Pediatrician: A medical doctor who specializes in children’s health from newborn to adolescents Cardiologist: deals with disorders of the

heart. Obstetrician and Gynecologist: treat the disorders in female reproductive organs. Neurosurgeon: treats the disorders in central and peripheral nervous system. Orthopediist: deal with illness of the skeletal structure.

Ophthalmologists: diagnose and conduct treatment for the diseased human eye.

Psychiatry: A medical doctor who treats mental, emotional or behavioral disorders.

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Kovilan was the son of a wealthy merchant in Kaveripattinam, married Kannagi, a young woman of legendary beauty. They lived together happily in the city of Kaveripattinam, until Kovilan met the dancer Madhavi and fell in love with her. In his infatuation he forgot Kannagi and gradually spent all his wealth on the dancer. At last, penniless, Kovalan realised his mistake, and returned to Kannagi. Their only asset was a precious pair of anklets (chilambu—hence the name of the epic), filled with gems, which she gave to him willingly. With these as their capital they went to the great city of Madurai, where Kovilan hoped to recoup his fortunes by trade. The city of Madurai was ruled by the Pandya king Nedunj Cheliyan I. Kovilan's objective was to sell the anklets in this kingdom so that he and his wife would be able to start their lives over. Unfortunately, around the time he set out to sell the anklets, one anklet (out of a pair) was stolen from the queen, by a greedy court member. This anklet looked very similar to Kannagi's. The only difference was that Kannagi's were filled with rubies and the queen's filled with pearls, but this was not a visible fact. When Kovilan went to the market, he was accused of having stolen the anklet. He was immediately beheaded by the King's guards,

The sodium ion is missing an electron. after the request from the Goddess of the city. However. SALT WATER ELECTRICITY CONDUCTIVITY EXPERIMENT Salt water is a good conductor of electricity. either positive or negative. The city was set ablaze resulting in huge human and economic losses. the children and the disabled were spared). which gives it a positive change. The story was narrated by the poet Ilango Adigal. because the salt dissolves into the water and breaks down into "ions" which act as a conductor. the positively-charged sodium ions are attracted to the negative pole and the negatively-charged chlorine ions are attracted to the positive pole. as an equally chaste woman. When salt enters water. her curse became a reality. the water causes the salt's sodium and chloride atoms to pull apart and make the salt crystals begin to disappear. the King and the Queen died of shame. Kovilan's amorous lover. she became furious. Fresh water does not have these ions. Kannagi finally reached Chera country and her husband came down to take her back to heaven. Realizing their fault. Unsatisfied. The . When an electric potential is applied. Salt molecules are made of sodium and chlorine. which gives it a negative charge. These ions carry the electricity through water. A fascinating. Working principle of the Saltwater Circuit: An ion is an atom that has an electrical charge. broke open the anklet seized from Kovilan and showed that it contained rubies. but ironic. fact about this epic is that it portrays Madhavi. As a result. The chlorine ion has an extra electron. therefore it cannot conduct the electrical current. This experiment is to prove this by a simple circuit. Kannagi came to the king's court. When Kannagi was informed of this. as opposed to the queen's anklets which contained pearls. Kannagi uttered a curse that the entire city be burnt (the old. After setting fire to Madurai City.without trial. a sodium ion and a chlorine ion are formed. attained salvation. she withdrew her curse and later. Due to her utmost Chastity. and set out to prove her husband's innocence to the king.

Bottom ash are not bio-degradable. Ashes easily leak into the soil and water tables causing land and water pollution. Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned. mining. protecting and preserving its surface soils. The surface is exposed to erosion which destroys the quality of the land. plastic. iron and other chemicals such as copper. wood. Industrial sources: These include paints. fertilisers and insecticides used for agricultural activities. Mining sources: This includes piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag and underground debris. chemicals. It is know to be very toxic (poisonous). Some of these are sent directly to landfills whiles other treatment plants burn them to generate electricity. farming and construction. plastics and so on that are produces in the process of manufacturing goods. two types of ashes are produced. Deforestation: This is when trees are cut down for economic purposes. Circuit diagram: Sources of land pollution Agricultural sources: These include waste matter produced by crop. mercury and lead from mining practices leach into the soil. and settled solids. Both end up polluting the environment. trees absord and reflect about 20% of the intense heat from the sun. Additionally. Garbage or waste: These include household or municipal waste such as glass. Some of these can decay and others cannot. They also include the chemical left over of all pesticides. animal manure. When waste is burned in incinerators. Cutting down trees mean that the land is exposed to direct sunlight and rain. wood. . Sewage Treatment: Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated. resulting in soil erosions. Bottom ash is the debris from burnt metal and glass waste. They are usually collected and sent to landfills where the pollution action begins.essence of the above process is that an "invisible wire" is formed that allows electrons to move from ion to ion across the water. This is the ash that is trapped by filters in the chimney of the incinerators. Every four trucks of waste burnt produces about one truck of ashes that end up in the landfill too. biomass sludge. Construction sources: These include waste like debris. paper. polluting it and leaving it exposed to water bodies as well. Mining and forestry activities that clear the land surfaces (clearcutting) and use 'skid trails' often leave leave the land unrestored. metals and aluminum. desertification and land degradation Chemical And Nuclear Plants: These include chemical waste from chemical industries that are disposed off into landfills. The second type of ash is called fly ash. and farm residues. In forests areas. metal. cloth. and so on. metals and plastics that are produced from construction activities.

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