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Palmprint Verification with Moments

Ying-Han Pang1 Andrew T.B.J1 David N.C.L1 Hiew Fu San2
1 2
Faculty of Information Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering and Technology
Multimedia University Multimedia University
Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama
75450, Melaka, Malaysia. 75450, Melaka, Malaysia.

Palmprint verification is an approach for verifying a palmprint input by matching the input to the claimed
identity template stored in a database. If the dissimilarity measure between the input and the claimed template is
below the predefined threshold value, the palmprint input is verified possessing same identity as the claimed
identity template. This paper introduces an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of utilizing three well
known orthogonal moments, namely Zernike moments, pseudo Zernike moments and Legendre moments, in the
application of palmprint verification. Moments are the most commonly used technique in character feature
extraction. The idea of implementing orthogonal moments as palmprint feature extractors is prompted by the fact
that principal features of both character and palmprint are based on line structure. These orthogonal moments are
able to define statistical and geometrical features containing line structure information about palmprint. An
experimental study about verification rate of the palmprint authentication system using these three orthogonal
moments as feature descriptors has been discussed here. Experimental results show that the performance of the
system is dependent on the moment order as well as the type of moments. The orthogonal property of these
moments is able to characterize independent features of the palmprint image and thus have minimum
information redundancy in a moment set. Pseudo Zernike moments of order of 15 has the best performance
among all the moments. Its verification rate is 95.75%, which also represents the overall performance of this
palmprint verification system.
Verification, Image Features, Zernike Moments, Pseudo Zernike Moments, Legendre Moments, Orthogonality.

1. INTRODUCTION especially from academia.
Palmprint authentication is one of the relatively new
physiological biometric technologies which exploit
the unique features on the human palmprint, namely
principle lines, wrinkles, ridges, datum points, etc as
shown in Figure 1. The rich texture information of
palmprint offers the effective means in person
authentication due to its non-intrusive, user friendly,
stable, low-resolution imaging and low cost
requirements [Shu98a][You02a]. This has drawn
considerable interest and attention to researchers
Figure 1. Palmprint.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of
this work for personal or classroom use is granted without
fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for An important issue in palmprint recognition is to
profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this extract palmprint features that can discriminate an
notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy individual from the other. There are two popular
otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute approaches to palmprint recognition. One of the
to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.
approaches is to transform palmprint images into
Journal of WSCG, Vol.12, No.1-3, ISSN 1213-6972 specific transformation domains. Among the works
WSCG’2004, February 2-6, 2003, Plzen, Czech Republic. that appear in the literature are eigenpalm [Lu03a],
Copyright UNION Agency – Science Press
Gabor filters [Wai03a], Fourier Transform [Li02a], describes palmprint verification based on orthogonal
and wavelets [Kum02a]. Another approach is to moments’ features. Section 5 shows the experimental
extract principal lines and creases from the palm results and discussion about the experimental result
[Dav99a][Dut02a][Wu02a][You02a]. However, this is having in this section, too. Conclusion is
method is not easy because it is sometimes difficult discussed in section 6.
to extract the line structures that can discriminate
every individual well. Besides, creases and ridges of 2. PALMPRINT PREPROCESSING
the palm are always crossing and overlapping each In the palmprint acquisition stage, users are allowed
other, which complicates the feature extraction task. to place their palms freely on the platform of the
Chinese character is similar to palmprint, which is scanner when scanning is performed. Therefore,
also constructed from the line structures, and palmprint images captured in the image acquisition
moments have been utilized for shape extraction for stage may have variable size and orientation and also
long time [Wu02a]. Moment can describe Chinese subject to noise. Moreover, the region of not-interest
character uniquely regardless how close the (e.g fingers, wrist, image background, etc) may affect
characters are in terms of local features. This inspired accurate processing and degrade the verification
us to implement the moments function to extract the performance. Therefore, image preprocessing is a
palmprint ridges and creases for the human crucial and necessary part before feature extraction.
verification tasks.
In this study, the region of interest (ROI) is extracted
In this paper, we had implemented Zernike moments from the palmprint images. The ROI in this paper is
(ZM), pseudo Zernike moments (PZM) and Legendre defined in a square shape after the correction of
moments (LM) as feature descriptors in the orientation. Then the ROI is converted to a fixed size
application of human palmprint verification. These (150 x 150 pixels) so that all of the palmprints
approaches are able to provide adequate information conform to a same size. The details of preprocessing
about different types of statistical and geometrical can be referred in [Tee02a]. The localized palmprint
information of the creases and ridges in the palmprint is depicted in Figure 2.
image. Orthogonal basis of the moments can attain a
zero value of redundancy measure in a set of moment
functions, so that these orthogonal moments
correspond to independent characteristics of the
image [Muk98a]. In other words, minimum
information redundancy in a moment set is obtained.
Moments’ geometrical invariance promote
themselves as commonly used feature extraction
(a) (b)
approaches in a broad spectrum of applications in
image analysis, such as invariant pattern recognition, Figure 2. The localized palmprint (a)
reconstruction, object classification and etc. Palmprint before enhancement (b) Palmprint
[Muk98a]. after enhancement.

Our palmprint verification is generally composed of
four stages. In the first stage, localization of
Feature extraction is defined as a process of
palmprint region is implemented. Furthermore, the
converting a captured biometric sample, i.e
localized palmprint image (region of interest) is
palmprint, into a unique, distinctive and compact
enhanced by means of local histogram equalization.
form so that it can be compared to a reference
The second stage involves feature extraction by
template. According to [Hu62a], moment sequence,
using ZM, PZM and LM as feature descriptors.
Mpq is uniquely determined by the image f(x,y) and
Determination of pertinent and optimal order
conversely, f(x,y) is uniquely described by Mpq. The
moments in feature extraction is performed in this
uniqueness of the moment method prompted us to its
stage, too. Euclidean distance is applied to compute
suitability in palmprint feature extraction.
the dissimilarity measure of the palmprint for the
Furthermore, orthogonality property of the ZM, PZM
purpose of feature matching in the third stage. The
and LM enables redundancy reduction among their
final stage requires decision making whether a
respective description and thus help to improve the
claimant should be accepted or rejected.
computation efficiency.
This paper is organized under six sections. Section 2
presents palmprint image preprocessing and feature
extraction algorithms: Zernike moments (ZM),
pseudo Zernike moments (PZM) and Legendre
moment (LM), are introduced in section 3. Section 4 3.1. Zernike Moments
The kernel of Zernike moments is a set of orthogonal
4 ( p + 1) ; 2 ; −1
Zernike polynomials defined over the polar λ ( p, N ) = c1 = c2 = (6)
coordinate space inside a unit circle. The two- ( N − 1) Π2
N − 1 2
dimensional Zernike moments of order p with Therefore,
repetition q of an image intensity function f(r,θ) are
defined as: 2 −1 and y j = 2 − 1 (7)
xi = i+ j+
p +1
2π 1 N −1 2 N −1 2
Z pq = ∫ ∫ Vpq (r ,θ ) f (r ,θ )rdrdθ ; |r| ≤ 1
π 0 0

where Zernike polynomials Vpq(r,θ) are defined as: j
ˆj = −1 N-1 y
V pq (r , θ ) = R pq (r )e− jqθ ; (2)

and the real-valued radial polynomials, Rpq(r), is
defined as follows:
p −| q|
( p − k )! i
R pq (r ) = ∑ (−1) k
 p+ | q |   p− | q | 
r p −2k
k =0
k ! − k  ! − k !
 2  2  0 N-1
Figure 3. The square-to-circular
where 0 ≤ |q| ≤ p and p - |q| is even. transformation.
If N is the number of pixels along each axis of the
image, then the discrete approximation of equation
(1) is given as: 3.2. Pseudo Zernike Moments
N −1 N −1 The kernel of pseudo Zernike moments is the set of
Z pq = λ ( p, N )∑ ∑
− ˆjqθij
R pq (rij )e f (i, j ) ; 0≤ rij ≤1 orthogonal pseudo Zernike polynomials defined over
i =0 j =0
the polar coordinates inside a unit circle. The two-
(4) dimensional pseudo Zernike moments of order p with
where λ(p,N) is normalizing constant and image repetition q of an image intensity function f(r,θ) are
coordinate transformation to the interior of the unit defined as [Muk98a]:
circle is given by 2π 1
p +1
 yj 
PZ pq =
π ∫ ∫ PV pq (r , θ ) f (r , θ )rdrdθ (8)
rij = xi 2 + y j 2 ; θ = tan −1   ; xi = c1i + c2 ; 0 0

 xi  where Zernike polynomials PVpq(r,θ) are defined as:
y j = c1 j + c2 (5) ˆ
ˆj = −1
PV pq (r ,θ ) = PR pq (r )e− jqθ ; (9)
Since it is easier to work with real functions, Z pq is
c s
often split into its real and imaginary parts, Z pq , Z pq
 y
as given below: r = x 2 + y 2 , θ = tan −1   , −1 < x, y < 1
2π 1
2( p + 1) The real-valued radial polynomials is defined as:
= ∫ ∫R (r ) cos(qθ ) f (r ,θ )rdrdθ (6)
Z pq
0 0 p −| q |
(2 p + 1 − s )!
2( p + 1)
2π 1 PR pq (r ) = ∑ (−1) s

s !( p + | q | +1 − s )!( p − | q | − s )!
r p−s
= ∫ ∫R (r ) sin(qθ ) f (r , θ )rdrdθ
Z (7) s =0
pq pq
0 0 (10)
where p ≥ 0 , q > 0 . and 0 ≤| q |≤ p, p ≥ 0
For the implementation, square image (N x N) is Since it is easier to work with real functions, PZ pq is
transformed and normalized over a unit circle; often split into its real and imaginary parts,
i.e. x + y ≤ 1 , which the transformed unit circle
2 2
c s
PZ pq , PZ pq as given below:
image is bounding the square image. Figure 3 shows
2π 1
the square-to-circular transformation. In this 2( p + 1)
= ∫ ∫ PR (r ) cos(qθ ) f (r , θ )rdrdθ
transformation, PZ pq
0 0

2π 1
2( p + 1) 3.4. Moment reconstruction
= ∫ ∫ PR (r ) sin(qθ ) f (r , θ )rdrdθ (12)
PZ pq
π pq By using moments, the palmprint image can be
0 0
reconstructed from the extracted features. This
where p ≥ 0 , q > 0 .
vindicates the usefulness of moment to preserve the
Since the set of pseudo Zernike orthogonal complete information in the extracted features.
polynomials is analogous to that of Zernike Figure 4 depicted palmprint image with its
polynomial, most of the previous discussion for the reconstructed images.
Zernike moments can be adapted to the case of PZM.
We can see that the Zernike moments in equation (1)
become pseudo Zernike moments if the radial
polynomials, R pq , defined as in equation (3) with its
condition p-|q|=even is eliminated [Teh88a].
Therefore, pseudo Zernike moments offer more
Original Order 10 Order20
feature vectors than Zernike moments since pseudo
Zernike polynomial contains ( p + 1) 2 linearly
independent polynomials of order ≤p, whereas
Zernike polynomial contains only ( p + 1)( p + 2)
linearly independent polynomials due to condition of Order 30 Order 40 Order 50
Figure 4. Original and reconstructed with
different order palmprint images.
3.3. Legendre Moments
The kernel of Legendre moments is products of
Legendre polynomials defined along rectangular 4. PALMPRINT VERIFICATION
image coordinate axes inside a unit circle. The BASED ON ORTHOGONAL
( p, q ) order Legendre moments are defined as:
(2 p + 1)(2q + 1)
∞ ∞ A palmprint verification system is a one-to-one
λ pq =
4 ∫ ∫ Pp ( x) Pq ( y) f ( x, y)dxdy
−∞ −∞
matching process. It matches a person’s claimed
identity to enrolled pattern. There are two phases in
(13) the system: enrollment and verification. Both phases
where the function Pp(x) denote Legendre comprise two sub-modules: preprocessing for
polynomial of order p. The Legendre moment palmprint localization, enhancement and feature
generalizes the geometric moments in the sense that extraction for moment features extraction. However,
the monomial xpyq is replaced by the orthogonal verification phase consists of an additional sub-
polynomial Pp(x) Pq(y) of the same order. module, classification, for calculating dissimilarity
matching of the palmprint. Figure 5 shows the
The discrete version of the Legendre moments can be palmprint verification system block diagram.
written as
At the enrollment stage, a set of the template images
(2 p + 1)(2q + 1) M −1 N −1 represented by moment features is labeled and stored
λ pq = ∑ ∑ p p ( x) pq ( y) f ( x, y) (14)
( M − 1)( N − 1) x = 0 y = 0 into a database. At the verification stage, an input
image is converted into a set of moment features, and
where (p+q) is the order, p,q=0,1,2,3,…, ∞. then is matched with the claimant’s palmprint image,
The Legendre polynomials, Pp(x) are a complete based on the ID, stored in the database to gain the
orthogonal basis set on the interval [-1,1]: dissimilarity measure by computing Euclidean
1 distance metric. We used this distance metric instead
p ( x) pq ( y )dx =
2 p +1
δ pq (15) of more complex classification algorithm (e.g. neural
network) because we were just focusing on the
the nth –order Legendre polynomial are defined by feature extracting rather than the classification.
Finally, the dissimilarity measure is compared to a
predefined threshold to determine whether a claimant
1 2
(2q − 2 p )!
pq ( x) = q
∑ (−1) q

p !(q − p )!(q − 2 p )!
xq−2 p (16) should be accepted. If the dissimilarity measure
p=0 below the predefined threshold value, the palmprint
input is verified possessing same identity as the
claimed identity template and the claimant is accepted.


preprocessing Feature


Template Stored in

Dissimilarity matching
User ID
Feature Reject
preprocessing Extraction

Figure 5. Block diagram of palmprint verification system.

Figure 6. A few palmprint samples that used in the experiments.

overall performance of this authentication system. A
5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND few palmprint samples are shown in Figure 6.
Experiments were conducted by using a set of At the first stage, database was used and experiment
database consisting of 50 different palmprint classes, was conducted using different settings of feature
with six samples for each class. This database is used vectors based on the order (h) of ZM, PZM and LM
to determine pertinent and optimal order moments in and the measure of class separability calculated by
feature extraction before proceeding to next Euclidean distance is shown in Table 1.
experimental study for computing FAR and FRR. Table 1 shows that setting 8 possesses the best
Computation of FAR and FRR is to evaluate the feature vectors among the three orthogonal moments
which can optimally describe the palmprint.
Furthermore, it also can be observed that the higher number of rejected client claims
order moments extraction, the higher separability rate FRR = × 100%
total number of client accesses
of the system as the higher order moments will
capture finer details about the image. We also can
observe that there is a large increment These two measurements yield another performance
(approximately 40%) of the class separability rate measure, namely Total Success Rate (TSR):
between moments order 1 and order 3. However,
feature extraction between higher order moments  FAR + FRR 
TSR = 1 −  × 100%
(e.g. between order 5 and order 7) just generated  total number of accesses 
relatively small separability rate increment. This (19)
implies that informative and dominant characteristics
of palmprint are placed in lower order moments but The system performance can be evaluated by using
higher order moments impart flavor or nuance. Equal Error Rate (EER) where FAR=FRR.
A threshold value is obtained based on Equal Error
Note: Ω h = Z pq , PZ pq , λ pq } where h is order Rate criteria where FAR=FRR. Threshold value of
0.4954, 0.3934 and 0.5314 is gained for PZM, PZM
Measure of Class and LM respectively, as measure of dissimilarity.
Feature Vectors
Separability (%) Figure 7 depicts an example experiment using
Euclidean distance metric that determine threshold
Feature Vector
Settings PZM ZM LM value based on EER criteria for PZM.

1 Ω0, Ω 1 52.0 36.0 36.0
2 Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω 2, Ω 3 91.3 78.7 88.0 Plot of FAR-FRR vs Threshold Value
Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω2, Ω 3, 100
3 Ω 4, Ω 5 95.3 90.7 96.7
Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω 2,Ω 3, 80
4 Ω 4, Ω 5, Ω6, Ω 7 96.0 96.0 97.3 70

F A R -F R R (% )
Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω2, Ω 3,
5 Ω 4, Ω5, Ω6, Ω 7, 97.3 96.0 98.0 40
Ω 8, Ω 9
Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω2, Ω 3, Threshold 20
6 Ω 4, Ω5, Ω6, Ω 7, 98.0 96.7 98.0 10
Ω8, Ω9, Ω10, Ω 11 0
Ω 0, Ω 1, Ω2, Ω 3, 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Threshold value
Ω 4, Ω5, Ω 6,Ω 7,
7 Ω8, Ω9, Ω10,Ω11, 98.0 96.7 98.7
Figure 7. Plotted FAR-FRR graph to obtain
Ω12, Ω13 threshold value for PZM.
Ω 0, Ω1, Ω 2, Ω 3,
Ω 4, Ω5, Ω6, Ω 7, Table 2 shows the testing result of verification rate
8 Ω8, Ω9, Ω10,Ω11, 98.0 98.0 98.7
with order moments from setting 8 (moments order
Ω12, Ω13,Ω14, Ω15 15) for ZM, PZM and LM, based on their defined
Table 1. Recognition rate of ZM, PZM and LM threshold value.
using Euclidean distance
moments thres. FAR(%) FRR(%) TSR(%)
PZM 0.4954 4.2449 4.4674 95.75
For the verification performance evaluation, a False
Acceptance Rate (FAR) and a False Rejection Rate ZM 0.3934 5.2245 5.1546 94.78
(FRR) test were performed. These measurements are LM 0.5314 4.5170 4.4674 95.48
defined as below:
Table 2. Testing result of verification rate of ZM,
number of accepted imposter claims PZM and LM
FAR = × 100%
total number of imposter accesses
The result demonstrates that application of using
pseudo Zernike moments as feature extractor shows
the best verification performance among other since its curve is the lowest and the further left on the
moments. Figure 8 depicted plot of Receiver ROC graph.
Operating Curve (ROC) of the three moments. From
the figure, we can observe that pseudo Zernike
moments shows its robustness in verification task

Figure 8. Plot of Receiver Operating Curve.

also to Dr. Chong Chee Way for his information
6. CONCLUSION about moments.
The performance of orthogonal moments: Zernike
moments, pseudo Zernike moments and Legendre
moments in the positive palmprint authentication
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