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CRO
Thermionic Emission
1. Thermionic emission is a process of emission of charge particle
(known as thermion) from the surface of a heated metal.
2. The rate of emission (number of electrons emitted in 1 second) is affected
by 4 factors, namely
a. the temperature of the heated metal,
b. the surface area of the heated metal,
c. the types of metal
d. the coated material on the surface of the metal.
Properties of the cathode ray
1. Cathode ray can produce fluorescent
effect.
2. Cathode ray can be deflected by the
electric field.
3. Cathode ray can be deflected by the
magnetic field. The direction of
deflection can be determined by
using Fleming’s Left hand Rule.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Parts Function
Filament  To heat the cathode.
Cathode  Release electrons when heated by filament.
Grid  To control the number of electrons that pass through it and hence control the
brightness of the bright spot.
Focusing Anode and
Accelerating anode
 The anode at positive potential accelerates the electrons and the electrons are focused
into a fine beam as they pass through the anode.

(a) Y-plate

The Y-plates will cause deflection in the vertical direction when a voltage is applied across
them.
(b) X-plate On the other hand, the X-plates will cause the electron beam to be deflected in the horizontal
direction if a voltage is applied across them.

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Using CRO

Direct Current (Time Base Switched Off) Direct Current (Time Base Switched On)

Alternating Current (Time Base Switched Off) Alternating Current (Time Base Switched On)

Note:
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Semiconductor Diode
Semiconductors
1. Semiconductor is a class of crystalline
solid with conductivity between a
conductor and an insulator.
2. The resistance of a semiconductor
decreases as the temperature increases.
3. Semiconductor that has been doped
with a pentavalent impurity is called an
n-type semiconductor
4. Semiconductor that has been doped
with a trivalent impurity is called a
p-type semiconductor

Summary
p-type
semiconductor
n-type
semiconductor
Doping
Material
Trivalent:
aluminum, boron,
and gallium
Pentavalent:
antimony, and
phosphorus
Role of doping
material
Atom receiver Atom donor
Majority
Charge Carrier
Holes Free electrons
Minority
Charge Carrier
Free electrons Holes

Semiconductor Diode
1. A manufacturer can produce a single crystal with
p-type material on one side and n-type on the other
side.
2. The border where the p-type and the n-type region
meet is called the p-n junction.
Forward Bias Reverse Bias

1. The negative source terminal is connected to the
n-type material, and the positive terminal is connected
to the p-type material.
2. Current flows easily in a forward-biased silicon
diode.

1. The negative battery terminal is connected to the p
side, and the positive battery terminal to the n side.
2. No current is allowed to pass through the diode.

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Semiconductor Diode
Half-wave rectification
1. Diodes are also known as rectifiers. They can be used to change a.c. into d.c., a process called
rectification.
2. Half-wave rectification: the negative part of the current is prevented from passing.

Full Wave Rectification

Smoothing

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Transistor
A transistor is a double p-n junction
semiconductor with three terminals, the
emitter (e), the base (b) and the
collector (c).
npn transistor pnp transistor


The LDR
1. In darkness, the LDR has a resistance
about 1 M.
2. In bright light however, the resistance of
the LDR falls to only a few hundred
ohms.

Current in a Transistor
In general, I
E
is related to I
B
and I
C
through the formula
I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
Also
I
E
> I
C
> I
B
Transistor as Amplifier
1. The major application of a transistor is as a current
amplifier.
2. In the circuit to the right, the small change in the base
current I
B
results in a big change in the collector current, I
C
.
3. The ratio I
C
/I
B
is called the amplification factor.
Thermistor
1. A thermistor is a resistor which its resistance
changes as the temperature changes.
2. the resistance of the thermistor decreases as
the temperature increases

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Transistor
The Transistor as an Automatic Switch


Bright Surrounding:
Resistance of LDR: Low
Base voltage: High
Base current: High
Bulb: Light up

Dark Surrounding
Resistance of LDR: High
Base voltage: Low
Base current: Low
Bulb: Do not light up
Bright Surrounding:
Resistance of LDR: Low
Base voltage: Low
Base current: Low
Bulb: Do not light up

Dark Surrounding
Resistance of LDR: High
Base voltage: High
Base current: High
Bulb: Light up

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Logic Gate
Logic Function Logic Symbol Boolean Expression
Truth Table
INPUT OUTPUT
A
B
X
AND


0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
OR



0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
NOT


0 1
1 0
NAND



0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
NOR


0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0

The Universal Gate
The NAND gate can be used to produce all other gate therefore is called as a universal gate. Example:
Logic Function Logic Symbol Combination of NAND gate
NOT

AND


OR


NOR