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In a one dimensional problem, consider a particle whose wavefucntion is given by, ipo x e (x) = N (1) x2 + a2 a) Determine N so that (x) is normalized. Using the normalization condition (x)|(x) = 1 N2

+

x2

1 dx = 1 + a2

a .

After evaluating the integral and solving for N, I nd N = wavefunction is, ipo x a e (x) = x2 + a2 b) What is the probability of nding the particle between Evaluating the below integral, a

a 3 a 3

a 3

and

a ? 3

1 1 dx = x2 + a2 3

(4)

c) Calculate the mean value of the momentum of the particle. Ill use the operator P to extract the mean momentum. P = (x)|Px |(x) = a

eip0 x/ x2 + a2

d eip0 x/ dx i dx x2 + a2

(5)

dx a 2 2 x +a 2i

(x2

2x dx = p0 + a2 )2

(6)

Consider in a one dimensional problem, a particle of mass m whose wavefunction at time t is (x, t) a)At time t, the distance d of this particle from the origin is measured. Write, as a function of (x, t), the probability P (do ) of nding a result greater than a given length do . What are the limits of P (do ) when do approaches zero or innity?

do

P (x > do ) = 1

(7)

As do approaches 0,

0

P (x > do ) = 1

(8)

As do approaches innity,

P (x > do ) = 1

(9)

b) One performs a velocity measurement at a time t. Express as a function of (x, t), the probability of nding a result greater than a value vo . This can easily be done by using a Fourier transform.

(p, t) =

1 2

(x, t)eipx/ dx

(10)

mvo

P (v > vo ) = 1

(11)

e|k|/ko eikx dk

(12)

Where ko and N are constants. a) What is the probability P (p, 0) that a measurement of the momentum performed at time t = 0, will yield a result between p1 and +p1 ? Using the relation p = k I can get into terms of momentum, (x, 0) = N

e|

|/ko ipx/

dp

(13)

p

|/ko

(14)

We can then nd the probability. Noting that the function is symmetric about p = 0 allows simplication of the integral.

p1 p1

| (p, 0)|2 dp =

N2

0

p1

e 3

2p k

dp = 2N 2 ko (1 e

2p1 k

(15)

b) What happens to this probability if the measurement is performed at time t? The short answer is nothing, but I suppose I should do some math to convince you. The time evolution requires that I simply add a global phase factor to the function. (p, 0) = 2 N e|

p

|/ko iwt

(16)

When I take the modulus of this function, the phase term will simply cancel out with its conjugate and will get the same result as in part a.

c) What is the form of the wave packet at time t = 0? Calculate for this time, the product xp: What is your conclusion? Describe the subsequent evolution of the wave packet.

(x, 0) = N

e|k|/ko eikx dk = N

2ko 2 x2 + 1 ko

(17)

Note that this function is symmetric about x = 0 and it exponentially decays as it moves from x = 0. To nd the uncertainty relation I will need to calculate 2 x and p. Since both (p, 0) and (x, 0) are symmetric then both p and 2 2 2 x will be zero. So, I only need p and x . x 2 =

x2 N

2ko 2 x2 + 1 ko

dx = 2ko N 2

(18)

p2 =

p2

e|

2 |/ko

dp = N 2

2 3 ko

(19)

4 p2 x2 = 2 2 N 4 ko

(20)

I can nd N =

1 2ko

As time passes, the center of the distribution will move along as: kx

k2 2m t

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