ANS. 1 (a)
To obtain a machined part by a machine tool, coordinated motions must be imparted to its
working members. These motions are either primary (cutting and feed) movements, which
remove the chips from the WP or auxiliary motions that are required to prepare for machining
and ensure the successive machining of several surfaces of one WP or a similar surface of
different WPs. Principal motions may be either rotating or straight reciprocating. In some
machine tools, this motion is a combination of rotating and reciprocating motions. Feed
movement may be continuous (lathes, milling machine, drilling machine) or intermittent
(shapers, planers). As shown in Figure1. Stepped motions are obtained using belting or gearing.
Stepless speeds are achieved by mechanical, hydraulic, and electrical methods.

Belting: The belting system, shown in Figure 2. is used to produce four running rotational speeds
n1, n2, n3,and n4. It is cheap and absorbs vibrations. It has the limitation of the low-speed
changing, slip, and the need for more space. Based on the driver speed n1, the following speed
can be obtained in a decreasing order:
This type is commonly used for grinding and bench-type drilling machines.

correct gear meshing occurs if the sum of teeth of gears A and B is constant. A wide variety of gearboxes utilize sliding gears or friction or jaw coupling. Pick-off gears may be used in speed or feed gearboxes. and so on) when the changeover from job to job is comparatively rare. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) Pick-Off Gears Pick-off gears are used for machine tools of mass and batch production (automatic and semiautomatic machines. special-purpose machines. the frequency of speed change. Clutch- . As the center distance is constant.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. The advantage of a sliding gear transmission is that it is capable of transmitting higher torque and is small in radial dimensions. and the duration of the working movement. Among the disadvantages of these gearboxes is the impossibility of changing speeds during running. and economical considerations. As shown in Figure 3. The cutting speed is determined on the bases of the cutting ability of the tool used. the change of speed is achieved by setting gears A and B on the adjacent shafts. The selection of a particular mechanism depends on the purpose of the machine tool. surface finish required. Gearboxes Machine tools are characterized by their large number of spindle speeds and feeds to cope with the requirements of machining parts of different materials and dimensions using different types of cutting tool materials and geometries.

Generally. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) type gearboxes require small axial displacement needed for speed changing.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. and therefore can employ helical gears. large cutting speeds and diameter ranges are required. less engagement force compared with sliding gear mechanisms. when selecting a machine tool. the speed range Rn is dependent only on Rv. For other machine tools. the speed range Rn is increased by 25% for future developments in the cutting tool materials. The extreme spindle speeds of a machine tool main gearbox nmax and nmin can be determined by where Vmax = maximum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the most soft and machinable material with a cutting tool of the best cutting property Vmin = minimum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the hardest material using a cutting tool of the lowest cutting property or the necessary speed for thread cutting dmax. . dmin = maximum and minimum diameters (mm) of WP to be machined The speed range Rn becomes In case of machine tools having rectilinear main motion (planers and shapers). Table 1 shows the maximum speed ranges in modern machine tools. Rn is a function of Rv and Rd.


The auxiliary cutting edge. 2 (a) Tool geometry is basically referred to some specific angles or slope of the salient faces and edges of the tools at their cutting point. There are two flank surfaces. The principal cutting edge performs the function of major material removal and is formed by the intersection line of rake face with the principal flank surface. which is the surface of cutting tool along which the chips move Flank surface that face the workpiece. which is meeting point of the principal and auxiliary cutting edges. . Gear shaping cutters etc. planning and • Slotting tools and boring tools • Double or Two point cutting tools : Example : drills • Multipoint (more than two) cutting tool: Example: Milling cutters. Cutting edge that remove material from the workpiece. shaping. Often a nose radius is provided to avoid a sharp corner. is formed by intersection of rake face with the auxiliary flank surface. namely principal and auxiliary flank surfaces. Broaching tools. often called as end cutting edge. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) ANS. Both material and geometry of the cutting tools play very important roles on their performances in achieving effectiveness. efficiency and overall economy of machining. The geometry of a single point cutting tool is determined by the following features: Face or rake surface. Hobs. The above mentioned features are shown in the figure. Cutting tools may be classified according to the number of major cutting edges (points) involved as follows: • Single point cutting tools : Examples: turning tools. There are two cutting edges. Corner or cutting point.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603.

or negative or even zero as shown in Figure. It provides keenness to the cutting edge. Rake angle and clearance angle are the most significant for all the cutting tools. Tool geometry is basically referred to some specific angles or slope of the salient faces and edges of the tools at their cutting point. .ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. Rake angle may be positive. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) CONCEPT OF RAKE AND CLEARANCE ANGLES OF CUTTING TOOLS. The rake angle and clearance angles are illustrated with figures below Rake angle (γ): Angle of inclination of rake surface from reference plane Clearance angle (α): Angle of inclination of clearance or flank surface from the finished surface The rake angle has the following function: • It allows the chip to flow in convenient direction • It reduces the cutting force required to shear the metal and consequently helps to increase the tool life and reduce the power consumption. • It improves surface finish.

when cutting soft or gummy material or when low rigidity of workpiece. polycrystalline diamond. when cutting tough. Positive rake: • Positive rake or increased rake angle reduces compression. Negative rake: • To provide greater strength at the cutting edge and better heat conductivity . • Negative rakes increases tool forces but it is necessary to provide added support to the cutting edge. ceramic. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) RAKE ANGLE. machine tool.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. such as certain stainless steel. tooling . the forces . • These materials tend to be brittle but their ability to hold their superior hardness at high temperature results in their selection for high speed and continuous machining operation. • Negative rakes are recommended on tool which does not possess good toughness ( low transverse rupture strength) . and the friction. or fixture allows chatter to occur.less deformed and cooler chip • But increased rake angle reduces the strength of the tool section and heat conduction capacity • Some areas of cutting where positive rake may prove more effective are .TYPES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. alloyed materials that tend to work harden. This is particularly important in making intermittent cuts and in absorbing the impact during the initial engagement of the tool and work. and poly crystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools. zero or negative rake angles employed on carbide. yielding a thinner .

The most important wear type from the process point of view is the flank wear. VB. high depth of cut is given to remove the maximum amount of the material. The figure shows also how to define the tool life T for a given wear criterion VBk . a similar relationship occurs for other wear types. ANS 2 (b) Tool wear is a time dependent process. Type of tool material. the tool used should have larger rake angle. 2. So while machining under above condition. which is about 0. 3. The rake angle for a tool depends on the following factors 1. therefore the parameter which has to be controlled is the width of flank wear land. 4. Under such condition the rake angle can minimum or even negative rake angle is provided to increase the tool strength. This parameter must not exceed an initially set safe limit. At high speeds rake angle has little influence on cutting pressure. But tool wear must not be allowed to go beyond a certain limit in order to avoid tool failure. So the rake angle should be decreased to increase the lip angle that provides the strength of the cutting edge.4 mm for carbide cutting tools. As cutting proceeds. tool forces and friction . Rigidity of tool holder and machine: an importantly supported tool on old or worn out machine cannot take up high cutting pressure. Depth of cut: In rough turning. VBk The cutting time required for the cutting tool to develop a flank wear land of width VBk is called tool life. This means that the tool has to withstand severe cutting pressure. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) • Negative rake causes high compression.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. T. a fundamental parameter in machining. hot chip. Tool material like cemented carbide permits turning at high speed. The general relationship of VB versus cutting time is shown in the figure (so-called wear curve). The safe limit is referred to as allowable wear land (wear criterion). Type of the material being cut: A harder material like cast iron may be machined by smaller rake angle than that required by soft material like mild steel or aluminum. resulting in highly deformed . Although the wear curve shown is for flank wear. the amount of tool wear increases gradually.

wear rate increases.e. i. so the same wear criterion is reached in less time. depth of cut and even work material properties. and tool geometry. These constants are well tabulated and easily available. work and tool material properties.. Parameters. which affect the cutting temperature as the wear of cutting tool materials is a process extremely temperature dependent. As cutting speed is increased. the resulting relationship is a straight line expressed in equation form called the Taylor tool life equation: VTn= C Where n and C are constants. depth of cut d) v cutting tool geometry (tool orthogonal rake angle) v properties of work material From these parameters. METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) The slope of the wear curve (that is the intensity of tool wear) depends on the same parameters. feed f. . tool life decreases with cutting speed: If the tool life values for the three wear curves are plotted on a natural log-log graph of cutting speed versus tool life as shown in the right figure. which affect the rate of tool wear are v cutting conditions (cutting speed V. cutting speed is the most important one. whose values depend on cutting conditions.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603.An expanded version of Taylor equation can be formulated to include the effect of feed.

METAL CUTTING & CNC M/C) Factors Affecting Tool Life The life of tool is affected by many factors such as: cutting speed. With a fine feed the area of chip passing over the tool face is greater than that of coarse feed for a given volume of swarf removal. 3. 2. Feed and depth of cut: The tool life is influenced by the feed rate also. The heat is more concentrated on the tool than on the work and the hardness of the tool matrix changes so the relative increase in the hardness of the work accelerates the abrasive action. depth of cut. The criterion of the wear is dependent on the cutting speed because the predominant wear may be wear for flank or crater if cutting speed is increased.ACROPOLIS TECHNICAL CAMPUS UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPER SOLUTION JUNE-2013 (ME-603. The nose radius tends to affect tool life. 4. Tool material: Physical and chemical properties of work material influence tool life by affecting form stability and rate of wear of tool. Tool Geometry: The tool life is also affected by tool geometry. Physical and chemical properties of work material influence tool life by affecting form stability and rate of wear of tools. chip thickness. material or the cutting fluid and rigidity of machine. tool geometry. A tool with large rake angle becomes weak as a large rake reduces the tool cross-section and the amount of metal to absorb the heat. As the cutting speed increases the temperature also rises. . 5. but to offset this chip will be greater hence the resultant pressure will nullify the advantage. 1. Cutting fluid: It reduces the coefficient of friction at the chip tool interface and increases tool life. Cutting speed: Cutting speed has the greatest influence on tool life.