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In this paper, we show a Gravity Control Cell that is very easy to build.

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Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright© 2010 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

**In this paper we show the simplest method
**

to control the gravity (BR Patent Number:

PI0805046-5, July 31, 2008).

i0

In this Appendix we show the simplest

method to control the gravity.

Consider a body with mass density ρ and

the following electric characteristics: μ r , ε r , σ

IDC

(relative permeability, relative permittivity and

electric conductivity, respectively). Through this

body, passes an electric current I , which is the

sum of a sinusoidal current iosc = i0 sin ωt and I = IDC + iosc

the DC current I DC , i.e., I = I DC + i0 sin ωt

; ω = 2πf . If i0 << I DC then I ≅ I DC . Thus, the

current I varies with the frequency f , but the

variation of its intensity is quite small in

comparison with I DC , i.e., I will be practically

constant (Fig. 1A). This is of fundamental t

importance for maintaining the value of the

gravitational mass of the body, m g , sufficiently

Fig. A1 - The electric current I varies with

stable during all the time. frequency f . But the variation of I is quite small

The gravitational mass of the body is given

by [1] in comparison with I DC due to io << I DC . In this

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ way, we can consider I ≅ I DC .

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ nrU ⎞ ⎥⎪

mg = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜

⎢

⎟ −1 m

⎜ m c2 ⎟ ⎥⎬ i0

( A1) where E = E m sin ωt and H = H sin ωt are the

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ instantaneous values of the electric field and the

magnetic field respectively.

where U , is the electromagnetic energy It is known that B = μH , E B = ω k r [11]

absorbed by the body and nr is the index of and

dz ω

refraction of the body. v= = =

c

( A4)

Equation (A1) can also be rewritten in the dt κ r ε r μr ⎛

⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟

2

following form

2 ⎝ ⎠

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞

2 ⎤⎫ where kr is the real part of the propagation

r

mg ⎪ ⎢ ⎪

− 1⎥ ⎬ ( A2 )

⎜ n W ⎟

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + r

vector k (also called phase constant );

⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎝ρ c ⎠

mi 0 ⎪ 2

r

⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭ k = k = k r + iki ; ε , μ and σ, are the

electromagnetic characteristics of the medium in

where, W =U V is the density of which the incident (or emitted) radiation is

propagating( ε = εrε0 ; ε 0 = 8.854×10 F / m

−12

electromagnetic energy and ρ = mi 0 V is the

density of inertial mass. ;μ = μr μ0 where μ0 = 4π ×10−7 H / m ). It is

The instantaneous values of the density of known that for free-space

electromagnetic energy in an electromagnetic

field can be deduced from Maxwell’s equations σ = 0 and ε r = μ r = 1 . Then Eq. (A4) gives

and has the following expression v=c

From (A4), we see that the index of refraction

W = 12 ε E 2 + 12 μH 2 ( A3) nr = c v is given by

2

(

(ELF) electric field w = 2πf << 1Hz through )

ε μ

nr = = r r ⎛⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞⎟ ( A5)

c 2 a medium with high electrical conductivity.

v 2 ⎝ ⎠ Substitution of Eq. (A13) into Eq. (A2),

gives

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ E 4 ⎤⎥⎪

3

⎪ μ ⎛σ

Equation (A4) shows that ω κr = v. mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 − 1 ⎬mi0 =

⎪⎩ ⎢ 4c ⎝ 4πf ⎠ ρ ⎥⎪

Thus, E B = ω k r = v , i.e., ⎣ ⎦⎭

E = vB = vμH ( A6) ⎧

⎪ ⎡ ⎛ μ0 ⎞⎛ μrσ ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

3

**Then, Eq. (A3) can be rewritten in the following = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟⎜
**

3 2 ⎜ 2 3⎟

⎟E − 1⎥⎬mi0 =

⎪⎩ ⎢ ⎝ 256π c ⎠⎝ ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

form: ⎣ ⎭

( )

W = 12 ε v2μ μH2 + 12 μH2 ( A7) ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪

For σ << ωε , Eq. (A4) reduces to ⎪ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟E 4 − 1⎥⎬mi0

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

c

v= ( A14)

ε r μr

Note that E = E m sin ωt .The average value for

Then, Eq. (A7) gives E 2 is equal to 1 E m2 because E varies

2

**sinusoidaly ( E m is the maximum value for E ).
**

⎡ ⎛ c2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 1

W = ⎢ε ⎜⎜

1

⎟⎟μ⎥μH + 2 μH 2 = μH 2

Erms = Em

2

ε μ

⎣ ⎝ r r⎠ ⎦

On the other hand, 2 . Consequently,

4 4

we can change E by E rms , and the equation

This equation can be rewritten in the following above can be rewritten as follows

forms:

⎧ ⎡ ⎛ μ σ3 ⎞ 4 ⎤⎫⎪

B2 ⎪

W= ( A8) mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758×10−27 ⎜⎜ r2 3 ⎟⎟Erms − 1⎥⎬mi0

μ ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ ⎝ρ f ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

or Substitution of the well-known equation of the

W =ε E2 ( A9 ) Ohm's vectorial Law: j = σE into (A14), we get

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪

−27 μr jrms

4

For σ >> ωε , Eq. (A4) gives mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10 − 1⎥⎬mi0 ( A15)

2ω ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ σρ2 f 3 ⎥⎦⎪

v= ( A10) ⎭

μσ where j rms = j 2 .

Then, from Eq. (A7) we get

Consider a 15 cm square Aluminum thin

foil of 10.5 microns thickness with the following

⎡ ⎛ 2ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ωε ⎞ characteristics: μr =1 σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ;

W = 12 ⎢ε ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟μ⎥μH2 + 12 μH2 = ⎜ ⎟μH2 + 12 μH2 ≅ ;

⎣ ⎝ μσ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝σ ⎠ ρ = 2700 Kg .m −3 . Then, (A15) gives

≅ 12 μH2 ( A11) ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫⎪

j4

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 6.313×10−42 rms − 1⎥⎬mi0 ( A16)

Since E = vB = vμH , we can rewrite (A11) in ⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

3

⎪⎩ ⎣ f

the following forms: Now, consider that the ELF electric

W ≅

B2

( A12 ) current I = I DC + i 0 sin ω t , (i0 << I DC )

2μ passes through that Aluminum foil. Then, the

or current density is

⎛ σ ⎞ 2 I rms I DC

W ≅⎜ ⎟E ( A13 ) jrms = ≅ ( A17)

⎝ 4ω ⎠ S S

By comparing equations (A8) (A9) (A12) and where

(A13), we can see that Eq. (A13) shows that the

best way to obtain a strong value of W in ( )

S = 0.15m 10.5 × 10 −6 m = 1.57 × 10 −6 m 2

practice is by applying an Extra Low-Frequency

3

If the ELF electric current has check the reach of the gravitational shielding

frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz ,

−6 produced by the Aluminum foil.

then, the

In order to generate the ELF electric

gravitational mass of the aluminum foil, given by

current of f = 2 μHz , we can use the widely-

(A16), is expressed by

known Function Generator HP3325A (Op.002

⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤ ⎫⎪ High Voltage Output) that can generate

m g = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 7.89 × 10 − 25 DC4 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0 = sinusoidal voltages with extremely-low

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ S ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

f = 1 × 10 −6 Hz and

{ [ ]}

frequencies down to

= 1 − 2 1 + 0.13I DC

4

− 1 mi 0 ( A18) amplitude up to 20V (40Vpp into 500Ω load). The

Then, maximum output current is 0.08 App ; output

χ=

mg

mi0

{ [

≅ 1−2 1+ 0.13I DC

4

−1 ]} ( A19) impedance <2Ω at ELF.

Figure A4 shows the equivalent electric

circuit for the experimental set-up. The

For I DC = 2.2 A , the equation above gives electromotive forces are: ε1 (HP3325A) and ε 2

⎛ mg ⎞ (12V DC Battery).The values of the resistors are

χ = ⎜⎜ ⎟ ≅ −1

⎟ ( A 20 ) : R1 = 500Ω − 2W ; ri1 < 2Ω ; R2 = 4Ω − 40W ;

⎝ i0 ⎠

m

This means that the gravitational shielding ri 2 < 0.1Ω ; R p = 2 .5 × 10 −3 Ω ; Rheostat (0≤

produced by the aluminum foil can change the R ≤10Ω - 90W). The coupling transformer has the

gravity acceleration above the foil down to following characteristics: air core with diameter

g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g ( A21) φ = 10 mm ; area S = πφ 2 4 = 7.8 × 10 −5 m 2 ;

Under these conditions, the Aluminum foil works wire#12AWG; N1 = N2 = N = 20; l = 42mm;

basically as a Gravity Control Cell (GCC).

In order to check these theoretical L1 = L2 = L = μ0 N (S l ) = 9.3 ×10 H .Thus, we

2 −7

**predictions, we suggest an experimental set-up get
**

shown in Fig.A2.

A 15cm square Aluminum foil of 10.5 Z1 = (R1 + ri1 )2 + (ωL )2 ≅ 501Ω

microns thickness with the following composition: and

Al 98.02%; Fe 0.80%; Si 0.70%; Mn 0.10%; Cu

0.10%; Zn 0.10%; Ti 0.08%; Mg 0.05%; Cr Z2 = (R 2 + ri 2 + R p + R ) + (ωL )

2 2

**0.05%, and with the following characteristics:
**

For R = 0 we get Z 2 = Z 2min ≅ 4Ω ; for

μr =1; σ = 3.82×107 S.m−1 ; ρ = 2700Kg.m−3 ,

is

*

fixed on a 17 cm square Foam Board plate of R = 10Ω the result is Z 2 = Z 2max ≅ 14Ω . Thus,

6mm thickness as shown in Fig.A3. This device 2

⎛ N1 ⎞

(the simplest Gravity Control Cell GCC) is placed Z min

1,total = Z1 + Z min

1, reflected = Z1 + Z min

2

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 505Ω

on a pan balance shown in Fig.A2. ⎝ 2⎠

N

Above the Aluminum foil, a sample (any 2

type of material, any mass) connected to a ⎛ N1 ⎞

dynamometer will check the decrease of the local Z max

1,total = Z1 + Z max

1, reflected = Z1 + Z max

2

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ≅ 515Ω

gravity acceleration upon the sample ⎝ N2 ⎠

(g ′ = χ g ) ,due to the gravitational shielding The maxima

following values:

rms currents have the

produced by the decreasing of gravitational mass

( ) I 1max = ,total = 56mA

40V pp Z1min

1

of the Aluminum foil χ = m g mi 0 . Initially, the 2

(The maximum output current of the Function

sample lies 5 cm above the Aluminum foil. As

Generator HP3325A (Op.002 High Voltage

shown in Fig.A2, the board with the dynamometer

can be displaced up to few meters in height. Output) is 80mApp ≅ 56.5mArms);

Thus, the initial distance between the Aluminum

ε2

foil and the sample can be increased in order to I 2max = = 3A

Z 2min

* and

Foam board is a very strong, lightweight (density:

24.03 kg.m-3) and easily cut material used for the I 3max = I 2max + I1max ≅ 3A

mounting of photographic prints, as backing in picture

framing, in 3D design, and in painting. It consists of

The new expression for the inertial forces,

three layers — an inner layer of polystyrene clad with r r

outer facing of either white clay coated paper or brown (Eq.5) Fi = M g a , shows that the inertial forces

Kraft paper. are proportional to gravitational mass. Only in the

4

particular case of m g = m i 0 , the expression If an ELF electric current with

frequency f = 2μHz = 2 × 10 Hz passes through

−6

above reduces to the well-known Newtonian

r r this wire, its gravitational mass, given by (A16),

expression Fi = m i 0 a . The equivalence

will be expressed by

(F ≡ F )

r r

between gravitational and inertial forces i g ⎧⎪ ⎡ j4 ⎤⎫⎪

[1] shows then that a balance measures the mg = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 6.313×10−42 rms −1⎥⎬mi0 =

⎢ ⎥⎦⎪⎭

3

gravitational mass subjected to ⎪⎩ ⎣ f

acceleration a = g . Here, the decrease in the

gravitational mass of the Aluminum foil will be ⎧⎪ ⎡ I4 ⎤⎫⎪

measured by a pan balance with the following = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 7.89×10−25 DC4 −1⎥⎬mi0 =

characteristics: range 0-200g; readability 0.01g. ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ S ⎥⎦⎪⎭

The mass of the Foam Board plate is:

≅ 4.17 g , the mass of the Aluminum foil is: { [

= 1− 2 1+ 0.13I DC

4

]}

−1 mi0 ( A22)

≅ 0.64 g , the total mass of the ends and the For I DC ≅ 3 A the equation above gives

electric wires of connection is ≅ 5 g . Thus,

initially the balance will show ≅ 9.81g . m g ≅ − 3 .8 m i 0

According to (A18), when the electric current

through the Aluminum foil Note that we can replace the Aluminum foil for

(resistance r

*

p = l σS = 2.5 ×10 Ω ) reaches the

−3 this wire in the experimental set-up shown in

Fig.A2. It is important also to note that an ELF

value: I 3 ≅ 2.2 A , we will get m g ( Al ) ≅ − mi 0 ( Al ) . electric current that passes through a wire - which

makes a spherical form, as shown in Fig A5 -

Under these circumstances, the balance will

reduces the gravitational mass of the wire (Eq.

show:

A22), and the gravity inside sphere at the same

9.81g − 0.64 g − 0.64 g ≅ 8.53g proportion, χ =mg mi0 , (Gravitational Shielding

and the gravity acceleration g ′ above the

Effect). In this case, that effect can be checked

Aluminum foil, becomes g ′ = χ g ≅ −1g . by means of the Experimental set-up 2 (Fig.A6).

It was shown [1] that, when the Note that the spherical form can be transformed

gravitational mass of a particle is reduced to the into an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat,

gravitational mass ranging between + 0.159 M i

for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also

possible to coat with a wire several forms, such

to − 0.159M i , it becomes imaginary, i.e., the as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc.

gravitational and the inertial masses of the The circuit shown in Fig.A4 (a) can be

particle become imaginary. Consequently, the modified in order to produce a new type of

particle disappears from our ordinary space-time. Gravitational Shielding, as shown in Fig.A4 (b).

This phenomenon can be observed in the In this case, the Gravitational Shielding will be

proposed experiment, i.e., the Aluminum foil will produced in the Aluminum plate, with thickness

disappear when its gravitational mass becomes h , of the parallel plate capacitor connected in the

smaller than + 0.159 M i . It will become visible point P of the circuit (See Fig.A4 (b)). Note that,

in this circuit, the Aluminum foil (resistance R p )

again, only when its gravitational mass becomes

smaller than − 0.159M i , or when it becomes (Fig.A4(a)) has been replaced by a Copper wire #

14 AWG with 1cm length ( l = 1cm ) in order to

greater than + 0.159M i . produce a resistance Rφ = 5.21 × 10 −5 Ω . Thus,

Equation (A18) shows that the gravitational

the voltage in the point P of the circuit will have

mass of the Aluminum foil, mg ( Al ) , goes close to

the maximum value V pmax = 1.1 × 10 −4 V when

zero when I 3 ≅ 1.76 A . Consequently, the

the resistance of the rheostat is null (R = 0 ) and

gravity acceleration above the Aluminum foil also

goes close to zero since the minimum value V pmin = 4.03 × 10 −5 V when

g = χ g = mg ( Al ) mi 0 ( Al ) .

′ Under these R = 10Ω . In this way, the voltage V p (with

circumstances, the Aluminum foil remains frequency f = 2 μHz ) applied on the capacitor

invisible.

Now consider a rigid Aluminum wire # 14 will produce an electric field E p with intensity

AWG. The area of its cross section is E p = V p h through the Aluminum plate of

S = π (1.628 × 10 m ) 4 = 2.08 × 10 m

−3 2 −6 2

thickness h = 3mm . It is important to note that this

5

plate cannot be connected to ground (earth), in another. The Aluminum foil is now coated by an

other words, cannot be grounded, because, in insulation layer with relative permittivity ε r and

this case, the electric field through it will be null † .

According to Eq. A14, when dielectric strength k . A voltage source is

connected to the Aluminum foil in order to provide

p =Vp

Emax max

h = 0.036 V / m, f = 2μHz and

a voltage V0 (rms) with frequency f . Thus, the

σ Al = 3 . 82 × 10 7 S / m , ρ Al = 2700kg / m3 electric potential V at a distance r , in the

(Aluminum), we get interval from r0 to a , is given by

m ( Al )

χ = ≅ − 0 .9

m i ( Al ) V=

1 q

( A23)

4πε r ε 0 r

Under these conditions, the maximum current

density through the plate with thickness h will be In the interval a < r ≤ b the electric potential is

**given by j max = σ Al E max
**

p = 1.4 ×106 A / m2 (It is V =

1 q

( A24 )

4πε 0 r

well-known that the maximum current density

supported by the Aluminum is ≈ 10 A / m ).

8 2 since for the air we have ε r ≅ 1 .

Since the area of the plate is Thus, on the surface of the metallic

spheres (r = r0 ) we get

A= (0.2) = 4×10 m , then the maximum current is

2 −2 2

**i max = j max A = 56kA . Despite this enormous V0 =
**

1 q

( A25)

current, the maximum dissipated power will be 4πε r ε 0 r0

( )R

just P max = i max

2

= 6.2W , because the

Consequently, the electric field is

1 q

( A26)

plate

E0 =

resistance of the plate is very small, i.e.,

4πε r ε 0 r02

−9

R plate = h σ Al A ≅ 2 × 10 Ω . By comparing (A26) with (A25), we obtain

V0

Note that the area A of the plate (where

the Gravitational Shielding takes place) can have E0 = ( A27)

r0

several geometrical configurations. For example,

it can be the area of the external surface of an Vb at r = b is

The electric potential

ellipsoid, sphere, etc. Thus, it can be the area of

1 q ε r V 0 r0

the external surface of a Gravitational Spacecraft. Vb = = ( A28 )

In this case, if A ≅ 100m , for example, the

2 4πε 0 b b

maximum dissipated power will be Consequently, the electric field Eb is given by

Pmax ≅ 15.4kW , i.e., approximately 154W / m 2 . 1 q ε rV0 r0

All of these systems work with Extra-Low Eb = = ( A29)

4πε 0 b 2 b2

( −3

)

Frequencies f <<10 Hz . Now, we show that,

From r = r0 up to r = b = a + d the electric

by simply changing the geometry of the surface

of the Aluminum foil, it is possible to increase the field is approximately constant (See Fig. A7).

working frequency f up to more than 1Hz. Along the distance d it will be called E air . For

Consider the Aluminum foil, now with r > a + d , the electric field stops being constant.

several semi-spheres stamped on its surface, as Thus, the intensity of the electric field at

shown in Fig. A7 . The semi-spheres have r = b = a + d is approximately equal to E0 ,

radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and are joined one to

i.e., Eb ≅ E 0 . Then, we can write that

ε rV0 r0 V0

†

When the voltage Vp is applied on the capacitor, the ≅ ( A30)

charge distribution in the dielectric induces positive b2 r0

and negative charges, respectively on opposite sides of whence we get

the Aluminum plate with thickness h. If the plate is not

connected to the ground (Earth) this charge b ≅ r0 ε r ( A31)

distribution produces an electric field Ep=Vp/h through Since the intensity of the electric field through the

the plate. However, if the plate is connected to the air, E air , is Eair ≅ Eb ≅ E0 , then, we can write that

ground, the negative charges (electrons) escapes for

q ε rV0 r0

the ground and the positive charges are redistributed Eair =

1

= 2 ( A32)

along the entire surface of the Aluminum plate making 4πε0 b 2 b

null the electric field through it.

Note that ε r refers to the relative permittivity of

6

the insulation layer, which is covering the 1 3

⎛ Eair ⎞ ⎛b⎞

( A39)

2 2

Aluminum foil. σ air = 2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

If the intensity of this field is greater than ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝a⎠

the dielectric strength of the air 3 × 10 V / m ( 6

) If the insulation layer has thickness

there will occur the well-known Corona effect. Δ = 0.6 mm , ε r ≅ 3.5 (1- 60Hz),

Here, this effect is necessary in order to increase

the electric conductivity of the air at this region k = 17kV / mm (Acrylic sheet 1.5mm thickness),

(layer with thickness d). Thus, we will assume and the semi-spheres stamped on the metallic

ε rV min

r V min surface have r0 = 0.9 mm (See Fig.A7) then

min

Eair = 0 0

= 0

= 3×106 V / m

b 2

r0 a = r0 + Δ = 1.5 mm. Thus, we obtain from Eq.

and (A33) that

ε rV max

r V max

V0min = 2.7kV

max

Eair = 0 0

= = 1×107 V / m ( A33)

0

b 2

r0 V0max = 9kV ( A40)

The electric field E min

air ≤ E air ≤ E max

air will From equation (A31), we obtain the following

produce an electrons flux in a direction and an value for b :

ions flux in an opposite direction. From the b = r0 ε r = 1.68×10−3 m ( A41)

viewpoint of electric current, the ions flux can be

Since b = a + d we get

considered as an “electrons” flux at the same

direction of the real electrons flux. Thus, the d = 1.8 × 10 −4 m

current density through the air, j air , will be the Substitution of a , b , d and A(32) into (A39)

double of the current density expressed by the produces

1 1

well-known equation of Langmuir-Child

3 3 3

σ air = 4.117×10−4 Eair = 1.375×10−2 V0

2 2

4

j = εrε0

2e V 2

= α

V2

= 2.33×10−6 V

2

( A34) Substitution of σ air , E air (rms ) and

9 me d2 d2 d2 ρ air = 1.2 kg .m −3 into (A14) gives

where ε r ≅ 1 for the air; α = 2.33 × 10 −6

is the

mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪

called Child’s constant. = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+1.758×10−27 air2 air3 −1⎥⎬ =

Thus, we have mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ ρair f ⎥⎦⎪⎭

3 ⎩ ⎣

V2

jair = 2α 2 ( A35) ⎧⎪ ⎡ 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

−21 V0

d = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 4.923×10 − 1⎥⎬ ( A42)

where d , in this case, is the thickness of the air ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f 3 ⎥⎦⎪

⎭

layer where the electric field is approximately

For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result is

max

constant and V is the voltage drop given by

1 q 1 q mg (air)

V = Va − Vb = − = ≅ −1.2

4πε 0 a 4πε 0 b mi0(air)

⎛ b − a ⎞ ⎛ ε r r0 d ⎞

= V0 r0ε r ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟V0 ( A36) Note that, by increasing V0 , the values of

⎝ ab ⎠ ⎝ ab ⎠ E air and σ air are increased. Thus, as show

By substituting (A36) into (A35), we get (A42), there are two ways for decrease the value

3 3 3

2α ⎛ ε r r0dV0 ⎞ 2α ⎛ ε r r0V0 ⎞

2 2

⎛b⎞ 2 of m g (air ) : increasing the value of V0 or

jair = ⎜ ⎟ = 1⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =

d 2 ⎝ ab ⎠ d 2 ⎝ b2 ⎠ ⎝ a⎠ decreasing the value of f .

3 Since E0

max

= 107 V / m = 10kV / mm and

2α ⎛ b ⎞2

( A37)

3

= 1 Eair⎜ ⎟

2

Δ = 0.6 mm then the dielectric strength of the

d2 ⎝ a⎠ insulation must be ≥ 16.7kV / mm . As

According to the equation of the Ohm's vectorial mentioned above, the dielectric strength of the

Law: j = σE , we can write that acrylic is 17kV / mm .

σair =

jair

( A38) It is important to note that, due to the

strong value of E air (Eq. A37) the drift velocity

Eair

Substitution of (A37) into (A38) yields vd , (vd = jair ne = σ air Eair ne) of the free

charges inside the ionized air put them at a

7

distance x = vd t = 2 fvd ≅ 0.4m , which is much means of a convenient process, several semi-

−4

spheres can be stamped on its surface. The

greater than the distance d =1.8 ×10 m .

semi-spheres have radius r0 = 0.9 mm , and

Consequently, the number n of free charges

decreases strongly inside the air layer of are joined one to another. Next, take an acrylic

thickness d ‡ , except, obviously, in a thin layer, sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness (See

very close to the dielectric, where the number of Fig.A8 (a)). Put a heater below the Aluminum

free charges remains sufficiently increased, to plate in order to heat the Aluminum (Fig.A8 (b)).

When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated up, the

maintain the air conductivity with σ air ≅ 1.1S / m

acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are

(Eq. A39). pressed, one against the other, as shown in Fig.

The thickness h of this thin air layer close A8 (c). The two D devices shown in this figure are

to the dielectric can be easily evaluated starting used in order to impede that the press

from the charge distribution in the neighborhood compresses the acrylic and the aluminum to a

of the dielectric, and of the repulsion forces distance shorter than y + a . After some seconds,

established among them. The result is remove the press and the heater. The device is

h = 0.06e 4πε 0 E ≅ 4 × 10−9 m . This is, therefore, ready to be subjected to a voltage V0 with

the thickness of the Air Gravitational Shielding. If frequency f , as shown in Fig.A9. Note that, in

the area of this Gravitational Shielding is equal to

this case, the balance is not necessary, because

the area of a format A4 sheet of paper,

the substance that produces the gravitational

i.e., A = 0.20 × 0.291= 0.0582m , we obtain the

2

shielding is an air layer with thickness d above

following value for the resistance R air of the the acrylic sheet. This is, therefore, more a type

of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external

Gravitational Shielding: Rair = h σair A≅ 6×10−8 Ω.

gravitational shielding.

Since the maximum electrical current through this It is important to note that this GCC can be

air layer is i max = j max A ≅ 400 kA , then the made very thin and as flexible as a fabric. Thus, it

maximum power radiated from the Gravitational can be used to produce anti- gravity clothes.

( ) 2

These clothes can be extremely useful, for

Shielding is Pair max

= Rair iair

max

≅ 10kW . This example, to walk on the surface of high gravity

means that a very strong light will be radiated planets.

from this type of Gravitational Shielding. Note that Figure A11 shows some geometrical

this device can also be used as a lamp, which will forms that can be stamped on a metallic surface

be much more efficient than conventional lamps. in order to produce a Gravitational Shielding

Coating a ceiling with this lighting system effect, similar to the produced by the semi-

enables the entire area of ceiling to produce light. spherical form.

This is a form of lighting very different from those An obvious evolution from the semi-

usually known. spherical form is the semi-cylindrical form shown

in Fig. A11 (b); Fig.A11(c) shows concentric

max

Note that the value Pair ≅ 10kW , defines the metallic rings stamped on the metallic surface, an

power of the transformer shown in Fig.A10. Thus, evolution from Fig.A11 (b). These geometrical

the maximum current in the secondary is forms produce the same effect as the semi-

i smax = 9kV 10 kW = 0.9 A . spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using

concentric metallic rings, it is possible to build

Above the Gravitational Shielding, σ air is Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or

reduced to the normal value of conductivity of the spacecrafts with several formats (spheres,

( )

atmospheric air ≈ 10 −14 S / m . Thus, the power ellipsoids, etc); Fig. A11 (d) shows a Gravitational

Shielding around a Spacecraft with ellipsoidal

radiated from this region is

( ) σ A=

form.

= (d − h ) i air

max max 2

Pair air

The previously mentioned Gravitational

= (d − h )Aσ (E ) ≅ 10

Shielding, produced on a thin layer of ionized air,

max 2 −4 has a behavior different from the Gravitational

air air W

Now, we will describe a method to coat the Shielding produced on a rigid substance. When

Aluminum semi-spheres with acrylic in the the gravitational masses of the air molecules,

necessary dimensions (Δ = a − r0 ) , we propose

inside the shielding, are reduced to within the

range + 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , they go to

the following method. First, take an Aluminum

the imaginary space-time, as previously shown in

plate with 21cm × 29.1cm (A4 format). By

this article. However, the electric field E air stays

‡

Reducing therefore, the conductivity σ air , to the at the real space-time. Consequently, the

molecules return immediately to the real space-

normal value of conductivity of the atmospheric air.

8

time in order to return soon after to the imaginary since the shielding does not stop to work, due

space-time, due to the action of the electric to its extremely short permanence at the

field E air . imaginary space-time. Under these

circumstances, the gravitational mass of the

In the case of the Gravitational Shielding Gravitational Shielding can be reduced to

produced on a solid substance, when the

molecules of the substance go to the imaginary m g ≅ 0 . For example, m g ≅ 10 −4 kg . Thus, if

space-time, the electric field that produces the the inertial mass of the Gravitational Shielding is

effect, also goes to the imaginary space-time

together with them, since in this case, the

mi 0 ≅ 1kg , then χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −4 . As we

substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly have seen, this means that the inertial effects on

the spacecraft will be reduced by χ ≅ 10 . Then,

connected to the metal that produces the electric −4

field. (See Fig. A12 (b)). This is the fundamental

in spite of the effective acceleration of the

difference between the non-solid and solid −2

spacecraft be, for example, a = 10 m.s , the

5

Gravitational Shieldings.

Now, consider a Gravitational Spacecraft effects on the crew of the spacecraft will be

that is able to produce an Air Gravitational equivalent to an acceleration of only

Shielding and also a Solid Gravitational mg

Shielding, as shown in Fig. A13 (a) § . Assuming a′ = a = χ a ≈ 10m.s −1

that the intensity of the electric field, E air ,

mi 0

This is the magnitude of the acceleration upon

necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of

the passengers in a contemporary commercial

the air molecules to within the range

jet.

+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , is much smaller Then, it is noticed that Gravitational

than the intensity of the electric field, E rs , Spacecrafts can be subjected to enormous

accelerations (or decelerations) without imposing

necessary to reduce the gravitational mass of any harmful impacts whatsoever on the

the solid substance to within the range spacecrafts or its crew.

+ 0.159 mi < m g < −0.159 mi , then we Now, imagine that the intensity of the

conclude that the Gravitational Shielding made of electric field that produces the Gravitational

ionized air goes to the imaginary space-time Shielding around the spacecraft is increased up

before the Gravitational Shielding made of solid to reaching the value E rs that reduces the

substance. When this occurs the spacecraft does gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational

not go to the imaginary space-time together with Shielding to within the range

the Gravitational Shielding of air, because the air + 0.159 m i < m g < −0.159 mi . Under these

molecules are not rigidly connected to the

spacecraft. Thus, while the air molecules go into circumstances, the solid Gravitational Shielding

the imaginary space-time, the spacecraft stays in goes to the imaginary space-time and, since it is

the real space-time, and remains subjected to the rigidly connected to the spacecraft, also the

effects of the Gravitational Shielding around it, spacecraft goes to the imaginary space-time

together with the Gravitational Shielding. Thus,

§ the spacecraft can travel within the imaginary

The solid Gravitational Shielding can also be space-time and make use of the Gravitational

obtained by means of an ELF electric current through Shielding around it.

a metallic lamina placed between the semi-spheres As we have already seen, the maximum

and the Gravitational Shielding of Air (See Fig.A13 velocity of propagation of the interactions in the

(a)). The gravitational mass of the solid Gravitational imaginary space-time is infinite (in the real space-

Shielding will be controlled just by means of the

time this limit is equal to the light velocity c ). This

intensity of the ELF electric current. Recently, it was

means that there are no limits for the velocity of

discovered that Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be

the spacecraft in the imaginary space-time. Thus,

added to Alumina (Al2O3) to convert it into a good

the acceleration of the spacecraft can reach, for

electrical conductor. It was found that the electrical

conductivity increased up to 3375 S/m at 77°C in example, a = 109 m.s −2 , which leads the

samples that were 15% nanotubes by volume [12]. It spacecraft to attain velocities

−1

is known that the density of α-Alumina is 3.98kg.m-3 V ≈ 10 m.s (about 1 million times the speed

14

and that it can withstand 10-20 KV/mm. Thus, these of light) after one day of trip. With this velocity,

values show that the Alumina-CNT can be used to after 1 month of trip the spacecraft would have

make a solid Gravitational Shielding. In this case, the 21

traveled about 10 m . In order to have idea of

electric field produced by means of the semi-spheres

this distance, it is enough to remind that the

will be used to control the gravitational mass of the

diameter of our Universe (visible Universe) is of

Alumina-CNT. 26

the order of 10 m .

9

Due to the extremely low density of the then the dielectric strength of the insulation

imaginary bodies, the collision between them must be ≥ 173kV / mm . As shown in the table

cannot have the same consequences of the below ** , 0.1mm - thickness of Mica can withstand

collision between the real bodies.

17.6 kV (that is greater than V0max = 15.6kV ), in

Thus, for a Gravitational Spacecraft in

imaginary state, the problem of the collision in such way that the dielectric strength is 176

high-speed doesn't exist. Consequently, the kV/mm.

Gravitational Spacecraft can transit freely in the The Gravitational Thrusters are positioned

imaginary Universe and, in this way, reach easily at the spacecraft, as shown in Fig. A13 (b).

any point of our real Universe once they can Then, when the spacecraft is in the intergalactic

make the transition back to our Universe by only space, the gravity acceleration upon the

increasing the gravitational mass of the gravitational mass m gt of the bottom of the

Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft in such thruster (See Fig.A13 (c)), is given by [2]

way that it leaves the range of + 0.159 M i Mg

r 10 r

a ≅ (χ air ) g M ≅ −(χ air ) G 2 μˆ

10

to − 0.159M i .

r

The return trip would be done in similar

way. That is to say, the spacecraft would transit where M g is the gravitational mass in front of

in the imaginary Universe back to the departure

the spacecraft.

place where would reappear in our Universe.

For simplicity, let us consider just the effect

Thus, trips through our Universe that would delay

of a hypothetical volume

millions of years, at speeds close to the speed of

light, could be done in just a few months in the V = 10 × 10 × 10 = 10 m

3 3 7 3

of intergalactic

imaginary Universe. (

matter in front of the spacecraft r ≅ 30m . The )

In order to produce the acceleration of average density of matter in the intergalactic

a ≈ 10 9 m.s −2 upon the spacecraft we propose a medium (IGM) is ρig ≈ 10−26 kg.m−3 ) †† . Thus,

Gravitational Thruster with 10 GCCs (10

for χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 we get

4

Gravitational Shieldings) of the type with several

semi-spheres stamped on the metallic surface, as

) (6.67 × 10 )⎛⎜⎜ 10 ⎞

−19

previously shown, or with the semi-cylindrical

form shown in Figs. A11 (b) and (c). The 10

(

a = − − 1.6 × 10 4

10 −11

2

⎟⎟ =

GCCs are filled with air at 1 atm and 300K. If the

⎝ 30 ⎠

insulation layer is made with Mica (ε r ≅ 5.4 ) and = −10 9 m.s − 2

has thickness Δ = 0.1 mm , and the semi- In spite of this gigantic acceleration, the inertial

spheres stamped on the metallic surface have effects for the crew of the spacecraft can be

strongly reduced if, for example, the gravitational

r0 = 0.4 mm (See Fig.A7) then mass of the Gravitational Shielding is reduced

a = r0 + Δ = 0.5 mm. Thus, we get

**

b = r0 εr = 9.295×10−4 m The dielectric strength of some dielectrics can have

different values in lower thicknesses. This is, for

and example, the case of the Mica.

d = b − a = 4.295 ×10 −4 m Dielectric Thickness (mm) Dielectric Strength (kV/mm)

Then, from Eq. A42 we obtain Mica 0.01 mm 200

Mica 0.1 mm 176

mg (air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ σ 3 E4 ⎤⎫⎪ Mica 1 mm 61

χair = = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.758×10−27 air2 air −1⎥⎬ =

mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢⎣ ρair f 3

⎥⎦⎪⎭

⎩ ††

Some theories put the average density of the

⎧⎪ ⎡ V 5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

Universe as the equivalent of one hydrogen atom per

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 +1.0 ×10−18 0 3 −1⎥⎬ cubic meter [13, 14]. The density of the universe,

⎪⎩ ⎢⎣ f ⎥⎦⎪⎭ however, is clearly not uniform. Surrounding and

stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma

For V0 = V0max = 15.6kV and f = 0.12Hz, the result is [15] that is thought to possess a cosmic filamentary

structure [16] and that is slightly denser than the

mg (air)

χ air = ≅ −1.6 ×104 average density in the universe. This material is called

mi0(air) the intergalactic medium (IGM) and is mostly ionized

hydrogen; i.e. a plasma consisting of equal numbers of

Since E 0max = V0max r0 is now given by electrons and protons. The IGM is thought to exist at a

E0max =15.6kV 0.9mm=17.3kV / mm and Δ = 0.1 mm density of 10 to 100 times the average density of the

Universe (10 to 100 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter,

i.e., ≈ 10 −26 kg.m −3 ).

10

−6

down to m g ≅ 10 kg and its inertial mass is Spacecraft can reach about 50000 km/h in a

few seconds. Obviously, the Gravitational

mi 0 ≅ 100kg . Then, we get Shielding of the spacecraft will reduce strongly

the inertial effects upon the crew of the

χ = m g mi 0 ≅ 10 −8

. Therefore, the inertial spacecraft, in such way that the inertial effects of

effects on the spacecraft will be reduced by this strong acceleration will not be felt. In

χ ≅ 10−8 , and consequently, the inertial effects on addition, the artificial atmosphere, which is

possible to build around the spacecraft, by means

the crew of the spacecraft would be equivalent to of gravity control technologies shown in this

an acceleration a′ of only article (See Fig.6) and [2], will protect it from the

a = (10 −8 )(10 9 ) ≈ 10m.s − 2

mg heating produced by the friction with the Earth’s

a′ = atmosphere. Also, the gravity can be controlled

mi 0 inside of the Gravitational Spacecraft in order to

Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the maintain a value close to the Earth’s gravity as

spacecraft must have a very small diameter (of shown in Fig.3.

the order of millimeters) since, obviously, the hole Finally, it is important to note that a Micro-

through the Gravitational Shielding cannot be Gravitational Thruster does not work outside a

large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact, Micro- Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the

Gravitational Thrusters. As shown in Fig. A13 resultant upon the thruster is null due to the

(b), it is possible to place several micro- symmetry (See Fig. A15 (a)). Figure A15 (b)

gravitational thrusters in the spacecraft. This shows a micro-gravitational thruster inside a

gives to the Gravitational Spacecraft, several Gravitational Shielding. This thruster has 10

degrees of freedom and shows the enormous Gravitational Shieldings, in such way that the

superiority of this spacecraft in relation to the gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the

contemporaries spacecrafts. thruster, due to a gravitational mass M g in front

The density of matter in the intergalactic

medium (IGM) is about 10 -26 kg.m-3 , which is of the thruster, is a10 = χ air

10

a0 where

very less than the density of matter in the

a 0 = −G M g r 2 is the gravitational acceleration

interstellar medium (~10-21 kg.m-3) that is less

than the density of matter in the interplanetary acting on the front of the micro-gravitational

medium (~10-20 kg.m-3). The density of matter is thruster. In the opposite direction, the

enormously increased inside the Earth’s gravitational acceleration upon the bottom of the

atmosphere (1.2kg.m-3 near to Earth’s surface). thruster, produced by a gravitational mass M g ,

Figure A14 shows the gravitational acceleration is

acquired by a Gravitational Spacecraft, in these

media, using Micro-Gravitational thrusters.

In relation to the Interstellar and (

a 0′ = χ s − GM g r ′ 2 ≅ 0 )

Interplanetary medium, the Intergalactic medium

requires the greatest value of χ air ( χ inside the since χ s ≅ 0 due to the Gravitational Shielding

Micro-Gravitational Thrusters), i.e., around the micro-thruster (See Fig. A15 (b)).

χ air ≅ −1.6 ×10 . This value strongly decreases

4 Similarly, the acceleration in front of the thruster

is

when the spacecraft is within the Earth’s

[ ( )] χ

atmosphere. In this case, it is sufficient

only χ air ≅ −10 in order to obtain:

‡‡ ′ = χ air

a10 10

a 0′ = χ air

10

− GM g r ′ 2 s

ρ atmV

a = −(χ air ) G

10

r 2

≅ where [χ (− GM

10

air g )]

r ′ 2 < a10 , since r′ > r .

) ( ) ≅ 10

Thus, for a10 ≅ 10 9 m.s −2 and χ s ≈ 10 −8 we

10

(

≅ −(− 10) 6.67 × 10 −11

1.2 10 7 4

m.s −2 ′ < 10m.s −2

(20)2 conclude that a10 . This means that

With this acceleration the Gravitational ′ << a10 . Therefore, we can write that the

a10

resultant on the micro-thruster can be expressed

‡‡

This value is within the range of values of χ by means of the following relation

(χ < − 10 3

)

. See Eq . A15 , which can be produced by

R ≅ F10 = χ air

10

F0

means of ELF electric currents through metals as

Aluminum, etc. This means that, in this case, if

convenient, we can replace air inside the GCCs of the Figure A15 (c) shows a Micro-Gravitational

Gravitational Micro-thrusters by metal laminas with Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10

ELF electric currents through them. GCCs). Thin Metallic laminas are placed after

11

each Air Gravitational Shielding in order to retain 1 3

⎛ Eair

⎞2⎛ b⎞2 1

the electric field E b = V0 x , produced by metallic σair=2α⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ =0.029V02 (A46)

surface behind the semi-spheres. The laminas ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ a⎠

with semi-spheres stamped on its surfaces are Note that b = r0 ε r ( H2O) . Therefore, here the

connected to the ELF voltage source V0 and the

value of b is larger than in the case of the acrylic.

thin laminas in front of the Air Gravitational

Consequently, the electrical conductivity of the air

Shieldings are grounded. The air inside this

layer will be larger here than in the case of

Micro-Gravitational Thruster is at 300K, 1atm.

acrylic.

We have seen that the insulation layer of a

GCC can be made up of Acrylic, Mica, etc. Now, Substitution of σ (air ) , E air (rms) and

we will design a GCC using Water (distilled ρ air = 1.2kg .m −3 into Eq. A14, gives

water, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 ) and Aluminum semi-

radius r0 = 1 . 3 mm .

mg(air) ⎧⎪ ⎡ V5.5 ⎤⎫⎪

cylinders with Thus,

for Δ = 0.6mm , the new value of a is a = 1.9mm . =⎨1−2⎢ 1+4.54×10−20 03 −1⎥⎬ ( A47)

mi0(air) ⎪ ⎢ f ⎥⎪

Then, we get ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

b = r0 εr(H2O) = 11.63×10−3m ( A43)

For V0 = V0 = 9kV and f = 2 Hz , the result

max

d = b − a = 9.73×10−3m ( A44)

and is

1 q mg (air)

Eair = = ≅ −8.4

4πεr(air)ε 0 b 2 mi0(air)

V0 r0 This shows that, by using water instead of acrylic,

= ε r( H ) = the result is much better.

2O

ε r(air)b 2 In order to build the GCC based on the

calculations above (See Fig. A16), take an Acrylic

V0 r0 V0

= ≅ = 1111.1 V0 ( A45) plate with 885mm X 885m and 2mm thickness,

ε r(air) r0 then paste on it an Aluminum sheet with

895.2mm X 885mm and 0.5mm thickness(note

Note that

that two edges of the Aluminum sheet are bent as

V0 r0 shown in Figure A16 (b)). Next, take 342

E( H2O) =

ε r ( H2O) Aluminum yarns with 884mm length and

2.588mm diameter (wire # 10 AWG) and insert

and

them side by side on the Aluminum sheet. See in

V0 r0 Fig. A16 (b) the detail of fixing of the yarns on the

E(acrylic) =

ε r (acrylic) Aluminum sheet. Now, paste acrylic strips (with

13.43mm height and 2mm thickness) around the

Therefore, E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are much Aluminum/Acrylic, making a box. Put distilled

smaller than E air . Note that for V0 ≤ 9kV the water (approximately 1 litter) inside this box, up to

a height of exactly 3.7mm from the edge of the

intensities of E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) are not acrylic base. Afterwards, paste an Acrylic lid

sufficient to produce the ionization effect, which (889mm X 889mm and 2mm thickness) on the

increases the electrical conductivity. box. Note that above the water there is an air

Consequently, the conductivities of the water and layer with 885mm X 885mm and 7.73mm

−1 thickness (See Fig. A16). This thickness plus the

the acrylic remain << 1 S.m . In this way, with

acrylic lid thickness (2mm) is equal to

E ( H 2O ) and E (acrylic ) much smaller than E air ,

d = b − a = 9.73mm where b = r0 ε r(H2O) =11.63mm

and σ ( H 2O ) << 1 , σ (acrylic ) << 1 , the decrease in

and a = r0 + Δ = 1.99 mm , since r0 = 1.3mm ,

both the gravitational mass of the acrylic and the

gravitational mass of water, according to Eq.A14, ε r ( H 2O ) = 80 and Δ = 0.6mm .

is negligible. This means that only in the air layer Note that the gravitational action of the

the decrease in the gravitational mass will be electric field E air , extends itself only up to the

relevant. distance d , which, in this GCC, is given by the

Equation A39 gives the electrical

sum of the Air layer thickness (7.73mm) plus the

conductivity of the air layer, i.e.,

thickness of the Acrylic lid (2mm).

Thus, it is ensured the gravitational effect

on the air layer while it is practically nullified in

12

the acrylic sheet above the air layer, since

E (acrylic ) << E air and σ (acrylic ) << 1 .

With this GCC, we can carry out an

experiment where the gravitational mass of the

air layer is progressively reduced when the

voltage applied to the GCC is increased (or when

the frequency is decreased). A precision balance

is placed below the GCC in order to measure the

mentioned mass decrease for comparison with

the values predicted by Eq. A(47). In total, this

GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3grams.

The balance has the following characteristics:

range 0-6kg; readability 0.1g. Also, in order to

prove the Gravitational Shielding Effect, we can

put a sample (connected to a dynamometer)

above the GCC in order to check the gravity

acceleration in this region.

In order to prove the exponential effect

produced by the superposition of the

Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three

similar GCCs and put them one above the other,

in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity

acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the GCC2

g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g .

Where χ is given by Eq. (A47).

It is important to note that the intensity of

the electric field through the air below the GCC is

much smaller than the intensity of the electric

field through the air layer inside the GCC. In

addition, the electrical conductivity of the air

below the GCC is much smaller than the

conductivity of the air layer inside the GCC.

Consequently, the decrease of the gravitational

mass of the air below the GCC, according to

Eq.A14, is negligible. This means that the GCC1,

GCC2 and GCC3 can be simply overlaid, on the

experiment proposed above. However, since it is

necessary to put samples among them in order to

measure the gravity above each GCC, we

suggest a spacing of 30cm or more among them.

13

Dynamometer

50 mm

g g

g′ = χ g

Sample

Aluminum foil Foam Board

GCC

**Flexible Copper wire
**

# 12 AWG Pan balance

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W

R2

Rheostat

10Ω - 90W Coupling

Transformer

Function Generation

Flexible Copper wire

HP3325A # 12 AWG

ε1

R1

500Ω - 2W

Figure A2 – Experimental Set-up 1.

14

**Flexible Copper Wire
**

# 12 AWG

**15 cm square Aluminum foil
**

(10.5 microns thickness)

Gum

(Loctite Super Bonder)

**17 cm square Foam Board plate
**

(6mm thickness)

Aluminum foil

Foam Board

**Figure A3 – The Simplest Gravity Control Cell (GCC).
**

15

I1 ε2

+ − ri 2

R

I2

GCC

ri1

ε1 ~ Rp

f = 2 μHz

Wire # 12 AWG

Gravitational

R1 Shielding

I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2

(a)

ε 1 = Function Generator HP3325A(Option 002 High Voltage Output)

ri1 < 2Ω; R1 = 500Ω − 2 W ; ε 2 = 12V DC; ri 2 < 0.1Ω (Battery );

R2 = 4Ω − 40W ; R p = 2.5 × 10 −3 Ω; Reostat = 0 ≤ R ≤ 10Ω − 90W

I1max = 56mA (rms ); I 2max = 3 A ; I 3max ≅ 3 A (rms )

Coupling Transformer to isolate the Function Generator from the Battery

• Air core 10 - mm diameter; wire # 12 AWG; N1 = N 2 = 20; l = 42mm

I1 ε2 T

+ − ri 2

I2 R

ri1

−5

ε1 GCC l = 1cm → Rφ = 5.23 × 10 Ω

~ l

0.5 2 h =3mm

f = 2 μHz

d

i

Wire # 12 AWG e

l

e Al 200 mm

R1 c

t

I 3 = I1 + I 2 R2 r

P # 12 AWG i

c

(b)

R = 0 ⇒ V pmax = 1.1 × 10−4V Gravitational

Shielding

R = 10 ⇒ V pmin = 4.0 × 10−5V

**Fig. A4 – Equivalent Electric Circuits
**

16

j

ELF electric current Wire

j

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎫⎪

− 27 μr j

4

mg = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + 1.758 ×10 − 1⎥ ⎬mi 0

⎪⎩ ⎣⎢ σρ 2 f 3 ⎥⎦ ⎪

⎭

**Figure A5 – An ELF electric current through a wire, that makes a spherical form as shown above,
**

reduces the gravitational mass of the wire and the gravity inside sphere at the same proportion

χ = m g mi 0 (Gravitational Shielding Effect). Note that this spherical form can be transformed into

an ellipsoidal form or a disc in order to coat, for example, a Gravitational Spacecraft. It is also

possible to coat with a wire several forms, such as cylinders, cones, cubes, etc. The characteristics

of the wire are expressed by: μ r , σ , ρ ; j is the electric current density and f is the frequency.

17

Dynamometer

**Rigid Aluminum wire 50 mm
**

# 14 AWG

Length = 28.6 m

RS= 0.36 Ω

**Flexible Copper wire
**

# 12 AWG

Battery 12V

R ε2 4Ω - 40W

R2

Rheostat

Coupling

Transformer

Function Generation

HP3325A Flexible Copper wire

# 12 AWG

ε1

R1

Figure A6 – Experimental set-up 2.

18

**Gravitational Shielding Air
**

d

Eair ,σair

b

Insulation Δ

εr

a

r0

Aluminum Foil

~ V0 , f

**Figure A7 – Gravitational shielding produced by semi-spheres stamped on the Aluminum
**

foil - By simply changing the geometry of the surface of the Aluminum foil it is possible to

increase the working frequency f up to more than 1Hz.

19

a =1.5 mm Acrylic sheet

r0 =0.9 mm

y Aluminum Plate

(a)

Heater

(b)

Press

D D

y+a

(c)

Δ=0.6 mm

r0 =0.9 mm a = 1.5 mm

(d)

**Figure A8 – Method to coat the Aluminum semi-spheres with acrylic (Δ = a − r0 = 0.6mm) .
**

(a)Acrylic sheet (A4 format) with 1.5mm thickness and an Aluminum plate (A4) with several

semi-spheres (radius r0 = 0.9 mm ) stamped on its surface. (b)A heater is placed below the

Aluminum plate in order to heat the Aluminum. (c)When the Aluminum is sufficiently heated

up, the acrylic sheet and the Aluminum plate are pressed, one against the other (The two D

devices shown in this figure are used in order to impede that the press compresses the acrylic

and the aluminum besides distance y + a ). (d)After some seconds, the press and the heater are

removed, and the device is ready to be used.

20

Dynamometer

50 mm

g g

GCC

g′ = χ g

Sample

Acrylic/Aluminum

**Flexible Copper wire
**

# 12 AWG

High-voltage V0

Rheostat Oscillator

Transformer f > 1Hz

**Figure A9 – Experimental Set-up using a GCC subjected to high-voltage V 0 with frequency
**

f > 1Hz . Note that in this case, the pan balance is not necessary because the substance of the

Gravitational Shielding is an air layer with thickness d above the acrylic sheet. This is therefore,

more a type of Gravity Control Cell (GCC) with external gravitational shielding.

21

Gravitational Shielding

d

R

V0

GCC

Acrylic /Aluminum

V0max = 9 kV

Oscillator

V0min = 2.7 kV ~ f > 1Hz

(a)

Acrylic

Pin wire

Aluminum

Connector

(High-voltage)

(b)

10kV

**Figure A10 – (a) Equivalent Electric Circuit. (b) Details of the electrical connection with the
**

Aluminum plate. Note that others connection modes (by the top of the device) can produce

destructible interference on the electric lines of the E air field.

22

(a) (b)

Metallic Rings

Metallic base

(c)

Eair

Gravitational Shielding εr

Ellipsoidal metallic base

Metallic Rings

Oscillator f

Transformer

V0

Dielectric layer

Ionized air (d)

**Figure A11 – Geometrical forms with similar effects as those produced by the semi-spherical form – (a)
**

shows the semi-spherical form stamped on the metallic surface; (b) shows the semi-cylindrical form (an

obvious evolution from the semi-spherical form); (c) shows concentric metallic rings stamped on

the metallic surface, an evolution from semi-cylindrical form. These geometrical forms produce

the same effect as that of the semi-spherical form, shown in Fig.A11 (a). By using concentric

metallic rings, it is possible to build Gravitational Shieldings around bodies or spacecrafts with

several formats (spheres, ellipsoids, etc); (d) shows a Gravitational Shielding around a Spacecraft

with ellipsoidal form.

23

Dielectric

Metal Dielectric Metal (rigidly connected to the spacecraft)

Spacecraft E

Spacecraft E

**Non-solid Gravitational Shielding Solid Gravitational Shielding
**

(rigidly connected to the dielectric)

(a) (b)

**Figure A12 – Non-solid and Solid Gravitational Shieldings - In the case of the Gravitational
**

Shielding produced on a solid substance (b), when its molecules go to the imaginary space-time,

the electric field that produces the effect also goes to the imaginary space-time together with

them, because in this case, the substance of the Gravitational Shielding is rigidly connected (by

means of the dielectric) to the metal that produces the electric field. This does not occur in the

case of Air Gravitational Shielding.

24

**Metal Dielectric Metal Dielectric i ELF electric current
**

A

l

u

Spacecraft Spacecraft m

Ers Eair i

n

u

m

**Solid Gravitational Shielding Air Gravitational Shielding
**

(a)

Micro-Gravitational Thruster

(b)

Volume V

of the

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Intergallactic

medium

(IGM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

m gt r

Mg

Mg ρ igmV

a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G

r2 r2

Gravitational Shielding

ρ igm∼10-26kg.m-3

(c)

**Figure A13 – Double Gravitational Shielding and Micro-thrusters – (a) Shows a double
**

gravitational shielding that makes possible to decrease the inertial effects upon the spacecraft

when it is traveling both in the imaginary space-time and in the real space-time. The solid

Gravitational Shielding also can be obtained by means of an ELF electric current through a metallic

lamina placed between the semi-spheres and the Gravitational Shielding of Air as shown above. (b)

Shows 6 micro-thrusters placed inside a Gravitational Spacecraft, in order to propel the

spacecraft in the directions x, y and z. Note that the Gravitational Thrusters in the spacecraft

must have a very small diameter (of the order of millimeters) because the hole through the

Gravitational Shielding of the spacecraft cannot be large. Thus, these thrusters are in fact Micro-

thrusters. (c) Shows a micro-thruster inside a spacecraft, and in front of a volume V of the

intergalactic medium (IGM). Under these conditions, the spacecraft acquires an acceleration a in

the direction of the volume V.

25

Volume V

of the

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings Interstellar

medium

(ISM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ ismV

a = χ 10 G 2

= χ 10 G

r r2

Gravitational Shielding

ρ ism∼10-21kg.m-3

(a)

Volume V

of the

Interplanetary

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings medium

(IPM)

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ ipmV

a=χ G 10

=χ G10

Gravitational Shielding r2 r2

ρ ipm∼10-20kg.m-3

(b)

Volume V

of the

Earth’s

Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 gravitational shieldings

atmospheric

Gravitational Spacecraft a

r

Mg

Mg ρ atmV

a = χ 10 G = χ 10 G

Gravitational Shielding r2 r2

ρ atm∼1.2kg.m-3

(c)

Figure A14 – Gravitational Propulsion using Micro-Gravitational Thruster – (a) Gravitational

acceleration produced by a gravitational mass Mg of the Interstellar Medium. The density of the

Interstellar Medium is about 105 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium (b)

Gravitational acceleration produced in the Interplanetary Medium. (c) Gravitational acceleration

produced in the Earth’s atmosphere. Note that, in this case, ρatm (near to the Earth’s surface)is about

1026 times greater than the density of the Intergalactic Medium.

26

r

F’0 F2 =χair2F0 F’2=χair2F’0 F0 r

F1 =χairF0 F’1 =χairF’0

Mg Mg

S2 S1

F’0 = F0 => R = (F’0 – F2) + (F1 – F’1 ) + (F’2 – F0) = 0

(a)

**Micro-Gravitational Thruster
**

with 10 gravitational shieldings

Gravitational Shielding

r’ χ s ≅ −10 −8 a’0 r

a’0 =χs(-GMg /r’2) a10=χair10a0 a0 = - GMg/r2

Mg Mg

R ≅ F10 = χ 10

air F0

Hole in the Gravitational Shielding

Metal

Mica

(b) Grounded Metallic laminas

1 GCC

Air Gravitational Shielding

x

10mm

ELF

~

V0 ~ 400 mm

(c)

Figure A15 – Dynamics and Structure of the Micro-Gravitational Thrusters - (a) The Micro-Gravitational

Thrusters do not work outside the Gravitational Shielding, because, in this case, the resultant upon the thruster is

( )

null due to the symmetry. (b) The Gravitational Shielding χ s ≅ 10 −8 reduces strongly the intensities of the

gravitational forces acting on the micro-gravitational thruster, except obviously, through the hole in the

gravitational shielding. (c) Micro-Gravitational Thruster with 10 Air Gravitational Shieldings (10GCCs). The

grounded metallic laminas are placed so as to retain the electric field produced by metallic surface behind the

semi-spheres.

27

0.885 m

Sample

Any type of material; any mass

Acrylic Box

(2mm thickness) g’= χ g

2 mm

d = 9.73 mm Air layer mg (air) = χ mi (air) 7.73 mm

Distilled Water a = 1.9 mm

3.2 mm

1.8 mm

2 mm

Aluminum sheet

(0.5 mm thickness) V0max = 9 kV

342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) Balance

(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) ~ 2 Hz

Transformer

g

**GCC Cross-section Front view
**

(a)

0.885 m

0.884 m

1mm 1mm

Aluminum sheet

(0.5 mm thickness)

Balance

342 Aluminum yarns (# 10 AWG) 1.5mm

(2.558 mm diameter; 0.884 mm length) 0.5 mm

3.6mm

0.885 m

**GCC Cross-section Side View
**

(b)

**Fig. A16 – A GCC using distilled Water.
**

In total this GCC weighs about 6kg; the air layer 7.3 grams. The balance has the

following characteristics: Range 0 – 6kg; readability 0.1g. The yarns are inserted

side by side on the Aluminum sheet. Note the detail of fixing of the yarns on the

Aluminum sheet.

28

140 cm

70

cm Sample 5Kg

mg Any type of material; any mass

g ′′′ = χ 3 g

GCC 3 Balance

70

cm 5Kg

mg

g ′′ = χ 2 g

GCC 2 Balance

70

cm 5Kg

mg

g′ = χ g

GCC 1 Balance

g

**Fig. A17 – Experimental set-up. In order to prove the exponential effect produced by the
**

superposition of the Gravitational Shieldings, we can take three similar GCCs and put them one above

the other, in such way that above the GCC 1 the gravity acceleration will be g′ = χ g ; above the

GCC2 g ′′ = χ 2 g , and above the GCC3 g ′′′ = χ 3 g . Where χ is given by Eq. (A47). The arrangement

above has been designed for values of mg < 13g and χ up to -9 or mg < 1kg and χ up to -2 .

29

References

[1] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical [16] Wadsley, J., et al. (2002). The

Foundations of the Relativistic Theory Universe in Hot Gas. NASA.

of Quantum Gravity. Pacific Journal of http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap

Science and Technology. 11(1), pp.173- 020820.html. Retrieved 2009-06-19.

232. Physics/0212033.

[2] De Aquino, F. (2007) Gravity Control

by means of Electromagnetic Field

through Gas at Ultra-Low Pressure,

Physics/0701091.

[3] Isham, C. J. (1975) Quantum Gravity,

in Oxford Symposium, OUP.

[4] Isham, C.J., (1997) “Structural

Problems Facing Quantum Gravity

Theory’’, in M, Francaviglia, G, Longhi,

L, Lusanna, and E, Sorace, eds.,

Proceedings of the 14th International

Conference on General Relativity

and Gravitation, 167-209,(World

Scientific, Singapore, 1997).

[5] Mach, E., (1893) The Science of

Mechanics, London, p.229-38.

[6] Bohm, D. (1951) Quantum Theory,

Prentice-Hall, N.Y, p.415.

[7] D’Espagnat, B. The Question of

Quantum Reality, Scientific American,

241,128.

[8] Teller, P. Relational Holism and

Quantum Mechanics, British Journal

for the Philosop. of Science, 37, 71-81.

[9] De Aquino, F. (2008) “Physical

Foundations of Quantum Psychology”,

http://htpprints.yorku.ca/archive/00000297

[10] Landau, L. and Lifchitz, E. (1969)

Theorie du Champ, Ed.MIR, Moscow,

Portuguese version (1974) Ed. Hemus,

S.Paulo, pp.396-397.

[11] Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968)

Physics, J. Willey & Sons,

Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1118.

[12] Zhan, G.D et al. (2003) Appl. Phys.

Lett. 83, 1228.

[13] Davidson, K. & Smoot, G. (2008)

Wrinkles in Time. N. Y: Avon, 158-163.

[14] Silk, Joseph.(1977) Big Bang. N.Y,

Freeman,299.

[15] Jafelice, L.C. and Opher, R. (1992).

The origin of intergalactic magnetic

fields due to extragalactic jets. RAS.

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-

bib query? Bib code = 1992 MNRAS.

257. 135J. Retrieved 2009-06-19.

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