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Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2

Physics (Theory)

Time allowed: 3 hours] [Maximum marks:70

General I nstructions:
(i) All questions are compulsory.

(ii) There are 30 questions in total. Question Nos. 1 to 8 are very short answer type questions and
carry one mark each.

(iii) Question Nos. 9 to 18 carry two marks each, question 19 to 27 carry three marks each and
question 28 to 30 carry five marks each.

(iii) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in onequestion of
two marks; onequestion of threemarks and all three questions of fivemarks each. You have to
attempt only one of the choice in such questions.

(iv) Use of calculators is not permitted. However, you may use log tables if necessary.

(v) You may use the following values of physical constants wherever necessary:
c = 3 10
8
ms
1
h = 6.626 10
34
Js
e = 1.602 10
19
C

0
= 4t 10
7
Tm A
1
9 2 2
0
1
9 10 Nm C
4

=
tc

Mass of electron m
e
= 9.1 10
31
kg


Q 9. An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as shown in the figure.

(i) Complete the ray diagram showing the image formation of the object.
(ii) How will the position and intensity of the image be affected if the lower half of the mirrors
reflecting surface is painted black?

Solution:
(i)
Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2




Image formed will be,
Inverted,
Between focus and center of curvature,
Small in size.

(ii) If the lower half of the mirrors reflecting surface is painted black, the position of image will be
same but its intensity gets reduced.


Q 10. A capacitor of capacitance C is being charged by connecting it across a dc source along with an
ammeter. Will the ammeter show a momentary deflection during the process of charging? If so, how
would you explain this momentary deflection and the resulting continuity of current in the circuit?
Write the expression for the current inside the capacitor.

Solution:
Yes, the ammeter shows a momentary deflection during the process of charging because changing
electric field produce displacement current between the plates of the capacitor.
The resulting continuity of current in the circuit is because the magnitude of electric field and charge
over the area of the capacitor plates is constant.
Current inside the capacitor,
D 0
I
E
d
dt
|
=e


Q 11. A test charge q is moved without acceleration from A to C along the path from A to B and then
from B to C in electric field E as shown in the figure. (i) Calculate the potential difference between A
and C. (ii) At which point (of the two) is the electric potential more and why?


Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2



Solution: Since work done is independent of the path therefore we may directly move from A to C.

Potential difference between A and C,

C A
0
V V .
cos180
( 1)
4
4
C
A
C
A
C
A
E dl
Edl
E dl
E
E
=
=
=
=
=
}
}
}



So,
C A
V V 4E =

(ii) Electric potential will be more at point C as direction of electric field is in decreasing potential.
Hence
V
C
> V
A


Q 12. An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric field.
(i) Show that the net force acting on it is zero.
(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field. Find the work done in rotating it through the angle of
180
O
.

Solution:
(i) Consider an electric dipole consisting of two equal and opposite point charges, -q at A and + q at B,
separated by a small distance 2a.

AB = 2a, having dipole moment
(2 ) p q a =


Let this dipole be held in a uniform external electric field E

at an angle
u
with the direction of E

.
Force on charge q at A= - q E

, in a direction opposite to E


Force on charge +q at B = +q E

, along the direction of E


Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2


Net force on the dipole = qE qE = 0

(ii) Work done on dipole, ( )
1 2
W U pE cos cos u u = A =
W = pE (cos0 cos180)
W = 2pE


Q 13. Draw a labeled ray diagram of a reflecting telescope. Mention its two advantages over the
refracting telescope.

Solution:
Reflecting Telescope,

Its two advantages over Refracting telescope:
1. It reduces the spherical aberration and forms a clear focused image.
2. It doesnt require a lens of very large aperture as refracting type requires that cannot be manufactured
easily.

Q 14. State the underlying principle of a transformer. How is the large scale transmission of electric
energy over long distances done with the use of transformers?

Solution:
Transformer Principle: It is a device which converts high voltage AC into low voltage AC and vice-
versa. It is based upon the principle of mutual induction. When alternating current is passed through a
coil, an induced emf is set up in the neighbouring coil.
Transformers are used for transmission of electrical energy over long distances.
It step up the output voltage of power plant using step up transformer which reduce the current through
cables and hence reduce resistive power loss. Then a step down transformer is used at consumer end to
step down the voltage.


Q 15. In the given block diagram of a receiver, identify the boxes labeled as X and Y and write their
functions.
Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2





Solution:


X If stage Intermediate frequency stage to change the carrier frequency to lower frequency.
Y Amplifier It amplifies the signal i.e. it increase the amplitude of the detected signal to
compensate the attenuation of the signal. The detected signal may not be strong enough to use.


Q 16. A light bulb is rated 200 W for 220 V ac supply of 50 Hz. Calculate
(i) The resistance of the bulb;
(ii) The rms current through the bulb.
OR
An alternating voltage given by V = 280 sin 50 p t is connected across a pure resistor of 40 .
Find
(i) The frequency of the source.
(ii) The rms current through the resistor.

Solution:
(i)
P = 200 W
V
rms
= 220 V
f = 50 Hz
Electric power is given as
2
V
P
R
rms
=

Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2


Thus
2
V
R
R
rms
=

220 220
200

=

= 242 O

(ii) P = I
rms
V
rms
P 200 W
I 0.909A
V 220 V
rms
rms
= = =

Or

Comparing V = 280 sin50tt with V = V
0
sinet

a) We get, V
0
= 280V,
Also, e = 50t,
Or, 2tv = 50t
Or, v = 25Hz

(b)
0
V 280
V 197.99
2 2
rms
V = = =
V 197.99V
I 4.95A
R 40
rms
rms
= = =
O


Q 17. A circular coil of N turns and diameter d carries a current I. It is unwound and rewound to
make another coil of diameter 2d, current I remaining the same. Calculate the ratio of the magnetic
moments of the new coil and the original coil.

Solution:
The magnetic moment m of a current loop is the vector whose magnitude is equal to the area of the
loop times the magnitude of the current flowing in it i.e.
m =N IA
Where, N=number of turns.
Let m
1
and m
2
are the magnetic moments of original circular coil of diameter d , number of turns N
and new coil of diameter 2d, number of turns
' N
.
Length of wire remains same. Thus,
2
(2 ( )) '(2 ( ))
2 2
'
2
d d
N N
N
N
t t =
=

Now,
Grade XII ALL INDIA SET 2


2 2
1 1 1
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
1
( ) ( )
4
1
' ( ) ( )
2 2
1
( )
2
2
1
1
( )
4
m NIA NI r NI d
N
m N IA I r NI d
m
m
t t
t t
= = =
= = =
= =



Q 18. Describe briefly with the help of a circuit diagram, how the flow of current carriers in a p-n-p
transistor is regulated with emitter-base junction forward biased and base-collector junction reverse
biased.

Solution:
In pnp transistor :
The emitter base junction is always forward biased with voltage V
EE
and the collector base junction is
always reverse biased with voltage V
CC
.



The holes in the emitter are pushed into the base by the positive terminal of battery of voltage V
EE
.
Since, base is thin and lightly doped so only few holes combine with electrons in the base. Thus, base
current I
B
is small. Since V
CC
is quite large almost 99% of holes coming from emitter are collected by
collector. For each hole reaching the collector, an electron is released from the negative terminal of the
collector base battery to neutralize the hole. For each hole consumed in collector, a bond breaks in
emitter and electron is released that enters positive terminal of emitter-base battery. Thus, we can say
the current is carried by holes inside the transistor and by electrons in external circuit.