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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS What is meant by Digital Systems? An electronic system consisting of digital circuits/or devices.

A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete (discontinuous) values. The analog (non-digital) systems use a continuous range of values to represent information. Although digital representations are discrete, they can be used to carry either discrete information, such as numbers, letters or other individual symbols, or approximations of continuous information, such as sounds, images, and other measurements of continuous systems. Define Gray Code? A code in which only one bit changes between successive numbers. This code is used extensively for shaft encoders because of this property. t is not a weighted code. The gray code is a reflected code. List the hara teristi s of digital I s! propagation delay power dissipation !an-in !an-out "oise margin What is "ro"agation delay? What is Noise margin? What is "o#er dissi"ation? t is the average transition delay time for the signal to propagate from input to output when the signals change in value. t is the limit of a noise voltage, which may be present without impairing the proper operation of the circuit. t is the power consumed by the gate, which must be available from the power supply What is meant by "arity bit? Parity bit is an extra bit included with a binary message to make the number of 1s either odd or even. The message, including the parity bit is transmitted and then chec#ed at the receiving and for errors. What is IC? An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor crystal called a chip containing electrical components such as transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors. The various components are interconnected inside the chip to form an electronic circuit. What are the needs for binary odes? i.$ode is used to represent letters, numbers and punctuation mar#s. ii.$oding is re%uired for maximum efficiency in single transmission. iii.&inary codes are the ma'or components in the synthesis (artificial generation) of speech and video signals. iv.&y using error detecting codes, errors generated in signal transmission can be detected. v.$odes are used for data compression by which large amounts of data are transmitted in very short duration of time. $ention the different ty"e of binary odes? The various types of binary codes are, &$( code (&inary $oded decimal). )elf-complementing code. The excess-* (+s-*) code. ,ray code. &inary weighted code. Alphanumeric code. The A)$ code. -xtended binary-coded decimal interchange code (-&$( $). -rror-detecting and error-correcting code. .amming code.

List the ad%antages and disad%antages of &CD ode? The advantages of &$( code are Any large decimal number can be easily converted into corresponding binary number A person needs to remember only the binary e%uivalents of decimal number from / to 0. $onversion from &$( into decimal is also very easy. The disadvantages of &$( code are The code is least efficient. t re%uires several symbols to represent even small numbers. &inary addition and subtraction can lead to wrong answer. )pecial codes are re%uired for arithmetic operations. This is not a self-complementing code. $onversion into other coding schemes re%uires special methods. What is meant by self' om"lementing ode? A self-complementing code is the one in which the members of the number )ystem complement on themselves. This re%uires the following two conditions to be satisfied. The complement of the number should be obtained from that number by replacing 1s with /s and /s with 1s. The sum of the number and its complement should be e%ual to decimal 0. -xample of a selfcomplementing code is i. 2-3-4-1 code. ii. -xcess-* code.

(NIT I ) *art 'A) Define &oolean algebra? The algebra of binary variables. Define &oolean +,n tion? A well defined relationship between binary variables specified by either a &oolean e%uvation or a truth table. Define $in terms? A logical term consisting of all literals in the A"(ed form. Define $a- terms? A logical term consisting of all literals in the 56ed form in logic function. List o,t the Logi gates? A"( 56 "5T "A"( "56 -+-56 -+-"56 What is the tr,th table? A truth table lists all possible combinations of inputs and the corresponding outputs. What are the ,ni%ersal gates? "A"( and "56 Whi h gate is e.,al to AND'in%erter Gate? "A"( gate. Whi h gate is e.,al to OR'in%erter Gate? "56 gate. What is meant by $a" method? The map method provides a simple straightforward procedure for minimi7ing &oolean function. What is meant by t#o %ariable ma"? Two variable map have four minterms for two variables, hence the map consists 5f four s%uares, one for each minterm What is meant by three %ariable ma"? Three variable map have 2 minterms for three variables, hence the map consists of 2 s%uares, one for each minterm. Con%ert the gi%en &oolean e-"iration to standard *OS A& / C! 85) 9 (A:&).$ Write the Tr,th Table of And gate? A / / 1 1 & / 1 / 1 ; / / / 1

Write the Tr,th Table of E- l,si%e OR gate? A & ; / / / / 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 / Define Demorgan0s Theorem? +IRST T1EORE$) 2S,m of the "rod, t3 !irst (emorgans theorem states, complement of two or more variables and then A"( operation on these is e%uivalent to "56 operation on these variables. SECOND T1EORE$) 2*rod, t of the s,m3 )econd (emorgans theorem states that complement of two or more variables and then 56 operation on these is e%uivalent to a "A"( operation on these variables. Define Asso iati%e la#? x:(y:7)9(x:y):7 x. (y.7)9(x.y).7 Define Distrib,ti%e la#? x.(y:7)9(x.y):(x.7) x: (y.7)9(x:y).(x.:7) Define Commm,tati%e la#? A4/A56 A5/A4 A4!A56 A5!A4 Define 7arna,gh $a"? A <arnaugh map (<-map) is a pictorial method used to minimi7e &oolean expressions without having to use &oolean algebra theorems and e%uation manipulations. nput values are arranged in a ,ray code. =aximal rectangular groups that cover the inputs where the expression is true give a minimum implementation. Also #nown as >eitch diagram, <> diagrams. List o,t the ty"es of 7'$a"? 1. Two variable #-map 4. Three variable #-map *. !our variable #-map 3. !ive variable #-map ?. )ix variable #-map What is the ,se of Don0t are onditions? Any digital circuit using this code operates under the assumption that these unused combinations will never occur as long as the system. What are the methods ado"ted to red, e &oolean f,n tion? <arnaugh map Tabular method or @uine =$clus#ey method >ariable entered map techni%ue. Why #e go for tab,lation method? This method can be applied to problems with many variables and has the advantage of being suitable for machine computation. State the limitations of 8arna,gh ma"! ,enerally it is limited to six variable map (i.e.) more then six variable involving expressions are not reduced. The map method is restricted in its capability since they are useful for simplifying only &oolean expression represented in standard form. What is tab,lation method? A method involving an exhaustive tabular search method for the minimum expression to solve a &oolean e%uation is called as a tabulation method.

What are "rime'im"li ants? The terms remained unchec#ed are called prime-implicants. They cannot be reduced further. E-"lain or list o,t the ad%antages and disad%antages of 7'ma" method? The ad%antages of the 7'ma" method are i. t is a fast method for simplifying expression up to four variables. ii. t gives a visual method of logic simplification. iii. 8rime implicants and essential prime implicants are identified fast. iv. )uitable for both )58 and 85) forms of reduction. v. t is more suitable for class room teachings on logic simplification. The disad%antages of the 7'ma" method are i. t is not suitable for computer reduction. ii. <-maps are not suitable when the number of variables involved exceed four. iii. $are must be ta#en to fill in every cell with the relevant entry, such as a /, 1 (or) dont care terms. List o,t the ad%antages and disad%antages of 9,ine'$ Cl,s8ey method? The ad%antages are: a. This is suitable when the number of variables exceed four. b. (igital computers can be used to obtain the solution fast. c. -ssential prime implicants, which are not evident in <-map, can be clearly seen in the final results. The disad%antages are: a. Aengthy procedure than <-map. b. 6e%uires several grouping and steps as compared to <-map. c. t is much slower. d. "o visual identification of reduction process. e. The @uine =c $lus#ey method is essentially a computer reduction method. *ART'& 4! +ind a minimal s,m of "rod, ts re"resentation for A 2A: &: C: D: E3 6;m24:<:=:4>:5>:55:5<:5=3/d2>:44:4=:5?3 ,sing 7arna,gh ma" $ethod! Dra# the ir ,it of the minimal e-"ression ,sing only NAND gates! 5! Sim"lify the gi%en &oolean f,n tion ,sing @ %ariable 7arna,gh ma"s! +6A2>:5:@:?:B:4>:4C:4@:4=:4B:54:5C:5<:5?3 C! $inimiDe the &oolean e-"ress ,sing 9,ine $ Cl,s8ey method! E6 Am 2>:4:5:C:<:@:=:?:B:4>:4=:4B:54:5C:5<:5?3 <! a3 (se 9,ine'$ l,s8ey method to obtain the minimal s,m for the follo#ing +,n tion! +2F4 F5 FC F<3 6 A 2>: 4: C: =: ?: 4<: 4@3 @! b3i3 Sim"lify the f,n tion ,sing 7arna,gh ma"! 43 +2A: &: C: D3 6 A2>: 4: 5: <: @: ?: 44: 4@3 53 +2W: F: E:G3 6 A25: C: 4>: 44: 45: 4C: 4<: 4@3 =! i3 In #hat #ay is the 9,ine'$ Cl,s8ey method ad%antages o%er the 7arna,gh method of sim"lifying a &oolean f,n tion? ii3 Sim"lify the gi%en &oolean f,n tion ,sing 9,ine'$ Cl,8ey: method) A 2#:-:y:D3 6 A 24:<:=:?:B:H:4>:44:4@3 ?! a! E-"ress the Com"lement of the +ollo#ing f,n tion in s,m of $idterms and "rod, t of $a-terms +2A:&:C:D3 6 &0D/A0D / &D b! E-"ress the Com"lement of the follo#ing f,n tion in s,m of $idterms +2A:&:C:D3 6 S 2>:5:=:44:4C:4<3

B! a! Sim"ly the &oolean +,n tion (sing Three Iariable 7'$a" +2F: E: G3 6 S 2C: <: =: ?3 b! Sim"ly the &oolean +,n tion (sing +o,r Iariable 7'$a"s +2W:F:E:G3 6 S 2>:4:5:<:@:=:B:H:45:4C:4<3 H! a! E-"lain the %ario,s ty"es of 7'$a" #ith E-am"les b! *ro%e that - / 4 6 4 ! *ro%e that - / -y 6 4>! Whi h are f,n tionally om"lete sets of logi gates? E-"lain! 44! a! E-"ress the Com"lement of the +ollo#ing f,n tion in s,m of $idterms and *rod, t of $a-terms + 2A:&:C:D3 6 &0D/A0D / &D

(NIT II 4! What are the t#o ty"es of logi ir ,its for digital systems? $ombinational and se%uential )e%uential circuit 5! Define Combinational ir ,it! A combinational circuit consists of logic gates whose outputs at any time are determined directly from the present combination of inputs without regard to previous inputs. C! Define se.,ential ir ,its! Their outputs are a function of the inputs and the state of memory elements. The )tate of =emory elements, in turn, is a function of previous inputs. <! What is a half'adder? The combinational circuit that performs the addition of two bits are called a halfadder. @! What is a f,ll'adder? The combinational circuit that performs the addition of three bits are called a halfadder. =! What is half's,btra tor? The combinational circuit that performs the subtraction of two bits are called a half-sub tractor. ?! What is a f,ll's,btra tor? The combinational circuit that performs the subtraction of three bits are called a half- sub tractor. B! What is &inary "arallel adder? A binary parallel adder is a digital function that produces the arithemetic sum of two binary numbers in parallel. H! What is &CD adder? A &$( adder is a circuit that adds two &$( digits in parallel and produces a sum digit also in &$(. 4>! What is meant by Combination Cir ,its? A combinational circuit consists of logic gates whose outputs at anytime are determined directly from the present combination of inputs without regard to previous nputs. This means there is no memory in these circuits. 44! Dra# the &lo 8 Diagram of Combination ir ,it?

45! What is $agnit,de Com"arator? A =agnitude $omparator is a combinational circuit that compares two numbers, A and & and determines their relative magnitudes. 4C! What is de oder? A decoder is a circuit that converts the binary information from one form to another. A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from Bn input lines to a maximum of 4n uni%ue output lines. 4<! What is en oder? An encoder is a circuit that converts the binary information from one form to an another form. A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from 4n nput lines to a maximum of Bn uni%ue output lines. t is also called priority encoder. 4@! Define $,lti"le-ing? =ultiplexing means transmitting a large number of information units over a )maller number of channels or lines. 4=! What is Dem,lti"le-er? A (emultiplexer is a circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits this information on one of 4n possible output lines. A (emultiplexer gives an output at a uni%ue channel among according to a uni%ue combination of the channel selector inputs at the input at one line.

4?! Gi%e the tr,th table for a half adder! In",t O,t",t F y S,m Carry 2s3 2 3 > > > > > 4 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 4 > 4 4B! Gi%e the tr,th table for a half S,btra tor! In",t O,t",t - E &orro Differ #2&3 2D3 > > > > > 4 4 4 4 > > > 4 4 > > 5>! Why "arity generator ne essary? 8arity generator is essential to generate parity bit in the transmitter. 54! What is the f,n tion of the enable in",t in a $,lti"le-er? The function of the enable input in a =C+ is to control the operation of the unit. 5<! What is meant by loo8 ahead arry? A method of generating carry for fast addition. 5@! What is ode on%ersion? f two systems wor#ing with different binary codes are to be synchroni7ed in operation, then we need digital circuit which converts one system of codes to the other. The process of conversion is referred to as code conversion. 5=! What is ode on%erter? t is a circuit that ma#es the two systems compatible even though each uses a different binary code. t is a device that converts binary signals from a source code to its output code. 5ne example is a &$( to +s* converter. 5?! What do yo, mean by analyDing a ombinational ir ,it? The reverse process for implementing a &oolean expression is called as analy7ing a combinational circuit. (ie) the available logic diagram is analy7ed step by step and finding the &oolean function. 5B! What is m,lti"le-er? A multiplexer is a circuit that selects a input line among the input lines per the channel selector logic inputs and gives that at the output. A multiplexer selects a uni%ue input line according to the channel selector inputs to it. 5H! What is Dem,lti"le-er? A (emultiplexer is a circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits this information on one of 4n possible output lines. A (emultiplexer gives an output at a uni%ue channel among according to a uni%ue combination of the channel selector inputs at the input at one line. C>! Gi%e the a""li ations of Dem,lti"le-er! i) t finds its application in (ata transmission system with error detection. ii) 5ne simple application is binary to (ecimal decoder. C4! $ention the ,ses of Dem,lti"le-er! (emultiplexer is used in computers when a same message has to be sent to different receivers. "ot only in computers, but any time information from one source can be fed to several places.

C5! Gi%e other name for $,lti"le-er and Dem,lti"le-er! =ultiplexer is other wise called as (ata selector. (emultiplexer is otherwise called as (ata distributor. CC! What are the ad%antages of m,lti"le-ers? )implification of logic expression is not re%uired. t minimi7es the $ pac#ages. Aogic design is simplified. C<! Gi%e the tr,th table for a f,ll S,btra tor! In",t o,t",t y D &orro#2&3 Diff2D3 > > > > > > > 4 4 4 > 4 > 4 4 > 4 4 4 > 4 > > > 4 4 > 4 > > 4 4 > > > 4 4 4 4 4 C@! Gi%ethe tr,th table for a f,ll adder! In",t o,t",t y D S,m2s3 Carry2 3 > > > > > > > 4 4 > > 4 > 4 > > 4 4 > 4 4 > > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 4 4 > > 4 4 4 4 4 4 C?! What is "riority en oder? A priority encoder is an encoder that includes the priority function. The operation of the priority encoder is such that if two or more inputs are e%ual to 1 at the same time, the input having the highest priority will ta#e precedence. CB! Why "arity he 8er is needed? 8arity chec#er is re%uired at the receiver side to chec# whether the expected parity is e%ual to the calculated parity or not. f they are not e%ual then it is found that the received data has error. CH! Can a de oder f,n tion as a Dem,lti"le-er? ;es. A decoder with enable can function as a (emultiplexer if the enable line - is ta#en as a data input line A and & are ta#en as selection lines. <>! List o,t the a""li ations of m,lti"le-er? The various applications of multiplexer are (ata routing. Aogic function generator. $ontrol se%uencer. 8arallel-to-serial converter.

<4! List o,t the a""li ations of de oder? The applications of decoder are (ecoders are used in counter system. They are used in analog to digital converter. (ecoder outputs can be used to drive a display system. <5! List o,t the a""li ations of om"arators? The following are the applications of comparator $omparators are used as a part of the address decoding circuitry in computers to select a specific input/output device for the storage of data. They are used to actuate circuitry to drive the physical variable towards the reference value. They are used in control applications. <C! What are the a""li ations of se%en segment dis"lays? The seven segment displays are used in A-( displays A$( displays <<! What is digital om"arator? A comparator is a special combinational circuit designed primarily to compare the relative magnitude of two binary numbers.

*ART'&) 4! Design a f,ll adder and +,ll s,btra tor! 5! Dra# the blo 8 diagram of 5Js om"lement adderKs,btra tor! C! Design a &CD to e- ess C ode on%erter ,sing a RO$! <! Design and e-"lain the #or8ing of a 4 to B dem,lti"le-es! @! E-"lain the Design "ro ed,re for Combination Logi Cir ,its =! E-"lain Logi al Im"lementation of +,ll L adder and +,ll L S,btra tor ?! Dra# the Logi Diagram for &CD to E- ess C ode Con%erter #ith E-"lain B! E-"lain the analysis "ro ed,re for ombinational ir ,it H! E-"lain the <' bit +,ll adder 4>! E-"lain the &lo 8 Diagram of &CD Adder ! 44! E-"lain the e- ess C to &CD Code Con%erter! 45! E-"lain the &inary Adder' S,btra tor! 4C! E-"lain the Logi Diagram of C to B line De oder! 4<! 1o# to Constr, t the < - 4= De oder #ith t#o C - B De oder! 4@! E-"lain the < to 4 line $,lti"le-er! 4=! E-"lain the 5 to 4 line $,lti"le-er

(NIT III 4! What is a hara teristi table? A characteristic table defines the logical property of the flip-flop and completely $haracteristic its operation. 5! Gi%e the hara teristi e.,ation of a SR fli"'flo"! @ (t:1)9):6D@ C! Gi%e the hara teristi e.,ation of a D fli"'flo"! @ (t:1)9( <! Gi%e the hara teristi e.,ation of a M7 fli"'flo". @ (t:1)9E@D:<D@ @! Gi%e the hara teristi e.,ation of a T fli"'flo"! @ (t:1)9T@D:TD@ =! Define bit time? The amount of transmit a single bit. ?! What is E- itation table? A tabular representation of the operation of a flip-flop. B! What is meant by 1old'time? n !lip-!lops and memories, a minimum amount of time after the application of a cloc#(or 6ead/write) signal, when data(s) or address inputs must remain stable. H! #hat is lat h? A temporary storage device consisting of (-type !lip !lops. ts contents are fixed at their current values by transition of the cloc# and remain fixed until the next cloc# transition occurs. 4>! #hat is leading edge? A transistion from low to high voltage. 44! #hat is $aster Sla%e +li"+lo"? A !lip flop consisting of the cascade of two !lip flops. The master !! is triggered when cloc# is high and the slave !! follows the master !! when the cloc# goes low. 45! What is Le%el triggered +li" +lo"? A !lip flop that is triggered when the level of the cloc# signal is appropriate. 4C! #hat is "reset? The state of a flip flop when @91 and @9/. 4<! #hat is s#it h bo,n ing? !luctuations in the switch positions between 5" and 5!! when the switch positio n is changed. 4@! #hat is toggling? $ausing as !! to change its state. 4=! What is se.,ential ir ,it? )e%uential circuit is a broad category of digital circuit whose logic states depend on a specified time se%uence. A se%uential circuit consists of a combinational circuit to which memory elements are connected to form a feedbac# path. 4?! List the lassifi ations of se.,ential ir ,it! i) )ynchronous se%uential circuit. ii) Asynchronous se%uential circuit. 4B! What is Syn hrono,s se.,ential ir ,it? A )ynchronous se%uential circuit is a system whose behavior can be defined from the #nowledge of its signal at discrete instants of time.

4H! What is lo 8ed se.,ential ir ,its? )ynchronous se%uential circuit that use cloc# pulses in the inputs of memory elements are

called cloc#ed se%uential circuit. 5ne advantage as that they dont cause instability problems. 5>! What is alled lat h? Aatch is a simple memory element, which consists of a pair of logic gates with their inputs and outputs inter connected in a feedbac# arrangement, which permits a single bit to be stored. 54! List different ty"es of fli"'flo"s! )6 flip-flop $loc#ed 6) flip-flop ( flip-flop T flip-flop E< flip-flop E< master slave flip-flop 55! What do yo, mean by triggering of fli"'flo"! The state of a flip-flop is switched by a momentary change in the input signal. This momentary change is called a trigger and the transition it causes is said to trigger the flipflop 5C! What is an e- itation table? (uring the design process we usually #now the transition from present state to next state and wish to find the flip-flop input conditions that will cause the re%uired transition. A table which lists the re%uired inputs for a given chance of state is called an excitation table. 5<! Gi%e the e- itation table of a M7 fli"'flo" @(t) @(t:1) E < / + / / 1 + / 1 + 1 1 / + / 1 1 5@! Gi%e the e- itation table of a SR fli"'flo" @(t) @(t:1) ) 6 / / / + / 1 1 / 1 / / 1 1 1 + / 5=!Gi%e the e- itation table of a T fli"'flo" @(t) @(t:1) T / / / / 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 / 5?! Gi%e the e- itation table of a D fli"'flo" @(t) @(t:1) ( / / / / 1 1 1 / / 1 1 1 5B! What is the differen e bet#een tr,th table and e- itation table? i) An excitation table is a table that lists the re%uired inputs for a given $hange of state. ii) A truth table is a table indicating the output of a logic circuit for various input states. 5H! What is o,nter? A counter is used to count pulse and give the output in binary form. A register that goes

through a prescribed se%uence of states upon the application of input pulses is called a counter. C>! What is syn hrono,s o,nter? n a synchronous counter, the cloc# pulse is applied simultaneously to all flipflops. The output of the flip-flops change state at the same instant. The speed of operation is high compared to an asynchronous counter C4! What is Asyn hrono,s o,nter? n a Asynchronous counter, the cloc# pulse is applied to the first flip-flops. The change of state in the output of this flip-flop serves as a cloc# pulse to the next flip-flop and so on. .ere all the flip-flops do not change state at the same instant and hence speed is less. C5! What is the differen e bet#een syn hrono,s and asyn hrono,s o,nter? Syn hrono,s o,nter ) 1. $loc# pulse is applied )imultaneously. 4. )peed of operation is high. Asyn hrono,s o,nter) 1.$loc# pulse is applied to the first flip-flop, the change of output is given as cloc# to next flip-flop 4. )peed of operation is low. CC! Name the different ty"es of o,nter. a) )ynchronous counter b) Asynchronous counter Cp counter (own counter =odulo F " counter Cp/(own counter C<! What is ," o,nter? A counter that increments the output by one binary number each time a cloc# pulse is applied. C@! What is do#n o,nter? A counter that decrements the output by one binary number each time a cloc# pulse is applied. C=! What is ,"Kdo#n o,nter? A counter, which is capable of operating as an up counter or down counter, depending on a control lead. C?! What is a ri""le o,nter? A ripple counter is nothing but an asynchronous counter, in which the output of the flipflop change state li#e a ripple in water. CB! What are the ,ses of a o,nter? i) The digital cloc# ii) Auto par#ing control iii) 8arallel to serial data conversion. CH! What is meant by mod,l,s of a o,nter? &y the term modulus of a counter we say it is the number of states through which a counter can progress. <>! What is meant by nat,ral o,nt of a o,nter? &y the term natural count of a counter we say that the maximum number of states through which a counter can progress. <4! What is a mod,lo o,nter? A counter that counts from / to T is called as modulo counter. <5! +orm the tr,th table for C'bit binary do#n o,nter!

Cl8 95 94 9> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 / 1 1 1 / / 1 / 1 1 1 / 1 / 1 / / 1 1 / / / 1 1 1 1 <C! What is a ring o,nter? A counter formed by circulating a Bbit in a shift registers whose serial output has been connected to its serial input. <<! What is &CD o,nter? A &$( counter counts in binary coded decimal from //// to 1//1 and bac# to ////. &ecause of the return to //// after a count of 1//1, a &$( counter does not have a regular pattern as in a straight binary counter. <@! What are the ,ses of a ring o,nter? i) $ontrol section of a digital system. ii) $ontrolling events, which occur in strict time se%uence. <=! What is a register? =emory elements capable of storing one binary word. t consists of a group of flipflops, which store the binary information. <?! What is Mohnson o,nter? t is a ring counter in which the inverted output is fed into the input. t is also #nown as a twisted ring counter. <B! What is a shift register? n digital circuits, datas are needed to be moved into a register (shift in) or moved out of a register (shift out). A group of flip-flops having either or both of these facilities is called a shift register. <H! What is serial shifting? n a shift register, if the data is moved 1 bit at a time in a serial fashion, then the techni%ue is called serial shifting. @>! What is "arallel shifting? n a shift register all the data are moved simultaneously and then the techni%ue is called parallel shifting. @4! Write the ,ses of a shift register! i) Temporary data storage ii) &it manipulations. @5! What is a y le o,nter? A cycle counter is a counter that outputs a stated number of counts and then stops. @C! Define state of se.,ential ir ,it? The binary information stored in the memory elements at any given time defines the GstateH of se%uential circuits. @<! Define state diagram! A graphical representation of a state table is called a state diagram. @@! What is the ,se of state diagram? i) &ehavior of a state machine can be analy7ed rapidly. ii) t can be used to design a machine fro m a set of specification. @=! What is state table?

A table, which consists time se%uence of inputs, outputs and flip-flop states, is called state table. ,enerally it consists of three section present state, next state and output. @?! What is a state e.,ation? A state e%uation also called, as an application e%uation is an algebraic expression that specifies the condition for a flip-flop state transition. The left side of the e%uation denotes the next state of the flip-flop and the right sideI a &oolean function specifies the present state. @B!What is meant by ra e aro,nd ondition? n E< flip-flop output is fed bac# to the input, and therefore changes in the output results change in the input. (ue to this in the positive half of the cloc# pulse if E and < are both high then output toggles continuously. This condition is #nown as race around condition. @H! What is flo# table? (uring the design of synchronous se%uential circuits, it is more convenient to name the states by letter symbols without ma#ing specific reference to their binary values. )uch table is called !low table. =>! What is "rimiti%e flo# table? A flow table is called 8rimitive flow table because it has only one stable state in each row. =4! Define ra e ondition! A race condition is said to exist in a synchronous se%uential circuit when two or more binary state variables change, the race is called non-critical race. =5! Define riti al N non' riti al ra e #ith e-am"le! The final stable state that the circuit reaches does not depend on the order in which the state variables change, the race is called non-critical race. *ART'&) 4! Write the %erilog ode generate for "aralled load ," K do#n o,nter! 5! Write a %erilog ode for D +li" +lo" and R'S +li" +lo"! C! E-"lain R'S +li" +lo" and Clo 8ed R'S +li" +lo" <! E-"lain S'R +li" +lo" @! E-"lain D +li" +lo" =! E-"lain M7 +li" +lo" ?! E-"lain T +li" +lo" B! E-"lain $aster Sla%e +li" +lo" E-"lain the Edge Triggered +li" +lo" Con%ert it M7 +li" +lo" in to T +li" +lo" H! Con%ert it M7 +li" +lo" in to D +li" +lo" Con%ert it D +li" +lo" in to T +li" +lo" Con%ert it T +li" +lo" in to D +li" +lo" 4>! E-"lain Serial in Serial o,t Shift Register E-"lain Serial in "arallel o,t Shift Register E-"lain "arallel in "arallel o,t Shift Register 44! E-"lain "arallel in Serial o,t Shift Register!

(NIT I ) *ART'A) 4! List the ty"es of RO$! 8rogrammable 65= (865=) -rasable 65= (-865=)

-lectrically -rasable 65= (--65=) 5! Differentiate RO$ N *LD0s 65= (6ead 5nly =emory) 8A(s (8rogrammable Aogic Array)

t is a device that includes both the decoder and the 56 gates with in a single $ pac#age t is a device that includes both A"( and 56 gates with in a single $ pac#age 65= does not full decoding of the variables and does generate all the minterms 8A(s does not provide full decoding of the variable and does not generate all the minterms C! What are the different ty"es of RA$? The different types of 6A= are a. "=5) 6A= ("itride =etal 5xide )emiconductor 6A=) b. $=5) 6A= ($omplementary =etal 5xide )emiconductor 6A=) c. )chott#y TTA 6A= d. -AA 6A=. <! What are the ty"es of arrays in RA$? 6A= has two type of array namely, a. Ainear array b. $oincident array @! E-"lain DRA$? The dynamic 6A= ((6A=) is an operating mod, which stores the binary information in the form of electric charges on capacitors. The capacitors are provided inside the chip by =5) transistors. The stored charges on the capacitors tend to discharge with time and the capacitors must be tending to discharge with time and the capacitors must be periodically recharged by refreshing the dynamic memory. (6A= offers reduced power consumption and larger storage capacity in a single memory chip. =! E-"lain SRA$? )tatic 6A= ()6A=) consists of internal latches that store the binary information. The stored information remains valid as long as the power is applied to the unit. )6A= is easier to use and has shorter read and write cycle. The memory capacity of a static 6A= varies from J3 bit to 1 mega bit. ?! What are the terms that determine the siDe of a *AL? The si7e of a 8AA is specified by the

a. "umber of inputs b. "umber of products terms c. "umber of outputs B! What are the ad%antages of RA$? The advantages of 6A= are a. "on-destructive read out b. !ast operating speed c. Aow power dissipation d. $ompatibility e. -conomy H! What is I1DL? >.(A is a hardware description language that can be used to model a digital system at many level of abstraction, ranging from the algorithmic level to the gate level. The >.(A language as a combination of the following language. )e%uential language $oncurrent language "et-list language Timing specification Kaveform generation language.

4>! What are the feat,res of I1DL? The features of >.(A are >.(A has powerful constructs. >.(A supports design library. The language is not case sensitive. 44! What is meant by memory de oding? The memory $ used in a digital system is selected or enabled only for the range of addresses assigned to it . 45! What is a ess and y le time?

The access time of the memory is the time to select word and read it. The cycle time of a memory is a time re%uired to complete a write operation. 4C! Differentiate bet#een the %olatile memory and non %olatile memory! Iolatile memory They are memory units which lose stored nformation when power is turned off. -.g. )6A= and (6A= Non'%olatile memory t retains stored information when power is turned off. -.g. =agnetic disc and 65= *ART'&) 4! What is %irt,al memory? E-"lain address translation me hanism for on%erting %irt,al address into "hysi al address #ith neat diagram! 5! E-"lain in detail the semi ond, tor RA$ memory? C! E-"lain RO$ in detail? <! E-"lain a he memory in detail? @! What is a he oheren e and dis ,ss $ESI "roto ol =! E-"lain dire t ma""ing te hni.,e #ith e-am"le! ?! State a he ma""ing te hni.,es! Dra# and dis ,ss them #ith merits and demerits! B! E-"lain the role of TL& in %irt,al memory organiDation? H! State and e-"lain different "age re"la ement algorithm! 4>! Write short notes on a! EE*RO$ b! $agneti Dis8 ! O"ti al Dis8 d! RAID e! SDRA$ f! DID