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Sebastian Requena Fall 2011

1

**Cohen-Tannoudji KI Exercise 2
**

d2 − αδ (x) 2m dx2

2

Consider a particle whose Hamiltonian is given by: H= Where α is a positive constant. a) Integrate the eigenvalue equation of H between − and + . Letting approach zero, show that dφ dx represents a discontinuity at x = 0 and determine it in terms of α, m, and φ(0) The eigenvalue equation. Eφ = Hφ Eφ = − Get it ready to be integrated. d2 2m φ = 2 [−Eφ − αδ (x)φ] 2 dx Integrate it from − to +

+ −

(1)

(2) (3)

d φ − αδ (x)φ 2m dx2

2

2

(4)

d2 2m φ=− 2 2 dx

+

Eφ −

−

2m

2 0

+

αδ (x)φ

−

(5)

lim

→0

d2 d2 φ ( ) − φ(− ) dx2 dx2

=−

2m

2 0

Eφ −

2m

2

αφ(0)

(6)

The terms on the left side of the equation represent the discontinuity about 0. The ﬁrst term on the right becomes zero and the second term is the value of the discontinuity. b) Assume that the energy of the particle is negative, (a bound state). φ(x) can then be written, 1

I’ll simply use the value of the discontinuity at x=0 2mα dφI (0) dφII (0) − = − 2 φ(0) (17) dx dx 2mα −A2 ρeρ0 − A1 ρe−ρ0 = − 2 A1 (18) Using Eq. We already have found the value of the discontinuity at x = 0. To construct the matrix M we can just look at our coeﬃcients and ”guess” it. Using the result of the previous question. By looking at the continuity conditions it should be obvious that A1 = A2 . Eφ = − d2 φ 2m dx2 2 (14) (15) (16) d2 2mE φ=− 2 φ dx2 ρ= − 2mE 2 To ﬁnd the possible energies. 0 1 1 0 A1 A1 M= = 0 1 A1 A1 1 0 = A2 A2 (12) (13) To ﬁnd ρ I’ll use the Schrodinger equation. Calculate the corresponding normalized wave function.x < 0 : φ(x) = A1 eρx + A‘1 e−ρx x > 0 : φ(x) = A2 eρx + A‘2 e−ρx (7) (8) Express the constant ρ in terms of E and m. using the condition φ(x) must be square integrable. x < 0 : φI (x) = A1 eρx x > 0 : φII (x) = A‘2 e−ρx (10) (11) I’ll impose continuity conditions at x = 0. I set A1 = A2 = 0 to bound my solution at +∞ and −∞. ﬁnd the possible values of the energy. 18. I solve for ρ ρ= mα 2 (19) 2 . calculate the matrix M deﬁned by: A2 A2 =M A1 A1 (9) Then.

16 equal to Eq. √ ρ = e−ρx 2 mα eρx e−ρx (25) (26) mα (27) /2) Solving for 2x ≈ ∆x = − 2ln(1 ρ 2 Cohen-Tannoudji KI Exercise 3 Consider a particle in the same potential as the previous problem. I start with the general solution.Setting Eq. ∞ 2 A2 2 0 ∞ 0 |φ|2 dx = 1 e−2ρx dx = 1 √ ρ= mα (22) (23) (24) A= The normalized wavefunctions are: √ √ x < 0 : φI (x) = √ x > 0 : φII (x) = c) Give a reasonable estimate of ∆x. a) Show the wavefunctions for the stationary state. I’ll use the value at FWHM. 18 yields: − The allowed energy is found to be: E=− mα 2 2 (21) 2mE 2 = mα 2 (20) Finding the normalized wave function. I’ll take advantage of the symmetry of the potential. The particle is propagating from the left to the right along the 0x axis with positive energy E. x < 0 : φI (x) = A eikx + Ae−ikx x > 0 : φII (x) = Beikx + B ‘2 e−ikx (28) (29) 3 .

I set A = 1. φII (0) = φI (0) (32) I have already dealt with the discontinuity in the ﬁrst derivative in the previous problem. Calculate in terms of the dimensionless parameter EL . mα R = |A| = ik 2 2 mα 1− √ i 2mE −1 2 = mα2 2 2 + mα2 (38) Similarly for the transmission. α. the reﬂection coeﬃcient parameter R and the transmission parameter T of the barrier. 31. The stationary wavefunctions become: x < 0 : φI (x) = eikx + Ae−ikx x > 0 : φII (x) = Beikx (30) (31) To ﬁnd the coeﬃcients A and B. I impose continuity conditions at x=0. it diverges when E approaches EL and discuss this result. 29. The reﬂection coeﬃcient is simply. Setting. and E.30 into Eq.I’ll let B = 0 to only consider particles coming from −∞. T = |B | = 2 mα 1− √ i 2mE −1 2 = 2 2E 2 2 E + mα2 (39) To get into dimensionless units I use EL R= E EL 1 +1 (40) 4 .32 I can ﬁnd A and B in terms of k. mα −1 B = 1− (34) ik 2 mα mα −1 A= 1 − (35) ik 2 ik 2 Setting k = √ 2mE . B= A= 1− mα √ i 2mE −1 (36) −1 mα ik 2 1− mα √ i 2mE (37) mα E b) Set −EL = − 2 2 . What happens when E approaches ∞? Show that if T is extended for negative values of E. dφI (0) dφII (0) −2mα − = (33) 2 dx dx Substituting Eq.m. To simplify calculations. Study their variation with respect to E.

3 Cohen-Tannoudji KI Exercise 5 V (x) = −αδ (x) − αδ (x − l) (42) Consider a particle of mass m whose potential is given by. T goes to ∞ and R becomes 0. I begin with my general solution. I ﬁnd the transcendental equation for the allowed energies (See Eq. B= Similarly for x = l. Show that 2ρ µ (43) . x < 0 : φII (x) = Aeρx 0 < x < l : φI (x) = e ρx (44) −ρx + Be (45) (46) x > l : φIII (x) = Ce−ρx To ﬁnd the allowed energies. 42). This is because the particle becomes trapped in the delta potential. As E goes to ∞. I ﬁnd. Where l is a constant and α > 0. both T and R diverge. For E goes to EL . (i) The Ground State: Show that this state is even (invariant with respect to l ). This is because the energy of the particle is so high the barrier is transparent to it. I bound it and let one of the coeﬃcients equal 1 to simplify my calculations. e−ρl = ± 1 − Where µ = 2mα 2 − 2ρ 2m . setting E = the possible energies are given by.T = E EL E EL +1 (41) Note that R + T = 1 as a check that this is in fact correct. a)Calculate the bound states of the particle. I ﬁnd. B= ρ 2 − 1 e2ρl mα (48) mα −1 ρ 2 (47) Setting equations 46 and 47 equal. I apply continuity conditions at x = 0 and get the coeﬃcient B in terms of the other variables. and that its energy ES is less than the energy reﬂection about the point x = 2 5 .

The ground state is the even solution with the form of a cosh function for 0 < x < l and decaying exponentials in the other regions. there exists an odd excited state. I solve Eq. To show that the energy ES is less than EL . 2. 6 . 2. I can see that the particle spends most of its time between the two delta potentials. By graphically solving the transcendental equation Eq. −ρ 2 −ρ 2 > 2m (1 + e−pl ) 2m 2 (51) By examining Fig. 48 into EL . I see there are two possible states. when l is greater than a value which you are to specify. 42 for α. Additionally. we know that cosh(−x) = cosh(x).Figure 1: The even and odd solutions −EL introduced in problem 3. From l Fig. 42. EL = −ρ 2 2m (1 + e−pl ) 2 (50) Since ρl > 0 it is clear that EL > ES . At the ground state the particle is trapped in between the two potentials and spends less time outside of them. (ii) The Excited State: Show that. of energy EA greater than −EL Graph the corresponding wavefunction. ρ 2 α= (49) m (1 + e−ρl ) Substituting Eq. Interpret the result physically. the wavefunction is clearly even about 2 . Since the potential is symmetric I can see there exists even and odd solutions.

l> 2 µ (54) (53) (52) From the graph of the energy we can see that. it is evident the particle spends most of it’s time localized around one of the potentials. to ﬁnd the slope of the tangent line at ρ = 0 d −ρl e = −le−ρl dρ For there to be a non-zero solution. 1 The odd solution has a negative slope which won’t necessarily have a solution depending on the slope of the right hand side of the equation. By examining the probability amplitude. 52 must be true. 3. To ﬁnd the solution. EA > − 7 . the corresponding wavefunction is a sinh function between the two wells with decaying exponentials on either side.Figure 2: The ground state with l=2. In this case the particle has enough energy to not be trapped between the two delta potentials. I take the derivative of the left hand side of Eq. Eq. mα ρ< 2 Which implies. In Fig. 42. (55) mα2 > −EL (56) 2 2 In Fig. d −ρl 2 e <− dρ µ Evaluating at ρ = 0 and rearranging the inequality.

8 .Figure 3: The excited state.

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