no gn f r e s h s r ec o m p l e t efliy a n da d d i n g more a l c o h ou l ,n t i l t h ep o r e a lled and hasa matte look. Depending thesurface on the sizeof the workp i e c et,h i sp r o c e d u r ea yr e q u i r e m s r m o r eA . fter fill30 minuteo ingthe pores, for a day. setthe workpiece aside

POTISHING PATTERNS

l0B

PROTECTIVEFINISHES

Building upthefilm Prepare a newpadanddaba drop of oil ontoit witha fin(above, gerto provide lubrication for padding thesurface left). youused Polish withthesame strokes to fillthe pores. Use lightpressure witha wetpad. Asthe paddries andthefriction pressure. increases, more apply Recharge thepadwithshellac andalcohol, asneeded. Repeat theprocess untilthelook of the (above, youandthepolishing finishpleases streaks disappear righil.SeIaside theworkpiece f or a day . After theshellac has

you dried willnotice a milky clouding of thesurface, asin the (below). upper halfof theworkpiece in the pholo Thisis the oil used to lubricate thepad; having risen to thesurface it must now beremoved. Moisten a padwithalcohol andrub (orpolish thesurface withlong strokes witha fine glazing compound) until theoildisappears. This willreveal thefinai polish look of the French asshown in thelower halfof workpiece in theohoto.

r09

DECORATT\C FINSHES
ingresults are usually obtainable with alittlepatience. Theglaze isbrushed, when artisans h Egfpt,hrdiaandthe ragged, combed, sponged, or even Orient leamed to transform ordinary qpattered over anopaque base coatIn materials andobiects intoomamental alldecorative finishes except stencilones ttrough marbling graining stening, thecolor of thebase coat isvisciling practices. andother Along with iblettroughthe glazewhich imparu more prizes ftaditional of thetrading to thefinishadeep, subtle glow. It is route, thetechniques of decorative generally a goodidea to mix more paintingwerecarried to theWest, Stencilinghas developed glaze thanyouthinkyouwill need, from a crudeinterior where theyhave cycled in andoutof decorating technique into a minor art form. because it is nextto impossible to fashion dor,vn through thecenturies. Thetop rail of thisBostonrocker, stenciled with match such a finish exactly. Thereal Stenciling, in particular, found powder,is typicalof 19thCenturydesigns. challenge favor bronze painting of decorative among theearly colonists of North is in the patterning of the glaze. America. Colonial furnituremakers used stencils to embellish Stenciling just stipistheleast complex technique-you can theirinexpensive chairs; householders of modest means sten- plethecolor onoverthebase coatwith a brushor a sponge, ciledtheirroughfloorsandplaster walls to mimicthebeau- workingthrougha paperor acetate template. Marbling ty of thewallpaper andrugs theycould notafford. During the andgraining aremoredifficultto execute, because both Victorian era,artisans bothin theUnited States andabroad colorandpattern mustbefairlyrealistic for thefinishto tookinspiration fromthefuts andCrafts Movement, elevat- beattractive. In marbling, thismeans youmustfirst creing thefaux(or false) finishes-marbling andgraining-to atea believable cloudofbackground colors, thenshoot therealm ofhighstyle. In thehand ofanexpert, apotofglaze it throughwith natural-looking veins. Because the patanda feather could transform bland tabletops andsmall box- ternsof heartwood and sapwood areless free-flowing esinto richmarble look-alikes; a deftlywielded graining brush thantheveins in marble, graining requires even more couldgive anitemof plainpinefurniture theluxurious look skill thanit takes to disguise woodasmarble. In both of walnut burl. cases, finishing will gomoresmoothly if you continualWhilethetechniques andmaterials of stenciling changed ly refer to a sample of thematerial youaretryingto simlittle overtime,themethodology of marbling andgraining ulate. With any decorative finish, alwaystest the grewever morerefined. Close-mouthed professionals kept appearance ofthe glaze overthebase coatbefore begintheir tradesecrets close to thevest, even carrying thepar- ning work;with marbling and graining, practice patticulars of theirartistrywith themto thegrave. Novices may terningon large pieces ofillustration board until youare notbeable to duplicate thefinishes of themasters, butpleas- confident of yourtechnique.
painting tracesits ecorative historybackto about3000 BC,

In contrast to theviolentnaturalforces that create realmarble,thisbirdfeatherrequires a defttouchto transform tinted oil paint and a ghzecoating into a marble finish on wood.

lll

AND ACCESSORIES TOOLS


Marine eponge For removingexcego 4lazeand eoftening 7rain and marbled patterna; featurea a naturally rou4h aurface Grainingcombs For deeigningwoodgrain patternz on a workpiece; feature metal or rubber teeth

9wivel knife A precieion artiet'a knife tip for with a awiveling cuttinq contoura of atencila

Badger softener A epecialty bruah uaed for aoftening qrain and marbledpat' terns, and amoothinqout d ecorative finiahea;made of fine badger hair

Camel'shair aword atriper bruah Afine, aoft bruahuaed to apply individualveina or qrain linea in freehand graininqand marblinq

1tenciling bruoh For applyrnqpaint or bronzepowderethrou1h haa atiff atencil openin7o; ho4'o-h air briatlee that helpprevent paint from bleedinqunder atencil

Bloak cuahion grainer For creatinq wood7rain patterng on a workpiece. Fulledand rocked alonq the eurface of a qlazed workpiece at any anqle; featurea a rubber face

Hog'a-hair briatle bruah For applyinqthe bage coat and removingetainin4 qlaze whenproducinq woodqrain patterna; ite flaqqed briotle tipa promote maxtmumcoveraae qlaze in marbled finiahea;workabeat when eli7htly woraefor wear

Orainin7 rollera For producing wood qrain patterne on a workpiece; pulledacroee a qlazed surface

I12

STENCILING
u..rsince thel8yptians in ancient F IJ tlmesbegan decoratrng mummy with stencils, patcases such decorative terns have been a ubiquitous feature of furniture design. Theyhave appeared oneverything fromshields to chairs and toychests. Assimole asa fine-veined leafor as complex is a multicolored, repeating motifof fruitsandflowers, a stencil can beapplied to a piece of furniture either before or after thelast coat The of finish. stencil is typically reduced or enlarged from a master andcut from Dattern
eitherstencil boardor acetate. Because acetate canbecleaned with mineralspirits and reused, it is moredurable than paper.The translucent materialcanbe boughtat mostdraftingsupplystores. Stencil designs canbe sprayed on or applied with a special short-bristled stencilingbrush. WhileearlyAmerican settlers stenciledwith milk paint, any paint,suchasquick-drythick-bodied ingjapancolors or anoil-based or acrylic paint,will fit the bill equally well.Bronze powders canbe combinedin the same stencilto yield a varietyof metalliccolors within a singledesign, creatingthe illusionof light and shadow-a techniquemadefamousby the Hitchcock chairs of themid-1800s.

Designs paint (above,left)or bronze powders aregenerally stenciled with either (above, right). Theapplication techniques aredffirent, asaretherange of fficx. powders, Bronze example, can create a burnished, three-dimensional look. for

MAKING THE STENCIT


a pattern 1 Enlarging I One way to produce a larger version of a pattern forstenciling is to use a photocopier withanenlargement feature; another wayis to transfer theshape using a grid.Draw a gridof squares over thepattern, using a ruled straightedge to make (The allthesquares exactly thesame size. youmake smaller thesquares, theeasier it willbeto reproduce thepattern.) Then, on a paper blank sheet of graph oracetate, make grid,increasing a larger thesize of the youwish squares bythesame amount to enlarge thepattern. For example, if you need a stencil design thatistwice thesize of the pattern, make thesecond setof squares twice aslarge asthefirst.Toproduce thestencil design, draw ineach square gridthepart of theenlarged of thepattern thatis in thecorresponding square of the grid(left). smaller Tomake a stencil smallpattern, erthan theoriginal follow thesame gridsmaller steps, butmake thesecond than thefirst one.

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113

DECORATIVE FINISHES

r) Cutting outthepattern yourdesign L f ransfer to a piece Withthe of stencil board oracetate. paper; s t e n c ib l o a r du , s ec a r b o n place foranacetate stencil, simply your thesheet over design andtrace r e s i gw i t i n i n k .l f y o u d n i l li n c l u d e more thanonecolor, make a separatestencil for each color. Usea knife swivel to cut outthe pattern, pulling youbbove). theknife toward your Keep freehand outof the blade's oath.

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Trojecting a ?attern eizeinvolvee AnotherwayNoreproduce a stencilin a differenL a wal| First Iake a phoboqraVh of lhe Nhe deoiqn onXo Vrojeclinq patlern ueing in distnrtion,ehoot,from direcNly elidetilm.Ioavoid film is develoVed uoea slideprojecfronLof Nhepat1ern. )nce Nhe Ior Nodieplay lhe patlern on a wall.The t--Lhe projeclorand Lhe dislance between 1 .r , wallwillAetermine the size of the imaqe imaqe, def,ermine | d?.S:b |. "S4" I ToNransferLhepattern,projectthe ' g$g^-.@" image of etencil board i o*{&3/6 onto a pibce or aceXateand lrace overit,.

DECORATIVE FINISHES

PAINT STENCILING

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A curefor bleeding To prevenN wet,paint, from bleeding undera slencil, Nemporarily bondIhe etencilIo your workViece. 7pray Nheundereide of NheeNencil wilh placeiN an aeroeol adheeive,Nhen in Voeilion on Nhework' piece, preooinq out any air pocketo. A p p l yt h e V a i n i a5 soona5 ?o5sibleso thal you can peeloff the stencil beforeil adheree permanenNly,

'l Taping down thestencil precisely, I Tohelp align thestencil draw reference line a centered along each side of both theworkpiece and t h es t e n c iT l .h e n s e c u rt e h es t e n c i l to theworkpiece withmasking tape, making sure thereference lines match (abovd. up properly

FINISHES DECORATIVE

Applying thepaint
ey s p r a y i n g T r a n s f etr h e s t e n c id l esign t o y o u rw o r k p i e cb

or brushing on paint. lf youarespraying, mask thesurfaces paper the stencil with and set the workpiece edge surrounding paint work Holding an aerosol can about 6 to upona surface. 10 inches from theworkpiece, direct thespray at thestencil wood iscoated lightly withpaint lefil. until theexposed bbove, p r e v e n p t a i n t f r o m k e e To b l e e d i nu gn d etrh es t e n c i l , p the n o z z l le e v ew l i t ht h es t e n c i l a ns dp r aiy na s t r a i g h l it n eT .o

l a t o n a w o r ks u r u s ea s t e n c i l i n g b r u s hs , e tt h e w o r k p i e cfe . his f a c ea n dd i po n l y t h et i p so f t h e b r i s t l eis n t h e p a r n tT will resuli t n a l i g h tc o a ta n dt h u sr e d u c e bleeding H .olding the ja p e r p e n d i c u lt a brush o rt h e s u r f a c e , bt h e b r i s t l e s up and (above, downon the stenciluntil the woodis covered right), y o u r e l o a d i ntg n e c e s s a r l y f . m o r e hebrush as a r eu s i n g than onestencil let eachcoatdry before to applyseveral colors, s p r a y i no gr b r u s h i no gn t h e n e x t .

Removing thestencil
T oa v o i d a n yb l e e d i n g r,e m o v e the

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s t e n cw ilhile t h ep a i n itsw e t . P e etlh e m a s k i ntg a p ef r o mt w oa d j o i n i nc go r ners, thengently liftthestencil offthe pulling workpiece, upthetwosides even ly (left). Avoid sliding thestencil along thesurface or youmaysmear some of paint. Once theparnt isdry, remove any adhesive residue withnaphtha before topcoating theworkpiece.

116

FINISHES DECORATIVE

POWDER STENCILING BRONZE


thestencil 1 Positioning I Draw thestencil onacetate and Place thebronze cutoutthepattern. powder in a bowl and orona palette Prepare by setit aside. theworkpiece varapplying a thincoat of slow-drying nish t o t h es u r f a cy eo uw i l lb es t e n c i l i n gL . e tt h ev a r n i sd hr yu n t i i lt is firmbutstill tacky. Place theacetate ossy nnt h ew o r k p i eg i n p o s i t i oo c le ts othe side down s ot h a ti t a d h e r e (left). surface

I,S
Rubbing onthepowdel With t h ev a r n i ss ht i l lt a c k yw , rap a piece o f c h a m o io sr a c l e a ns , o f tc l o t h your index finger and dipit into the around . u bt h e p o w d e R orn t o b r o n zp eo w d e r in the thesurface exposed bythecutouts youwish to highstencil. Rub theareas lightly l i g hr t e l a t i v eh ly a r dr ; u bm o r e youwant to shade. Apply addion areas powder tional asnecessary until thesurfaceis colored to your satisfaction, but q u i c k lty work o keep t h ev a r n i sfh rom y o ua r ef i n c o m p l e t eb ly efore drying peel ished. Then offthestencil. To highquality, light apply thethree-dimensional powder, layers separated several of bronze youarefinWhen bythinlayers ofvarnish. protect with ished stenciling, thesurface twofinalcoats of varnish

tt7

GRAINING
is a process in whichthe f raining \f appearance of onetypeof woodis re-created for decorative puronanother poses. grain, Onspecies withmuted the technique can beused to imitate thetextureandwarmthof more exotic species. Butgraining canalsocamouflage visual defects-like awood patch used to repair adamaged surface. Wth practice, exoerimentation andcareyou frrlstudy of thespecies you can wishto emulate, produce a diverse range of styles, fromtheclose grain of beech to thefree-flowingpattern of pine. wasespecialGraining ly popularin the 1800s westward-moving among pioneers. American Withhardwood in scarce supply, woodworkers harvested softwoods andgrained themto resemblemore highlyfigured woofulikecher- A colorglaze is thenapplied andthe ry,oakandmahogany. grainpattern is traced into theglaze Graining involves several First, with special stages. grainingtoolssuchas the surface is painted with a flat base combs, raymarkers, mottlers androllers. coatandthe base is allowed to dry. Finally, a protective topcoat is added. Grainingglazescan beprepared in theshop, butcommercial, ready-touseglazing stains arejust aseffective; theycanbe tintedwith japancolors to produce virtuallyany youwish. shade Theglazes you makeyourself will usually consist of onepart boiled linseed oil andtwo parts varnish; theyare tintedwithartists' colors. You need aheavy-bodied consistency, but not soheavy thatthe dryingtime isslow A deftlywielded artist'sbrushanda grain- or thegrainpatterns will tendto flow ingrollercombined to etchavivid pattem back together. Youcanbuyspecial addigrainonapiece ofheart ofparticleboard. tives to speed up thedrying time.

GRAINING A SURFACE BYHAND


andapplying theglaze 1 Preparing I Tinta container offlatoil-based oaint withartists' colors sothatit matches the youwishto imitate. hueof thewood Spread a layer of the paint workonyour piece asa base coatandallowit to dry. glaze Then apply a graining onthepaintedsurface witha foam brush or padapplicator. To begin the process of creating a grainpattern on thewood, wrapa soft cloth tightly around three of your fingers, thendraw theclothalong thesurface sevparallel eral times, drawing thin,wavy, lines (right).

r18

DECORATIVE FINISHES

ArLieL'ebrueh

r) Refining thegrain lines L fo make thegrain lines fromstep I a little more delicate, dipanartist's hair brush ora camel's sword striper in it slowly theglaze, anddraw along the (left). surface within theoriginal lines For results, best hold thebrush at an angle to thesurface. lf youwish to simulate a knot onyour workpiece, rubin lines fora rough oval ordiamond shape eo uw i l lb ea d d i ntg a r o u nw d h e ry he knot. Experiment withthebrush until pattern you has thesurface thegrain areseeking.

"o. 12

Drawing in knots Q r.,l Wrap a cloth around one f inger and gently dipthefingertip in theglaze. Then touch thesurface to make Iheknol(righil. Tosmooth outthe oatterns andblend them into thebackground, brush thesurface back andforth witha soft, drybrush following thedirection ofthegrain. A badger softener is ideal forthisstage of the process. 0nce is dry, thesurface apply a it withrottenstone topcoat, thenpolish wax. andpaste

r19

DECORATIVEFINISHES

W()RKING WITHGRAINING TOOTS

grain patterns other 1 Simulating paint I Spread a base coat of tinted andthena glazing stain following the procedures described on page 118.Tosimulate grain markings the random characteristic of oak,runa ray parallel marker along thesurface in straight lines, of theboard

(above, grain pattern left). Toreproduce to theedges thebroad graining typical of mahogany, draw a metal or rubber comb along thesurface, creating a series of slightly wavy butparallel lines(above, right).

r) Blending in thegrain gently isstillwet, L Wnletheglaze draw a soft, drypaintbrush, such asa badger softener, back andforthover thesurface, (right). following the direction of lhe grain This willfanoutthegrain lines andgive thesurface a more uniform andnatural appearance.

r20

DECORATIVE FINISHES

A BLOCK CUSHION GRAINER jigand With a molding silicone rubber, you grainer canmake a block cushion For thejig,cuta cirto suityourneeds. wood cular block of 1%-inchthick that willfit onthesandrng disk ofyour electricdrill. Screw theblock to thedisk, then install thediskin thedrillchuck. Attach plya commercial drillstand to a %-inch wood base, theninstall thedrill. Clamp thebase to a work surface andsecure a justin frontof the short of 2-by-4 scrap block to serve asa toolrest. Cutnotches in the2-by-4 forclamps. Toshape thewood block, lock thedrill in the0n position andhold thetip of a small skew chisel against therotating groove surface, etching a %-inch-deep into Rest thewood. thechisel blade on Ihe2-by-4 it steady. to keep Cutonthe left-hand side of theblock to prevent the frombeing kicked chisel up.Carve a grooves in theblock series of concentric (above,right), varying their widths andthe intervals between them to suitthegrain pattern you wish to desrgn. Closely spaced grooves will produce a hardwood look; grooves thatarespread farther apart are better forsimulating softwoods. grainer, Tomake theactual remove the from its block thesanding diskandcoat grooved facewithpaste wax. Then apply layer a 7a-inch-thick of silicone rubber over thewax. Lettherubber cure for about24 hours, thenpeel it offtheblock (below, righil.frim therubber imprint glue piece and it to a rounded of 2-by-2 with a plywood handle. Remove residany paste wax withnaphtha. ual The way toolis used thesame astradi(page grainers 120),butremember tional it along to push thesurface witha forward rockrng motion.

Drill/

Jig baoe

t21

MARBLING
whenstructural considerf n thepast, I ations ruledout theuseof realmarble,fauxmarbre, or false marble, finishes werecommonly used asa substitute on everything fiom wallsandfloorsto mantelsandfurniture. Real marble is a bv-product of intense natural forces thatoccurwhenlimestone is melted heatandpressure. undergreat Mineralsrunningthroughthe molten rock cool and crystallize. The resultis layerupon layerof veinscolored white, blackand otherhues, whichtogether form a latticethat is somehow both opaque andtranslucent. Of themanytechniques for replicating theappearance oimarbleon wood, mostinvolve workingwith two or three paints colored on a wet,glazed surface. Tools for manipulating thepaints range from rags to newspapers to sponges, Fine brushes or a feather arethebestimolements for simulating thedepth andpatternofthe veins. As a rule of thumb,the colorson a marbled surface should be limitedto a maximumof three, including the base color. Thechoice of colors isbest restricted to the naturalcolors found in marble.The constituent oartsof marble actually flow during the formationof the stone, and it is vital to capture this appearance offluidity.Toproduce a realisticdesign, work with goodreference photographs or keep a sample of thereal thingon hand.

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Whiteandgreen ntarbled wood simulates the appearance Jluid and mistydepth of realmarble.

MARBLING WITH A BRUSH


Applying theglaze 1 I For thebase coat of a white marble f inish, brush a coat of white, semigloss pd a i no t ny o u r oil-base workpiec ae sa base coat a n da l l o w it todry. T oe l i m i nate anybrush marks, lightly sand the surface witha 320-grit Tint sandpaper. glaze a container of white witha small amount of oneof theartists' colors that you w i l lb eu s i n g i n t h ef i n i s h T .hen use piece a cloth ora creased of newspaper to (righil. coat thepainted surface wilhglaze

r22

DE,CORATIVE FINISHES

r) Sketching in themarble veins L Wntle thesurface is stillwet.squeeze some of theartists' color in stepI used . i pa na r t i s t s ' b r u is onto a palette D nh to thecolor andusewavy strokes to paint (above). imitatjon-marble veins in theglaze The veins should aooear to wander randomlyabout thesurface, forking right andleft. yn ouf ri n g e r s R o l l i ntg h eb r u s h betwee youpaint produce while canalso a realisyouhave painted tic effect. Once in allthe glaze veins, remove theexcess andsoften gs o f t t h ev e i n b s yp u l l i na cloth diagonally (ighil.Repealthe process across thesurface to paint in more marble veins in a second color. lf you wish to layer onadditional veins, reverse theorder of thecolors, or mixthem together to provide contrast anddepth to thesurface.

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DECORATIVE FINISHES

r-,1While thesurface i s s t i l lw e t ,g e n t l y d r a wa s o f t ,d r y p a i n tb r u s h s , u c ha s a badger softener, backand forthacross until the surthe veins(right). Conlinue m i s t ya n dt r a n s l u c e nO f a c el o o k s t .n c e i s d r y ,l e t i t s i t f o r a b o u I 2 4 t h es u r f a c e o hours a n da p p l y a c o a to f s e m i g l o s sr ps olyurethan e r n i s hP va . olish high-glos t h e w o r k p i e cw e i t h a s o f tc l o t h .

Smoothins theoattern n <.

FEATHERING A MARBLED SURFACE


I F o ra g r e e n marble finishs . pread a base c o a to f g r e e np a i n ta n d t h e na glaze t i n t e da l i g h t ec r olor o n y o u rw o r k piece p r o c e d u ro en p a g e following the
122 t\'in: hird fp:thpr inin thp olazp
i r i r v ! i ' v b i v 4 v

Sketchins broad veins 1 l -

a n dd r a wi t d i a g o n a l a ly c r o st sh e s u r f a c e e i n s( / e f f ) . to produce broad m a r b l e - l i kv e p a t t e r n Smooth a n ds o f t e n the by brushi n gt h e v e i n s lightly w i t ha m a r i n e sponge, a b a d g es r o f t e n eo r r a s o f tc l o t h .W h i l e i s s t i l lw e t ,p r e p a r e another thesurface g l a z ea n dt i n t i t l i g h t e r t h a nt h e b a t c ho f f i r s tc o a t i n gA rh i s g l a z e . p p l ya n df e a t h e t t h es a m e w a yy o ud i d t h e f i r s to n e ,b u t t h i st i m e ,m a k e t h ev e i n s cross over the ones a l r e a d iy n place.

DECORATIVE FINISHES

r) opening upthepattern I lo produce a mottled effect onthe paint surface, dipa clean, stiff-bristled brush intoa container of mineral spirits. Holding thebrush a fewinches above the workpiece, runa gloved f inger along the bristles, moistening theveins witha f ine (right). spray

thepattern Q Completing r-,, Dioa bird feather in white artists' color andallow theexcess to driooff to prevent anyblobbing. Then use the feather tipto sketch in a series of thin white veins within thebroad veins already onthesurface. When allthe painted, fineveins have been smooth, h v a r n i sa hn dp o l i s t h es u r f a ca es described in step 3 on page I24.

t25

FINSHNGTOTICHES
Ithoughwoodworking catThedifference between arubbed alogs abound withawide varisatin finishandonethatisbuffed to ety of rubbingcompounds and a gloss depends on thegrit of the fancy polishers, electric purists still abrasive youchoose. Rubbing comrelyonthecenturies-old process of pounds, for example, parcontain "rubbing out" a finishwith traditiclesthat leave minutescratches tionalabrasives. Rubbing afinishto on a surface. Coarser-grit coma satin sheen with pumice, a powpounds produce a fairlylarge patdered form of volcanicrock, ternthatmakes thesurface appear imparts a softlook suggestive of dull,or satin. Finer-grit compounds brushed brass andleaves thewood Thevarnishtopcoat on this lgth-Century leave marks thatareharder to see, farmsmoothand silky to the touch. house-style tablewasrubbedout with extra creating a glossier look.Virtually Taking theprocess yetanother step wooland buffedwith pastewax. anything thatabrades canbeused fine steel furtherwith an even finerpowder for rubbing out.In addition to rubcalled rottenstone removes theabrasions caused bythepumice bingcompounds, finishers relyon sandpaper, steel wooland to addanextrameasure of shine-evento glossy topcoats of nylonabrasive pads. In each case, thesize ofthe scratch patvarnish or lacquer. terndictates thelevelof sheen. Thenotionof rubbing outa meticulously applied topcoat If rubbingout hasan inherent problem, it is the risk of with abrasive compounds mayhave anincongruous ringto it. rubbing through thefinish. Since theprocess involves grindBut the final coatof finishon a piece of furnitureseldom ingsmall amounts of thethinlylayered topcoat, there isalways leaves thesurface clear andperfectly smooth. It is not unusu- thepossibility of cuttingright throughthe coating to the al for thetopcoat to bespeckled with random dustanddirt wood. Youneed to beespecially careful near theedges. With particles thatsettle on thefinishbefore it dries. In addition, some varnishes, rubbing through even the very top layer will "signature" some of thetool used to apply thefinishmaybe create a blemish. Theresulting outline of thecutarea, called visible. Even whenbrushes areadroitly handled, theyoften a "halo"or "witness linel' is a faintbut visible reminder of leave behind faintbristle marks, anda sprayed surface may justhowthin each layer of a finishreally is. show atexture similar to thatof anorange peel. Thefirststep Whilemostof therubbing out process is a removal of in therubbing process therefore isto level thesurface asper- material, thelaststep putsa tiny amount back. Waxing a fectly aspossible. Thesmoother it is,thebetter thelookand surface adds an ultra-thinlayerof protection atopthe feelof thetopcoat. Once thesurface islevel, it canbebuffed rubbed topcoat, imparting a little moresheen anddurato almost anysheen. bility to thefinish.

Fittedwith a lamb's woolbuffingbonnet, a random-orbit sander serves polisher, asan electric rubbingout thefinish and thenbuffingthetopcoat to a high-gloss sheen.

TOOLSAND ACCE,SSORIE,S
Lubriaant Keepepumtcefrom removinq fintehwhenaLeelwoolor
abraetve pado are ueed Lo rub ouL fintoh;potaearum'

Kubbingoil )peeda up rubbingouL proceee;uoed with eandpaper or pumiceetone to achteve ftntoh a hiqh-qloae

enouqh oleate type re1enLle to be ueedas cleaner

Paste wax Duffed on eurface afLer rubbin7ouL 1;o producea waterregietantand lonl' Iaoting lueLerfiniah; blendedwaxeg are often made wtLh carnauba,a hard, naLuralwax,mtxed wtth parafftnor beeewax Kubbingaompound formulat.' An abraeivepaate epecially and ed for rubbtn4out lacquer,varnteh ehellacfiniahea; applrcdwtth a raq or electric polteher

Pumiceetone Medtumcoaree (2F) and fine (4F) qradee oprinkled on aurface and ueed with felt block;made from qround up lava

Felt.block hardFelt-covered wood blockfar epreadtng ,rubbin4 on nn' co,mP,ouna


tSnea 6urface

Rottenatone on A fine abraeive powdereprinkled to achteve a hi7haurfaceaff,erpumtce qloeeoheen; uaedwith felt block

Electric polieher Ueedwtth bufftn4 bonnetand rubbing to worK compound on larqeaurfaces

Lamb'a wool buffing bonnet lnetalledon elec' trtc poltoher

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Rubbingpada 9uper fine pad ueedaloneor wtth lubrtcant, suchaa rubbin7otl;made from durable poly' eater frber

Steel wool )uper fine or OOOO qrade ueedfor rubbin4ouLa ftnioh

r28

PREPARING TO RUBOUT THE FINISH


avinggraced yourworkpiece with ff I I a finalcoat of finishandwaited for it to dry,you maybeimpatient to move on to the nextstep. However, beforea topcoat canbe rubbed out, it mustfirst dry andset,soasto be hardenough to beworkedoverwith veryfine abrasives. Before rubbingout yourworkpiece, you mustwaitfor thetoDcoat to cure-that is, you must allow it ampletime to become ashard asit will set.Without time to cure, you arelikelyio scratch the finishduringthe rubbingout phase. No two finishes takethesame amount of time to cure.The durationof the process depends on several factors, including product thetypeof finishing you use, thenumberof coats youapply, and the amountof time that elaoses between subsequent coats. Forexample, shellac andthewater-based finishes can usually be rubbedout after24 hours. For lacquer, the wait is more like 48 hours, whilevarnish takes threeor four days. Oil finishes canrequire weeks to cure.The greater the numberof coats on a surface, thelonger thecuring time. But remember that a finishcures more rapidlyif more time is left for drying behveen coats. Always readthe instructionsbefore apphng a finish; a suggested curingtime will usually be indicated. The typeof sheen you end up with afterrubbingout a finishhinges on the abrasives you use. For a satingloss, use paper, 400-grit thenbuffthesurface. Use 0000 steelwoolin conjunction with 400grit paper for a semigloss. An even finer grit sandpaper, suchas600,combined with rubbing compound will result in a high gloss. Thesame effect canalsobe achieved with a 600-gritpaper and pumice or rottenstone. Startby abrading the topcoat to a mattesheen. If you choose a wet/dry sandpaper, select a grit thatis finerthan the oneused prepare to the surface for thefinalcoatof finish.Thenextsteo isto (page remove parricles dustandsanding 42),Ihen repeat process theabrading severaltimeswith successively finer-grit papers. For a dull- or flat-looking surface, stopat 400-grit paper. Moveup to a higher grit for a glossier finish.

TESTING A FINISH T()SEE IF IT IS CURED


Checking thefinish Perform thefollowrng simple tests to determine whether a topcoat hascured. T r yt o d i ga f i n g e r n a in i lt o t h ef r n i s h on part an inconspicuous of theworkpiece (lefil. You notbeable should to leave an indentation. lf youdo,thefinish needs a d d i t i o nc au l r i n tg imeS . m e lils a n o t h e r good indication. lf youcandetect the odor o f t h es o l v e n otn t h ew o r k p i e c e , t h et o p c o ai t s n o tr e a d f yo r r u b b i n g p a s s eb so t h o u t .O n c e t h ef i n i s h of these tests, sand a hidden area lightly. lf thepaper clogs, allow more timefor glides lf thepaper curing. over thesurface, turning some of thefinish to powder, thetopcoat is fullycured.

129

RUBBING OUTAFINISH
f herearetwo competing schools of J. thoughton thebest wayto rub out a finish.The traditionalapproach is to painstakingly work pumiceand rottenstone overthetopcoated surfaces usinga felt block. A lesshideboundmethod involves theuseof oneor moremodern abrasives, suchasrubbingcompounds, steelwool or sandpaper, and may even polisher. makeuseof an electric Both methodshave their advantages. Working with pumiceand rottenstone is laboripurist's ous,but wins thewoodworking stampof approval. The modernway is easier and cutsdown on elbowgrease, but someargue that it involves less craft. Both methods aredemonstrated on the pages that follow Whichever routeyou take,keepin mind that thefinerthe abrasive you use, you will produce. the glossier the sheen The photo above you showsonesheen can achieve usingeitherrubbing out technique. Any lustercanbe enhanced by buffing the finish with wax. But do not rely solelyon the wax to heighten the gloss; it will not turn a satinfinish into a semigloss, for example. Instead, the wax will only intensify what is already there.Althoughall the surfaces of a workpiecewill haveto be rubbed out, pay particularattentionto tops, since theyarethe mostvisiblefeatures of mostfurniture. If you choose to go the traditional route,you will needto usea lubricant with thepumiceandrottenstone. Water and oils,like paraffinand mineraloil, arethemostcommonly lubricants. used Working with waterofferstwo advanIt cutspumicemorerapidlythan tages: oil, speeding up the process, and it also doesnot leave any oily residue. Avoid

water however; it will using onshellac, turn thefinishwhite.Paraffin oil. the rubbing is a traditional outlubricant, better choice for shellac topcoats.

Rubbing out withfine steel wool and 400-gritsandpaper addeda semigloss sheen to thewoodsample at right. Tocreate a glossier look, even abrasives would be used. finer

()FFINISHING A GUIDE T(lTHE LAST STAGE

fora flatsurface Strokes suitable parallel For tabletops andother flatsurfaces, keep every stroke to thewood grain, asshown in thediagram at right. Start near a corner andmove in a pressure straight linealong theedge, rubbing withmoderate thesurface from o n ee n dt o t h eo t h e rA ei r e c t i o n . l t e r n a td w si t he a c h subsequent stroke untilyoureach theother edge. Keep theabrasive moving; thefricfromrubbing tionresulting a single spot toolong may leave thefinish slightly Avoid burned. making arc-like strokes, which areaptto make anyscratches onthesurface more visible.

130

FINISHINGTOUCHES

W()RKING WITHCONT()URED SURFACES


Rubbing outa contoured surface Forrounded surfaces thatareawkward pad,usea to work witha rigidabrasive pad shop-made rubbing thatwillfollow thecurves of your workpiece. lf youare working withpumice, sprinkle it onthe surface witha short, stiff-bristled brush. Then wrap a sheet of sandpaper around a thick sponge small enough to comfortgripin your ably hand. Clasp thepaper around thesponge asyouruboutthefin(right). ishon the surface Withsome youcanalso types of finishes, use steel nad wool or a commercial rubhins

RUBBING OUT A FINISH WITH ROTTENSTONE


thelubricant 1 Applying I Dipthetipsof your fingers in a bowl ofthelubricant and sprinkle several drops on thesurface to be rubbed out(lefil. gloves Wear rubber if youareusing oil a sa l u b r i c a n t .

131

FINISHINGTOUCHES

r) Abrading thesurface L Snat<e a littleoumice onto thesurface, lightly abrading thesurthenbegin (/eft). Follow the face witha felt block p a t t e rs nh o w n 1 3 0 .l f y o ud o o np a g e a piece of n o th a v e a f e l tb l o c kw , rap Continue burlao around a scrao of wood. ef r u b b i ntg h es u r f a cu en t i la m i x t u ro forms. Use therottenstone andlubricant to wioeoff a small area of a softcloth ly t lo inspec th te t h es u r f a cp ee r i o d i c a you finish. You want to make certain that arenotrubbing through thetopcoat.

-/

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andlubricant thepumice Q Removing r-,1Wioe off theabrasive andlubricant witha clean clolh(right). Check thesurhave face sheen t; h ef i n i s h should a satin luster Y .ou c a ne i t h es rtop the p r o c e sa st t h i sp o i n t o r r e p e aitt t o sheen. obtain a slossier

FINISHINGTOUCHES

()PTI()NS MORE RECENT F()R RUBBING OUT


Using a ne l e c t r i p c olisher F i ta b u f f i n g b o n n eo t nthemachine's p o l i s h i nd g i s ka n d s p r e a d a w o o dr u b b i n gc o m p o u n o d n t h e b o n n e tS . t a r tt h e p o l i s h en r e a rt h e c e n t e r of thesurface a n dw o r ko u t t o w a r d t h e e d g e sm , oving (left).Electric the bonnet continuously p o l i s h e rw s o r kq u i c k l y s , o s t o pt h e t o o l oftenandwipeoff a smallareaof the surf a c ew i t h a c l o t ht o c h e c kt h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t o p c o a tO . n c et h e s u r f a c e takes y o uc a ne i t h e r o n a s a t i nl o o k , s t o pt h e p r o c e so sr c o n t i n u e w i t h a f i n e r - g r irtu b o r a g l o s s i elru s t e r . b i n gc o m p o u nfd

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Keeping a bufling bonnel grit-free TarLicles of dust or qril on a buffinq bonnef, can Lhe ruina Nopcoaf, durinq rubbinq To oul proceee. maKe eureyour ,onnet 6tayo clean,never seLil down on poLenLially duety surfaces. InsNe ad, resl i l o n a c l e a np l a o N ib ca q .
jobo, otore Sef,ween finiohinq the bonnet, in a sealable
nlaalir han

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,Z'

-^_-

FINISHINGTOUCHES

Using rubbing compounds Scoop upa little rubbing compound with a clean cloth andrubit along thewood (righil pumice. surface asyouwould Once y o uh a v e a b r a d etd h ee n t i r e surface, wioe thecomoound with offthesurface For repeat another cloth. a glossier sheen, witha f iner-grit the process compound. gloss Toobtain a softer thanis possible w i t hr u b b i nc go m p o u ns d o ,m e finishers r u bo u tt h ef i n i s h w i t ha l u b r i c a a nn td s u p efri n es t e ew l o oo l ra c o m m e r c i a l r u b b i np ga d .

CLEANING ANDREPAIR TIPSF()R FINISHES


FINISH Lacquer

CLEANING TIPS Wipe using clean cloth dampened withlight detergent, potassium oleate or naphtha; avoid using thinners Wipe using clean cloth dampened withnaphtha; Avoid using water; it willturn shellac white light Wipe using detergent, potassium oleate or naphtha; avoid using methyl hydrate naphtha Use on polymerized oilfinishes; use soap and water on pure oil surfaces

REPAIR TIPS Repair cracks withlacquer slick(page 45)orshop-made lacquer putty byletting a small amount of lacquer dryto a honey-like consistency. For white spots, carefully digoutthedamage witha putty knife andapply portion lacquer thinner until thewhite turns clear; then apply lacquer stick or putty, letdryandsand lightly. Lightly sand away scratches. Repair discolored areas bypadding thesurface withshellac asin (page polishing French 106). Repair small cracks withlacquer orgouges stick(page 45).

Shellac

Varnish

Oils

Sand away scratches, thenrecoat withoil.Recoat discolored or dullareas.

134

FINISHINGTOUCHES

WAXING FOR A PROTECTIVE SHEEN


Applying thewax 1 t I A c o a t i no gf w a x w i l lp r o t e c a rubbed-out topcoat fromdamage, but t i t ha c o n s i s t e n c y s e l e ca t produc w thatisslightly thicker than a liquid or cream wax. Scoop a bit of thewax onto a clean cloth, then spread a thin,even coat onthesurface, rubbing thewax into onesmall area at a Iime(right). lf youtry to work ontoo large a surface area aI a time, thesolvent in thewax may evapoyoucanrubit over ratebefore thesurface, prematurecausing thewax to harden l y . L e tt h ew a xd r ya c c o r d i n to gt h e manufacture in r 's st r u c t r o n ty sp , ica ly l abou1 t 5 minutes.

r) Buffing thewax L AuO w i t ha c l e a n cloth u n t i lt h e waxed surface shines. Forcontours or surfaces withdetails, asshown at left, buffthewaxwitha stiff-bristled brush, giving thewood short, brisk strokes.

AND STORAGE CLE.A].dING


project is not quitefin,\ finishing A ished untilyouclean andputaway anddisyourbrushes, store thesolvents, pose of anyoilyrags. Whilefoambrushesareusually discarded aftera single use, brushes andpadapplicators bristle canbe cleaned and reused. With the propercare, a high-quality brushcan provide manyyears of service. Butgoodcleanup habits willdo more than protect your investment; theyare keyelements also of shopsafety andenvironmental responsibility. Tokeep finishingproducts outof thereach of children, store containers in a locked metalcabinet.Avoidthrowing out wet,oily rags with thetrash; thisincreases theriskthat theywill catch fire.Fortemporary storage, darnpen the ragsand place them in a rnetal Thiswill isolate sealed container. thern from anv sparksor flamesand quicklystarve anyspontaneous fire of needed oxygen. Thesafest wayto dispose of oily rags is to firstspread themout to dry out ofdoors. finishing products in sealed, Store properly labeled containers. Avoidusing bottlesor jarsthat normallycontain food or liquids;a visitorto your shop productfor couldmistake a chemical something drinkable. Always storestains and finishes at roomtemperature; proda water-based uct will be ruinedif allowed to freeze. Reactive finishes such astungoilor varnish,which eventually hardenwhen in airless exposed to air,should bestored containers. Rather thankeeping a small volume finishin a large of a reactive container. transfer theoroductto a smaller one, exposing theliquidto less air.A better solution isto buyfinishing products in smaller cuantities or to store themin (page collapsible plastic containers 87). Do not flushany finishingproduct findownthedrain.Even a water-based ish canpose problems by coagulating in drain pipesand backing up your plumbing system. To dispose of small quantities of a productlet it sit in an uncovered container outside until the solvent evaporates. Forlarger volumes, consultthe waste disposal service in your community.

CLEANING ANDSTORAGE TIPS o Avoid standing a brush on itsbristles; thismay bend thempermanently and ruin t h eb r u s h . . Break in a newbrush bysuspending it upto theferrule in a solvent thatis comp a t i b lw eith you t h ef i n i s h w i l la p p l y . Soak thebristles forabout 10 minutes, thenclean thebrush withdetergent and warm water. o Afterbreaking in a newbrush or cleanin it inpaper agu s e d o n ew , rap for storage. . Salvage a hardened brush bysoaking thebristles overnight in a mixture of 2 parts xylene, 1 partacetone and1 part denatured alcohol. Use a brush comb to remove fragments f inish of hardened from thebristles.
o To dispose of a water-based finish, pouror brushit ontoscraps of cardboard; let it dryand discard the cardboard. . Instead of discarding a container of recycle it. Let the usedmineral spirits, solvent sit in a coolspotfor a weekor two,then decant the spirits that have risento the top in a cleancontainer and dispose of the residue.

SH()P AIDS FOR BRUSHES


Aruahaomb A metal combfor cleanin4 eolidftntEh reaidueefrom brueh
bristlea

Bruah bucket and lid An airtiqht 6tora0e conLatnerfor ouopending bruehesin a eolvent; featurea plaettc cltpe that hold bruaheewith the brietleaabovetha bottom ofthe contatner

Eruah apinner UaescenLrtfu1al force to epin eolventfrom brueh briatlea:one end ofthe devtceholdathe bruah whilethe pump-like handleat the other end createe the epinning action

CLEANING AND STORAGE

A BRUSH STORING OVERNIGHT

in solvent Soaking brushes (page There is nopoint cleaning a brush n youplan 13B) to useit thefollowing in the day. Instead, suspend thebrush prodappropriate solvent forthef inishing uctyouareusing: forvarnish, a mixture of turpentine and varnish; forshellac, alcohol; forlacquer, lacquer denatured keeper" thinnef ro ; ra s t a i na , "brush rawlinseed solution of 2 parts oilandI (For part finishing turpentine. oil-based justwrap products, in plastic thebrush wrap.) When soaking a brush, submerge only t h eb r i s t l e a s, n dn o tt h ef e r r u l e , making sure they aresuspended above thebottom of thecontainer. Keep the brush i n a c o m m e r c ib arlu s h bucket (page 136),or hang it froma nailin a shop-made rack(above).

lllltlll llllllllilllillt lllllliltllj lllllltJ lt]j llllrlll ,lrllilulJ ilii


1HO?TI?
?unahing drip holee lNLakesverylif,Lle time for the rim of a can of finishto fill uo with liauid.Theresult, is ofLena' meoty the lid and a oVlaoh when dripVing ie IappeAcloeeA, To keep a conlainerfrom over' flowinq its rim,punch a seriee of holee around wiLha iXecircumference liquid n a i l . T h iw e ill allow Lheholee Nofall Nhrouqh backinNo Ihe conNainer.

r37

CLEANINGAND STORAGE

CTEANING A BRUSH
thebrush insolvent 1 Rinsins I Submerse thebrush's bristles in the prodappropriate solvent forthefinishing (page uctused 16).Swirl thebrush in the pressing solvent, thebristles against the sides of thecontainer. Work thesolvent through thebristles withyour hands until (left).fo thebrush is clean remove allthe residue from thebrush, wash thebristles in a solution of milddetergent andwarm water, thenpulla brush comb through (below). themasmany times asnecessary

CLEANINGAND STORAGE

r) Spinning thebrush dry L to rida brush of solvent, shake rt by hand or use a brush spinner. In both case s ,h o l d t h eb r u s h i n s i da e5-gallo cn an to catch thesolvent asit sprays from the
hrictloc Tn rrcp a sninnpr
J P " " ' u l

insprt tho hrrrch

handle i n t ot h e d e v i c e a n d ,h o l d i n g the brush i n t h ec a n ,p u m p eo s e t t h eh a n d l t ( / e f f )C . o n t i n uu it spinning en t i l t h e r e is n o l o n g ea r n ys o l v e nftl y i n g offthe brush.

AG BR U S H ST O R I N
Wrapping thebristles A well-cleaned indef brush canbestored initely. Wrap thebristles inthick, a fewtimes paper. plastic absorbent Avoid using wrap, which willkeep thebristles from drying properly andmay leave themlimp. The paper should cover thebristles completely, extending beyond thetipsandover theferrule. Use a rubber band to hold thewrapperin place, grips making sure theelastic (rrehil. theferrule rather thanthebristles Hang thebrush upto dry

GLOSSARY
A-B
powder,or Abrasive Eithera coarse a pieceof paperor fabric coated with grit particles usedto smoothwood in preparationfor finishing or to includessandpaabrade finish coats; per,abrasive pads,steelwool, pumice and rottenstone. Aniline dye:A lightfast,permanent synthetic dyederivedfrom coaltars; solublein water,alcoholor oil. Artists' colors: Rich, coloredpigmentsmixed in linseedoil: usedto tint paintsand stains. Basecoat:An undercoat of glaze or paint appliedasthe first stepin many decorative finishingtechniques. Bleach: A liquid that chemically alters wood; usedto lightenthe color. Bleeding:The tendency of a stainor grain filler to seep through to the topcoat.Bestavoided by applyinga wash coaton the stainor filler. Brazilwood:A natural dyestuffextracted from the SouthAmericanredwood tree;usedin chemical staining ofwood. Bristlebrush:A paintbrush with bristlesmadefrom the hair of animals, suchasox,badger, boar or sable. Bronzepowder:Metallic,powdered pigmentusedin stenciling or for other decorative finishes, suchasgilding. Burnisher: A rodJike tool usedto sharpenscrapers. C Catalytic finish: A two-part finish comprisingresinsand chemical cataIysts; the resinsreactwith the catalysts to oxidizeand hardenthe finish. Crazing:The tendenryof a finish to fractureerraticallyasit dries;results from solventincompatibility. Curing: The process bywhich a finish hardens completely, leavingit ready for rubbing out. Curing time varies according to the type of finish and the numberof coats. Cut The numberof poundsof shellac flakes dissolved in eaih gallonofdenatured alcohol.A 3-pound-cutshellac, for example, contains3 poundsof for everygallonofalcohol. shellac finishingtechGraining:A decorative grain pattern niquein which a specific is replicated on a prepared surface.

H-r-J-K-L
Heartwood:Wood from the centerof a log; generally darkerthan sapwood. IfVLP: Abbreviationof high-volume, low-pressure; in finishing,a system for spraying that uses largevolumes of air at low pressure to turn a liquid into a fine mist. fapan color: Highly refinedcolored pigments; to tint stains used or protective finishes suchasIacquer or shellac. Lacquer:A tough,clearsynthetic finish usuallyderivedfrom nitrocellulose; driesquicklyto a flat or glossy finish. Lightfast Describes a stainor dye that doesnot readilyfadeafterproIongedexposure to light. Long-oil varnish:Varnishcontaining 100poundsofresinfor each 40 to 100 gallonsof oil, resultingin a product that driesslowlyto a durableand elastic finish. See short-oilvarnish. M-N-O MSDS:Abbreviationof manufacturer'ssafety datasheet; the information describes the flammabiliry volatility and healthhazards ofa finishin! product. Marbling: A decorative finishing techniqueusedto imitatethe appearance of marble. Mineral spirits: A petroleum-based solventcommonlyusedfor thinning variousfinishes andfor cleaning applicationtools. Mordant A chemical substance that changes the color ofwood; often used in conjunctionwith naturaldyes.

D-E
Distressing: A finishingtechnique that involves addingscratches, dents and otherblemishes to the wood or topcoatto simulate the well-worn look of an antique. Driers: Chemicals addedto a finishingproductto speed up the drying time. Dryingoil One of a group of organic oils that hardenwhen exposed to the air;tung oil andboiledlinseed oil areexamples. Dyestuff:A naturalcoloringagent extracted from plantsor animalsand usedasa base for dyestains. F-G Fisheye: The tendency of a finish to when showsmallcirculardepressions contaminated by siliconeor wix. Flat finish: A finish with no sheen: flatteningagents, onethat contains which reduce light reflection. Frenchpolishing: A traditional finish typicallybuilt up with many layers ofshellacto producea deep, lustroussheen. Gelstain:A blendof pigmentsand dyesin a gelthat becomes liquid whenstirred. Glazs A heavy-bodied stainusedin finishes decorative suchasgraining and marbling. Glossyfinish: A finish with a reflective,shinysurface.

140

NGR stain:Abbreviationof nongrain-raising stain;NGR stainsare madefrom anilinedyesin a waterless solutionof methanoland oetroleum products; theyaredesigned to avoid raisingthe grain of wood. OrangepeehThe tendency ofa topcoatto takeon the textureofan orangepeelwhen the finish is sprayed poorly or at the wrong viscosity. Overspray:Dried finish particles that adhere to the surface, or finish spray that misses the workpiece and is dispersed into the air. P-Q Padding:A technique for wiping on a finish with a cloth pad. Photochemicallyreactive: Describes a finishingproductthat breaks down in its chemical structurewhen exposed to light. Pickledfinish: An antiquefinish consistingof a light-coloredglaze wiped overa basecoat. Pigment Finelyground,coloredparticlesof earthor metallicoxides suspendedin a liquid to create a stainor a tint for protective finishes. Polymerized tung oil Tirng oil that hasbeentreated with heatto accelerateits drying time. PolyurethaneA synthetic, durable, oil-modified urethane varnishthat is resistant to abrasion; available in lustersrangingfrom flat to glossy. Pumice A volcanicrock that is ground to a powderyconsistency for useas an abrasive. R Raymarker:A tool usedto produce grain patternstypicalofoak. Reactive finish: A finish that hardens when exposed to the air; tung oil, varnish and polnrrethaneareexamples.

Rottenstone: A fine abrasive made from pulverized limestone usedto rub out finishes to a high gloss; texture is finer than that of pumice. Rubbingoil A light oil usedasa lubricantwhen rubbingout finishes. Rubbingout The process ofabrading a topcoatto levelthe surface and add sheen to the finish.

Stain:A finishingproductusedto color wood; may containdyes, pigmentsor chemicals. Thckcloth: A cloth dampened with an oil-and-varnish mixtureor with water;usedto removesanding particlesfrom wood surfaces. Tlrnnicacid:A naturallyoccurring acidfound in wood; changes color when exposed to certainchemicals. Thinner: A solventusedto reduce the consistenry of a finish. Topcoat The final finishingproduct appliedto the workpiece. Tungoil A water-resistant drying oil derivedfrom the seeds of the Chinese tung tree;available in pure,modified and polymerized forms.Also known asChinawood oil. Universalcolor: Concentrated pigmentsusedto tint protective finishes, suchasvarnishor lacquer.

S-T-U
Sandingsealer: A preliminarycoat for a lacquerfinish. Sapstreak Pockets of pitch in wood that tend to bleedinto a finish unless first sealed. Sapwood: The live wood nearthe outsideof a log; generally lighter in color than the interior.See heartwood. Satinfinish: A finish of intermediatesheen; not asdull asa flat finish, nor asshinyor reflective asa highgloss sheen. ShellacA clearfinish derivedfrom the naturalsecretions of the lacbeetle; soldreadyto useor in flakes, which arethen mixedwith denatured alcohol. Short-oil varnish:Varnishcontaining 100poundsofresinfor each 5 to 12 gallonsof oil, resultingin a product that driesto a hard,glossy finish. See long-oilvarnish. Smoothingplane:For shaving wood surfaces smoothand level;longerthan jack plane. the average Solvent-release finish: A finish that forms a solid film afterthe solvent hasevaporated; shellac and lacquer areexamples. Solvent A liquid usedto dissolve anothersubstance; examples are turpentine,mineralspirits,toluene, acetone andwater.

V-W.X-Y-Z
Varnish:A clearfinish madewith synthetic oils that excels at resisting waterand alchohol. VOC rating: Indicates the amount of hazardous organicsolvents in a finish; providedin percent, gramsper liter or poundsper gallon. Washcoat A coatof diluted finishing materialfor sealing wood pores. Water-based finish: A product in which the solventis primarily water. Wipingstain: A non-fadingstain containingpigmentssuspended in oil. Wood filler: A putty productusedfor repairingsurface damage in wood, or a pasteusedfor filling opengrain.

r4l

INDEX
Page references in iralicsindicate an illustration of subiectmatter. Page references in bold indicate project. a Build It Yourself

D
Dents: Repair,44 Dollies,98 Dovetailioints: Using old scraper bladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 Drfrng oils,87, 134 Preventing reactivefinishesfrom dryingout (ShopTip),87 Dyes,5t 59,60-63,70 Natural dyes,69,76-79 See a/soStains

I-I-K
Insurance: rooms,103 Spray 65, 66-67,70 lapancolors, .,lgs: Blockcushiongrainers, l2l Supportsfor drying (ShopTip), 74 Turntablesfor spraying,100 (ShopTip), 33 Variable burnishers

A
Abrasives, 35,37, 128 Abrasivecord,40 Making a sandpaper cutting board (ShopTip), 37 Rottenstone, 127,130,131-132 tape(ShopTip), 40 Shop-made abrasive alsoPumice See Ammonia,80-81 Antiqueeffectfinishes, 55 Pickling, T5

L-M-N
Lacquers, 90,134 Liming,75 Linseed oil, 9, 87 Marbling, 110, 122-125 Tools,l12 McGoldrick,Pari,6-7 Metric measures: Conversion,backendpaper Mordants, T6-79 Moser,Thomas, 8-9 Natural dyes,76-79 NGR stains, 60, 6l

E-F
Ebonizing,55 A chemicalstain for ebonizing (ShopTip), 79 File clamps,3-l painting; Finishes. See Decorative Polishing;Protective finishes; Stains Fire: Extinguishers, 12,17 precautions, Safety 12,17 rooms,103 Spray polishing,106French 109 Making a pumice dispenser (ShopTip), 107 Fuming,80-81

B
23, 35 Belt sanders, Blades. Hand See Cabinetscrapers; scrapers; Planes Bleaching, 57-58 BIockpIanes, 22, 29 Bronzepowderstenciling, 113, 117 Broue de noix. 69 Brushes, fr ont endpaper, 83 A foambrush (ShopTip),92 Buffing, 126,128,135 Keepinga buffing bonnet grit-free (Shop Tip), 133 Build It Yourself: Graining l2l block cushiongrainers, Protectivefinishes sprayroom dollies,98 turntablesfor spraying,100 preparation Surface contouredsandingblock, 39 Burn-in kits,43,46

O-P-Q
Paddinglacquers, I06 Palm sanders, 23, 35 Paste wood filler. See Grain filler Patchingcompounds,43,45-46 Filling a damaged corner (ShopTip), ae Using a gluegun to apply shellac stick(ShopTip), a6 Pickling,75 Pigment stains, 55, 59,64-67,70 See alsoStains Planes, 20,2I,22,24 Adjustment, 27-28 24,25-27 Sharpening, Planing, 21,28-29 Polishing: Waxing, 127,135 See alsoBuffing; Rubbingout Polyurethanes, 88 Porefiller. See Grain filler Powertools. See Sanders; Sprayers Productlabels, l8 Protectiveclothing, 12 Protective finishes, 83,86,87-90 Application techniques, 83, 86 brushing,83, 92 flooding, 83 Frenchpolishing,106109 padding,9l spraying,82, 83,97- 101,I0O sprayingproblems,104-105 wiping,83, 9l Cwing, 129

G
Gelstains, 65,66-67,70 Glazingstains,65, 66-67, 70 Grain: Raising,21, 50 Grainfiller, 21, 51-53 Coloring grain filler (ShopTip), 50 Lighteningwood with grain filler (ShopTip), 58 Graining,lll, 118-120 Tools,112,l2l

C
Cabinetscrapers, 22, 30,34 Sharpening, 30-32 usinga file clamp(ShopTip), 3l usinga variableburnisher (ShopTip), 33 Using old scraper bladesto cut half(ShopTip), blind dovetails 34 Chemicals: Ammonia.80-81 BIeach. 57-58 Mordants, T6-79 Spills,l6 See alsoSolvents: Stains Chinawood oi1,86,87 Cleaning techniques, 136-I 39 Chemicalspills, 16 Finished surfaces, 134 Decorativepainting, I I I Tools.l.l2 See alsoGraining;Marbling; Stenciling

H
Half-blind dovetailioints: Using old scrapeibladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 Hand scrapers, 21,22,j0, jj Sharpening,j0-j2 usinga file clamp (ShopTip), 3l usinga variableburnisher (ShopTip), 33 Using old scraper bladesto cut halfblind dovetails(ShopTip),34 High-volume,low-pressure spray systems, 93,94 Holes: Filling filling a damaged corner (ShopTip), 49 Patching,4T-49 HVLP spraysystems, 93,94

t42

Tools.85 a foambrush (ShopTip),92 sprayers, 84, 85,93-96, 101 viscosity cttps,89,96 Tlpes {rfrng oils,87,134 lacquers, 90,134 polyurethanes, 88 shellacs, 89, 10G109, 134 varnishes, 83,88, 134 See alsoBuffing; Rubbing out; Waxing Pumice, 130,131-132 Frenchpolishing,107-108 Making a pumice dispenser (Shop Tip), l0Z

R
Raising the grain,2l, 50 Random-orbit sanders. 38 Reactive finishes.87 Preventingreactivefinishesfrom dryingout (ShopTip), 87 Repairs: Finished surfaces. 134 Surface pr epar ation, 43-49 gluingan edge splinterback (Shop Tip), aa Respirators, 12,14-15 Storingrespiratorcartridges (ShopTip), .15 Rottenstone, 127,130,I 31-132 Rubbingcompounds, J33 Rubbingofi, 126-133 Tools,128

S
precautions, Safety 12-13 Bleach. 57 Dual-cartridgerespirators, 12, 1415 storing respiratorcartridges (ShopTip), 15 Fire,12,17,103 Mordants,77 Protectiveclothing, I2 Spraybooths, .13, 84 Spray rooms, 102103 Sanders, 23,35,38 Buffingbonnets,126,128,133 keepinga bufEng bonnet grit-free (ShopTip), 133 See alsoAbrasives Sanding, 35-36 Curvedsurfaces, 3& 40 Finding flaws (ShopTifl, al Removingdust particles,42 making a tack cloth (ShopTip), 42 Tight spots, 4l See alsoSanders

Sanding blocks: Contouredsandingblocks,39 Curvedsurfaces, 38 Shop-made sanding blocks (ShopTip), 36 Sandpaper. See Abrasives Savoy, Prew,l0-lJ Scrapers. See Cabinetscrapers; Hand scrapers Scraping,33-34 Scratches: Repair,134 Shellacs, 89,134 Frenchpolishing, 106109 making a pumice dispenser (ShopTip), l0Z Shellacsticks, 43, 45-46 usinga gluegun to apply shellac stick(ShopTip),46 ShopTips: Decorative finishes, 114,115 Protective finishes, 87,92,107 Rubbingout, 133 Safety,l5 Staining,58,69, 71,73, 24,79 Surface preparation grain filler, 50 repairs, 44,46,49 sanding,36,37, 40,41, 42 scraping, 31,33, 34 Smoke detectors. 17 Solvents: Productlabels. 18 Protectivefinishes, 86, 103 Safety precautions,12-19,84,102103 Toxicity, 19,86,103 Wastedisposal, 12,13,16 Sprayers, 84, 85,93-96 Cleaning,10.1 Viscositycups,89,96 Spraying, 97,99, 101 Dollies,98 Problems, 104-105 Spraybooths, 13,84 Spray rooms,102103 Turntables,100 Staining, 54,55,71-74 Controlling the flow of stain (ShopTip), 7l End grain, 69 Gettingstaininto tight spots (ShopTip), 73 Pickling,75 Supports for drying(ShopTip), 24 Tools.56 Seealso Bleaching; Fuming Stains: ChemicaI,T6-79 a chemicalstainfor ebonizins (ShopTip), 79 Dyes, 5t 59,60-63,70 naturaldyes,69,76-79

Pigment stains, 55, 59,64-67,70 Preparation, 68 preparinga naturalwalnut stain (ShopTip), 6e See alsoStaining Stenciling, 111, 1I 3-I 16 (ShopTip), l15 A curefor bleeding Bronze powder,113, 117 Patterns,backendpaper, I 13114 projecting a pattern(Shop Tip), 114 Tools,I 12 preparation,2 I Surface Repairs,43-49 filling a damaged corner (ShopTip), 49 gluing an edgesplinter back (ShopTip), 44 See alsoPlaning;Sanding;Scraping

T
Tack cloths: making a tack cloth (ShopTip), 42 Tools: Decorative painting, 1I 2 Protective finishes,84-85, 92 Rubbing out, 128 Spraybooths, 13,84 Spray rooms,102103 Staining,56 Storage, 136,137,139 pr eparation,22-23 Surface Variableburnishers,33 See alsoAbrasives; Brushes; Cabinet scrapers; Hand scrapers; Planes; Sanders; Sanding blocks; Sprayers Tung oil, 86,87 U.S.measures: Conversion,backendpaper Vaporpressure, 18 Variableburnishers,33 Varnishes, 83,88,134 VOC (Volatile OrganicCompound) rating,18 Walnut oil, 87 Walnut stains: preparinga natural walnut stain (ShopTip), 6e Wash coats,2l,5l,53 Wastedisnosal: Solvenis, 12,13, 16 Waxing,I27, 135 Wax sticks,43 Wiping stains, 64-65 70 Wood: Color,55 Grain.5l Wood filler,43,45 Fillinga damaged corner(ShopTip), 49

u-v-w-x-Y-z

r43

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditors wishto thank thefollowing SAFETY BoothProducts Co.,Barrie,Ont; DeVilbiss Spray Chris A. Minick. Stillwater,MN PREPARING THE SURFACE IL; American Tool Cos., Adjustable ClampCo.,Chicago, PowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; Lincoln,NE; Blackand Decker/Elu Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Ltd.,Norcross, GA; Hitachi PowerToolsU.S.A. ToolsInc, Pickering, Ont.; Lee ValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; Record Works, New Britain, CT; Stanley Tools,Division of the Stanley 3M Canada, Dorval,Que.;VeritasToolsInc.,Ottawa, NY Ont./Ogdensburg, CHANGING THE COLOR B.Kemp,H. BehlenCo., IL; Jonathan Adjustable Clamp Co.,Chicago, Shoppe, York, PA; Amsterdam, N.Y.;OldeMill Cabinet MN TechCorp.,Minneapolis, WagnerSpray DECORATIVE FINISHES IL; Inc.,Chicago, Equipment Manufacturing Company, Advanced LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. PROTECTIVEFINISHES Barrie,Ont.; IndustrialCoatingEquipment, DeVilbiss Ransburg DeVilbiss Spray BoothProducts Co.,Barrie,Ont.; NJ; The Hydrocote Co. Inc.,EastBrunswick, MN WagnerSpray TechCorp.,Minneapolis, FINISHINGTOUCHES Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Inc., N.Y.;3M Canada H. Behlen Co.,Amsterdam Dorval, Que. CLEANINGAND STORAGE LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. Chris A. Minick, Stillwater,MN in thepreparation Thefollowingpersons alsoassisted of this book: Dor6, Elizabeth DonnaCurtis,Lorraine Cameron, Kent J. Farrell,Kam Ghaffari,Michel Gigudre, Maryo Proulx Serge Guibord,BrianParsons,

PICTURE CREDITS
Cover PaulMcCarthy/Au Puitsde Lumidre 6,7 RonaldMaisonneuve Huang 8,9 Grace 10,11 Ian Gittler

r44

WORKSHO GP UIDE
U.9, AND METRIC CONVERSION To find the metric meaeure equivalent of a U.9.measure tn the left-hand column,multiply facf,or tn f,he by the converaion center column.To find the U.9. meaaureequivalenL of a metric meaeurein the riqht-hand column, divideby Lheconveraion factor.

MEASURE U.S. Weight Pound Ou nce (Liquid) Volume Gallon 4 Quarts 1 6P i n t s 1 2 8F l u i d o u n c e s Quart Pint pint Half Flu idou nce 2 Pints 32 Fluidounces 16Fluidounces 8 Fluidounces

CONVERSION FACTOR 0.454 28.350 3.785 3.785 3.785 0.946 0.946 0.473 0.236 29.573

METRIC MEASURE Kilogram Gram Liter Liter Liter Liter Liter Liter Liter Milliliter

STENCIT PATTERN
Thte fruit -bowl pa|Lern wae a commonly uaed mol)f on 19th Century furniture, To make a etenctl from iL to decorate your own furntil rre fnllntt, f.he alena

6tartinq on pa4e 113.

N o o o o o 0 \.rN0%